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Q1 Define conflict management. What are the causes of workplace conflicts? What are the various strategies to be adopted for resolving conflicts? ANS: Conflict Management: Conflict Management refers to the manner in which managers handle grievances & disputes. According to John Gennard & Graham Judge employee relation aims to resolve differences among various interest groups regardless of whether these groups comprise different categories of managers or employees. Workplace conflicts arise due to differences in perception, culture, employee biases, gaps in communication & so on. Causes of workplace conflicts: Poor Communication: Poor communication is one of the main causes of conflict between employees in the workplace. This can result in a difference in communication styles or a failure to communicate. For example, a manager reassigned an employees task to the employees co- worker but failed to communicate the reassignment to the employee. This may cause the employee to feel slighted, which can transform into animosity among the two employees & the managers.

Difference in Personalities:
A difference in personalities among employees is another cause of workplace conflict. Employees come from different backgrounds and experiences, which play a role in shaping their personalities. When employees fail to understand or accept the differences in each others personalities, problems arise in the workplace. For example, an employee may possess a straightforward personality that results in him speaking whatever is on his mind, even if the timing is inappropriate. The employee with the straight forward personal it may offend a co-worker that does not possess the same type of personality. The co-worker may feel as if the employee is rude or lacks the authority to deal with her in such a straightforward manner. Different Values: Similar to personalities, the values of employees differ within the workplace. A difference in values is seen clearly when a generational gap is present. Young workers may possess different workplace values than older workers. The difference in values is not necessarily the cause of employee conflict in the workplace, but the failure to accept the differences is. When employees fail to accept the differences, co-workers may insult each others character and employees fail to accept the differences, co-workers may insult each others character and experiences. When insults occur, the conflict intensifies until the right solution is offered and accepted.

Competition: Unhealthy workplace competition is a cause of employee conflict. Some industries foster competitive environments more than others. When salary is linked to employee production, a workplace may experience strong competition between employees. Competition that isn't properly managed can result in employees sabotaging or insulting one another, which creates a hostile work environment. Unhealthy workplace competition discourages teamwork & promotes individualism. Conflicts are resolved by adopting the following strategies: Counselling: Only a few organisations have professional counsellors on their staff. Many organisations train their managers to counsel their subordinates. Often, just by employing nondirective counselling manager can help frustrated employees. Discussions & database: Task conflicts are resolved by discussing or debating the options. Consensual decision is made after considering every option. Compromise: This method tries to resolve conflicts by arriving at a solution which satisfies at least part of the requirement of each party involved. Using third parties: As serious conflicts have a negative impact on organisation; third parties with specialised skills are used as arbitrators, mediators or ombudsmen to resolve them.

Q2) what is meant by organisational culture? What are the elements & dimensions of organisational culture?
ANS: Organisational Culture: Organisational Culture describes the psychology, attitude, experiences, beliefs & values of an organisation. According to Hill & Gareth (2001) organisational culture is defined as the specific collection of values & norms that are shared by people & groups in an organisation & that control the way they interact with each other & with stakeholder outside the organisation." Elements of organisational Culture: The paradigm: It defines the mission & values of the organisation. It outlines the functions of the organisation. Control Systems: It defines the processes & the rules which monitor the organisational activities. Organisational Structures: It outlines the reporting lines, hierarchies & the direction of work flows. Symbols: It includes organisational logos, designs & symbols of power like allocation of parking space. Rituals & routines: It outlines procedures like meetings & reporting. Stories & myths: It conveys the organisational values.

