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MigratioN

The topic reminds me of the famous Russian saying translated into English, A DAY I SEE, CO I!", DE#E$O%ED T&O'"& (O'$D )E (OR$D, (I$$ "I#E E !O %IECE TO CA$$ A)ODE, T&E )O'!DARIES, AY )E T&E!, (O'$D )E A$$ ERASED, S&O'$D I STE% TO I"RATE O!CE S'%%OSE*+ The saying says it all, the story of migration and its impact, inerasa,le* &uman migration is defined to ,e the phenomenon of physical mo-ement of humans from one place to another* If performed periodically .for short period of time/, it is termed commuting, there are also tourists 0ho temporarily tra-el to go on -acation, and pilgrims 0ho do so for religious reasons* )ut the concerned topic relates more to the migration resulting in change of residences for longer duration of time* )ut going ,y The 'ni-ersal Concept of !ihilism, the system of migration is ,ound to ha-e ,oth its positi-e impact as 0ell as the negati-e one, emerging as group results of indi-idual perceptions* Also important matter of fact that guides all its characteristics is that 1 the phenomenon has occurred since the origin of humans and is unstoppa,le in any plausi,le future* As the phenomenon is uni-ersal in nature, I ha-e also ,een influenced ,y it and ha-e influenced it, directly or indirectly* So I 0ill from no0 on ,uild the notion of this -ery intricate su,2ect through my e3periences and try to e3plain its -arious potential impacts and their applica,ilities* CHAPTER 1: birth I don4t thin5 there is a particular date 0hen the migration actually ,egan* )ut it is -ery sure that it has ,een there since a -ery long time* Also I 5no0 no0 that 0hen I 0as in my mother4s 0om, migration still 0as ,reathing* )ut 0hen I 0as ,orn my father 0as a cler5 in a rural ,ranch of a nationali6ed ,an5 of India and 0e resided in the same -illage in the 'ttar %radesh state of India* So as I 0as less comple3 at thin5ing and less a0are of the society then , so on similar lines I see that 0hen migration 0ould ha-e ,egun there 0ere -ery less people then as compared to no0 and lesser 0ere ,oundaries of countries* So the migration 0as also -ery less comple3 at its intensity as 0ell as -ariety* Thus the impacts 0ere small ,ut not nil*

As I gre0, I sa0 my neigh,ours shifting to the capital city of my country, called Delhi * I cried for the grief of separation and o-er the time forgot them e3cept for their memories that creped at times* The same 0as 0ith migration , it spread to 0ider reaches irrespecti-e of caste, creed, structure of society and in-entions and disco-eries* It 0ould cause to some people and 0ould forget them ,ut for occasional occurrences* CHAPTER 2: adolescence Soon I ,egan going to school for my primary education* Of course I did get it in different forms from my family and surroundings at earlier occasions* )ut the formal education allo0ed me to thin5 more capacit-ely and increased the comple3ity of my thin5ing process as 0ell as my notions of society* I no0 sa0 fe0 of my classmates 0ho came from different parts of the country and 0hose families and roots still 0ere spread o-er other parts* I found they spo5e different languages at home and had -ery different cultures and mannerisms* )ut as they 0ere not many, the e3changes 0ere usually one sided 0here they had to ad2ust to us and learn our language and culture* y idea of migration 0as de-eloping rapidly ,ut 0ithout me 5no0ing* (hen I loo5 ,ac5 I also find that the ric5sha0ala that used to ta5e us to the school 0as a )ihari .i*e* from a different state called )ihar/* The tal5s that I could many times here of 2o,s in um,ai .in another state7 aharashtra/ that the elderlies tal5ed an3iously a,out, 0ere all glimpses of migration that the society had e3posed to us* I sometimes feel o-er0helmed ,y thin5ing of the different food stuffs that 0e used to get from our migrated mates and the 0ay 0e used to relish those uni8ue delicacies* They 0ere all mini impacts of migration that 0e 0ere continuously e3periencing* The migration had also reached this age of its at some time* It had gro0n in -arious dimensions of society in all comple3ities and 0as strengthening it4s roots in society* It no0 influenced more and more people and had greater impacts* It 0as no0 playing an important role in creating the society* The so7called ur,an society ,egan to emerge and implicitly ga-e ,irth to R'RA$ TO 'R)A! I"RATIO!* Thus migration multiplied itself* )ut as I mo-e further I 0ould li5e to dra0 more emphasis on the youth migration that had also ta5en its ,irth from the potentially rich youth 0anting to channeli6e their potentials into the de-elopment of self along 0ith that of the society* The young 0ere still dependent on their family and elderlies tied into their long dra0n relation and attachment 0ith the land and refused migrations* So the migration creped through the strong minds of youth trying to sur-i-e lashes of unemployment and unending responsi,ilities* )ut as their attachment 0as not so

