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Objectives

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Requirements Engineering
Lecture 4 Product vision and project scope
Zheying Zhang Department of Computer Sciences University of Tampere

Understand the importance of good project scope management Explain the project scope management process and techniques used at each stage Prepare for project scope and vision document

Basic concepts
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Product vision
Captures the essence of the product Serves as the basis for discussion and agreement among the primary internal stakeholder communities
The marketing and product management team proxy for customers and users The project team product development The management team business outcome of the endeavor

Scope
Work content of a project Activities

Product vision (users/customers)


describes what the product is about and what it eventually could become the features and functions that are to be included in a product or service

Project scope (project managers)


identifies what portion of the ultimate long-term product vision the current project will address

Project scope management


The processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully
-- PMBOK Guide
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Project scope
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Vision vs. scope


Vision
Applies to the whole product development program changes relatively slowly

Project scope is a function of


Functionality of the product to be specified Resources available to the project Time to deliver the product

Scope
Pertains to a specific project Be more dynamic than vision Project managers adjust the contents of each release Can appear in project requirements document

System functionality (specification):

Time Resources (labor, skills)


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Business requirements baseline


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Requirements vs. scope


Scope defines and communicates clear boundaries as to what will be implemented Requirements assure understanding of what is required to meet the business needs
Business requirements are captured in the document describing the projects scope and vision

Business requirements
Determine the business tasks and the application enables Influence the implementation priorities for business tasks and their associated functional requirements Influence the way requirements are implemented

Business requirements collected from multiple sources might conflict. Project sponsor is responsible to solve the conflicts Baseline is the itemized set of features intended to be delivered in a specific version of the application
acceptable to the customer reasonable probability of success
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Requirements vs. scope = Requirements specification vs. business requirements

Importance of the PSM


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Project Scope Management Processes


Initiate Scope Planning Scope Definition Scope Verification Scope Change Control

The project team and stakeholders must have the same understanding of what products will be produces as a result of a project and what processes will be used in producing them Without an agreed upon and documented vision, there is little ho pe of achieving success
Management or marketing: view possibly come from customer Architects and designers: possibly with no customer contacts (mull over or modify the vision for what is feasible) Developers: take off with their own vision Customers: may have a whole new expectation

A major reason for project failure is the failure to spend the time at the beginning of the project on clearly defining the project scope and define the project requirements before beginning product development
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Project Scope Management Processes


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Scope Initiation
New project or commitment to next phase of existing project Inputs:
Product vision / business need Strategic plan / goals Project selection criteria and methods Expert judgment, historical information

Initiation: beginning a project or continuing to the next phase commitment to next phase Scope planning: developing documents to provide the basis for future project decisions written scope and vision statement Scope definition: subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components - WBS Scope verification: formalizing acceptance of the project scope formal acceptance Scope change control: controlling changes to project scope
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Scope Initiation Business need


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Scope Initiation - Strategic planning


A process that creates a common vision of an organizations future and a shared understanding of expectations and objectives Strategic planning involves determining long -term business goals and objectives
Goals and objectives flow down from needs A goal is a broad, fundamental aim that the organization expects to accomplish to fulfill its need
e.g. to stay competitive

Why are we doing this? Describes the needs of typical customers or of the target market segment Need typically initiates a project
e.g. a market demand, a business need, a customer request, a technological advance, or a legal requirement
We need a company web page We have to increase exposure to customers We have to improve internal company communications

Objectives expand on how you will meet the goals


Summarize the important business benefits the product will provi de in a quantitative and measurable way e.g. to increase product sale by 10% per year

The need statement should not change much over time


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Business risks
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Scope Initiation Project selection


Many organizations follow a planning process for selecting projects
Develop an strategic plan based on the organizations overall strategic plan (SWOT Analysis) Perform a business area analysis Define potential projects Select projects and assign resources

Summarize the major business risks associated with developing or not development of the system
Marketplace competition Timing issues User acceptance Implementation issues Possible negative impacts on the business

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Methods for Selecting Projects


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Weighted Scoring Model


A weighted scoring model is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteria
Identify criteria important to the project selection process Assign weights (percentages) to each criterion so they add up to 100% Assign scores to each criterion for each project Multiply the scores by the weights and get the total weighted scores

