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Subscriptions Subscribe today Table Of Contents Your subscription Gift cards 1.1 Telecommunications Network Architecture 1.2 Services, Circuit Switching, and Packet Switching Advertise with us Services Landscape 1.2.1 The Changing 1.3 Optical Networks Get started 1.3.1 Multiplexing Techniques AdChoices 1.3.2 Second-Generation Optical Networks 1.4 The Optical Layer Support 1.5 Transparency and All-Optical Networks 1.6 Optical Help Packet Switching 1.7 Transmission Basics FAQ 1.7.1 Wavelengths, Frequencies, and Channel Spacing Press 1.7.2 Wavelength Standards Purchase Help 1.7.3 Optical Power and Loss Partners 1.8 Network Evolution 1.8.1 Early DaysMultimode Fiber Publishers Fiber 1.8.2 Single-Mode Developers / API 1.8.3 Optical Ampli ers and WDM 1.8.4 Beyond Transmission Links to Networks Legal Summary Further Reading Terms References Privacy Technology Copyright 2.1 Loss and Bandwidth Windows 2.1.1 Bending Loss Get Scribd Mobile 2.2 Intermodal Dispersion 2.2.1 Geometrical Optics Approach 2.2.2 Bit RateDistance Limitation 2.2.3 Controlling Intermodal Dispersion: Graded-Index Multimode Fiber 2.2.4 Multimode Fiber in Practice 2.3 Optical Fiber as a Waveguide 2.3.1 Wave Theory Mobile Site Approach 2.3.2 Fiber Modes Copyright 2014Modes Scribd and Inc.Polarization-Mode Dispersion 2.3.3 Polarization Language: 2.3.4 Other Waveguides English 2.4 Chromatic Dispersion 2.4.1 Chirped Gaussian Pulses 2.4.2 Controlling the Dispersion: Dispersion-Shifted Fibers 2.5 Nonlinear Effects 2.5.1 Effective Length and Area 2.5.2 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

2.5.3 Stimulated Raman Scattering 2.5.4 Propagation in a Nonlinear Medium 2.5.5 Self-Phase Modulation 2.5.6 SPM-Induced Chirp for Gaussian Pulses 2.5.7 Cross-Phase Modulation 2.5.8 Four-Wave Mixing 2.5.9 Fiber Types to Mitigate Nonlinear Effects 2.6 Solitons 2.6.1 Dispersion-Managed Solitons 2.7 Other Fiber Technologies 2.7.1 Photonic Crystal Fiber 2.7.2 Plastic Optical Fiber Problems Components 3.1 Couplers 3.1.1 Principle of Operation 3.1.2 Conservation of Energy 3.2 Isolators and Circulators 3.2.1 Principle of Operation 3.3 Multiplexers and Filters 3.3.1 Gratings 3.3.2 Diffraction Pattern 3.3.3 Bragg Gratings 3.3.4 Fiber Gratings 3.3.5 Fabry-Perot Filters 3.3.6 Multilayer Dielectric Thin-Film Filters 3.3.7 Mach-Zehnder Interferometers 3.3.8 Arrayed Waveguide Grating 3.3.9 Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter 3.3.10 High Channel Count Multiplexer Architectures 3.4 Optical Ampliers 3.4.1 Stimulated Emission 3.4.2 Spontaneous Emission 3.4.3 Erbium-Doped Fiber Ampliers 3.4.4 Raman Ampliers 3.4.5 Semiconductor Optical Ampliers 3.4.6 Crosstalk in SOAs 3.5 Transmitters 3.5.1 Lasers 3.5.2 Light-Emitting Diodes 3.5.3 Tunable Lasers 3.5.4 Direct and External Modulation 3.5.5 Pump Sources for Raman Ampliers 3.6 Detectors 3.6.1 Photodetectors

