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Project Report

Integrated Circuits

IR Based Obstacle Detecting Counter


Submitted by
Jahanzeb Shaikh REG. # 9897 Section: Friday 3:15-5:30 (To) Amar Danish REG. # 9555 Section: Tuesday 8:45-11:30

Instructor
Engr. Azfar Ghani

November 29, 2013 Faculty of Engineering, Sciences and Technology IQRA University, Karachi

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
First of all, we thank Almighty Allah, whom we praise for giving us the ability to think, work and deliver what we are assigned to do. Secondly, we must be grateful to our instructor Mr. Azfar Ghani, who helped me in this project. We also acknowledge our teachers that throughout our studies helps us and guides us, departmental staff, university staff or other then this.

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ABSTRACT
This report outlines the various stages of operation involved in the IR Sensors which are being used nowadays everywhere. The initial phase of the report focuses on IR Transmitor and IR Receiver. And the report mainly focuses on Input signal from IR Transmitor and Output Signal of IR Receiver. Thus the Counting on 7Segment is constantly monitored. Thus the entire cycle is carried out as a paper and at various stages each phase is detailed out. This report has proved to be very efficient practically as the need for Usage of IR Sensors grows day by day.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS ii iii iv v vii vii viii viii

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Chapter 2: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Chapter 3: PROJECT DISCRIPTION Chapter 4: PROJECT ADVANTAGES Chapter 5: CONCLUSION

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Chapter 1:

INTROCUCTION

IR Sensors are usually used in industries and home appliances for detecting purpose. They help us to run much industrial process. Almost every industry has Sensors in terms of generation of product process. These parameters should be controlled in order to make the Sensors run at reliable manners. So to control these parameters we make some circuits which take inputs from IR sensors and gives output in terms or Analog voltages. Thus we use DAC to convert AC input into DC Output and further we gets the out on LCD or Any display equipment of our choice. IR Sensors Introduction: IR Sensors work by using a specific light sensor to detect a select light wavelength in the InfraRed (IR) spectrum. By using an LED which produces light at the same wavelength as what the sensor is looking for, you can look at the intensity of the received light. When an object is close to the sensor, the light from the LED bounces off the object and into the light sensor. This results in a large jump in the intensity, which we already know can be detected using a threshold.

7 Segment Introductions: A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex matrix displays.

Op-amp Introduction: An operational amplifier (op-amp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. In this configuration, an op-amp produces an output potential (relative to circuit ground) that is typically hundreds of thousands of times larger than the potential difference between its input terminals. Operational amplifiers had their origins in analog computers, where they were used to do mathematical operations in many linear, non-linear and frequency-dependent circuits. Characteristics of a circuit using an op-amp are set by external components with little dependence on temperature changes or manufacturing variations in the op-amp itself, which makes op-amps popular building blocks for circuit design.

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Chapter 2: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Chapter 3: PROJECT DISCRIPTION In the transmitter circuit arrangement so that our task is only an infrared LED lights up and strikes any obstacle within its range. On The set of photo transistor receiver serves as a useful tool sensor sensed a change in the intensity of infrared light. When infrared light is not on the photo transistor, the photo transistor is like a switch is open so that the transistor is in cutoff position (open). Because the collector and emitter open it in accordance with the laws of the voltage divider, the collector emitter voltage equal to supply voltage (logic high). The output of these IR sensors drive the Op-Amp and hence Op-Amp drives transistor which provides switching to 4026 IC

The series of counters that I use here is to use IC 4026 (Decade Counter), one of the family IC CMOS. IC counter counts up if this will get the clock input changes from logic low to high. This IC can directly connect it to the seven segments because the output is designed for seven segment mange. So you do not need to use as a modifier decoder IC binary value into a score of 7-segment. To manage range of these sensors, you can rotate the sensor sensitivity potentiometer VR1 at a critical point.
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Chapter 4: ADVANTAGES OF THIS PROJECT This project is beneficial in many ways. Some are listed below: 1. Used is parking as In & Out Counter 2. Used in shopping malls for counting items 3. Used in class rooms for counting students 4. Used as obstacle counter in any area

Chapter 5: CONCLUSION The most important aspect of any Sensor is to provide accurate output. Several techniques can be implemented to control output of IR Sensors. The method we have used here is that we get analog output from IR Receiver and gives input to Op-Amp which drives the transistor and hence transistor gives input to decoder IC (4026). The IC 4026 generates pulses to 7 Segment and hence the output is shown in 7 Segment.

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