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Race and Gender in the Media: A Content Analysis of Advertisements in Two Mainstream Black Magazines Author(s): Vanessa Hazell

and Juanne Clarke Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Sep., 2008), pp. 5-21 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40282545 . Accessed: 24/01/2013 00:36
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g. Canada N2L 3C5. This content downloaded on Thu. University University.White Keywords: mediaanalysis. Blackideals available. gender. Theyaffect reaching This is most issues various and understand (Clarke.sagepub.com A Content AnalysisofAdvertisements Black Magazines in Two Mainstream Yorkville University LaurierUniversity Wilfrid of Black menand womenin the theportrayal examines The present study A in Black-oriented featured of advertisements magazines. race. bothpositively Black peopleare portrayed that Ideologies in featured advertisements to pervade continue racism andWhite supremacy conbecausenewimagesandtexts andthisis problematic Blackmagazines. peopleperceive in many different forms due to themedia'savailability (e..Ads subtlyperpetuate their both and race beliefsand expectations through concerning gender toJuanne should be addressed this article Authors' Note:Correspondence Clarke.Blackportrayals. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Theyhavefarthatis widely mass mediaare a resource how of members different on many effects society. Blackpeoplewillbe basedon suchnegative cerning of Black people.negative of positive thenumber to increase porportrayals be eliminated andeventually must also decrease altogether. imagesand texts in EssenceandJet on ads featured is conducted content analysis comparative reveal dataanalyses andqualitative for 2003 and2004.Quantitative magazines of and negatively.Race and Genderin theMedia VanessaHazell Clarke Juanne of Black Studies Journal 1 39 Number Volume 2008 5-21 September © 2008 Sage Publications 10.sagepub. It is notenough attitudes. trayals ideals.1992). televilikely in our too are Advertisements sion.com at hosted http://online. West.11 1934706291402 77/002 http://jbs. and in to pages newspapers commercials from television magazinesto societal and reinforce Internet pop-upwindows. radio. Department Sociology. Ontario. society widespread magazines). concerning Avenue 75 Wilfrid Laurier of Waterloo.

and in Reader's featured ads of a content ducted Look.A "hierarchy Black in the was reflected this and media. both products .Black peopleweregreatly underrepresented at of skincolor"existed & Schuman.In oursociety.As a result. and thushave a of society internalized and imagesare often by members on people'sviewsandattitudes concerning peopleof a parlargeinfluence orrace.. more desirable become 2005). straight long. analysis 5% ofads from 1965to 1970.e. Magazines DirectedTowardWhiteAudiences in magazine In the1950s.In 1965. andculturskintoneswereseenas beingmoresocially lighter peoplewith et Black dark-skinned than al. sexually appealing. (Bristor people ally acceptable whodid Black in cited as to Dates Leslie. slowlybegan change(Leslie. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . figure) lips. According of standards White into notfit skin. 1995).1999).Theseidealimages (Baker. (i. images light. areusedin selling sexualobjects products 2005). & Goulet. in selling Forexample. These texts (Bristor.bypurchasing the model role as a serves woman the ideal of prodimage can becomecloserto theideal womanand thus consumer uct.thefemale to men(Baker.ifmenpurchase theproduct.Andthetexts (McLaughlin imagesandtexts oftheadverin themediadirectly thevaluesandinterests reflect presented whoareusually White men(Colfax& Sternberg. ads (Humphrey 1984). ina stereotypical and tobe portrayed White ormaletend peoplewhoarenot a part become ofthe andtexts these unfavorable Unfortunately. In thisway. products . (Baker.as wellas on people'sviewsandattitudes ticular concerning gender of a particular as members themselves genderand race (Baker. thispointin American history.2005..In selling (Baker. 2005). 1972). portrayal and Sternberg Colfax to (1972) con1995). Life. is usedas a status oftheidealwoman symbol thecharacto women can hopeto becomemoreappealing possessing they the towomen. newimagesandwords andbecomethebasis on which culture of a society are created (Baker. successful.the dominant ideologyof White malesoverfemales ofWhite thepower andlegitimates maintains supremacy races in our society and other Lee.2005). people (1990. theimage tomen. and Ideal womenare physically submissive. strong. to menandwomen. & Hunt. McLaughlin rolesandgender traditional andreinforce Adsperpetuate inequalgender themselves how ideal men and womenact and present ityby portraying and idealmenaredominant. light beauty people's advertisement from were excluded thin thin images. ofBlackpeopleinthemedia the thecivilrights After movement. tisers. Digest.approximately Ladies'HomeJournal This content downloaded on Thu. 1999). beautiful.6 Journal ofBlack Studies and images & Goulet.1995). hair. 1995). oftheidealwoman teristics 2005).

