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Objective: To perform a simple distillation and fractional distillation experiments of the known sample and based on the data

obtained from both the experiments, plot distillation curves for both simple and fractional distillation experiments. Perform a fractional distillation on the unknown sample and isolate the two compounds and determine the compounds and their percent concentration. Results and Discussion: Simple Distillation: A simple distillation of (1:1) mixture toluene and cyclohexane was carried out. A slight modification to the experiment was instead of 30 mL of each toluene and cyclohexane 35 mL was used. The temperature was noted after every mL of sample was collected. The data obtained from the experiment is presented in the following table. Volume (mL) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Temperature (0C) 69 71 75 76 78 79 75 71 68 65 62 59 54 50 49 48 48 49 50 50 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Volume (mL) Temperature (0C) 51 51 51 53 54 55 56 58 60 61 61 61 62 63 62 64 64 65 65 65 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Volume (mL) Temperature (0C) 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 68 68 68 69 67 66 66 66 67 68 66

Y axis Temperatire in degree Celcius

Graph of Volumn Vs Temperature for simple distillation


85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80

temperature

X axis Volumn of distillate in mL

The graph obtained shows a gradual increase in the temperature as the compound is distilled. On comparing the graph obtained to the graph presented in the literature it was observed that the graphs did not match. A plateau regions are observed around 65 and 66
0

C. The large amounts of distillate was collected between 65-68 0C. However the results

obtained are not in agreement with the solvent mixture supplied. The boiling point of cyclohexane is 80.7 0C and the boiling point of toluene is 110.6. Hence based on the results obtained it is possible that instead of cyclohexane and toluene, the mixture used for the experiment was toluene and hexane or methanol and toluene. The methanol has a boiling point of 64.7 while hexane has a boiling point of 68.8, both of which roughly matches with boiling point of the distillate obtained from the simple distillation process. Fractional Distillation: A fractional distillation of (1:1) mixture toluene and cyclohexane was carried out. A slight modification to the experiment was instead of 30 mL of each toluene and cyclohexane 35 mL was used. The temperature was noted after every mL of sample was collected. The results obtained were inaccurate and hence the experiment was repeated two more time. During the end of the experiment the condenser was uncapped and the fluid flowed down the flask and extra 5 mL of distillate was collected. The data obtained from the third experiment is presented in the following table. Volume (mL) 1 Temperature (0C) 38 21 Volume (mL) Temperature (0C) 65 41 Volume (mL) Temperature (0C) 84

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

48 48 50 52 54 55 60 60 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

68 69 69 70 70 75 78 80 82 84 84 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 85

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

84 83 83 83 83 82 82 81 79 76 76 74 72 60 50 55 60 62 65

Y axis Temperatire in degree Celcius

Graph of Volumn Vs Temperature for fractional distillation


90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75

Temperature (degree Celcius)

X axis Volumn of distillate in mL

On comparing the graph obtained to the graph presented in the literature it was observed that the graphs did not match. The graph obtained shows a steep rise in temperature between 35 to 60 0C. A plateau region is observed at 65 0C followed by another rise in temperature between 70 to 85 0C followed by a rough plateau region around 85 0C. After which a steep temperature fall is observed. Based on the boiling point it can be inferred that instead of cyclohexane and toluene mixture, accidently methanol and toluene mixture maybe used which formed an azeotrope which has a boiling point of 63.8 which matches roughly with the plateau region observed in the graph above.

Comparison of the graph of simple distillation Vs fractional distillation


Y axis Temperatire in degree Celcius
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 Temperature for fractional distillation (degree Celcius) Temperature for simple distillation(degree Celcius)

X axis Volumn of distillate in mL

Both the simple and fractional distillation graphs were plotted together. A general trend was observed in the standard graph that in simple distillation the temperature rises gradually while in the fractional distillation the temperature rise is steep and a longer plateau region is observed hence a pure sample is obtained. Though the graphs did not match the standard graph provided in the literature, the general trend was observed and a steep increase in fractional distillation graph was observed as opposed to the gradual increase in the simple distillation curve.

Fractional Distillation for the unknown: A fractional distillation was performed on an unknown sample mixture. The temperature was noted after every mL of distillate was collected. The data obtained from the experiment is presented in the following table.

Volume (mL) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Temperature (0C) 50 53 54 55 55 55 55 55 55 56 55 56 55 56 55 56 56 56 56 56

Volume (mL)

Temperature (0C)

Volume (mL)

Temperature (0C)

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 56 55 52 52 88 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

41 42 43 44

100 100 100 100

Graph representing the fractional distillation dat of unknown sample mixture


Y axis Temperatire in degree Celcius
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 temperature

X axis Volumn of distillate in mL

The graph obtained shows a steep rise in temperature between 55 to 100 0C. A plateau regions were observed at 55-56 0C and at 100 0C. Based on the data obtained it is observed that the mixture contained solvents which boiled at 56 0C and 100 0C which matches with acetone which has a boiling point of 56.5 0C and the other solvent was water which has a boiling point of 100 0C. Post lab questions: 2) Based on the graph obtained from the simple distillation it can be observed that a pure compound was obtained at the temperatures between 65 to 68 0C, however the compound obtained was contaminated with the second solvent in the latter fractions collected after 68
0

C.

5) The non volatile substance like sodium chloride can cause very slight increase in the boiling point of water. However it cannot be observed if the NaCl is in small quantity. The insoluble substances has no effect on boiling point. Since no effect is observed in both the cases the temperature of vapour will be at 100 0C. 6) Regardless of the volume all the bonds do not break at the same time. The molecules present at the surface has lower pressure and hence they evaporate first. 7) The returning condensate has large quantities of high boiling point liquid and it allows the lower boiling point substances to distil over.

8) Boiling the liquids causes the volume of the liquids to expand. If the system is sealed the increased pressure due to the expanding liquids will result in explosion. 9) In case of faster distillation there is a possibility that the temperature rises quickly and the mixture gets evaporated without leaving the time for the samples to separate. This can lead to overrunning the first boiling point and impurities are iintroduced in the second liquid. 11) This can be observed due to the presence of water droplets present in the solvent mixture. These drops are cloudy as they are immiscible with the hydrocarbons. 13) The flow of water is generally maintain in the direction of the vapour rising in the column. Since at the lower end of the column the vapours will be hot and it gets cooler when it reaches to the top of the condenser, where a slightly warm water stream gets completely exhausted and it removed from the system. Conclusion: The boiling points of the two unknown compounds matches with acetone and water. Based on this data it can be concluded that the unknown compounds were acetone and water. The simple and fractional distillation curves do not match exactly with standard curve stated in the literature since the solvents distilled did not match with the boiling points of toluene and cyclohexane. However the general trend was observed in the graphs, a steep increase in fractional distillation graph was observed as opposed to the gradual increase in the simple distillation curve suggesting that fractional distillation give a better separation as compared to the simple distillation, due to prolonged plateau region observed in fractional distilation which allows complete distillation of a solvent and lowered impurities level.