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Lord Krishna said: I shall further explain to you that supreme knowledge, the best of all knowled-ge, knowing that all the sages have attained supreme perfection after this life. hey who have taken refuge in this transcendental knowledge attain unity with !e" and are neither born at the time of creation, nor afflicted at the time of dissolution. ALL BEINGS ARE BORN FROM THE UNION OF SPIRIT AND MATTER !y material #ature is the womb of creation wherein I place the seed of $onsciousness from which all beings are born, % &r'una. (hatever forms are produced in all different wombs, % &r'una, the material #ature is their body-giving mother" and the )pirit or $onsciousness is the life-giving father. HOW THREE MODES OF MATERIAL NATURE BIND THE SPIRIT SOUL TO THE BODY *oodness, activity, and inertia + these three modes or ropes material #ature fetter the eternal in-dividual soul to the body, % &r'una. %f these, the mode of goodness is illuminating and good, because it is pure. he mode of good-ness fetters the living entity by attachment to happiness and knowledge, % sinless &r'una. &r'una, know that the mode of passion is characteri,ed by intense craving for sense gratification, and is the source of material desire and attachment. he mode of passion binds the living entity by attachment to the fruits of work. Know, % &r'una, that the mode of ignorance -the deluder of living entity. is born of inertia. he mode of ignorance binds living entity by carelessness, la,iness, and excessive sleep. % &r'una, the mode of goodness attaches one to happiness of learning and knowing the )pirit, the mode of passion attaches to action, and the mode of ignorance attaches to negligence by covering the )elfknowledge. CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE MODES OF NATURE *oodness prevails by suppressing passion and ignorance" passion prevails by suppressing good-ness and ignorance" and ignorance prevails by suppressing goodness and passion, % &r'una. (hen the light of )elf-knowledge glitters all the senses in the body, then it should be known that goodness is predominant. % &r'una, when passion is predominant" greed, activity, undertaking of selfish works, restless-ness, and excitement arise. % &r'una, when inertia is predominant" ignorance, inactivity, carelessness, and delusion arise. THREE MODES ARE ALSO THE VEHICLES OF TRANSMIGRATION FOR THE INDIVIDUAL SOUL %ne who dies during the dominance of goodness goes to heaven -the pure world of knowers of the )upreme..

(hen one dies during the dominance of passion, one is reborn as attached to action /or the utilita-rian type0" and dying in ignorance, one is reborn as lower creatures. he fruit of good action is said to be beneficial and pure, the fruit of passionate action is pain, and the fruit of ignorant action is la,iness. )elf-knowledge arises from mode of goodness" greed arises from mode of passion" and negli-gence, delusion, and slowness of mind arise from the mode of ignorance. hey who are established in goodness go to heaven" passionate persons are reborn in the mortal world" and the insipid ones, abiding in the mode of ignorance, go to lower planets of hell, or take birth as lower creatures depending on the degree of their ignorance. ATTAIN NIRVANA AFTER TRANSCENDING THREE MODES OF MATERIAL NATURE (hen visionaries perceive no doer other than the powers of the )upreme 1eing -the modes of material #ature." and know hat which is above and beyond these modes" then they attain #irva-na or salvation. (hen one rises above the three modes of material #ature that originate in the body, one attains immortality or salvation, and is freed from the pains of birth, old age, and death. THE PROCESS OF RISING ABOVE THE THREE MODES &r'una said: (hat are the marks of those who have transcended the three modes of material #atu-re, and what is their conduct2 3ow does one transcend these three modes of material #ature, % Lord Krishna2 Lord Krishna said: %ne who neither hates the presence of enlightenment, activity, and delusion" nor desires for them when they are absent" who remains like a witness without being affected by the modes of material #ature" and stays firmly attached to the Lord without wavering -thinking that the modes of material #ature only are operating.. he one who depends on the Lord and is indifferent to pain and pleasure" to whom a clod, a sto-ne, and gold are alike" to whom the dear and the unfriendly are alike" who is of firm mind, who is calm in censure and in praise, and the one who is indifferent to honor and disgrace, who is impar-tial to friend and foe, and who has renounced the sense of doership is said to have transcended the modes of material #ature. BONDS OF THREE MODES CAN BE CUT BY DEVOTIONAL LOVE he one who offers service to !e with love and unswerving devotion transcends three modes of material #ature, and becomes fit for #irvana, or salvation. 1ecause, I am the basis /or source0 of the immortal )pirit, of everlasting cosmic order /4harma0, and of the absolute bliss.



