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DECLARATION I Khatundi Florence declare that this is my original work and has never been submitted in any institution for the award of certificate, diploma or degree I hereby present the proposal in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of a Degree in Business Administration

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K)#'*n+, F%o-en.e

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APPRO/AL I $ertify that this dissertation % phrase certifies the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration &'(BA' I)!*I*+*, (F I)F(-.A*I() *,$/)('(&0

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I would like to dedicate this work to my dear parents, for giving me their emotional, material and financial support all the time .y brother !tephen, my sisters2 -oselyn, 3udy and 4urity for being there for me It is through their support that this research is a success

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to give thanks to our heavenly father for giving me wisdom and health during my course of study *he completion of this research could not have been a success without the consulted efforts of many people of whom I feel greatly indebted to in gratitude I also like to acknowledge the contribution of my lovely parents, my lecturers at GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY , my friends, and my supervisor, .r may Almighty &od reward them abundantly I am indebted to all my lecturers who has seen me through this course and to all my teachers throughout my school life for their precious knowledge

It is difficult to thank all and sundry who contributed to this book by names, all of you who contributed in whichever way2 I give my earnest appreciation *o all I say 51*/A)K 0(+11

CHAPTER ONE !. In'-o+*.',on *his chapter will peruse through the background of the study, the problem statement, ob6ectives of the study, general ob6ectives and specific ones, research question, the scope of the study and the importance of the study

2. B#.0g-o*n+ o& ')e S'*+1 2. .! T-#+e Un,on( A '-#+e *n,on or %#$o- *n,on is an organi7ation of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions *he trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members 8rank and file members9 and negotiates labour contracts 8collective bargaining9 with employers *he most common purpose of these associations or unions is :maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment: *his may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies *he agreements negotiated by the union leaders are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non;member workers (riginating in ,urope, trades unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial -evolution, when the lack of skill necessary to perform most 6obs shifted employment bargaining power almost completely to the employers< side, causing many workers to be mistreated and underpaid *rade unions may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past workers, students, apprentices and%or the unemployed (ver the last three hundred years, trades unions have developed into a number of forms Aside from collective bargaining, activities vary, but may include" 4rovision of benefits to members" ,arly trades unions, like Friendly !ocieties, often provided a range of benefits to insure members against unemployment, ill health, old age and funeral e=penses In many developed countries, these functions have been assumed by the state2 however, the provision of professional training, legal advice and representation for members is still an important benefit of trade union membership

Industrial action" *rades unions may enforce strikes or resistance to lockouts in furtherance of particular goals 4olitical activity" *rades unions may promote legislation favourable to the interests of their members or workers as a whole *o this end they may pursue campaigns, undertake lobbying, or financially support individual candidates or parties 8such as the 'abour 4arty in Britain9 for public office In some countries 8e g , the )ordic countries and the 4hilippines9, trades unions may be invited to participate in government hearings about educational or other labour market reforms *he origins of unions< e=istence can be traced from the >?th century, where the rapid e=pansion of industrial society drew women, children, rural workers, and immigrants to the work force in numbers and in new roles *his pool of unskilled and semi;skilled labour spontaneously organised in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, and would later be an important arena for the development of trades unions *rades unions as such were endorsed by the $atholic $hurch towards the end of the >@th century 4ope 'eo AIII in his :.agna $arta:BRerum NovarumB spoke against the atrocities workers faced and demanded that workers should be granted certain rights and safety regulations Industries like te=tile mills and railways companies had started in India in the latter half of the >@th century O-,g,n( #n+ e#-%1 ),('o-1 *rades unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of medieval ,urope, though the relationship between the two is disputed .edieval guilds e=isted to protect and enhance their members< livelihoods through controlling the instructional capital of artisanship and the progression of members from apprentice to craftsman, 6ourneyman, and eventually to master and grandmaster of their craft A trade union might include workers from only one trade or craft, or might combine several or all the workers in one company or industry *hese things varied from region to region, based on the specific industrialisation path taken in the place in question *rades unions and%or collective bargaining were outlawed from no later than the middle of the >Cth century when the (rdinance of 'abourers was enacted in the

