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Suspension systems in an automobile are used to absorb any type of shocks or vibrations caused by a bumpy road.

A bump in the road causes the wheel to move up and down perpendicular to the road surface. Due to this forward energy of car gets converted into vertical energy, which travels through the frame of car. The magnitude of conversion, of course, depends on whether the wheel is striking a giant bump or a tiny speck. If there is not any suspension system then all of wheel's vertical energy is transferred to the frame, which moves in the same direction. In such a situation, the wheels can lose contact with the road completely. Then, under the downward force of gravity, the wheels can slam back into the road surface. Therefore it is important to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the road or ground forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. It is done by maximizing the friction between the tires and road. For this purpose a suspension system is designed in such a way that it can absorb and dissipate kinetic energy from the point of contact and thus do not allow the tires to move in upward direction. Suspension systems also provide steering stability with good handling and to ensure the comfort of the passengers.

Suspension system consists of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. These components add weight to the total weight of the vehicle. Though there are also several components in an automobile which have major role in increasing the weight. But we cant replace them because replacement of those components is either very expensive or it can have adverse effect on the performance of engine. For example, we can build body of the car using carbon composites to reduce vehicle weight. But high production cost of carbon composites has prevented the use of them in automobiles. Carbon composites provide reduced weight and

improved crash energy absorption. We can also use high strength steels, aluminum, magnesium, and titanium for the same purpose. When vehicle bodies, front and rear suspension system are built from lighter weight components, these items can make important contribution to improve fuel economy and reduced CO2 emissions. Therefore today's emphasis on automobile mass reduction has significant implications for vehicle ride and suspension design. Unsprung weight includes the mass of the tires, brakes, suspension linkages and other components that move in unison with the wheels. These components are on the roadway side of the springs and therefore react to roadway irregularities with no damping, other than the pneumatic resilience of the tires. Unsprung weight represents a significant portion of the total weight of the vehicle. In today's standard-size automobile, the weight of unsprung components is normally in the range of 13 to 15 percent of the vehicle curb weight. In the case of a 3,500 pound vehicle, unsprung weight may be as high as 500 pounds. A 500 pound mass reacting directly to roadway irregularities at highway speeds can generate significant vertical acceleration forces. These forces degrade the ride, and they also have a detrimental effect on handling. We can go for an alternate way to reduce the weight of car by removing suspension system from the body of car and integrate it between the rim & hub of the wheel using light weight materials. The purpose of the system will be to absorb vertical energy & make the tires in contact with road as long as possible. It will definitely require a material which have both strength as well as stiffenss.