population. of ads featuring that theproportion also found and Schuman Humphrey 1% in 1950toupto 10% in from the increased Blackpeople years. Thatis. Sports Life. However.7%.The researchers than often to a Whiteaudiencethan wereseen as less threatening thesegroups that and Schuman(1984) foundthat Black men were.By 1970. However. magazine 84. Yorker. Fortune. Black Colfaxand Sternberg Whitepeople whereas in were occupations.S.up to 10.Blackpeopleconsist yet 1980s. underrepresented being fewer of 12% oftheU.Blackpeoplewerebeingpresented still and in a broader being theywere rangeof ads.3% people). update findings. Housekeeping. previous .although than ofBlackfemales number was a greater while increased had males Black of stereotypical. (1972) found Returning in magazineads muchmore wereportrayed Black womenand children was duetothefact this that believed Blackmen. people in that found 1965. themselves.. Clarke / Race and Gender in the Media 7 in theads were Black modelsand 3% of all thepeoplepresented included ads more in magazine Black.However. frequently in thegeneral totheir population.Hazell. magazine theproBlackmales. products This content downloaded on Thu.The researchers in theportrayal changes Black and that modelstated The first their modelsin interpreting findings. portrayed lowerstatus people of White The status lower in majority were rarely positions. the that found researchers The to although 1994.The third findings. (1997) contrast. throughout inadsuptothe still were Blackpeople 1982. in a content Bowenand Schmid analysis (1997) also conducted Good the magazinesCosmopolitan.6% in 1992 Black peopleincreased of ads featuring number Whitepeople Moreover. remaining portion foundthatin 54% of the magazineads.yet that ax and Sternberg Coif to theclassic study. the as weredepicted they Finally. toward influenced by Whitepeople's attitudes people would be greatly to their modelwas mostapplicable Blackpeople. featured andLadies'HomeJournal 12%oftheadsinTime than of ads. The secondmodel in thesame manner. Whitepeoplewouldbe presented between differences the real-life would reflect statedthatthisportrayal of Black theportrayal that modelstated The third thesetworacialgroups. of to the as ads in readership were compared magazine overrepresented being is of White the Cosmopolitan the particular readership magazine(e. Black people werestillbeingunderrepresented. Family Circle.g. Humphrey of in a relatively Black menand womenwererepresented equal number there that found also and Schmid Bowen In ads. White feature in this ads of the 97. Esquire. proportions compared underrepresented ofads feaa content andSchuman analysis (1984) conducted Humphrey from1950 to 1980 to examine in Timeand Ladies' Home Journal tured three considered ofBlackpeople. Blackpeople. portrayed Black of the whereas as people were majority depicted consumers. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and from 1987 Time and New Illustrated.

on Colfax and andSchuman found Building Steinberg's study.In addition. finding portrayed and in family that Black peoplewere musicians. idleconsumers inmagazine ads peoplewereportrayed from 1950 to 1982.only14% oftheads feaBlackpeopleportrayed inlow-skilled them labor Incontrast. they engaged Magazines DirectedTowardBlack Audiences Leslie (1995) conducted a content of Black analysisof theportrayal 1957 to 1989. settings. butin reality. Another and Schuman (1984) is that noteworthy finding by Humphrey White interactions in peopleand Black peopledid notengagein informal Black people and White any of the ads in the 1950s. found portrayed positions they that all oftheads featuring Blackpeopleportrayed inlow-skilled them labor cooks. Humphrey in 1950. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . However. it was found that Black peoplewereoverintheoccupation ofprofessional athlete. By 1982. (1972) found. considered in mediaportrayals. By 1980 though. ads featuring Black peopleadhering toWhite standardsof beauty as did ads featuring Black people adhering decreased. He found that thepercentage of ads people in Ebonyfrom natural Black hairstyles whileads featuring increased.. andSternberg ColfaxandSternberg found that Furthermore. turing positions.8 Journal of Black Studies 80% oftheBlackpeoplein theads wereportrayed as musicians.laborers. this declined to41% by 1970. Theyalso found of theproduct as Colfax beingused as linksto attributes beingadvertised. and peoplewereportrayed 65% ofthetime.Furthermore. and race separately gender This content downloaded on Thu.ads featuring both typesof Black models increased. positions (e. in relationships ofequal status 89% ofthetime. to Black standards of beauty.servants). featuring straightened hairdecreasedand ads featuring a variety of Black hairstyles also increased.g.as Blackpeoplebegantoincreaspercentage be presented in highstatus ingly positions. the number of Whitepeople alwaysoutnumbered the number of Black peoplein theads. represented Bowenand Schmid mostoftheprevious researchers' (1997) confirmed thatBlack people weremostoften as athletes. in informal interactions. Genderand Race and Media Portrayal thesocialcharacteristics of gender andracehavebeen Up to thispoint. White as high-status. results.Blackpeoplewerenever that in dominant rolesandwere portrayed insubordinate in62% oftheads. In addition.