Kingdom of ,ngland +nion organi7ing would eventually be outlawed everywhere and remain so until the middle of the >@th century !ince the publication of the History of Trade Unionism 8>?@C9 by !idney and Beatrice Debb, the predominant historical view is that a trade union :is a continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment : A modern definition by the Australian Bureau of !tatistics states that a trade union is :an organisation consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members : 2. .2 E23%o1ee An employee contributes labor and e=pertise to an endeavor of an employer and is usually hired to perform specific duties which are packaged into a 6ob In most modern economies, the term :employee: refers to a specific defined relationship between an individual and a corporation, which differs from those of customer or client (ther types of employment are arrangements such as indenturing which is now highly unusual in developed nations but still happens elsewhere P-o$%e2 ('#'e2en' *here are two such points" firstly, the part to be played by, and the problems confronting, the trade unions during the reconstruction period of the national economy, coupled with the organi7ation of production on a $ommunist basis, and secondly, the question of self; activity of the masses *his question is linked with that of bureaucracy in the 4arty Both questions in turn *he period of <making theses< in our 4arty has already ended Before us we find si= different platforms, si= 4arty tendencies !uch a variety and such minute variations of shades in its tendencies our 4arty has never seen before 4arty thought has never been so rich in formulae on one and the same question It is, therefore, obvious that the question is a basic one, and very important

And such it is *he whole controversy boils down to one basic question " Dho shall build the $ommunist economy, and how shall it be builtE *his is, moreover" the essence of my research this is its heart *his question is 6ust as important as the question of sei7ure of political power by the proletariat (nly the Bubnoff group of so;called political centralists is so nearsighted as to under; estimate its importance and to say :*he question concerning trade unions at the present moment has no importance whatsoever, and presents no theoretical difficulties: It is, however, quite natural that the question seriously agitates the 4arty *he question is really in what direction shall we turn the wheel of history2 shall we turn it back or move it forwardE It is also natural that there is not a !ingle $ommunist in the 4arty who would remain non;committal during the discussion of this question As a result, we have si= different groups If we begin, however, carefully to analyse all the theses of these most minutely divergent groups, we find that on the basic question ; who shall build the $ommunist economy and organist production on a new basis ; there are only two points of view (ne is that which is e=pressed and formulated in the statement of principles of the Dorkers< (pposition *he other is the viewpoint that unites all the rest of the groups differing only in shades, but identical in substance Dhat does the statement of the Dorkers< (pposition stand for, and how does the latter understand the part that is to be played by the trade unions, or, to be more e=act, the industrial unions, at the present momentE *hus the interest to research on the roles of trade unions in influencing employee1s welfare !.4 O$5e.',6e( o& ')e S'*+1 !.4.! Gene-#% O$5e.',6e Analy7ing the roles of trade unions in influencing employees welfare !.4.2 S3e.,&,. o$5e.',6e Analy7ing the roles of trade unions in influencing employees welfare Analy7ing the problems faced by trade unions Analy7ing the solutions that can be structured to the problems

Analy7ing the types of trade unions !." Re(e#-.) 7*e(',on( Dhat are the roles of trade unions in influencing employee1s welfareE Dhat are the problems faced by trade unionsE /ow can the trade unions eradicate the problems 8or what is the solution to the problems faces9E Dhat are the types of trade unions in e=istenceE !.8 S.o3e *he study will be carried out at kinyara sugar works limited masindi as its one of the great companies in +ganda on which are working hand with hand with trade union and it constitute of many employees thus the trade union fighting for their rights in line with wage payment, health and other welfare concerning the employees !.9 I23o-'#n.e o& ')e S'*+1 Dith the accomplishment of the research succefully there will be provision of a research report on which will act as a library to different formalities of groups or individuals who are interested in the line of the topic *here will be analysis of the problems faced by the trade unions alongside the solutions thus an advantage to the unions in the country *he research is part of a module of the students degree accomplishment grant at the university



2. In'-o+*.',on( *his chapter will consist of what different authors have written about the question at hand and other issues in line with the study topic

2.! .on.e3' +e&,n,',on( 2.!.! T-#+e *n,on( A trade union 8British ,nglish9, labour union 8$anadian ,nglish9 or labor union 8American ,nglish9 is an organi7ation of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions *he trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members 8rank and file members9 and negotiates labour contracts 8collective bargaining9 with employers *he most common purpose of these associations or unions is :maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment: Debb, !idney2 Debb, Beatrice 8>@FG9 /istory of *rade +nionism 'ongmans and $o 'ondon ch I 2.!.2 E23%o1ee :e%&#-e ,mployee welfare means Hthe efforts to make life worth living for workmen I According to *odd Hemployee welfare means anything done for the comfort and improvement, intellectual or social, of the employees over and above the wages paid which is not a necessity of the industry I 2.2 E23%o1ee :e%&#-e #n+ .o%%e.',6e $#-g#,n,ng $onditions in order to protect employment !ince workers were afraid of 6ob cuts, it was also difficult for e=isting organi7ations to keep their members and for newly created units to recruit activists As a result, a vicious circle of trade union weakness and employee fear was sustained over many years following the systemic transformation *he situation changed only in the second half of the FGGGs, when labour shortages resulting from the growing demand for qualified workforce and high emigration rates to the 5old1 ,+ member states boosted the bargaining position of 4olish labour Accordingly, e=posed sectors such as the electronic or the automotive industry witnessed a tide of wage increase demands, voiced by unions and backed up by the workforces tired of the belt;tightening policies pursued by the management

