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Concrete Repairs Structural Approach

Vijay B Kulkarni, Regional Marketing Manager BASF India Ltd Construction Chemicals Division.

Index

BASF brief Introduction Why concrete deteriorates BASF CC Philosophy of concrete repairs Types of repairs and methods

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BASF - At a glance

BASF The Chemical Company


The worlds leading chemical company Our portfolio ranges from chemicals, plastics, performance products, agricultural products and fine chemicals to crude oil and natural gas Sales 2006: 52.6 Billion Employees as of December 31, 2006: 95,247
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Eras in BASFs history

Since 2005 The Chemical Company 1965 2005 From Ludwigshafen to the world 1953 1965 The beginning of the plastics age 1945 1953 Reconstruction and new beginning 1925 1945 New high-pressure syntheses 1901 1925 The age of fertilizers 1865 1901 Founding of BASF the age of dyes
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Organisation of BASF

14 operating divisions 6 regional units support business and create an infrastructure 8 corporate divisions and departments, and 11 competence centers perform on a Group-wide basis
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Stepwise to the global No. 1

1988 Acquisition of: 1974 / 1978 1994

1996

Merger Degussa -Hls and SKW Trostberg 1999 UCRETE THORO

Acquisition by BASF

global

Invention and the start of MELMENT production. Construction Chemicals is born.

1994 1978

global

global international national/ international

1967/1968

1980

1990

1996

2001

2006
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Innovations - Highlights

Established as Master Builders in 1906 - 100 years pedigree Inventors metallic aggregate dry shake hardener, 1909 Inventors of precision non-shrink grout, 1934 Developed the worlds first epoxy grout, 1954 First Superplasticiser based on Melamine 1966 Invented DELVO, the hydration control admixture, 1989 Patented the most versatile APS resin system for repairs that sets at -25oC to +45oC, 1993 Invented PCE based Hyper Plasticizers Glenium in Japan, 1986 First Self compacting Concrete (SCC) in Japan, 1989 First Concrete Produced in Space with NASA, 1994 Zero Energy Concrete System, 2001 GLENIUM SKY Total consistency control for ready mix concrete, 2004 RheoFIT Fit for value for manufactured concrete product makers, 2006

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Systematic Approach to Repairs

Inspection and Diagnosis Repair Methodology And Techniques Repair Materials

Application

Protection
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Repair techniques & Materials


Commonly used techniques for repair and rehabilitation
Sl no 1 Repair technique Injection grouting Distress addressed Seal cracks and pores in concrete.Arrest leakages Materials used Epoxies / Polyurethane cements also used

Gunniting / Shotcreting

Replace cover concrete.Reinstate locally damaged areas.Build up thickness in overhead situations

Gunites / Shotcretes and Admixtures

Jacketing

Reinstatement of extensively damaged concrete members,strengthening for load enhancement

Concrete with water reducing / shrinkage compensating admixtures

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Sl no 4

Repair technique Stitching

Distress addressed Repair of cracked concrete

Materials used Holes grouted with Epoxy / polyester cement with non shrink additives

External prestressing

For cracked concrete members. Extensively damaged concrete beams and columns. Enhance load carrying capacity. Increase flexural rigidity Strengthening weakened members.reduce deflection

HST bars + Anchors

Micro concrete encasement

shrinkage compensating free flow micro concretes

Epoxy steel plate bonding

Anchor grout / epoxy for bonding

Continued

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Sl no 8

Repair technique Under water repairs

Distress addressed Cracks under water, strengthening of structures, reinstatement of worn out areas , localized damages etc

Materials used Under water admixtures, anti washout micro concretes, moisture insensitive epoxy resins and putties

Patch repairs

Localized reinstatement of worn-out concrete

Polymer modified / latex modified mortars,epoxy mortars

10

Composite fiber wrapping

Strengthening of distressed / weakened concrete members, seismic retrofitting

E-glass / carbon / aramid fibers with epoxy primer and saturant

Continued

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Sl no

Repair technique

Distress addressed

Materials used

11

E-chem repairs

Long term corrosion protection, prevention of formation of incipient anodes

Corrosion Inhibitors, Protectosil CIT

12

General grouting

To densify porous concrete slabs, retaining walls etc

Non shrink, plasticising additives

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Repair philosophy

LOAD ENVELOPE
MECHANICAL LOAD PHYSICAL LOAD CHEMICAL / ENVIRONL

REPAIR

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Repair Philosophy

Rheological characteristics

Chemical compatibility

Monolithic

Electrochemical compatibility

Dimensional compatibility

Durability
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Product selection process