as authoritative headsofthehousehold as or singlemothers 2005). thesewomenwereporwithmenin Black-oriented magazines.e. is as identified 2005). portrayed inBaker. men. portrayed ofbeauty. 1996. Cosmopolitan.2005).BlackMen.. magazines.Images of and holdingoccupational as financially strong trayed andfamin Black-oriented families wereprevalent magazines.Theresearchers October oriented Essence)for (i.e. ilyimages full-facial 50% of the ads featured foundthatapproximately confident.. Black womenare also often (Baker. and in theads had medium tured hair. magazines Whitemen Black women (i. geared modelsfeaof female that themajority King)fortheyear2002. gearedtoward magazines Blackmen(i.GQ. images of womenin magazines the portrayal Baker(2005) compared geared toward women White toward (i. byCollins(2000.. than with whom the men in they trayed higher positions featheBlack women that overall Bakerfound of physical characteristics.Blackwomen (1993. magazines in in submissive that women werepresented found poses muchmoreoften wereporin Black-oriented Women White-oriented magazines magazines.e. seductive.Clarke/Race andGender 9 ofteninteract in how people are portrayed in the media. curvy figures. status.with beingplacedon their objectified White in than Black women attributes) gearedtoward magazines physical Black men. This content downloaded on Thu. in Black-oriented featured addition. independent. andemphasis their faceshidden (i. White women tobe tend tobe presented as submissive. single-parent theresearchers werescarceinWhite-oriented Finally. Essence. areoften to Jewell 2005).. Another portrayal presented stereotypical Blackwomen is that ofthematriarch.in theMedia Hazell. She found models female and that most were White inWhite-oriented tured magazines noted In Baker were Black..2005).. Finally. magazines in as dominant thatwomenweremoreoften magazines geared portrayed Whitewomen.. White women often are as possessing the although stereotypically presented oftheidealwoman characteristics discussed themanner inwhich previously. For example. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .e.Maxim). toWhite standards that adhere features European of womenin the portrayal and Goulet(1999) compared McLaughlin White-oriented Us. ofwomen. Black womenthanin magazinesgearedtoward toward that Whitewomenweremuchmorelikelyto be she found Furthermore.as citedin Baker.as cited and overlyexpressive (Baker. headstrong. according with and sexually as Jezebels-captivating.e.Cosmopolitan. Black womenare presented in the media differs from thisideal. whereas Blackwomen tend of as dominant (Baker. straight complexions. Sapphire Sapphire.e.Honey).WhenBlack womenwere and especially White women.e. People) and Blackmagazines(i.Ebony. toward andmagazines (i. geared Vogue). presented In terms arefeatured. aggressive.

A comparative content was conducted on ads featured in two analysis magazines gearedtoward Black audiencesfor2003 and 2004. larger body hair). dent. social. likely depenandobjectified than Black women. 2.thin figure. naturally curly 4. as intimidating.e. thefollowing werehypothesized: 1. straighter figures be presented. This content downloaded on Thu.dark beauty nose. andoversexed athletes. when featured inWhite-oriented Blackfemale magazines. White concerning menareoften as possessing thecharacteristics of stereotypically presented theideal mandiscussed Black menare stereotypically defined previously. as previous studies havedone. lips. Fewadswill Black and White ininforportray people people interacting orintimate mal. ous research. Blackstandards of lips. Black women willbeportrayed more often with characteristics physical that adhere to White standards of beauty thin (i. or evenhostile.light complexion. ofPurpose Statement The present research seeksto complement andextend research previous on theportrayal of Black peoplein magazine ads.e.. It is expected that thesetexts will reflect an ideology of White withassociated racialized Based on previsupremacy gender stereotypes. size. thatBlack men (1984) and Bowen and Schmid(1997) have documented havebeenoverrepresented as musicians. This studyexaminesnot onlythe in ads. modelswith skin andthinner tended to hair. pendent 3. complexion.butalso thetexts of imagesfeatured theseads. Little has beensaidup tothis abouthowWhite andBlackmenare point in the media. hair) longstraight broad thick (i.. (Colfax& 1972).Whatis known and the stereotypes Whitemen and Black mendiffer. This is because few studieshave examined this portrayed is that theportrayal of mentends to be stereotypical topic. White women willbe more tobe portrayed as submissive. and Humphrey and Schuman aggressive. Black women will be more tobe portrayed as dominant andindelikely than White women. Sternberg.10 Journal ofBlack Studies Morespecifically. settings. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . lighter tones. thin than nose. "health" and bodyissueswereexamined to limit Onlyads concerning the focus.