strongly glued they tried to ,ury their past and too5 leaps into future carried in the luring arms of migration* I had also ,een gro0ing then and I sa0 the necessity 0hich in-ited migration soon getting magnifying* Then one day my father came home for his usual recess and shoc5ed us ,y saying that 0e had ,een transferred to ysore. in 9arnata5a state/* (e had ,een in our -illage since :;;s of years and suddenly mo-ing to a state -ery far in distance and e-en more different in culture, food, language and lifestyle* The place 0as a city and -ery fe0 people spo5e hindi there 0hich of course 0as our mother tongue* I still remem,er tears tric5ling do0n those chee5s of my grandfather and my mother* y elder sister had ,egun to cry and 0eep* She 0as all thin5ing of the separation from her friends* y responses 0ere her follo0 up ,ut 0ithout much reasons* E-eryone from the colony 0ere coming and frightening us of the changes that could pro-e disastrous and in 0hole consensus ad-ised my father to 8uit the 2o,* Some e-en came up 0ith -arious options of other 2o,s* )ut should I say that it 0as all the destiny for 0hich the family decided to a-ail the opportunity as it also ga-e him a promotion to officer le-el* Soon 0e reached the place 0ith eyes s0ollen out of crying* (e had got a house on rent and the o0ner could spea5 in some hindi ,ut preferred English other0ise 0hich only my father from the family could spea5 ,ut not much fluently* I got admission in a go-ernment run school and pic5ed up the local language soon 0hile playing* At home though, due -ery less e3posure they couldn4t pic5 it so soon* (e had trou,le communicating 0ith the localities and food 0as also -ery different* Our staple diet of 0heat 0as 0ay too costly to afford and the staple food of the region 0hich 0as rice 0as cheap ,ut out of our taste* So for some time 0e all refused to eat it* )ut father 0ith the help of mother got us con-inced soon* The life here 0as -ery fast unli5e our -illage* %eople 0ere less mingling though more sophisticated and silent* At my school English and 5annada the local language 0ere only used as medium of instruction and I could soon pic5 up ,oth comforta,ly* !ot 2ust my -oca,ulary ,ut e-en my fluency impro-ed and so did for others at home* Today though 0e communicate in English amongst the si,lings and in hindi 0ith parents* I ha-e got into engineering stream and so ha-e my t0o sisters* )ut on contrast my cousin ,ac5 at -illage has 2oined diploma an )A 0hich are not much popular at ysore* )ut engineering 0as not a-aila,le for him there at all* So I see that migration not 2ust impro-ed our a0areness ,ut also increased educational opportunities for us* other has also ,een teaching since a long time here no0 0hich she could not ha-e ,ac5 there at -illage* Thus migration also pro-ided 0ith 2o, opportunities* The family also has ,ecome more financially strong and 0e ha-e got to learn different culture of our country as a ,oon of migration* )ut a deeper retrospect also tells me that 0e lost the interaction 0ith our grandfather 0ho adamantly refused to migrate along 0ith us* (e also feel guilty of

