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# CHAPTER

3
THEORIES AND
CALCULATIONS

3.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the theories and standards that were used to design a sewage and
drainage system in general. In Section 3.2, the wastewater flow sewer and drainage
being designed is described. The Colebrook-White equation for the velocity of flow in
a sewer is presented in Section 3.3. The design limitations of the sewerage system
such as depth of flow, pipe gradients, pipe depths, pipe sizes and manholes are given
in Section 3.4. Finally, Section 3.5 sets out the detailed sewerage design process, from
the decision to adopt a sewerage system to the development of the overall sewerage
layout whiles ample of calculations for the detailed design for sewers is represented in
Section 3.6.

3.2 WASTEWATER FLOW
This project involves two systems, a sewage system and drainage systems. The sewer
system is designed to convey the wastewater from workshops, commercial
establishments and industries, while the drainage system discharges the excess surface
water from streets and roofs of buildings.

3.2.1 Sewage Wastewater Flow
The flow rate of the wastewater flow used for the design of the main trunk sewer was
based on the water consumption and the population according to the Abu-Dhabi
Design Manual, 2000. This can be estimated as follows:

n Consumptio Water Population P.F . Q = A
(3.1)

Where:
Q = wastewater flow (L/day)
A.P.F = Abu-Dhabi Peaking Factor.

In this project, a water consumption figure of 280 (Lpcd) was used for the year 2020
based on Abu-Dhabi Design Manual, 2000.

The peaking factor was applied to all sewage flows to identify required pipe and
pump station sizes. The Abu-Dhabi peaking factor (APF) is a variation of the Babbit
formula. The formulation for Abu-Dhabi is:

|
.
|

\
|

=
1000
population
16
4.25 Factor) Peaking Dhabi APF(Abu

(3.2)

The APF is used to project maximum sewage flows from a tributary area. The
tributary area should include a contributing population equal to or greater than 500
persons. For tributary populations with fewer than 500 persons, an alternative method
of estimating peak flows should be used.

3.2.2 Population Survey
A population survey is essential for sewer design, in order to come up with a
sufficient peaking factor for acceptable design in real life; also to achieve the purpose
of sewerage system, the design should use reasonable data relating to existing or
expected population in the future. The survey is a collection of building types because
the population intensity differs from one type to another. The number of floors also
increases the population intensity.

The Population survey was determined through several site visits to observe the
population at a certain factory or block. Then a suitable factor was obtained according
to the population per square meter. Each area was multiplied by that factor to obtain
the population for different blocks.

3.2.3 Drainage Wastewater Flow
The actual amount of runoff flow can be determined by using the Rational method
(Steel and McGhee, 1979). This can be estimated as follows:

A I C 240 Q =

(3.3)

Where:
Q = peak runoff rate (m
3
/day)
C = runoff coefficient (dimensionless)
I = average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)
A = drainage area (ha)

The rainfall intensities for different durations and return period storms for Abu-Dhabi
are presented in Table 3.1 (Abu-Dhabi Design Manual, 2000). In this project, the
return period is 5 years will be adapted and the storm duration is 2 hr, giving 16.35
mm/hr of rainfall intensity, whereas in Table 3.2, typical runoff coefficients for areas
of various characteristics are given (Abu-Dhabi Design Manual, 2000).

Runoff coefficients to be used with design storms to estimate storm water runoff
volumes. These coefficients are established on a sit-specific basis to reflect actual
catchment characteristics. In this project, the runoff coefficient used in designing the
storm water is 0.6.
Table 3.1 Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency

Return Period Intensity (mm/hr) by Duration (hr)
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 6 24
1000 Year 103.44 70.99 52.40 43.63 34.90 20.51 7.62
200 Year 83.78 57.81 42.73 35.50 28.40 16.43 6.12
100 Year 75.30 52.12 38.56 31.99 25.59 14.66 5.48
75 Year 71.77 49.75 36.82 30.53 24.43 13.93 5.21
40 Year 64.03 44.56 33.01 27.33 21.87 12.32 4.62
20 Year 55.41 38.78 28.78 23.77 19.02 10.53 3.97
10 Year 46.63 32.89 24.46 20.14 16.11 8.71 3.30
5 Year 37.48 26.75 19.96 16.35 13.08 6.81 2.61
2 Year 23.65 17.48 13.16 10.64 8.51 3.94 1.56

Table 3.2 Typical Runoff Coefficients

Area Description
Coefficient
Categories by surface
Brick 0.70 0.85
Concrete and Asphalt 0.70 0.95
Sandy Soil 0.05 0.20
Categories by use
Cemeteries, Parks and Playgrounds 0.10 0.25
Residential
Apartments 0.50 0.70
Industrial
Light 0.50 0.80
Heavy 0.60 0.90
Note that for preliminary calculation of runoff, these coefficients are consistent with
those used with the Rational method for estimating runoff.

