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The Greeks at War! Between ______and ______ B.C. the Greeks fought several wars.

. Two were against the powerful _____________ Empire to the east of Greece. Then a ______war broke out among the city-states of Greece. Why did the Persians invade Greece? In 519 B.C. the Persians conquered a group of people who lived in Asia Minor called the _______ Greeks. In 499 B.C. the Ionian Greeks asked the mainland Greeks to help them _______ against the Persians. ____________ sent warships to help them, but they were not strong enough to defeat the Persian army. The made the Persian King, ______________, very angry with Greece. In 490 B.C. _________sent ships and soldiers to invade Greece. He wanted to punish the Athenians for helping the rebels. The Persian army, which greatly outnumbered the Greeks landed at __________________, north of Athens, in 490 B.C. The Persians were amazed at the ___________ will of the small Athenian force. They had no horses or archers, only soldiers. After a few days, the Persians decided to attack Athens by ____________. While they were loading their __________, the Athenians attacked and defeated them. The Persians Retreated. Marathon The Greeks sent their fastest ___________ Pheidippides to carry home news of the victory. He ran ____ miles from the battle site to Athens. When he arrived he said, Rejoice, we conquer, and died from exhaustion The ______________ race is named after this event. What Happened at Thermopylae? The Greek ruler Themistocles knew this was a temporary victory and encouraged the Athenians to build up their navy In 480 B.C. Darius son _____________ sent a larger force to conquer Greece; 200,000 soldiers and nearly 1,000 ships. By this time Athens had convinced ____________ to join them in battle. Twenty Greek city-states joined together to meet the Persian invaders. Sparta took charge of the _________. Persia Invades Greece The Persian army had little trouble as it moved through northern Greece. It came to a narrow mountain pass called Thermopylae, there ____________ Greeks waited for the Persians. For several days they ____________ the Persian army from moving forward, but someone led the Persians behind the Greek army, the Spartan soldier began to retreat to their ships as the Persians marched forward. Thermopylae: The Last Stand A Small Spartan force of about ________ men commanded by King Leonidas, guarded the mountain pass of Thermopylae. They held out heroically against the enormous Persian force for___________ days. They were _____________ when someone told the Persians how to get in behind the army. They were defeated, but won valuable ________ for the rest of the Greeks. Who won at Salamis? The Persians marched south after their victory at Thermopylae and ______________ the city of Athens. The Athenians had already moved to _____________, a small nearby island More than ___________Persian ships attacked the Athenian navy near the island. The large Persian ships could not maneuver in the water. The ______________Greek ships destroyed them. Results of the Persian Wars The _______________ sense of uniqueness was increased. ______________________ emerged as the most powerful city-state in Greece. Athens organized the______________ League, an alliance with other Greek city-states. Athens used the league to assert power and build an Athenian _______________. They moved the treasury to Athens, and ____________people to stay in the league against their will. Peloponnesian War: Sparta (Oligarchy) Vs. Athens (Democracy) Athens __________ couldnt fight Sparta who was not located near water. Overcrowding led to plague that _____________ 1/3 of Athens people. Sparta even allied with ___________, their old enemy, against the Delian League. Finally, in 404 B.C., with the help of the Persian navy, the Spartans captured Athens and stripped it of its _________ and empire. The Peloponnesian war ended Athenian ________________. In Athens Democratic government suffered: _________________and selfish interests replaced order. _______________ continued to disrupt the Greek world. Sparta itself suffered defeat at the hands of ________________, another Greek city-state. Greece was left vulnerable to _____________. Cultural development was __________________.