not ha-ing ser-ed him at this 2uncture of his life* (e missed those moments of childhood that could ma5e us a more concerned citi6en as such emotions don4t hold so strong at cities and to0ns* Sometimes 0e collecti-ely reali6e that 0e lost the crucial part of life in the fight of sur-i-al* (e cannot completely ,lame migration for this ,ut yes, it did ha-e this potential* After ha-ing e3plained so much a,out migration4s as 0ell as my gro0th I no0 0ant to 0rite something a,out the impacts of youth migration* I remem,er the 8uotation that touched my heart as 0ell as mind at the same time< As always on this boulevard, the faces were young, coming annually in an endless migration from every country, every continent, to alight here once in the long journey of their lives+* 7)RIA! OORE Insights into the study of youth migration sho0 -ery different as 0ell as potential faces of migration as a 0hole* $oo5ing at the positi-e aspects 0e find three most important gifts of migration the youth and in turn the future of the 0orld< a/ Ever expanding spectrum of opportunities )y far the ,iggest ,oon of migration has ,een its a,ility to open all possi,le as 0ell as all plausi,le paths of opportunities* Any sector you could name 0ill surely ,e listed here* =e0 important ones li5e education, employment, sports, technology, health, and many other ha-e ,een gi-en 0ith infinite dimensions all ,ecause of the -ery concept of migration* ED'CATIO!< (hen a youth migrates due to family reasons or on personal effort, migration ,eing al0ays from less de-eloped place to more de-eloped one, gi-es him potential chances of getting ,etter 8uality of education due to more infrastructure and resources, getting higher education and speciali6ations due to more colleges 0ith ,etter faculties and 0or5ing options to support the education* As responsi,ilities to0ards family are lesser he>she can concentrate more* )ranches of study li5e nanotechnology and other de-eloping arenas also ,ecome possi,le 0hich other0ise 0ere out of 8uestion* Also independence in education also ta5es ,irth as the institution and system is ne0, re2u-enated and more -i-acious at approach* According to (orld igration ?;;@, the ratio of educational opportunities to the total migration is a,out :AB 0hich means out of e-ery :;; migrations :A are for a-ailing educational ,enefits* =ollo0ing graphical representation highlights the a,o-e fact -ery clearly* The graph also sho0s that the immigrants are usually 0ea5 at educational capa,ilities 0hile initial testings and impro-e 0ith duration of stay<

E %$OY E!T< The most pi-otal element in this chain is employment 0hich ma5es migration gro0 as 0ell as sustain it is that factor 0hich dra0s innumera,le youth* The need of e-eryone today is money 0hich could come in a legitimate 0ay only through 2o,s* Thus migration to cities for e3ample ma5es possi,le for e-ery migrant to get at least some 2o, and in many cases 2o,s of desire* Thus if you 0ere a youth migrant then you could easily get 2o,s that you 0anted* Employment 0as found to contri,ute a,out CCB of the total migration* As the places of desired migration ha-e gro0ing needs for de-elopment and of human la,our, -arieties and also huge 8uantum of employment arenas open up* evelopment of societ! and self: igration and de-elopment are insepara,le and interdependent processes in a glo,ali6ing 0orld* igration cannot ,e a su,stitute for de-elopment, and de-elopment is not necessarily dependent on migration, ,ut each of these t0o processes can profoundly influence the other*
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%erspecti-es of this relation are< The first -ie0 is the D,alanced gro0thD approach* As part of li,eral economic theory, it is suggested that, ,y alle-iating unemployment and pro-iding economic support through remittances and de-elopment of migrantsE s5ills, migration enhances de-elopment in countries of origin, narro0s intercountry income disparities, and e-entually ma5es migration unnecessary* The second -ie0 is the Dsystematic -ie0D* This -ie0 does not agree that migration, through remittances and return of s5ills, automatically accelerates de-elopment in the country of origin* Instead, it suggests that migration often distorts the de-elopment process through D,rain drainD and 0idening of income disparities* )ut holders of ,oth -ie0s al0ays understand the potentials ,y 0hich multi dimensional de-elopments can ,e ,rought a,out through migration* y perceptional study< Development and migration migration and development: what comes first? The ans0er is o,-ious, and I am sure 0e all agree on it< The two are part of the same process and therefore constantly interactive. So, The result 0as an o-er0helmingly positi-e -ie0 on the lin5ages ,et0een migration for de-elopment 1 a virtuous circle: )eginnings of de-elopment in poor countries 77 igration 77 Enhanced de-elopment 77Trend to income e8uili,rium and elimination of the Froot causes4 of migration 77$ess migration* Remittances: A remittance is a transfer of money ,y a foreign 0or5er to his or her home country* See Dremittance manD ,elo0 for the historical use of the 0ord, 0hich is the opposite of the modern use* oney sent home ,y migrants constitutes the second largest financial inflo0 to many de-eloping countries, e3ceeding international aid* Estimates of remittances to de-eloping countries -ary from International =und for Agricultural
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De-elopment4s 'SGH;: ,illionI:J .including informal flo0s/ to the (orld )an5Es 'SG?A; ,illion for ?;;C .e3cluding informal flo0s/* Remittances contri,ute to economic gro0th and to the li-elihoods of people 0orld0ide* oreo-er, remittance transfers can also promote access to financial ser-ices for the sender and recipient, there,y increasing financial and social inclusion* Remittances also foster, in the recei-ing countries, a further economic dependence on the glo,al economy instead of ,uilding sustaina,le, local economies* Some current facts and data on remittance flo0s are< Remittances US$ billions :KKA ?;;; ?;;L ?;;A ?;;C ?;;M Inward remittance flows 6.5 1 .! 16. "#.# "$.! #%.# ll developing countries !!." #$.% $!&.% $&".$ ""'.( "(#.! 'utward remittance flows !.5 1.% &.! 1 ." 16.5 "!.& ##. ll developing countries $*.) &.! "#.! %%.* )$.* !".( '(.%