Dimensions of organisational culture: Power distance: This is the degree to which there are differences in levels of power. A high degree indicates that some individuals have more power than other. A low score shows that people have more or less equal rights. Risk avoidance: It reflects how the much organisation is willing to take risks. Individualism versus collectivism: Individualism refers to the extent to which people stand up for them. Collectivism refers to the interdependence of individuals in a group. Gender differences: It concerns the traditionally accepted male & female values. for example: male values include competitiveness, assertiveness & ambition. Long: Versus short term orientation perseverance is emphasised in long term orientation while immediate profits are emphasised in short term orientation. Q3) Explain the importance & features of Human Resource Information systems (HRIS) ANS: Human Resource Information Systems: The concept of managing human resources using certain software applications. Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) like payroll, training, and performance record & benefits administration. HRIS includes systems & processed which combine the functions of HRM & tools of IT. Example: Terasen Pipelines, a Canadian company was using a manual system to maintain its records. But when its workforce increased, it began to use HRIS to maintain accurate employee records. Importance of Human Resource Information Systems: Human resources play a very important role in all organisations. The HR department is involved in formulating the company policies & streaming the business processes. Efficient & new application like HRIS makes the HR department more effective. HRIS assists the HR department in decision making, employee recruitment, benefit administration, payroll, & employee training & performance analysis. HRIS simplifies the HR processes & organise company & employee data in a better way. By using HRIS, confidential information can be protected. HRIS integrates the financial & the HR aspects of a business. Features of Human Resource Information Systems: Job and pay history: - The HRIS documents details & salary of past jobs. The education details of the employee are also recorded. The HR personnel are able to view salary details including bonuses awarded & deductions made. They can view job details like positions held & the period of employment in that position. Ability to import & export data: - The HRIS scans images of resumes , employee photographs, employee signature, job application & accident reports. The HRIS is able to link to multiple file formats like PDF, Excel & Word. Exporting data in HTML OR XML formats is also supported. Employee information is exported to programmes like 'Visio' or 'Orglous' & graphical organisation charts are produced. Ad-hoc report writing: - Powerful reporting tools like 'Crystal Reports' are used. User selects the reporting criteria such as department, location or position. Customised reports are created & saved using report generators. Information that needs to be included in reports can be selected. Reports can be formatted as PDFS for printing. Time stamps are also included in reports.

Automated reminders & alerts: - Reminders are set for important dated & deadlines. HR personnel schedule reminders for birthday, anniversaries, company event, performance reviews, training, probation period & promotions. Hr personnel can e-mail important reminders to employees. User defined fields: - User defines the organisation structure according to individual organisations. They can include company policies for recruiting, salary structure, promotions, increments, appraisal, transfers, confirmation & other areas. They specify the business rules & logic, which are applicable to their company. Attendance & leave tracking:- Employee vacations , leaves & absences are tracked & documented. Company policies on leave & vacation are documented. The number of days of leave available is computed based on the years of service of the employee & the leave taken.

Q 4 What is meant by grievance redressed? Explain the three stages of Grievance redressed. What precautions are to be taken while handling grievances? Ans. Grievance redressed: Grievance may be defined as a complaint or resentment against any unjust or unfair act. Grievance is any issue associated with an organisation or its management such as employee discrimination or harassment by managers. It may also be any alleged violation of employee contracts or settlement or violation of any laws or discrimination on the basis of race, age. Stages of Grievance redressed: An employee who has a grievance meets the shit in change & discusses it. If necessary, the employee obtains a copy of grievance Form 1. It's done within a week of occurrence of the aggrieving incident or when the employee becomes aware of the situation. In case of promotion, a time limit of six weeks from the date of the promotion is permitted. Stage II of Grievance Redressal: If the matter isn't resolved at stage 1, the employee obtains grievance Form 2 & submits it to the next senior manager. The senior manager the senior manager arranges a meeting within three working days. The department head discusses the issue with the concerned supervisor & the employee & return the grievance form to the employee wit remarks. A unionised member may assist the employee at this stage of grievance redressal. Stage III of Grievance Redressal: If the employee isn't satisfied with the reply of the departmental head, the employee appeals to the chairman of his unit grievance redress committee within seven working days of the receipt of reply at stage II. The employee obtains a copy of grievance Form 3 from the shit in charge. Precaution While Handling Grievances: Always make sure that the managers concerned in the grievance handling events have a quiet place to meet the complainant.

Always ensure that managers have sufficient time to dedicate to the complainant. Explain the role of manager, the strategy & the events clearly in the grievance handling procedure.

Explain the situation in detail to the employee to avoid any misunderstanding & encourage better acceptance of the circumstances complained. Let the employee their issues without anticipation or interruptive comments. Use a positive & friendly way to receive the crisis rather than corrective steps which upset the system. Stay quiet, cool, composed during the course of the meeting. Always focus on the subject of the grievance rather than deviating to related issues. Never make allegations against others. Listen & respond delicately to any form of distress exhibited by the employees. Remove the source of anger or discomfort. Assure the employees that the managers are neutral & show no bias. Make sure there is successful, responsive & confidential communication between all involved. Take all possible steps to ensure that no one is ill-treated because of the grievance being raised. Try to look upon the problem from different angles for better understanding. Consider all important information in the research process. The researcher or decision maker acts neutrally, which means they must rule themselves out if there is any partiality or conflict of interest.