3.3 VELOCITY OF FLOW
3.3.1 Colebrook-White Equation
Throughout this project, the Colebrook-White equation will be used to determine the
velocity of the calculated flows presented previously in section 3.2, either for sewer
flows or drainage flow. This can be estimated as follows:

|
.
|

\
|
+ = 2gDS
D
2.51
3.7D
s
log 2gDS V
(3. 4)

Where:
V = velocity of flow at d/D (m/s)
g = gravitational acceleration (m/s
2
)
D = pipe diameter (mm)
(Invert slope for full pipes, water surface slopes for open channels, 1m/1000m)
k
s
= linear measure of effective roughness (mm)
= kinematics viscosity of fluid (m
2
/s)

The roughness coefficient is a measure of the variation and magnitude of
protuberances on the interior surface of the pipe. The roughness, therefore, is a
function of the pipe material, age and condition. Typical coefficients for the various
pipe materials are given in Table 3.3 (Abu-Dhabi Design Manual, 2000).
Note that poor sewer pipe conditions are to be assumed for Abu-Dhabi system designs
(K
s
=1.5) where drainage design should be based on (K
s
=0.6) assuming asbestos-
cement pipes.

Table 3.3 Typical Roughness Coefficients For Pipes

Pipe Material
Colebrook-White, K
s
(mm)
Good Normal Poor
UPVC 0.3 0.6 1.5
GRP 0.3 0.6 1.5
Coated Cast Iron 0.09 0.15 0.3
Uncoated Cast Iron 0.15 0.3 0.6
Ductile Iron 0.15 0.3 0.6
Asbestos cement 0.15 0.3 0.6
Vitrified Clay 0.3 0.6 1.5
Concrete 0.15 0.3 0.6

3.3.2 Minimum and Maximum Flow Velocities
Design flow velocities should be within the limits presented in Tables 3.4 and 3.5
(Abu-Dhabi Design Manual, 2000). Minimum velocities are based on providing self-
cleansing velocities and preventing solids sedimentation in the sewer and drainage
pipes.

Maximum velocities are set to prevent manhole corrosion and minimize sewer gases
in the sewer system and minimize the negative effects of abrasion on the drainage
pipes and manholes.

Table 3.4 Maximum and Minimum Velocities in Sewers.
Pipe Description Minimum (m/s) Maximum (m/s) Design (m/s)
Gravity line 0.6 2.5 0.75
Pressure Line 1.0 3.0 1.5

Table 3.5 Maximum and Minimum Velocities in Drainage.
Pipe Description Minimum (m/s) Maximum (m/s) Design (m/s)
Gravity line 0.75 2.5 0.75
Pressure Line 1.0 3.0 1.0

3.4 DESIGN LIMITATIONS OF THE SEWERAGE SYSTEM
3.4.1 Depth of Flow
The design criteria for depth of flow in sewer lines are presented in Table 3.6 (Abu-
Dhabi Design Manual, 2000). Sanitary sewers should be checked for percentage full
at all times.

Table 3.6 Maximum Pipe Percentages Full in Sewer Pipes.
Pipe Description Maximum d/D Minimum d/D
Trunk sewer lines 0.75 0.50
Main and lateral sewer lines 0.85 0.50
d/D is ratio of flow depth to (d) nominal pipe diameter (D).

3.4.2 Pipes Depths
The minimum depth for sewer and drainage pipes in Abu-Dhabi is 1.2 m to the crown
of the sewer pipe. This is to provide pipe protection from external loads. If
circumstances require installation of a pipe with a depth of less than 1.2 m above the
crown, then concrete protection is required. The maximum depth to invert is based on
maintaining a cost-effective and safe design.

The recommended maximum cover for Abu-Dhabi sewer and drainage pipes is
approximately 10 m. Depth with cover greater than this should be investigated with
pipe manufacturers to identify any special requirements that may be necessary. In this
case, the engineer should determine whether or not any additional provisions are
required to protect the pipe from soil loads.

Pipe gradients, often the same as the hydraulic gradient, directly influence sewer pipe
capacity. In order to achieve the required minimum velocity in sewer lines, pipes
should be designed by observing the minimum gradients in Table 3.7.

Table 3.7 Minimum Sewer Line Gradients.