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(or5ers4 remittances ha-e ,ecome a ma2or source of e3ternal de-elopment finance, pro-iding a con-enient angle from 0hich to approach the comple3 migration agenda* The de-elopment community needs to consider ho0 to ,est manage remittance flo0s and ho0 the ,ody of research on remittances can ,e strengthened, ,oth for the purpose of understanding the impact of remittances and for forming more effecti-e policy for managing remittances* This article loo5s at these 8uestions and e3plores 0ays to impro-e on the 5no0ledge and impact of remittances in de-elopment* Officially recorded remittances recei-ed ,y de-eloping countries e3ceeded GKH ,illion in ?;;H* The actual si6e of remittances, including ,oth officially recorded and unrecorded transfers through informal channels, is e-en larger* Remittances are no0 more than dou,le the si6e of net official flo0s .under GH; ,illion/, and are second only to foreign direct in-estment .around G:HH ,illion/ as a source of e3ternal finance for de-eloping countries* In HC out of :AH de-eloping countries, remittances are larger than all capital flo0s, pu,lic and pri-ate* Also, remittances are sta,le, and may e-en ,e counter7cyclical in times of economic hardship * oreo-er, remittances are person7to7person flo0s, 0ell targeted to the needs of the recipients, 0ho are often poor* They can also ,e

altruistic transfers that do not ha-e to ,e paid ,ac5*

)egulation of )emittance *lows There is a need to stri5e a ,alance ,et0een a regulatory regime that minimi6es money laundering, terrorist financing, and general financial a,use, and one that facilitates the flo0 of funds ,et0een hard70or5ing migrants and their families ,ac5 home* Remitters use informal channels ,ecause these channels are cheaper, ,etter suited to transferring funds to remote areas 0here formal channels do not operate, and offer the ad-antage of the nati-e language and, on rare occasions, anonymity* Informal channels, ho0e-er, can ,e su,2ect to a,use* Strengthening the formal remittance infrastructure ,y offering the ad-antages of lo0 cost, e3panded reach, and language can shift flo0s from the informal to the formal sector* )oth sender and recipient countries could support migrants4 access to ,an5ing ,y pro-iding them 0ith identification tools* +evelo,ment Im,act On the positi-e side, remittances are ,elie-ed to reduce po-erty, as it is the poor 0ho migrate and send ,ac5 remittances* )ut this -ie0 has its critics* It is sometimes argued that remittances may increase ine8uality, ,ecause it is the rich 0ho can migrate and send ,ac5 remittances, ma5ing recipients e-en richer* These 8uestions should ,e studied at the macro le-el using cross7country data, and

