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Q. Explain sovereignty in Islam. (1997) 1. Introduction The concept of sovereignty in Islam is entirely different from western concept of sovereignty. Sovereignty as a western expression does not stand equivalent to the Islamic attributes of Allah almighty. It is derived from Quran and Sunnah. 2. Meaning of sovereignty The word sovereignty has been derived from the Latin word Superanus! which means the supremacy of one over the other. "I# $eneral meaning

Sovereignty may be defined in a general meaning as under. The supreme power of authority of an individual or a group of individuals which is unquestioningly obeyed the bul% of people in the state.! . Islamic concept of sovereignty The basic tenet of Islam is the sovereignty of Allah. Islam teaches that sovereignty or supreme power belongs to Allah and Allah alone. Quran says& To Allah belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth.! "'(& ')# It is *e who gives life and death and he has power over all things.! "'(& ')# *e is the first and the last the +vident and the Immanent! "',& -# !. "ttri#utes of "lla$%s sovereignty The sovereignty of Allah has the following attributes. "I# Absolute

Allah is almighty. *e is supreme over all things. *e is and /ali%.un.0as. Quran says& Say1 Allah is the creator of all things and *e is one1 the Almighty.! "Ar.2ad& 34# "II# Indivisible

Sovereignty of Allah is indivisible. It cannot be divided. There is not $od +xcept *im. Quran says&

5our $od is one $od1 there is no $od save *im1 the beneficient1 the /erciful.! "Al.6aqrah& 34-# "III# Inalienable

Allah7s sovereignty is inalienable it cannot be given away to anyone nor it is shared with anyone else. "I8# 9nlimited

The powers of Allah are supreme and unlimited. Quran says& The whole command is with Allah in all things.! "Ar.2ed& -3# "8# 9niversal

Allah7s sovereignty is universal. It extends to every particle in the heavens and on the earth. Quran says& Lo: In the creation of the heavens and the earth and "in# the difference of night and day are to%ens ";f his sovereignty# for men of understanding.! "Al.Imran& 3<=# "8I# >omprehensive

The sovereignty of Allah is comprehensive. There is no exception to his power. "8II# +ternal

Allah7s sovereignty is eternal1 form the beginning of the time to the and end of time. It is permanent and everlasting. "8III# ;riginal

Allah7s sovereignty is not derived from any being or authority superior to *im. *e is himself sovereign. Quran says& Allah7s creator of all things and *e is guardian over all things.! "A?.@umar& 4(# &. "ttri#utive names of "lla$%s sovereignty Allah7s sovereignty is also reflected from his Attributive names or Asmaa.ul.Sifaat. Some of them are as follows. "i# "ii# "iii# Al.Aahab Al.Bhaliq Al.Ahad The $ranter The >ertain ;nly ;ne

"iv# "v# "vi# "vii#

*ai Al.Cabbar Al.Qadir Al.Qadiam

+ternally Alive The rec%oner The ;mnipotent The +ternal

'. (icegerency of men Allah Almighty is the Lord of the heavens and of the earth. *e delegates authority for the administration of peace and Dustice as a trust to such men as *e wills. Those who exercise authority form a state1 but their authority is a trust1 to be exercised so long as they dispense Dustice1 and within the limitation prescribed by Allah Almighty. Quran says& Lo: The earth is Allah7s he gives it for an inheritance to whom *e will. And lo: The sequel is for those who %eep their duty "unto *im#.! !And when the lord said unto the angels Lo: I am about to place %halifa "8icegerent# in the earth.! "(& -=# 7. )oncept of sovereignty and amir in *a+istan The principle of sovereignty is recogni?ed and embodied in the preamble of the 3<,constitution of Ea%istan. Ahereas sovereignty over the entire universe belongs Almighty Allah1 and the authority to be exercised by the people of Ea%istan within the limits prescribed by *im as a sacred trust.! The amir may be one or group of men1 such as legislature. 6ut they exercise authority only in a limited sense1 that is within the limits imposed by Allah and *is sovereignty. The conctitution of Ea%istan1 3<,- declares. And where it is the will of people of Ea%istan t establish an order1 wherein the state shall exercise its power and authority through the chosen representatives of the people.! It means that the supreme authority in Islam can lie with a single ruler or with a legislature. ,. )oncept of sovereignty in -est The concept of sovereignty is a modern concept1 born with the modern state. It was propounded by Cean 6odin first in 3F,4. *e declare sovereignty not only the power to ma%e law1 but also to be itself above law. Gollowing writers also defines sovereignty. "i# 6lac%stone says

It is the supreme1 irresistible1 absolute1 uncontrolled authority in the state.!


Ailloughby says

If a human superior not in the habit of obedience to a li%e superior receive habitual obedience from the bul% of a given society. "I# Analysis

The western concept of sovereignty is imperfect and there are limitations on it. According to western concept the sovereign is some determinate human being with unlimited powers and the sovereignty is discussed with reference to the state. It means there can be as many sovereigns as states in the world. This whole concept is too vague as we can see that there are many limitations on state1 such as international1 human moral etc. as compared to this1 Islamic concept of sovereignty is more realistic and logical. The sovereignty of Allah is unlimited and extends to whole universe1 heavens and the earth. 9. .ifferences #et-een Islamic concept of sovereignty and -estern concept of sovereignty I. As to authority "i# In Islam sovereignty of entire universe belongs to $od. "ii# In western concept sovereignty belongs to people. II. As to %inds of sovereignty "i# "ii# In Islam there is no %ind of sovereignty. In western concept sovereignty his different %inds.

III. As to state "i# "ii# Sovereignty in Islam is not subDect to state. In western concept there must be state for sovereignty.

I8. As to scope "i# "ii# Islamic concept of sovereignty has wider scope. Aestern concept of sovereignty has less scope.

8. As to perfection "i# Islamic concept of sovereignty is perfect in all aspect. "ii# Aestern concept of sovereignty is imperfect. 8I. As to nature "i# Islamic concept is permanent nature.


Aestern concept is temporary nature.

1/. )onclusion To conclude1 I can say1 that the Islamic theory of sovereignty is radically different from the western theories of sovereignty. It is derived from the Quran and Sunnah1 which are its basic sources. Islam teaches that the sovereignty belongs to Allah alone and no human being can be the lord of other human beings.