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RLC Series Circuit (Acceptor Circuit)

The following figure shows a circuit that contains a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor connected
in series across an alternating-voltage source. We assume that the applied voltage varies sinusoidally with
time. It is convenient to assume that the instantaneous applied voltage is given by
F = F
max
stnmt






Fig (a) Fig (b)

Fig (b) shows the voltage verses time across each element and their phase relationship.
We have to determine net phase, impedance and resonance frequency of the circuit. To solve the
problem, we must have to analyze the circuit by using phasor diagram. We note that all the elements in
the circuit are in series, so the current everywhere in the circuit will same at some instant. We may also
infer that the current at all points in a series ac circuit has the same amplitude and phase.
In resistor, Voltage and current are in phase.
AF
R
= F
R
stnmt
In Inductor, voltage leads the current by 9 or a2
AF
L
= F
L
stn(mt + a2) = F
L
us mt
In Capacitor, voltage lags the current by 9 or a2
AF
C
= F
C
stn(mt a2) = F
C
us mt
Phasor for each circuit element is given below.








We combine three phasors for the complete circuit, we obtain the phasor given below having
one maximum current. We re draw the phasor to find out vector sum of three phasors (below)









Since F
L
and F
R
are in opposite direction, so we combine them vectorially to get resultant F
L

F
C
that is along the phasor F
L
because F
L
> F
C
. Using head to tail rule or law of vector addition, we come
to the conclusion that AF
max
is the resultant vector. Now using Pythagorean Theorem
AF
max
= _F
R
2
+ (F
L
F
C
)
2

IZ = (I
max
R)
2
+(I
max
X
L
I
max
X
C
)
2
Z = R
2
+ (X
L
X
C
)
2
(|)
Z in above expression is called impedance of the circuit that is defined as the combined effect of
resistor, inductive reactance and capacitive reactance of a circuit.
The phase constant:
From the phasor right angled triangle, we have,
tan =
F
L
F
C
F
R

=
I
max
X
L
I
max
X
C
I
max
R

tan =
X
L
X
C
R

This expression gives phase constant.
Resonance frequency
Now from equation (|) when
X
L
> X
C
, at higher frequencies, the circuit will behave as more inductive than capacitive circuit.
X
L
< X
C
, at lower frequencies, the circuit will show more capacitive affect.
X
L
= X
C
, at certain frequency, the circuit will behave as resistive circuit with minimum impedance. This
frequency is called resonance frequency.
Now, when X
L
= X
C
mL =
1
mC
, since m is the angular frequency, so the expression will yield
2a
r
L =
1
2a
r
C
OR
r
=
1
2aLC