Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17

CE6180:EIA- Lecture 11

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION METHODOLOGIES

ADHOC AND CHECK LIST METHODS

ADHOC METHOD
Involves assembling a team of specialists to identify impacts in their area of expertise Rough assessment of total impacts

The problem with the exercise of expert judgment in an adhoc manner is that it is characterized by a process of assessment that can never be replicated, thus making it difficult to review and critique the conclusions in the EIA. Environmental impact assessment usually requires the collection and analysis of considerable information about the economic, social, and biophysical environment. Methods are needed to organize this information for analysis and presentation adhoc methods fail to do this in any meaningful way.

Limitations of ADHOC method

it may not encompass all the relevant impacts; because the criteria used to evaluate impacts are not comparable, the relative weights of various impacts cannot be compared; it is inherently inefficient as it requires sizeable effort to identify and assemble an appropriate panel of experts for each assessment; and it provides minimal guidance for impact analysis while suggesting broad areas of possible impacts.

Illustration of the ad hoc method for comparing alternative reservoir arrangements

SIMPLE CHECKLIST

Environmental impacts often tend to appear in the form of chains of cause and effect. If the first link in the chain is revealed, the subsequent impacts will also be uncovered. In order to reduce the number of questions in each checklist, the questions are most often related to the first link in the chain. This will include all industrial projects involving a sizeable consumption of natural resources and/or increasing pollution. Thermal power plants are also included in this category. The project should be submitted to a more detailed assessment if it fulfils one or more of the criteria set out below, or if insufficient information is available to answer "no" with a reasonable degree of certainty. Will the project: Lead to substantial pollution of water, air, or soil? Create waste disposal problems? Affect areas which support animal and plant life worthy of protection or affect an especially vulnerable ecosystem? Affect areas with historic remains or landscape elements which are of importance to the population? Create a risk of accidents which may have serious consequences for the local population and the natural environment? Change the way of life of the local population in such a way that it leads to considerably increased pressure on the natural resource base? Lead to major conflicts with regard to existing land use and ownership of land? Obstruct, or lead to considerable changes in the local population's exploitation or use of natural resources other than those directly affected by the project

Industrial project

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

CHECKLIST METHODS

Checklist categories are: Simple checklists Descriptive checklists Suggests Prediction Techniques Weighting - Scaling checklists Forces interpretation by including thresholds of concern Questionnaire Checklist Gives rough idea of impacts

SIMPLE CHECKLISTS

Provide an assessor with a list of factors to be considered, but no information provided on: - specific data needs - methods of assessing importance of impacts - ways of measuring change to environmental factors

Used to identify impacts Can provide structure to initial part of scoping stage

OTHER CHECKLISTS

Descriptive checklists - lists of environmental parameters, including information on measurement impact identification and assessment Questionnaire checklists - series of questions relating to the impact of a project, particularly useful for less experienced practitioners Weighting Scaling checklists most complex type of checklist method grades unquantifiable and intangible impacts on to a common scale

CHECKLISTS

Simple checklist

DESCRIPTIVE CHECKLISTS
Descriptive checklists are excellent for describing comprehensive lists of impacts,
however, they are not able to rank alternatives.

Lists of environmental parameters, including information on measurement impact identification and assessment

Expropriation of land which negatively affects aquatic habitat for biota, aquaculture, fishing, recreation, domestic/industrial water use, irrigation, recreation, water transportation. Construction activities of facilities and transmission corridors which negatively affect aquatic habitat, water quality, aquaculture, domestic/industrial water use, recreation due to chemical contamination, shoreline changes (e.g., riparian vegetation removal, retaining walls, diking), and sedimentation. Effects of discharge of SO2 NOx, TSP (total suspended particles) on air quality. Noise and flying rock from blasting and drilling operations. Increased ship traffic for coal transport. Effects of noise from boiler operation, gas turbines, and cooling towers on livestock. Social problems associated with integration of migrant construction workers with local community. Use of herbicides for maintenance of transmission corridors can negatively affect surface and groundwater quality. Disruption of crop farming by construction of transmission lines.

Effects of SO2 emissions on crop farming. Loss of forest area due to construction of transmission lines. Illegal logging from access roads for power developments. Effects of transmission line networks on animal and plant diversity. Effects of thermal discharge on aquatic ecosystem. Disposal and indiscriminate dumping of construction waste materials. Effects of channel dredging for ship traffic on aquatic habitat. Effects of earthworks on dust production. Emergency and disaster response (e.g., forest fire, earthquake) at power plants. Dams and impoundments in rivers cause major changes to riverine ecosystems, which can significantly affect water quality, habitat for aquatic biota, aquatic resources harvesting (e.g., fishing, aquaculture), recreation, domestic/industrial water use, water transportation, local water table levels and groundwater flow.

Regulated flows and lake (impoundment) levels which affect habitat for aquatic and terrestrial biota, fishing, navigation, recreation, domestic/industrial water use. Impounded water provides habitat for vectors that carry disease. Effects of cooling water withdrawal (entrainment and impingement) for power plants on aquatic life. Effects of fuel storage on dust and safety of employees and local community. Risk of spills or accidents associated with fuel transport. Fate and effects of leachates of disposed sludge in landfills. Effects of groundwater and surface water consumption (pumping) on water supply and local ecosystems. Treatment and disposal of sewage generated at the power plant site

Weighting Scaling checklists most complex type of checklist method grades unquantifiable and intangible impacts on to a common scale

Questionnaire checklists series of questions relating to the impact of a project, particularly useful for less experienced practitioners

Evaluation of Simple Checklists.

CLASSROOM EXERCISE 1 EVALUATION OF ADHOC METHOD