There are usually more projects than available time and resources to implement them Methods include
focusing on broad organizational needs categorizing projects financial analysis weighted scoring model Balanced scorecard

High Cost /Risk

Low Cost /Risk

The higher the weighted score, the better

Low Benefit

High Benefit

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Sample Weighted Scoring Model for Project Selection


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Scope Initiation Output


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Project charter
After deciding what project to work on, it is important to formalize projects A project charter is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the projects objectives and management Key project stakeholders should sign a project charter to acknowledge agreement on the need and intent of the project

Project Manager selected Constraints


factors that will limit the teams options e.g., fixed budget e.g., contractual provisions

Assumptions
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Project charter
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Sample Project Charter


Project Title: Online book selling system ( OBSS) Project Project Start Date: March 4, 2002 Projected Finish Date: July 4, 2002 Project Manager: Kim Nguyen, 691-2784, knguyen@abc.com Project Objectives: Develop the OBSS for Corner Bookstore within 4 months. By implementing the system, the storewill be able to advertise and sell their books online. Customers can order through OBSS and later pay online and track shipments. Approach: Update the IT inventory database to determine upgrade needs Develop detailed cost estimate for project and report to CIO Issue a request for quotes to obtain hardware and software Use internal staff as much as possible to do the planning, analysis, and installation

Formalizes existence of project Provides direction on objectives Signoff by key project stakeholders

Charter Components:
Title, date Project manager Project objective Summary of approach Roles and responsibilities matrix Sign-off Comments (assumptions, constraints)

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Sample Project Charter (Cont.)


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Name Walter Schmidt, CEO Mike Zwack Kim Nguyen Jeff Johnson Nancy Reynolds Role Project Sponsor CIO Project Manager Director of IT Operations VP, Human Resources Responsibility Monitor project Monitor project, provide staff Plan and execute project Mentor Kim Provide staff, issue memo to all employees about project Assist in purchasing hardware and software

Scope planning
Scope planning
The process of developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions The scope statement forms the basis for an agreement between the project team and the project customer by identifying both th e project objectives and the major project deliverables

Steve McCann

Director of Purchasing

Inputs (outputs of initiation)


description and charter constraints and assumptions product description and analysis cost/benefit analysis

Sign-off: (Signatures of all above stakeholders) Comments: (Handwritten comments from above stakeholders, if applicable) This project must be done within ten months at the absolute latest. Mike Zwack, CIO We are assuming that adequate staff will be available and committed to supporting this project. Some work must be done after hours to avoid work disruptions, and overtime will be provided. Jeff Johnson and Kim Nguyen, Information Technology Department

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Scope planning output - the scope statement


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Template for vision and scope document by Wiegers


Business requirements
Background Business opportunity Business Objectives and success criteria Customer or market needs Business risks

A scope statement is a document used to develop and confirm a common understanding of the project scope. It should include
a project justification a brief description of the projects products a summary of all project deliverables a statement of what determines project success

Vision of the solution


Vision statement Major features Assumptions and Dependencies

Scope and limitations


Scope of initial release Scope of subsequent releases Limitations and exclusions

Common understanding of project

Business context
Stakeholder profiles Project priorities Operating environment
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OBSS Business objective


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OBSS - Vision statement


The Online Book Selling System (OBSS) is targeted for book readers who wish to order books from the Corner Bookstore on-line. The systemis an Internet-based application that will accept orders from customers, process payments and trigger delivery of the orders to a designated location anywhere in the world. Unlike the current state, where customers buy onsite or orders via telephone, the OBSS improves the ordering process and enables more customers.
Following the format defined in Moore GeoffreyA. 1991. Crossing the chasm: Marketing and selling technology products to mainstream customers . New York: HarperCollins.
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Example: Online Book Selling System (OBSS) Business opportunities: growing demand of online shopping business BO-1: increase book sale by 20% per year BO-2: Reduce order handling time by 20% within 3 months following initial release in comparison with earlier order handling per day

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OBSS - Major features


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OBSS - Scope of initial and subsequent releases


Risk Medium

Feature FE-1: View book catalog FE-2: Order books FE-3: Track and manage pervious orders and update account information FE-4: Register for b o o k payment options FE-5: Request book delivery FE-6: Book management FE-7: Customer management FE-8: Discuss contents of books in a forum and give ratings on comic books