3.6.2 Front-End Ampliers 3.7 Switches 3.7.1 Large Optical Switches 3.7.2 Optical Switch Technologies 3.7.3 Large Electronic Switches 3.8 Wavelength Converters 3.8.1 Optoelectronic Approach 3.8.2 Optical Gating 3.8.3 Interferometric Techniques 3.8.4 Wave Mixing Demodulation 4.1 Modulation 4.1.1 Signal Formats 4.2 Subcarrier Modulation and Multiplexing 4.2.1 Clipping and Intermodulation Products 4.2.2 Applications of SCM 4.3 Spectral Efciency 4.3.1 Optical Duobinary Modulation 4.3.2 Optical Single Sideband Modulation 4.3.3 Multilevel Modulation 4.3.4 Capacity Limits of Optical Fiber 4.4 Demodulation 4.4.1 An Ideal Receiver 4.4.2 A Practical Direct Detection Receiver 4.4.3 Front-End Amplier Noise 4.4.4 APD Noise 4.4.5 Optical Preampliers 4.4.6 Bit Error Rates 4.4.7 Coherent Detection 4.4.8 Timing Recovery 4.4.9 Equalization 4.5 Error Detection and Correction 4.5.1 Reed-Solomon Codes 4.5.2 Interleaving 5.1 System Model 5.2 Power Penalty 5.3 Transmitter 5.4 Receiver 5.5 Optical Ampliers 5.5.1 Gain Saturation in EDFAs 5.5.2 Gain Equalization in EDFAs 5.5.3 Amplier Cascades 5.5.4 Amplier Spacing Penalty 5.5.5 Power Transients and Automatic Gain Control 5.5.6 Lasing Loops

5.6 Crosstalk 5.6.1 Intrachannel Crosstalk 5.6.2 Interchannel Crosstalk 5.6.3 Crosstalk in Networks 5.6.4 Bidirectional Systems 5.6.5 Crosstalk Reduction 5.6.6 Cascaded Filters 5.7 Dispersion 5.7.1 Chromatic Dispersion Limits: NRZ Modulation 5.7.2 Chromatic Dispersion Limits: RZ Modulation 5.7.3 Dispersion Compensation 5.7.4 Polarization-Mode Dispersion (PMD) 5.8 Fiber Nonlinearities 5.8.1 Effective Length in Amplied Systems 5.8.2 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering 5.8.3 Stimulated Raman Scattering 5.8.4 Four-Wave Mixing 5.8.5 Self-/Cross-Phase Modulation 5.8.6 Role of Chromatic Dispersion Management 5.9 Wavelength Stabilization 5.10 Design of Soliton Systems 5.11 Design of Dispersion-Managed Soliton Systems 5.12 Overall Design Considerations 5.12.1 Fiber Type 5.12.2 Transmit Power and Amplier Spacing 5.12.3 Chromatic Dispersion Compensation 5.12.4 Modulation 5.12.5 Nonlinearities 5.12.6 Interchannel Spacing and Number of Wavelengths 5.12.7 All-Optical Networks 5.12.8 Wavelength Planning 5.12.9 Transparency 6.1 SONET/SDH 6.1.1 Multiplexing 6.1.2 VCAT and LCAS 6.1.3 SONET/SDH Layers 6.1.4 SONET Frame Structure 6.1.5 SONET/SDH Physical Layer 6.1.6 Elements of a SONET/SDH Infrastructure 6.2 Optical Transport Network 6.2.1 Hierarchy 6.2.2 Frame Structure 6.2.3 Multiplexing 6.3 Generic Framing Procedure 6.4 Ethernet

6.4.1 Frame Structure 6.4.2 Switches 6.4.3 Ethernet Physical Layer Gigabit Ethernet Physical Layer 6.4.4 Carrier Transport 6.5 IP 6.5.1 Routing and Forwarding 6.5.2 Quality of Service 6.6 Multiprotocol Label Switching 6.6.1 Labels and Forwarding 6.6.2 Quality of Service 6.6.3 Signaling and Routing 6.6.4 Carrier Transport 6.7 Resilient Packet Ring 6.7.1 Quality of Service 6.7.2 Node Structure 6.7.3 Fairness 6.8 Storage-Area Networks 6.8.1 Fibre Channel WDM Network Elements 7.1 Optical Line Terminals 7.2 Optical Line Ampliers 7.3 Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers 7.3.1 OADM Architectures 7.3.2 Recongurable OADMs 7.4 Optical Crossconnects 7.4.1 All-Optical OXC Congurations Control and Management 8.1 Network Management Functions 8.1.1 Management Framework 8.1.2 Information Model 8.1.3 Management Protocols 8.2 Optical Layer Services and Interfacing 8.3 Layers within the Optical Layer 8.4 Multivendor Interoperability 8.5 Performance and Fault Management 8.5.1 The Impact of Transparency 8.5.2 BER Measurement 8.5.3 Optical Trace 8.5.4 Alarm Management 8.5.5 Data Communication Network (DCN) and Signaling 8.5.6 Policing 8.5.7 Optical Layer Overhead 8.5.8 Client Layers 8.6 Conguration Management