Owner requirements

Determine project objectives

Service conditions Application conditions

Causes of deterioration Determine material properties

needed to meet project objectives Identify materials or systems which will produce the required properties Select the material or system that provides optimum balance of performance, risk, and cost factors
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Repair system components

Treatment to Cracks Surface Preparation & Priming Concrete Volume Replacements Protection

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Treatment to cracks

CRACKS
Superficial Structural Leaking

Polymer Cement

EPOXY/PU

Acrylate/PU

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Structural crack treatment

Dead Cracks Live Cracks

: Epoxy : Flexible PU

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Structural crack injection methods

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Structural crack injection methods

Gravity Feed

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Structural crack injection methods

Low pressure syringe

Adhesive

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Structural crack injection methods

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Structural crack injection methods

Drilled hole packer injection Adhesive

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Structural crack injection methods

STEP 1: THE PACKER IS ATTACHED TO THE INJECTION LANCE AND PUSHED INTO THE HOLE

STEP 2: THE PACKER IS EXPANDED IN THE DRILLHOLE USING THE TIGHTENING LEVER. THE INJECTION CAN START.

STEP 3: WHEN THE INJECTION OF THE HOLE IS FINISHED, THE VALVE CLOSES ITSELF. THE INJECTION LANCE IS DISCONNECTED BY SCREWING BACK THE TIGHTENING LEVER, WHILE THE RUBBER SLEEVE ON THE PACKER REMAINS EXPANDED. - 21 June 2006 - 24

Structural crack injection methods

Surface mounted port injection

Adhesive

Surface seal to contain adhesive

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Surface Preparation

Remove all identified defective concrete. Saw cut perimeters - 15mm depth. Expose steel until no corrosion is evident. Expose the full circumference of the steel and beyond by 25mm.

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Surface Preparation

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Surface Preparation

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Surface Preparation

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Surface Preparation

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Surface Preparation - rebars

Mechanically abrade the steel to SA 2. Dry grit blasting. Wet grit blasting. Hydro-jetting. Wash down to remove contaminants.

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Surface Preparation

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Priming of rebars

Prime immediately after cleaning. Apply a continuous coat of active zinc rich epoxy primer. Attention must be paid to the underside of the bars

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Surface Preparation

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Priming to concrete substrate

Water saturation. Polymer bonding emulsions. Epoxy bonding agent - chloride contaminated areas.

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Volume repairs types

1. COSMETIC COVER REPAIRS 2. PATCH REPAIRS OF FLOORS/PAVEMENTS 3. PATCH REPAIRS VERTICAL/OVERHEAD 4. FORM & POUR (MICROCONCRETE) 5. LARGE AREA SPREY REPAIRS 6. UNDERWATER REPAIRS

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Cosmetic repairs

REPAIRS OF COVER CONCRETE USING POLYMER MODIFIED MORTARS MORTAR IS MADE AT SITE ACRYLICS FOR EXPOSED AREA SBR FOR SUBMERGED AREA DESIGN MIX IS ADVISEABLE FOR RIGHT CHOICE FINE AGGREGATES NEEDS TO BE FREE OF IMPURITES

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Patch repairs to pavements

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Patch repairs to pavements

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Patch repairs to pavements

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Patch repairs to pavements EMACO R650

Compressive strength

2 hours 24 hours 28 days

15 MPa 25 MPa 50 MPa 3.2 MPa


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Tensile Strength

28 days

Patch repairs to vertical members

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Patch repairs to vertical members

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Patch repairs to vertical members

EMACO S88C T Thickness of 50mm and above low permeability No bonding agent Shrinkage compensating Strength > 70Mpa at 28D > 25Mpa at 1 D
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Form & pour repairs - Microconcrete

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Form & pour repairs - Microconcrete

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Form & pour repairs - Microconcrete

Emaco S66T Thickness of 40mm and above Self compacting Shrinkage compensating Strength > 65Mpa at 28D > 25Mpa at 1d

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Spray applied repairs for large surface area

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Spray applied repairs for large surface area

SHOTPATCH 10 CAN BE APPLIED 150MM LESS REBOUND RAPID STRENGTH GAIN 24HR STRENGTH 15MPA 28D STRENGTH 40MPA CEMENT BASED SINGLE COMPONENT MODIFIED WITH MICROSILICA

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Under water repairs

MASTERFLOW 88UW No significant cement washout can flow in gaps up to 20mm thin Comp. Strength 1 day 14 MPa Comp. Strength 28 D 60 MPa

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Consider All Relevant Loads


Mechanical Chemical Physical

STRUCTURE
Bond

Low Permeability Freeze - Thaw Durability Shrinkage Control


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Modulus Compressive Str. Flexural Str.

Thank You!

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