Lord Krishna said: he universe /or human body0 may be compared to an eternal tree that has its origin /or root0 in the )upreme 1eing and its branches below in the cosmos. he 5edic hymns are the leaves of this tree. %ne who understands this tree is a knower of the 5edas. he branches of this eternal tree are spread all over the cosmos. he tree is nourished by the ener-gy of material #ature" sense pleasures are its sprouts" and its roots of ego and desires stretch be-low in the human world causing Karmic bondage. HOW TO CUT THE TREE OF ATTACHMENT AND ATTAIN SALVATION BY TAKING REFUGE IN GOD he beginning, the end, or the real form of this tree is not perceptible on the earth. 3aving cut the firm roots -the desires. of this tree by the mighty ax of )elf-knowledge and detachment, one should seek that )upreme &bode reaching where one does not come back to the mortal world again. %ne should be always thinking: 6In that very primal person I take refuge from which this primal manifestation comes forth.6 hose who are free from pride and delusion, who have con7uered the evil of attachment, who are constantly dwelling in the )upreme 1eing with all lust completely stilled, who are free from dua-lities of pleasure and pain" such wise ones reach !y )upreme &bode. he sun does not illumine !y )upreme &bode, nor the moon, nor the fire. 3aving reached there people attain permanent liberation /!ukti0, and do not come back to this temporal world.

THE EMBODIED SOUL IS THE ENJOYER he individual soul /8iva, 8ivatma0 in the body of living beings is the integral part of the universal )pirit, or consciousness. he individual soul associates with the six sensory faculties -including the mind. of perception and activates them. 8ust as the air takes aroma away from the flower" similarly, the individual soul takes the six sen-sory faculties from the physical body it casts off during death to the new physical body it ac7uires in reincarnation. he living entity en'oys sense pleasures using six sensory faculties of hearing, touch, sight, taste, smell, and mind. he ignorant cannot perceive living entity departing from the body, or staying in the body and en'oying sense pleasures by associating with the material body. 1ut those who have the eye of )elfknowledge can see it. he yogis, striving for perfection, behold the living entity abiding in their inner psyche as consci-ousness" but the ignorant whose inner psyche is not pure, cannot perceive 3im even though stri-ving. SPIRIT IS THE ESSENCE OF EVERYTHING he light energy that coming from the sun illumines the whole world" and that in the moon, and in the fire" know that light to be !ine. 9ntering the earth, I support all beings with !y energy" becoming the sap-giving moon, I nourish all the plants.

1ecoming the digestive fire, I remain in the body of all living beings" uniting with vital breaths or bioimpulses, I digest all types of food" and I am seated in the inner psyche of all beings. he me-mory, )elfknowledge, and the removal of doubts and wrong notions about *od come from !e. I am verily that which is to be known by the study of all the 5edas. I am, indeed, the author as well as the student of the 5edas. WHAT ARE THE SUPREME SPIRIT, SPIRIT AND THE INDIVIDUAL SOUL? here are two entities in the cosmos: he changeable emporal 1eings, and the unchangeable 9ternal 1eing /)pirit0. &ll created beings are sub'ect to change, but the )pirit does not change. he )upreme 1eing is beyond both the emporal 1eings and the 9ternal 1eing. 3e is also called the &bsolute :eality that sustains both the emporal and the 9ternal by pervading everything. 1ecause the )upreme 1eing is beyond both emporal and 9ternal" therefore, 3e is known in this world and in the scriptures as the )upreme 1eing /&bsolute :eality, ruth, )upersoul0. he wise one who truly understands the )upreme 1eing, knows everything and worships 3im wholeheartedly. hus this most secret transcendental science of the &bsolute has been explained by !e. 3aving understood this, one becomes enlightened, and one.s all duties are accomplished, % &r'una.