Sewer Diameter
(mm)
Velocity 0.75 (m/s) Velocity 0.6 (m/s)
200
250
315
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1200 and larger
5.00
3.70
2.70
2.00
1.50
1.20
1.00
0.85
0.70
0.60
0.50
3.20
2.40
1.75
1.30
1.00
0.80
0.65
0.55
0.45
0.40
0.35
Minimum gradients based on the Colebrook-White formula

3.4.4 Pipes Sizes
The current standard for the minimum size of sewer mains is 200 mm. The minimum
pipe size recommended for house connections is 150 mm or 160 mm outside
diameter. The minimum pipe size permissible on drainage projects is 250 mm.

One exception is pipe used for land drains. The land drain minimum is 160 mm.
However, slotted carrier pipes, serving as both land and carrier drain, must meet the
250 mm minimum.

3.4.5 Manholes
Manholes should be of sufficient size to permit access for maintenance activities. In
addition, their design and material should be such to guarantee maximum
performance for an extended service life.

Note that this project was not deal with designing manholes or studying the manholes
criteria. It was just indication of their locations in the system.

3.5 DETAILED DESIGN PROCESS
The theories introduced previously allow a sewer system to be analyzed in order that
sewer and drainage flows and velocities can be determined. This is only one part of
the overall design process. Detailed design requires a combination of hydraulic
calculations and the application of standard designs, procedures and details.

A sanitary sewer has two main functions: to convey the designed peak discharge and
to transport solids so that deposits are kept to a minimum. It is essential; therefore,
that the sanitary sewers have sufficient capacity for the peak flow and that it function
at minimum flows without excessive maintenance and generation of odors as well as
sufficient velocity of that flow to transport the solids.

Based on the criteria and the design limitation stated previously throughout this
chapter, the detailed design procedure is as follows:

1. Label each manhole based on the flow direction. SMH1 and DMH1 are an
example of manholes labels where SMH1 refers to sewer manhole No.1 as
well as DMH1 refers to drainage manhole No.1 and so on.

2. Determine the cover level (C.L) in m for each manhole from the contours
levels shown in Figure 2.1 in Appendix A.

3. Additional depth = 0.2 m is added to the C.L of future pavements or
construction in the unpaved areas. Therefore, C.L can be estimated as follows:

0.2 G.L C.L + =
(4.1)

4. Determine the first manhole invert level (I.L1) in m from the survey study of
the location which will be designed, where the second I.L2 will be calculated
as follows:

( ) 1 I.L1 L
1000
S
I.L2
|
.
|

\
|
=
(4.2)

Where:
L = pipe Length (m)
5. Calculate the depth to invert for each manhole (D.I) as follows:

I.L C.L D.I =
(4.3)

6. Determine the pipes diameters (proposed), lengths and gradients according to
the design limitation based on the Abu-Dhabi Design Manual, 2000.

7. Determine the junction population, the number of persons served for each
manhole and the increment population. Note that increment population is an
accumulative summation between the junction population and the number of
person served for each manhole.

8. Calculate the pecking factor (P.F) using the Babbit formula, Equation (3.2).

9. Calculate the total flow in L/s using Equation (3.1).

10. Calculate the full flow velocity in m/s using Colebrook-White formula,
Equation (3.4).

11. Calculate the flow full in L/s based on the velocity calculated in the previous
step and the area of the pipe as follows:

A V Q =
(4.4)

12. Calculate the ratio between the partial flow (total flow of the pipe) and the full
flow of the pipe as follows:

Q
Full
Q
Partial
Ratio =
(4.5)

13. Determine the ratio between the actual velocity and the full velocity of the
pipe (V/V
f
) and the actual ratio between the flow depth and the pipe diameter
(d/D) based on the partial flow to full flow ratio calculated in the previous
step. The values of V/V
f
and d/D are represented in Table 3.8 in Appendix B
(Abu-Dhabi Design Manual, 2000).

14. Find the value of the actual velocity based on the V/V
f
. Then compare the
actual velocity and the actual d/D with design limits represented in Table 3.4
and Table 3.6 to be sure that the design is acceptable.

All the previous steps are followed in designing sewer pipes, whereas the following
steps are required for designing drainage pipes. Steps from 1 to 6 are same as sewer
design where the remaining steps are as follows:

7. Determine the catchments area, the junction area for each pipe, the total area
and the cumulative catchment areas. Note that total area is the total of the
catchments areas and the junction area for each pipe.

8. Determine the rainfall intensity using Table 3.2.

9. Determine the runoff coefficient using Table 3.3.

10. Calculate the runoff flow in m
3
/s using Rational method, Equation (3.3). Then
calculate the accumulative runoff flow.