skintone. 2004.issuewerecoded.. 2006).andNovember 2003. picture physical model nose.Thisprovided remaining to content of 18 issuesofBlackmagazines a total analyze.September ad other different seasons.andSeptember September theSeptember thefirst 5 ads from 27.2003. with the researchers November issueswerecoded. models.2004. Communications. only except TheJuly March17..lips. and texts images weredevisedbased on thesethemes noted.e. 2006. occupation.Becausethe the all of theads from November 8.e.bodytype). provided This content downloaded on Thu.e. and or consumer as a model presented submissive.gender. models. 14.issue. Jet).e. 21. The texts of the inthe evident coding categories following the audience of sheet: a coding wereused in creating advertised. issue of Jetwas unavailable. Julyissues were coded. Every were 21 ads that of an intheissuesofEssencewas coded.andJuly therefore all of theads in theavailable issuesofJetwerealso unavailable. coding category and resulted ads. 2004.and 20. products of the model characteristics or of a product person. or dominant or formal models(i. codingcategories Independent of Black people on theportrayal researchers the and findings by previous theracism to document also devised was A in print media. Essence) and theother magazine was gearedtoward Black menand women(i. between interaction informal). Jetis published whereas and has a readership of morethan9 million. Inc.one magaTwomass-circulating wereselected for magazines analysis zine was gearedtoward Black women(i.. messages product. health of magazine a lackofthistype featuring 2004 March Issuesfrom 2004. and thecodingsheets text.2003. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .July 2003.. 4 ads fromthe September 6. producing average of ad was also coded forJetforthemonth coded per issue. White number of of Black number featured alone or withothers. March. contained which for the March 10.Everyother 4 The ads. 2004. Johnson Publishing Company. The ads werethenreexamined from implied with theinformation werecompleted byeach ad.in theMedia Hazell. Essence is weekly million has a of more than 7 and (Essence monthly readership published Inc. race. with eachissuerepresenting wereselected. hair.2003. (i.. ads. 2004. Method the of content method A deductive analysiswas used in examining were themes and their were examined The ads of the ads. becauseof that No magazines weredirected solelyto maleswereselected information.Clarke/Race andGender 11 SamplingProcedures .issuewasunavailable.2003.. The first werecoded.issuesofJet 13.

Thirty-four ads. ads in total werecodedfrom the2003 Thirty-seven issuesofEssence.. This content downloaded on Thu. itcanbe concluded that minor health issuesreceived more attention intheads in Blackmagazines than health issues.ads from various ads.theneedsand interests of Black womenare slowly becoming in a magazine that is supposed tobe geared toward them. Products advertised. magazineis geared toward a Blackfemale audience.12 Journal ofBlack Studies Data Analysis The datawereanalyzed andqualitatively toprovide an inquantitatively and of the and texts that are in found ads depth analysis description images featured inthemagazines.Thus.andorganizational In organizations). Each coding is discussed and illustrated category in turn in thefollowing dataanalysis. that thehealth issues Thus. general that health issuesconcerning Blackwomen aremore appears greatly emphasizedthan those BlackmeninJet Thesehealth issues concerning magazine.which 2004. were predominantly hair care and skin care. Thisappears to indicate that thetypes ofaudiences beingtargeted by advertisers in Blackfemale areexpanding. Thesefindings magazines replicateColfaxandSteinberg's that Black women andchildren (1972) finding wereportrayed inmagazine ads more often than BlackmenandBowenand Schmid's(1997) finding that Black women areportrayed in magazine ads moreoften than Black men.thenumber were accounted for in thenumber of foodads andgeneral mostly by an increase health careads. menand womenof all races.boys and girlsof all races. ofads codedfrom Essenceincreased to45 ads.andorganizational hygiene ads werecodedin 2004.drug ads.The most of ads geared toward Blackmenin Jet popular category wasalso hair care.feminine ads. except hygiene.skincareads.it care. Thus.e. It was surprising to though find that in 2004 mostof theads weregearedtoward women of all races. Most of the ads featured in the 2003 issues of Essenceweregeared toward which was notsurprising as this women.skin primarily ads (i. In addineglected thenumber of ads gearedtoward tion.with thenumber ofall categories ofads increasing.and Black menand womenincreased from 2003 to 2004. mirroring those foundin Essence. importance The30 ads codedfrom the2003issuesofJet consisted ofhair care mostly ads. for hair feminine and health care. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .it appears tively that areofmost to Blackwomen arehair careandskin care. In thisway. major Audienceof theads. andthese adsconsisted of hair care care ads. The number ofads from theother remained relacategories consistent from 2003 to 2004.

the number ofWhite models increased. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .in theMedia Hazell. presumably becausethemagazine is gearedtoward women.followed ofall races geared bymenandwomen and Black women. weremale. these to support ColfaxandSteinberg's (1972) andBowen findings appear and Schmid's(1997) findings Black modelsare often that with associated theattributes oftheproduct areadvertising. Racial characteristics In both EssenceandJet ofthemodels. Blackmodels they arestillbeingobjectified in Black-oriented in thepresent.Thus.In the2004issuesofEssence.By doingso. their in 2004.g. As a result.most oftheads product inEssencefeatured both a modelandtheproduct Ads feabeingadvertised.. magazines. 33 ofwhich were female and 10 ofwhich weremale. In both 2003 and2004.This finding and Schuman's replicatesHumphrey that thenumber ofBlack menandwomen featured in mag(1984) finding azineads is relatively This is mostlikely due to Jefstargeted audiequal.mostlikely because larger is geared Jet toward bothmenandwomen. mostads were toward women ofall races.43 modelswerefeatured. magazines modelswerefeatured in the2003 issues of Essence. the target needsandinterests ofBlack menarebeingneglected. no ads weregeared audience. modelsfeatured 16 of whichwerefemale and 10 of which only26 modelswerefeatured.ads with ofresults was also found inJet Becausemost only). mostof themodelswereBlack. despite target to indicate that theimportance oftargetsolelyto Black men. turing onlyora modelonlywerethesecondmost andvery fewads featured neither a modelnora product text (e. This finding Baker's(2005) finding that cantly replicates most inBlackmagazines models areBlack. ence. Therewerefewer in Jetmagazine:in the 2003 issues.conFifty-seven of5 1 female modelsand6 malemodels. theads inJet weregeared toward a larger ofaudiences range thantheads in Essencemagazine.However.Clarke/Race andGender 13 In general. specific Adsfeaturing orperson. theproduct common ads. with thenumber of female modelsdecreasing to 46 andthenumber of malemodelsincreasing to 16.Thispattern magazine. The proportion of women to menin Jetwas significantly than in Essence.with other racesbeingrepresented signifiless frequently. The number ofmodels feasisting tured in the2004 issuesofEssenceroseto 62. In both2003 and 2004. of the modelsin Black-oriented magazinesare Black (to be discussed).Thisappears has decreased as advertisers havedeemedit satisfactory to ingthisgroup Black menthrough ads aimedat menof all races.itappears that fewer significantly male thanfemalemodelsare featured in Essence magazine.in the2004 issues. Thisappears to indicate that advertisers This content downloaded on Thu.