8.6.1 Equipment Management 8.6.2 Connection Management 8.6.3 Adaptation Management 8.7 Optical Safety 8.7.1 Open Fiber Control Protocol Network Survivability 9.1 Basic Concepts 9.2 Protection in SONET/SDH 9.2.1 Point-to-Point Links 9.2.2 Self-Healing Rings 9.2.3 Unidirectional Path-Switched Rings 9.2.4 Bidirectional Line-Switched Rings 9.2.5 Ring Interconnection and Dual Homing 9.3 Protection in the Client Layer 9.3.1 Protection in Resilient Packet Rings 9.3.2 Protection in Ethernet 9.3.3 Protection in IP 9.3.4 Protection in MPLS 9.4 Why Optical Layer Protection 9.4.1 Service Classes Based on Protection 9.5 Optical Layer Protection Schemes 9.5.1 1 + 1 OMS Protection 9.5.2 1:1 OMS Protection 9.5.3 OMS-DPRing 9.5.4 OMS-SPRing 9.5.5 1:N Transponder Protection 9.5.6 1 + 1 OCh Dedicated Protection 9.5.7 OCh-SPRing 9.5.8 OCh-Mesh Protection 9.5.9 GMPLS Protection 9.6 Interworking between Layers WDM Network Design 10.1 Cost Trade-Offs: A Detailed Ring Network Example 10.2 LTD and RWA Problems 10.2.1 Lightpath Topology Design 10.2.2 Routing and Wavelength Assignment 10.2.3 Wavelength Conversion 10.3 Dimensioning Wavelength-Routing Networks 10.4 Statistical Dimensioning Models 10.4.1 First-Passage Model 10.4.2 Blocking Model 10.5 Maximum Load Dimensioning Models 10.5.1 Ofine Lightpath Requests 10.5.2 Online RWA in Rings Access Networks

11.1 Network Architecture Overview 11.2 Enhanced HFC 11.3 Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) 11.3.1 PON Evolution 12.1 Optical Time Division Multiplexing 12.1.1 Bit Interleaving 12.1.2 Packet Interleaving 12.1.3 Optical AND Gates 12.2 Synchronization 12.2.1 Tunable Delays 12.2.2 Optical Phase Lock Loop 12.3 Header Processing 12.4 Buffering 12.4.1 Output Buffering 12.4.2 Input Buffering 12.4.3 Recirculation Buffering 12.4.4 Using Wavelengths for Contention Resolution 12.4.5 Deection Routing 12.5 Burst Switching 12.6 Testbeds 12.6.1 KEOPS 12.6.2 NTTs Optical Packet Switches 12.6.3 BT Labs Testbeds 12.6.4 Princeton University Testbed 12.6.5 AON 12.6.6 CORD 13.1 The Evolving Telecommunications Network 13.1.1 The SONET/SDH Core Network 13.1.2 Architectural Choices for Next-Generation Transport Networks 13.2 Designing the Transmission Layer 13.2.1 Using SDM 13.2.2 Using TDM 13.2.3 Using WDM 13.2.4 Unidirectional versus Bidirectional WDM Systems 13.2.5 Long-Haul Networks 13.2.6 Long-Haul Network Case Study 13.2.7 Long-Haul Undersea Networks 13.2.8 Metro Networks 13.2.9 Metro Ring Case Study 13.2.10 From Opaque Links to Agile All-Optical Networks Acronyms Symbols and Parameters Standards C.1 International Telecommunications Union (ITU-T) C.1.1 Fiber

C.1.2 SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) C.1.3 Optical Networking C.1.4 Management C.2 Telcordia C.2.1 Physical and Environmental C.2.2 SONET C.2.3 Optical Networking C.3 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C.3.1 SONET C.3.2 Fibre Channel Wave Equations E.1 Propagation of Chirped Gaussian Pulses E.2 Nonlinear Effects on Pulse Propagation E.3 Soliton Pulse Propagation Nonlinear Polarization G.1 Wave Propagation at Dielectric Interfaces G.2 Filter Design H.1 Random Variables H.1.1 Gaussian Distribution H.1.2 Maxwell Distribution H.1.3 Poisson Distribution H.2 Random Processes H.2.1 Poisson Random Process H.2.2 Gaussian Random Process Receiver Noise Statistics I.1 Shot Noise I.2 Amplier Noise J.1 Functions of ATM J.1.1 Connections and Cell Forwarding J.1.2 Virtual Paths J.2 Adaptation Layers J.2.1 AAL-1 J.2.2 AAL-5 J.3 Quality of Service J.4 Flow Control J.5 Signaling and Routing 0 of . Results for: No results containing your search query