Priority Critical Important Useful

Effort Mdium Low Medium

Feature Release 1 FE-1 FE-2 FE-3 FE-4 FE-5 FE-6 FE-7 FE -8 Fully implemented Sends order requests via email to store Customers see 3 latest orders Cash on delivery Books will be delivered onsite Create, view, modify, and delete book items Register for an account Not implemented

Release 2

Fully implemented Fully implemented Fully implemented Add delivery from bookstore to selected offsite locations Fully implemented Fully implemented Fully implemented
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Important Useful importnat Important Important

Low Low High High Medium

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OBSS - Stakeholder identification


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OBSS - Stakeholder profiles


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Different points of view from different stakeholders Identifying stakeholders often simply involves interviewing decision makers, potential users, and other interested parties
Who are the users of the system? book shoppers who is the customer (economic buyer) for the system? bookstore (managers) Who else will be affected by the outputs the system produces? store staff, book shoppers Who will evaluate and approve the system when it is delivered and deployed? product managers, store managers, sponsors Are there any other internal or external users? publishers, product developers Who will maintain the new system? store technical staff Is there anyone else who cares? store corperators What are the existing systems that will interact with the system? Red Hat Linux and Apache HTTP Server
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Stakeholder

Major value

Attitudes

Major interests

Constrains

Book increased sales; receptive but Minimal new store marketing exposure cautious technology needed; managers to generatenew concern about customers resources and costs of delivering books Bookstore more efficient use of receptive job preservation staff staff time throughout the day; higher customer satisfaction Book shopper Easing book search, Strong reviewing, and enthusiasm purchase

Might not have staff and capacity to handle order levels

training for staff in Internet usage needed; delivery staff and vehicles needed

Simplicity of use; none identified reliability of delivery; availability of book information

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Scope definition
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The Work Breakdown Structure


An outcome-oriented analysis of the work involved in a project Appropriate detail and appropriate levels of breakdown of tasks Graphic portrayal of project scope Basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, and changes

Decomposition of project into more manageable components


sufficiently detailed for tasks, estimation

A good scope definition


Helps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimates Defines a baseline for performance measurement and project control Aids in communicating clear work responsibilities

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Sample Intranet WBS organized by product


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Sample Intranet WBS organized by phase

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Intranet WBS in tabular form


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Intranet WBS and Gantt Chart

1.0 Concept 1.1 Evaluate current systems 1.2 Define Requirements 1.2.1 Define user requirements 1.2.2 Define content requirements 1.2.3 Define system requirements 1.2.4 Define server owner requirements 1.3 Define specific functionality 1.4 Define risks and risk management approach 1.5 Develop project plan 1.6 Brief web development team 2.0 Web Site Design 3.0 Web Site Development 4.0 Roll Out 5.0 Support
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Approaches to developing WBSs


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Basic principles for creating WBSs


1. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS. 2. The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it. 3. A WBS item is the responsibility of only one individual, even though many people may be working on it. 4. The WBS must be consistent with the way in which work is actually going to be performed; it should serve the project team first and other purposes only if practical. 5. Project team members should be involved in developing the WBS to ensure consistency. 6. Each WBS item must be documented to ensure accurate understanding of the scope of work included and not included in that item. 7. The WBS must be a flexible tool to accommodate inevitable changes while properly maintaining control of the work content in the project according to the scope statement.
Cleland, David I. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation, 1994
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Use formal templates if available The analogy approach: It often helps to review WBSs of similar projects The top-down approach:
Start with the largest items of the project and keep breaking them down iteratively add levels of detail

The bottoms-up approach:


Start with the detailed tasks and roll them up team members identify detailed tasks

Combination
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Scope verification
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Scope change
Scope Change Control is concerned with:
Factors that create scope changes to ensure that changes are agreed upon Determining that scope change has occurred Managing changes when they occur

Formal acceptance by stakeholders Inputs:


A complete project charter including the vision and scope statement

Inspection/reviewing Outputs:
documented level of completion documented acceptance

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Engaging customers to manage their project scope


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Group work assignment step 1


Prepare for a scope and vision statement for your project Build a WBS for your project down to level 3

Communicating the result


Ensure that the customer is a direct participant when the project scope must be revised

Negotiating with the customer


The guiding principle for scope management should be underpromise and overdeliver

Managing the baseline Official/Unofficial changes

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