Thesefindings that Black modelsare adhering straight. andlight closelyfollowed bymedium skintones. that was longandblackandwerealmost tohavestraight hair equallylikely as to have curly hair. curly Mostof themalemodelsfeatured in both JetandEssencemagazines in 2003 and 2004 had short blackhair. In the2003 issuesof Essence. The female modelsinthe2003 issuesofJet tended tohavehairthat was In 2004. hair)wereless prevalent. Most modelsin Jetmagazine in 2003 plexions following closelybehind. had medium skintones.straight. and the discrepancy betweenthe number of modelswithlong hair and the number ofmodelswith short hairwas relatively small.Perhaps this hair. most of these models alsohadfacial but this trend decreased in2004.and most modelsin 2004 haddarkskintones. that Blackstandards ofbeauty arebecoming more ever. femalemodels were equally likelyto be long (i. medium or darkcomplexions.e. curly.and straight. than as thelatter only featured and mixed Asian-Black whereas theformer Black.long.e. and black.. as widely accepted haired modelsbecomemoreprevalent in magazine ads.. also featured Indian andAsianmodels. mostof themodelshad dark with thenumber ofmodelswith medium andlight comcomplexions. shorter but hair.black. wavy. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .thehairof the EssenceandJetmagazines.. shoulder or length or chinlength and tended to be blackand curly or longer)as to be short In 2004. Therewerea widevariety ofhairstyles in featured In the2003 issuesof Essence. mostof themodelshad light and equal number whereasa significant of models had complexions. In the2003 issuesof Essence magazine. This content downloaded on Thu.Thus. orwavyhairrather than coarsehair). Hair characteristics. standards of beauty in terms of their hair. models. The 2004 trends howindicate. curly/coarse mostBlack modelsdid haveblackhairrather thanlighter haircolors.White.it appearsthat of modelsadhering thenumber to White standards of beautyin Black magazinesis decreasing as thenumber of modelsadhering to Black standards ofbeauty is slowly increasing.Moreracially diverse models werefeatured in Essencemagazine in Jetmagazine. appearto indicate toWhite standards ofbeauty interms oftheir hair(i.e.most ofthefemale models hadhair that was long.These results are similar to thosefound in Essence also demonstrating thatBlack modelsare adhering to White magazine. possibly willing buyproducts geared toward White women toliveuptoWhite ideals. female Jetmodelstended to havehair long. In 2004.14 Journal ofBlack Studies aredeeming itacceptable to advertise with White models to Black products Black women because are to women. though.Blackstandards ofbeauty in naturally terms of hair(i.followed by darkand lightskintones.

This 2003 and2004 issuesofJet arefeaturing moremodelswithsmaller to indicate that advertisers appears of beauty. as theirads featured facialfeatures.g.The secondmostpopular facialfeatures both werealso smallnosesandlargelips.butthesecondmostprevalent had average-sized modelsis occurforfemale and lip size weresmall. Black to Whitestandards nosesand lips whothusbetter adhere models as more with standards ofbeauty werealso prevalent.In 2003. this of are more Black fact that the bodytype. however. Mostofthefemale models inboth EssenceandJet in 2003 and 2004 had averaged-sized nosesand lips.thesecondmostprevalent dominant. large both that Leslie's(1995) findings intheads. nessofthemalemodels' itwas toodifficult todetermine hair texture.as smaller Most of themale of Whiteideals of beauty.Clarke/Race andGender 15 is becauseBlackmenareperceived to be less threatening without facial hair andwouldthus be more to selling conducive Becauseoftheshortproducts.in 2004 thesecondmost popular in nosesand smalland largelips. modelswith larger notto be The bodiesof femalemodelsin Essence tended Bodytypes.Thus. imposed were foundin Jetmagazine. becauseof theperpetuation noses and lips in 2003.thesametrend become moreprevalent facialfeatures ringformale models. ofbeauty toBlackstandards adhering to have Male modelsin the2003 issues of Essence magazinetended noses and lips.in theMedia Hazell. models with featured no ads most Furthermore. mostfemale Similarfindings an or with their bodiesbeingshown either without modelswerepresented This content downloaded on Thu.. larger bodysizes. Facial characteristics. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . accepting people despite arebeing that White idealsofthin indicate Thus. modelsin Jetmagazinealso had average-sized noses and or large-sized in 2004 mostof themaleshad averagewhereas of more to be Jet Thus. magabodytype was second butin 2004 thethin zinewas an average bodytype bodytype.Thissupports lipswerefeatured andthose standards ofbeauty toWhite thenumber ofBlackmodels adhering havebeenincreasing. popular.Although thesecond most in 2003 issuesofEssencewerelargenosesand facialfeatures popular facialfeatures in Essenceweresmall lips. mostof themale models or large-sized averagenose size nosesand lips. more male Black ideals of beautythanEssence. accepting appears magazine average-sized lips. and This or bust shown a head shot). hair. In 2004.only in Black magazines that mostof theads presented Goulet's(1999) finding and them as self-confident to portray models thefacesoffemale emphasize in Essence In 2003. McLaughlin finding supports (e.these bodytypes findings the on Black population.