$ollective disputes and strikes became commonplace 8.eardi, FGGJ9, as the overwhelming ma6ority of workers would cast their votes in favour of protest actions during strike balloting In certain cases, unions made particularly bold wage increase claims" in FGGJ, for instance, the local !olidarnosc unit at &.%(pel demanded the pay hike of > GGG 4') 8appro= FKG euro9 for each worker, representing LGM of basic pay At FIA*, on the other hand, !olidarnosc sought to level wages at the two 4olish units with that at FIA*1s Italian plants All in all, even if initial unions1 proposals were re6ected, pay increases often e=ceeded K;>KM A protest wave of FGGJ also motivated automotive unions to coordinate their actions at the sectoral level In (ctober FGGJ, plant;level !olidarnosc activists from !ilesia, the biggest automotive cluster in 4oland, signed an agreement to e=change information on collective bargaining at their factories and coordinate protests across the region *hey also urged employers to engage in constructive social ialogue at the sectoral level In the absence of legally binding provisions regulating sectoral; level bargaining, however, the unionists1 call met no reaction on the side of the management 8,ironline, FGGJ9 In contrast with wage issues, non;wage items such as work organisation, health and safety were considerably less interesting for workers Dithout the constituency support, in turn, it was difficult for the unions to push thought the employee;friendly solutions during the enterprise;level collective negotiations *he deputy chair of enterprise;level !olidarnosc unit at &.%(pel presents this rank;and;file mobili7ation problem as follows" H*he company is aware that there are certain topics for which I can win the workforce And pay is such a controversial topic As a matter of fact, people don1t give a damn about health and safety issues # the employer knows it and neglects the issue N5bimba sobie1O But he is serious when it comes to money as he knows that the people will move Ni e mobiliseOI 8Interview (4,', FGG@9 Due to weak rank;and;file support, company;level unions could not actively shape the bargaining agenda relating to non;wage issues As a result, non;wage topics would often be decided unilaterally by the management and designed in the first

place to cut e=penditures and boost productivity, at the e=pense of working conditions and workers1 personal welfare Dorking time is the most prominent e=ample of a domain that featured abuses by the management Although labour code defines the ma=imum working time and the minimum overtime work premia, many employers either stuck to the absolute minimum standards or violated legislative provisions, knowing that penalties were low enough !ome companies attempted to prolong working time reference periods or, like bus producer .A), to introduce working time accounts ; an arrangement increasing working time fle=ibility typical for the &erman industrial relations system but illegal in 4oland 8Interview .A), FGG@9 Another interesting phenomenon, which became common inter alia at the 4olish branch of FIA*, was the e=tension of overtime work options !ince the basic wage was relatively low, many employees used the opportunity to earn e=tra money through overtime work At the same time, trade unions had a hard time mobili7ing the workers1 support for regular pay rise negotiations 8Interview FIA*, FGG@9 -egarding health and safety and working environment issues, labour organisations intervened not only in reaction to workplace accidents, but also tried to improve the working environment on a daily basis +nion demands in this regard included, the creation of a new canteen and a parking lot, the construction of additional changing rooms or the improvement of heating systems As in the case of working time, however, final decisions regarding working environment re organisations were taken by the management 'ast, but not least, unions often appealed to the employer to minimi7e outsourcing practices and the use of temporary workers *he plant;level !olidarnosc at Polkswagen 4o7nan, for instance, staged an anti;outsourcing campaign in the fall of FGGJ, while their counterparts from &.%(pel in &liwice made use of their crossborder links with the company1s ,uropean Dorks $ouncil 8also known as ,uropean ,mployee Forum, ,,F9 to preclude the takeover of cockpit and door production by e=ternal companies In the same vein, plant;level .etalowcy unionists at the 4o7nan .A) plant tried to convince the management that the use of

temporary workers might adversely impact the quality of bus production, which required high levels of technical qualification and manual precision *he company accepted the unionists1 claims in a period of labour shortage, but hired temporary workers once again in FGG?, when the labour market situation improved 8Interview .A), FGG@9 2.4 '13e( o& '-#+e *n,on(

$raft unions;this union represents workers with a particular skill Industrial unions;this union represents all workers in one industry with different skills

&eneral unions;this union represents workers with different skills Dhite collar unions;this union represents special skills like engineer or something

