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RLC series circuit (series resonance circuit)

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The following figure shows a circuit that contains a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor connected

in series across an alternating-voltage source. We assume that the applied voltage varies sinusoidally with

time. It is convenient to assume that the instantaneous applied voltage is given by

F = F

max

stnmt

Fig (a) Fig (b)

Fig (b) shows the voltage verses time across each element and their phase relationship.

We have to determine net phase, impedance and resonance frequency of the circuit. To solve the

problem, we must have to analyze the circuit by using phasor diagram. We note that all the elements in

the circuit are in series, so the current everywhere in the circuit will same at some instant. We may also

infer that the current at all points in a series ac circuit has the same amplitude and phase.

In resistor, Voltage and current are in phase.

AF

R

= F

R

stnmt

In Inductor, voltage leads the current by 9 or a2

AF

L

= F

L

stn(mt + a2) = F

L

us mt

In Capacitor, voltage lags the current by 9 or a2

AF

C

= F

C

stn(mt a2) = F

C

us mt

Phasor for each circuit element is given below.

We combine three phasors for the complete circuit, we obtain the phasor given below having

one maximum current. We re draw the phasor to find out vector sum of three phasors (below)

Since F

L

and F

R

are in opposite direction, so we combine them vectorially to get resultant F

L

F

C

that is along the phasor F

L

because F

L

> F

C

. Using head to tail rule or law of vector addition, we come

to the conclusion that AF

max

is the resultant vector. Now using Pythagorean Theorem

AF

max

= _F

R

2

+ (F

L

F

C

)

2

IZ = (I

max

R)

2

+(I

max

X

L

I

max

X

C

)

2

Z = R

2

+ (X

L

X

C

)

2

(|)

Z in above expression is called impedance of the circuit that is defined as the combined effect of

resistor, inductive reactance and capacitive reactance of a circuit.

The phase constant:

From the phasor right angled triangle, we have,

tan =

F

L

F

C

F

R

=

I

max

X

L

I

max

X

C

I

max

R

tan =

X

L

X

C

R

This expression gives phase constant.

Resonance frequency

Now from equation (|) when

X

L

> X

C

, at higher frequencies, the circuit will behave as more inductive than capacitive circuit.

X

L

< X

C

, at lower frequencies, the circuit will show more capacitive affect.

X

L

= X

C

, at certain frequency, the circuit will behave as resistive circuit with minimum impedance. This

frequency is called resonance frequency.

Now, when X

L

= X

C

mL =

1

mC

, since m is the angular frequency, so the expression will yield

2a

r

L =

1

2a

r

C

OR

r

=

1

2aLC

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