andas athletes wives. tended tobe depicted in stereotypical tobe represented jobs. closely by averagebodytype. artists. appearsto indicate that Whiteideals of beauty are evenmoreprevalent in magazines geared toward bothBlack menand women. it was mostlikelywithotherBlack andtheseinteractions weremoreoften informal than models. This This content downloaded on Thu. andtherapists. ofWhite forboth2003 and 2004 issues. In both EssenceandJet models.mothers. husbands) (e.The secmagazines. ads featuring malemodelswith larger bodysizes. friends.. formal.although in the2004 issuesof Jet. body followed an This type. nonstereotypical job positions it appears that theoccupational rolesportrayed by modelsin Black magazinesareshifting toward less stereotypical job portrayals.. inboth 2003 and2004 andinboth Essenceand Jet malemodelstended to haveaverage-sized bodies. to Thus.16 Journal ofBlack Studies mostfemale modelshad a thin averagebodytype.although the number of interactions betweenmodels increased from 2003 to 2004 in bothEssence and Jet. singers. that in port though.it was notsurprising ancywas smaller find that themajority ofads in EssenceandJet didnotinvolve interactions betweenmodels.themodelsweresignificantly magazines moreoften featured alone thanwithother thisdiscrepmodels. number of malemodelsweredepicted as bodyguards. It is interesting.Whenthe slightly modelswere featured withothers. Thus. Perhaps are intimidating to men as a resultof the dominance portrayed by the women in theads.e. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Most of themodelsin bothEssence and Jetin 2003 and Occupation.g. and interactions between models. Modelfeatured alone or with number number others..In Jet..basketballplayers.g. the2004 issues of bothEssence and Jet. ondmost ads wereads that didnotfeature thebodiesofthemale prevalent modelsat all. a significant actresses). 2004 werenotportrayed in anyoccupational andthose that were positions. modelsbeganto be featured in suchas students. It appears that facialor bustshotsof menwerenotthemost ofads.mostlikely becauseofhowBlackmenareviewedas prevalent type This could also explainthelack of intimidating by theWhitepopulation. ofBlackmodels. In terms ofmalemodels. Modelstended in familial roles(e.modelsalso tendedto be portrayed members of thecommunity and as entertainers (i. as boxers).g.Furthermore. neighbors) and in 2004 issues of Essence. (e.In 2004 though. thenumber of models featured without their bodiesdecreased in 2004 relative to thenumber of modelswith other thisis becausefacialandbustshots bodytypes. Thesefindings supBowenand Schmid's(1997) findings.

despitethefactthatEssence and Jetare geared toward Black audiences.although presented are beingpresented as consumers. Black people Thus. it appearsthat thehistoric to tendency them as objectspersists intothepresent. Thesefindings thoseofColfaxand trayed partially replicate that White (1972) and Bowen and Schmid(1997). with theads portraying themodelas a consumer and focusing on a particular characteristic ofthemodelto demonstrate theeffectiveness oftheproduct.. interacting withnon-Black models.lower condition. appealto theBlack female werealso presented toappealtotheWhite female perhaps they submissively whostrive toward submissiveness as an idealoffemininity. Dominant or submissive. size/height. This finding some evidence for provides Baker's(2005) finding that Blackwomen tend to be presented as dominant inmagazine ads andfor andGoulet's that women (1999) finding McLaughlin arepresented lessfrequently inBlackmagazines than inWhite submissively theprimarily Blackfemale models werepresented dommagazines. and audience. It is interengaged that when White models werefeatured with itwas esting others. portray text. size/height.. Most of theads in both EssenceandJet themodelsas bothconsumers featured andproducts. physical position) relative andthecharac(i. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Modelpresented as a consumer or a product. audience.higher authority. An averageof 12 ads peryearfeatured in Messagesimplied from Essence and Jetmagazines had underlying racistmessages. both2003 and2004 issuesofJet werealso overwhelmingly magazine poras consumers.e. Perhaps becauseof leftover of Blackwomen as dominant andto inantly stereotypes who strives to be self-confident. Mostof themodelsin theads featured in the 2003 and 2004 issuesof EssenceandJetwereportrayed bothas dominant relative andsubmissive (i. physical terization of "softor delicate").itappears dent in magazine ads in thepresent.in theMedia Hazell. in the2003 issuesof Essence.These racist are theresult of theadvertisers a Whiteideal of beauty messages pushing and demonstrate an insensitivity forBlack people's meansof achieving This content downloaded on Thu. who found Sternberg to be portrayed as consumers whereasBlack people were peopletended as linksto product characteristics.Clarke/Race and Gender 17 Bowen and Schmid's(1997) finding thatBlack and finding replicates White modelsrarely in socialcontact in magazine ads. that racialsegregation is stilleviThus.e. in 2004 the majority of non-Black models wereportrayed Non-Black modelsfeatured in solelyas consumers.non-Black modelswerefeatured Although bothas consumers and as products. authority.