The remaining steps from 11 to 14 are the same as for sewer design. Note that in step
13 you must use Table 3.9 in Appendix B instead of Table 3.8 for determining the
values of V/V
f
and actual d/D for drainage pipes.

3.6 SAMPLES OF CALCULATIONS

The following assumptions will be used in both sewer and drainage systems:
- D = 400 mm
- S = 1 %
- A = 37.5 mm
2
(the width of street = 5 m and the length = 7.5 m)

Sample 1: Sewer design calculation from SMH12/8/3 to SMH12/8/3A as
shown in Table 5.4.

0.2 G.L C.L + =

m 104.10 0.2 103.9 SMH12/8/3 = + =

m 104.10 0.2 103.9 SMH12/8/3A = + =

( ) 1 I.L1 L
1000
S
I.L2
|
.
|

\
|
=

( ) m 101.97 1 102.97 100
1000
1
SMH12/8/3A =
|
.
|

\
|
=

I.L C.L D.I =

m 03 . 2 07 . 02 1 10 . 04 1 SMH12/8/3 = =

m 13 . 2 101.97 104.10 SMH12/8/38 = =

|
.
|

\
|

=
1000
population
16
4.25 Factor) Peaking Dhabi APF(Abu

Assuming population intensity is 1000 persons:

25 . 4
1000
1000
16
4.25 Factor) Peaking Dhabi APF(Abu =

=
|
.
|

\
|

n Consumptio Water Population P.F . A Q =

L/s 77 . 3 1
1000
3600
24
280
1 25 . 4 Q =

=

|
.
|

\
|
+ = 2gDS
D
2.51
3.7D
s
log 2gDS V

(Downward) m/s 0.425
0.001 0.4 9.807 2
0.4
5
10 1.141 2.51
0.4 3.7
1.5
log
)
1000
1
( )
1000
400
( 9.807 2 V
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

=

A V
FULL
Q =

L/s 41 . 3 5
2
(0.4)
4

1000 0.425
FULL
Q = =

26 . 0
41 . 53
77 . 13
Q
Full
Q
Partial
Ratio = = =

From Table 3.8 in Appendix B:

0.35
D
d
m/s 0.36 0.425 0.843 V
0.843
Vf
V
=
= =
=

Comparing the actual velocity and the actual d/D with the design limits presented in
Table 3.4 and Table 3.6, we found the following:

- V = 0.36 m/s < V
min
= 0.6 m/s.

- d/D = 0.35 < d/D min = 0.5

This means that the design is not acceptable. So, the pipe dimensions must be
changed, either the pipe diameters or the pipe gradients.

Sample 2: Drainage design calculation from DMH6/18/7/4 to
DMH6/18/7/3 as shown in Table 5.5.

0.2 G.L C.L + =

m 70 . 03 1 0.2 103.5 4 SMH6/18/7/ = + =

m 70 . 03 1 0.2 103.5 3 SMH6/18/7/ = + =

( ) 1 I.L1 L
1000
S
I.L2
|
.
|

\
|
=

( ) m 4 . 02 1 1 5 . 02 1 100
1000
1
SMH2 =
|
.
|

\
|
=
I.L C.L D.I =

m 2 . 1 5 . 02 1 70 . 03 1 4 DMH6/18/7/ = =

m 3 . 1 4 . 02 1 70 . 03 1 3 DMH6/18/7/ = =

A I C 240 Q =

L/s 4.5 2 37.5 x
3600
35 . 16
6 . 0 240 Q = =

|
.
|

\
|
+ = 2gDS
D
2.51
3.7D
s
log 2gDS V

(Downward) m/s 0.425
0.001 0.4 9.807 2
0.4
5
10 1.141 2.51
0.4 3.7
0.6
log
)
1000
1
( )
1000
400
( 9.807 2 V
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

=

A V
FULL
Q =

L/s 41 . 3 5
2
(0.4)
4

1000 0.425
FULL
Q = =

46 . 0
41 . 53
5 . 24
Q
Full
Q
Partial
Ratio = = =

From Table 3.9 in Appendix B:
0.48
D
d
m/s 0.42 0.425 0.9825 V
0.9825
Vf
V
=
= =
=

Comparing the actual velocity and the actual d/D with the design limits presented in
Table 3.5 and Table 3.6, we found the following:

- V = 0.42 m/s < V
min
= 0.75 m/s.

- d/D = 0.48 < d/D min = 0.5

This means that the design is not acceptable. So, the pipe dimensions must be
changed, either the pipe diameters or the pipe gradients.