2." Con.%*(,on In a nutshell, combinations of participation and welfare measures 8such as equal opportunities and family;friendly policies9 appear to enhance both organi7ational performance and the quality of working life 4olicy support should focus on union recognition and activity within a human rights framework, since this can positively influence employees< behavior towards organi7ational goals and employer behavior toward their employees (ne visible approach that combines participation with welfare is trade union presence and recognition *here is strong evidence that union recognition improves the scope and scale of welfare policies Q such as family;friendly employment Q within organi7ations, though not necessarily their operation at workplace level given the findings from the literature review, policy;makers should be especially concerned about the policy implications for participation in terms of potentially e=cluded groups *his is especially the case since small firms 8which are particularly affected by the current lack of policy co;ordination9 employ a disproportionately high population of both women and ethnic minorities Ignorance of these differences

within the workforce could lead to participation schemes that undermine equality of opportunity within the workplace



4. In'-o+*.',on *his part presents details of the research plan information about how data is to be collected, the study population, sample unit and design, data collection instruments, and data analysis and data presentation techniques

4.! S'*+1 A-e# *he study will be carried out at Kinyara !ugar works ltd, .asindi, this case study was chosen because 8Kinyara !ugar Dorks ltd9 is among the greatest production company consisting of many employees and working in hand with trade union

4.2 S'*+1 De(,gn *he study is a cross sectional descriptive and purposive2 basically both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used It will e=amine the roles of the trade unions in influencing the employees welfare in the company, the problems the trade unions face alongside solutions that can be come up with

4.4 Po3*%#',on S'*+1 *he study population consisted of the employees in the organisation at large who are at the company1s pay roll and some of the trade unions working with the company 8Kinyara !ugar Dorks ltd9

4." S#23%e Se%e.',on #n+ S,;e *he sample will be around KG; >GG employees under the pay roll of the company *hey should be full time employees of the organisation and have relation with the trade union concern of their welfare

4.8 D#'# Co%%e.',on Both primary and secondary data will be collected -esearch instruments will be developed for each category of data as indicated below2 4.9 Re(e#-.) Me')o+( 1) Interview 2) Ruestionnaires !) In'e-6,e: Interviews will be made to the study group of the researcher Interview schedules will be arranged to e=tract information relating to the roles of the trade unions in influencing employees welfare, problem the trade unions face and their solutions in the company 2) 7*e(',onn#,-e( *his will be employed in collecting information from the key informants to the study Ruestionnaires will be distributed to the key informants who are believed to be literate, *he questionnaires will includ both open and closed questions to allow the respondents to freely e=press views at the same time so as to make quick answering on the straightforward questions 4.< D#'# An#%1(,( Me')o+( Rualitative analysis will be used throughout the research though some aspects needed a quantitative analysis data analysis Analysis of data will be based on the variables of the study such as age, education, income levels etc 4.<.! 7*#n','#',6e D#'# An#%1(,( Data management will be done with the respondents to ensure accuracy and correction of errors It will be tabulated using special package basing on the soci; demograghic and economic variables like age, se=, and income levels to mention but a few

4.<.2 7*#%,'#',6e D#'# An#%1(,( Data will be managed with the key informants and before this data will be collected for analysis, themes like roles of trade unions, the problems they face and the solutions that can be come up with will be identified After data collection analysis, information of the same category will be assembled together and a report written


Debb, !idney2 Debb, Beatrice 8>@FG9 History of Trade Unionism 'ongmans and $o 'ondon ch I -erum )ovarum" ,ncyclical of 4ope 'eo AIII on $apital and 'abor: 'ibreria ,ditrice Paticana -etrieved 3uly FJ, FG>> Kautsky, Karl 8April >@G>9 :*rades +nions and !ocialism: International Socialist Review ! 8>G9 -etrieved 3uly FJ, FG>> 4oole, . , >@?S Industrial -elations" (rigins and 4atterns of )ational Diversity 'ondon +K" -outledge *rade +nion $ensus: Australian Bureau of Statistics -etrieved 3uly FJ, FG>> 3ohnson, ! , FGGC An empirical e=amination of union density in si= countries" $anada, ,cuador, .e=ico, )icaragua, the +nited !tates and Pene7uela Dashington, D$, +!A" Inter;American Development Bank, -esearch )etwork Dorking 4aper T-;C?J, p K, available at" http"%%www iadb org%res%publications%pubfiles%pub-;C?J pdf 3ohnson, ! , FGGC An empirical e=amination of union density in si= countries" $anada, ,cuador, .e=ico, )icaragua, the +nited !tates and Pene7uela Dashington, D$, +!A" Inter;American Development Bank, -esearch )etwork Dorking 4aper T-;C?J, available at" .A) 8FGG@9 $hair of the .etalowcy unit at .A) Bus in 4o7nan, interviewed by theauthor on >@ August FGG@ .artn, A and & -oss 8eds 9 8>@@@9 *he Brave )ew Dorld of ,uropean 'abor ,uropean *rade +nions at the .illennium (=ford" Berghahn .eardi, & 8FGGJ9 H.ore Poice After .ore ,=itE +nstable Industrial -elations in $entral ,astern ,uropeI, Industrial -elations 3ournal LS8S9" KGL;KFL