through portraying them in nonstereotypical and headshots. fading than beautiful skinas more an idealof lighter andthus reflected blemishes to Black not be a concern which would darkskin. hairwavyor too dark.and making people since theirskinis typically than hair as more beautiful of to the ideal thus closer and straight straight that and more coarsehair. implying natmanageable. lar.although powerin distributing seemingly in this andthus to thepopulation raceandgender way concerning messages of peopleof particular and understandings genshapepeople'sperceptions to examine howBlackpeopleare article dersandraces. inmagazines inads featured geared portrayed andnegative. to manage. was both that their It was found positive portrayal is to Black readers are sending The overallmessagethatadvertisers moreaccepting arebecoming that advertisers itis positive mixed.18 Journalof Black Studies darkspotsor concerned These ads mostly Whiteideals of beauty. uralBlack hairis difficult Discussion readers that notonlyprovide resource circulated The mediaarea widely are dominated societal which butalso perpetuate with information beliefs. featuring increasingly there are also a number of waysin which them as consumers. ofWhite an ideology concerning supremacy societal havegreat harmless. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . pertained with thehealth information needon major health issues. by Ads inparticuraceandgender. portraying inmagazine Blackpeoplearebeing ads. medicalattention whentheillnesshas already intothe seeking progressed later in unnecessarily ofdisability rates andmortality.The present sought toward Blackmenandwomen. featuring and dominant Black modelsas self-confident models. Coupledwith thefact that ads in Blackmagamagazine zinesare increasingly to White Blackreaders are audiences. being they provided at leastnotin ads. itappears that ofracism andWhite continue ideologies supremacy to pervade ads featured in Blackmagazines. Although Black modelsin ads geared of Black idealsof beauty mostly by featuring ofdarker skinned an increasing number toward Blackindividuals. stages. beingoriented notbeingprovided with health information that is of particular concern for Blackindividuals. resulting high In sum. alleviating redness. ads are Magazine increasingly This content downloaded on Thu. occupations. Thisis quite becauseBlackpeoplecoulddeal problematic withmajorhealth concerns earlier on in its courseand thushavea better ifthey are madeawareof thesehealth concerns instead of prognosis early.Mostoftheads negatively portrayed tominor thus Blackreaders arenot health itappears that concerns. and/or shinier. softer.

Thisinsensitivity leadsto theneglect ofbeauty White standards andinterests of Blackreaders. Jezebels.Thiscan havea significant attain body impact negative ads. bodies are their shown). whereas tised. (when bodytype valuesof Black culture's of beauty and thusundermines Black standards an demonstrate ads of these a Furthermore.with long. of models in Essence and Jet. prestandards). premediummodels vailin these female hair. strong. are and men and as sexualobjects submissive. In terms magazine to beautiful as physically arepresented women inwhich (according sexism.although andinfamilial as dominant. Furthermore.despite magazines supposed ofthespecific needs Blackaudiences. these can attain how Black toward way. of an ideology to perpetuate ads continue of gender.and continue have who individuals for non-Black harmful not are These attitudes only who for Black but also Black of individuals. they are Black. with Black toward attitudes historic that itappears peoplepersist. In this ideals.Black mendid nothave muchof a presence to White adhered werefeatured. thewrong people impression think and and attitudes perceive thesenegative negatively mayinternalize aboutthemselves. jobs and stereotypical were ads. often featured more were White models Thus. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Western Black peoplehavebecome. these whoencounter inparticular ofyoung Blackgirls self-esteem with featured are still models Black Furthermore. significant proportion beauty. European and sexually as dominant. they Stereotypes ideals roles. sented successful. in models White from areoften mostly magazine They segregated these withothers. This content downloaded on Thu. to be a partof. and whenthey oriented they magazines.Clarke/Race andGender 19 ofWhite models is increastoward other andthenumber races. Although appealing. ads. presented arealso beingimposed females White idealsfor forBlackfemales persist. perhaps in BlackWhiteaudience. butwhenthey featured As well.they wereinformal. being geared the fact be toward that these are to geared ing. negative is This in the and reinforced to be racism present.despitethe factthatmost the werealso as werealso evident Blackwomen for however. This devalues and as submissive. interactions wereBlack andtheir individuals wereoften theyadverby beingassociatedwiththeproducts objectified as consumers. people insensitivity whoare on Blackreaders ads can havea devastating these impact magazine to themeans butarenotgiven idealofbeauty topursue a White being taught and esteem on the it.in theMedia Hazell. perpetuated continuing toward attitudes this in because way negative problematic particularly culture.straight featuring a thin smallnosesandlips secondmost sizednoseandlips(with popular). werefeatured alone in theads. to a ads moreappealing as a meansof making on Black females.Thus. in theads featured wereevident White areidealsfor these individuals.