Q 5 What are trade unions? What are the objectives & activities of trade unions ? ANS: Trade Unions: The trade Union Act of India 1926 defines a trade union as an

organisation, whether temporary or permanent formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workman & employers or between workmen & workmen, or between employers & employers or for imposing restrictive condition on the conduct of any trade or business.
Objectives of trade Union: The primary objective of any trade union is to protect & promote the interest of its members. Trade unions are permanent workforce bodies within an organisation so that workers have constant access to their representative Unions achieve their objectives through collective action & group effort. To improve the economic conditions of employees by securing better wages for them. To provide better working environment for the employees. To secure employee bonuses from the profit of the organisation. To secure social welfare of employees through group schemes which benefit every employee. To provide organisational stability, growth & leadership. To protect the interest of employees by actively participating in the organisational management.

Activities of trade unions:

Representation: Trade unions represent labourers when they have cries at work. If employees feel they are being unduly treated, they can ask their union representative to help in solving their issues with the manager or employer. Unions also offer their members legal representation. This is normally to help people get monetary reimbursement for work related injuries or to assist people who have to take their employer to court. Member benefits: Trade unions provide a variety of benefits to its members. They insure treated, they insure members against unemployment, ill health & funeral expenses. Providing qualified training, educating the workforce & giving legal advices are some important activities of trade unions. Collective bargaining: This is a process employed in grievance handling & is recognised by employers. In collective bargaining, union representative hold discussions with the employers & reach an agreement on employee rights & duties. Unions are popular at collective bargaining. Industrial Action: Trade unions enforce strikes, resistance or lockouts to attain specific goals. Political Activity: Trade unions provide a variety of benefits to its members. They insure treated, they insure members against unemployment, ill health & funeral expenses. Providing qualified training, educating the workforce & giving legal advices are some important activities of trade unions.

Q.6 Write brief note on stress & employee wellness in organisations. ANS: Stress Organisation: Stress is described as the impact caused by any pressure. As the speed at which our society operates increases, the pressures to maintain that speed also increase. The effect of pressure mainly depends on the kind of position we have in an organisation. Stress also enables an individuals to meet deadlines & the high level of efficiency a job demand. Stress causes illness & produces several other conditions that have a severe effect on an employees performance. Leon Warshaw (1979), in his book on dealing with stress in the workplace, states that, Stress affects personality, modifying our perceptions, feelings, attitudes & behaviour. And it reaches beyond it's immediate victims to affect the political. Social & work organisation whose activities they direct & carry out." This statement clearly indicates that increases in stress has a wide-ranging effect on employees that includes absenteeism, decreases efficiency, physical & mental illness & tendency towards early retirement. Recent studies indicated that certain jobs have attributes that make them more stressful than others. Some of the factors that increase stress in the workplace are:

Level of decision making

Dangerous physical or emotional conditions Repeated exchange of wards with others. For example, police officers, fire fighters & air traffic controllers are under constant pressure. They need to have quick decision making ability. Employee Organisation: Employee wellness focuses on human resource management to reduce health problems. These health problems are caused by improper lifestyle choices such as smoking, obesity & lack of exercise. Some of the health problems that are common among employees are cancer, heart disease & respiratory illness. These diseases account for 61 percent of hospital claims. This, in turn, creates workplace problems such as absenteeism, lost productivity & increased medical costs. For example, people with high blood pressure are likely to have medical claims of more than Rs. 2 lakh per year. Medical claims of smokers are 22 percent higher than non-smokers. Many organisations offer wellness programmes to improve & maintain the overall health of their employees. These programmes are effective as they help employees to quit smoking, manage stress, and improve their diets. Recent research indicates that taking part in wellness programmes reduces absenteeism & increases productivity. Employers must prioritise & enrol those who are in greatest need of these wellness programmes. They must motivate these high risk individuals to participate. Some companies offer incentive to the participants, while others impose certain penalties on nonparticipants. For example: some companies have started to increase insurance premium contribution of non-participants. While others have started raising their deductible levels. Companies can take up effective healthcare risk management practices to minimise job stress. With the help of an effective selection process & a proper training procedure, companies can help employees meet the demands of their jobs. With clear job descriptions, companies can select the most suitable applicants for a job. This also helps the candidate have a clear idea about the job responsibilities.