and Whiteideals in a stereotypical. Race andideology: African American Bristor. (2005). presence magazine An update. J.Future thisfurther. demand that Black ads arenotinfluenced ofracism andto by an ideology ensure that Black culture's valuesarerepresented andrespected.negative portrayals positive portrayals be eliminated must also decrease andeventually Audiences must altogether. (1992).. & Hunt. unfavorable manner. By doing beliefs andexpectations Black peoplecan improve so. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . beingpresented It is notenough to increase thenumber arestillbeingimposed on them.48-59. R. ityto appealto a White thepresent has brought to light these Although study important findings. J. 105-120. Perhaps as intimidating in Western advertisers feel males are perceived society.short blackhair.N.52. Journal 14. M. itis notwithout no magazines weresampled that were itslimitations. of ofthese individuals ofBlackpeople. analysis Black-andWhite-oriented women's andmen'smagazines.itdoes place in theportrayal Black people are still notmeanthatit is no longera sourceof concern. 134-146. heart Clarke. although positivechangeshave taken ofBlackpeoplein themediasincethe1950s. 13-27. & Schmid. therefore.andAIDS: Whatdo themediatellus aboutthese diseases?HealthCommunication. N. advertising: Quarterly. societal concerning andBlack peoplecan feelmorepositively aboutthemselves. products. Theyweremostoften featured withaveragebodysizes. disease. thepresent theproposed Therefore.Lee. medium no facialhair. sampling time werenotavailable. as bothdominant and sized-nose and lips. Imagesof women'ssexuality in advertisements: A content of Baker. a Such a samplecouldhaveprovided gearedsolelytoward ofhowWhite andBlackmalemodels are more understanding comprehensive in themedia. in other forms areportrayed howBlackmenandwomen of significant a number Thus. ofPublicPolicy& Marketing. sampling period number ofads toprovide from a larger wouldhavebenefited sampling study couldexamine Future research moresolidsupport forthecurrent findings. geared solely in ads obtaininformation on how Black and Whitemodelsare presented thisaudience.20 ofBlack Studies Journal ideals. In addiresearch couldexamine portrayed was used. (1997). Journalism and Mass Communication 74. Minority and portrayal in mainstream Bowen. (1995). of to Black male models adhere to White ideals masculinhave compelled audience. and as consumers and because Black both submissive.somemagazine issuesfrom becauseconvenience tion.. References C. J. itwas notpossible to toward a Blackmaleaudience. 4. ofmedia. imagesin televisionadvertising.L. Cancer.. First. Sex Roles. This content downloaded on Thu.

aimedatCaucasians. 24 Jan 2013 00:36:01 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . aimedat African in magazines advertisements N. analysis. Slow fadeto:Advertising Mass Communication 72.from http://www. 2006. magazine Retrieved EssenceCommunications. Laurier Ontario. & Sternberg. Fredericton.. in Waterloo. Inc. Quarterly. psychosocial well-being. circulation advertisements.essence. & Schuman.D. (1995). 1957-1989. New in located Brunswick. of This content downloaded on Thu. The portrayal R. Jet Johnson May 8. Quarterly.com/essence/ourcompany advertisements: of Blacks in magazine H. Leslie.from magazine: Publishing Company. May 8. (1972). andcopingstyles. explicit examining bias. (1999).. F.61-71. health. Humphrey. Christian Jordan.. Quarterly. & Goulet. at Yorkville her MA in counseling Vanessa Hazell is currently psychology completing interests inmedia has research She Canada. Health Communication andtheJournal Communication.jetmag. 2006. ThePublicOpinion 36. 551-563. SexRoles. Canada.with in Social Science and Medicine.Health media. 48. S. McLaughlin. http://www.html and Journalism in Ebonymagazine. News. ThePublicOpinion 1950-1982. (2006).She has recently in mass print published on thesetopics. riskandprotective factors. Gender T.Thisis herfirst theself-serving publication. psychological of thesupervision in 2005 under thesis herhonor's She completed psychology undergraduate and self-esteem and implicit between therelationship Dr. at Wilfrid University JuanneClarke is a medicalsociologist areportrayed and medicine in thewaysthat interest a particular illness. Essence: Our company.M.Retrieved Inc. (1984). (2006). inmagazines occurrence totheir A comparison Americans: 40. 8-18.in theMedia Hazell. University. The perpetuation ofracialstereotypes: Colfax.Clarke/Race andGender 21 Blacksinmass J.com/assembled/news.426-435.