at the micro le-el using household sur-eys* The impact of remittances depends on their use, especially on schooling of children* A recent study from El Sal-ador sho0s that the school drop7out rate is lo0er and the enrollment ratio higher in households that recei-e remittances* ItEs important to consider ho0 remittances may offset the negati-e effects on economic gro0th and fiscal re-enue of the remittance7recei-ing country 0hen s5illed 0or5ers emigrate* The ,rain drain issue, along 0ith the issue of 2o, competition from in7migration in la,or7recei-ing countries, may 0ell hold the 5eys to the success of the glo,al migration agenda* Sur-eys on the use of remittances in many countries suggest that the migrants families use these resources primarily to finance consumption instead of in-estment* =or poor households consumption can certainly impro-e their 8uality of life* oreo-er many categories of consumption are in fact in-estments in these households futures and their human capital< for e3ample, spending on health care, education, and consumer dura,les li5e refrigerators* The spending of remittances generally 1 0hether for consumption or in-estment 1 0ill generate some 2o, creation through local multiplier effects* Remittances as a means for insurance purposes and pri-ate in-estment capital for people 0ho cannot afford to migrate should not ,e o-erloo5ed* )y ser-ing as insurance for their families, migrants ma5e up for the lac5, or inade8uacy of, local insurance systems in areas 0here incomes are highly -aria,le, diseases are more common and se-ere, or 0here political, economic and>or social insta,ility is greater* They also allo0 families to engage in acti-ities that entail more ris5 ,ut are potentially more profita,le* After this e3hausti-e e3planation of remittances as a ,oon of migration to youth, nations and 0orld as 0hole, I 0ould no0 analyse some of the negati-e aspects associated 0ith migration* a) "rain drain : human ca,ital flight, more commonly referred to as Dbrain drainD, is the large7scale emigration of a large group of indi-iduals 0ith technical s5ills or 5no0ledge* The reasons usually include t0o aspects 0hich respecti-ely come from countries and indi-iduals* In terms of countries, the reasons may ,e social en-ironment .in source countries< lac5 of opportunities, political insta,ility, economic depression, health ris5sN in host countries< rich opportunities, political sta,ility and freedom, de-eloped economy, ,etter

li-ing conditions/* In terms of indi-idual reasons, there are family influence* Although the term originally referred to technology 0or5ers lea-ing a nation, the meaning has ,roadened into< Dthe departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another, usually for ,etter pay or li-ing conditions+*
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#llegal immigration< Illegal immigration descri,es people entering a country 0ithout formal permission* There are many -ie0s on illegal immigration, depending on political standpoint* Its ,otentials7sla-ery 7prostitution 7death To the youth it is a paralysis as the energy that they possessed is channeli6ed into anti7social, anti7human emotions and acti-ities and terrorism and other such side7effects also ,orn* Exploitation of !oung immigrants: The migration can also allo0 some anti7social organi6ations to a,duct such immigrants under political or emotional influence and force them into illegal acti-ities there ,y e3ploiting the youth potential* $ocial unrest in the host countr!: (hen immigrants migrate they ha-e the purpose of getting ,etter 2o,s* )ut sometimes there are situations 0here the nati-es ha-e deficiency of 2o,s and get unemployed* &ere straight allegation goes o-er immigrants as stealing of 2o,s and the situation gets still more comple3 0ith political fuelling* This social unrest is passed on to immigrants through fatal attac5s ,y nati-es* E3< Australia and 'S ha-e faced such situations in -ery recent past* So their economic policies ha-e ,ecome anti7immigration and 0ill soon ,e affecting not 2ust their social ,ut also economic position in 0orld mar5et* .ome solutions that I could suggest to im,rove ,ositive outcomes of migration would be7All guest 0or5ers must ,e identified and authenticated ,iometrically* 7"o-ernment agencies should not micromanage migrant la,or 7migration should ,e encouraged and illeagalities need to ,e eliminated*

7only youth can create a great future so political parties must ,e ,anned from ma5ing any political statement on migration issues and ta5e respecti-e decisions*

I 0ould li5e to conclude ,y hoping that 0e tame the demon called migration and ,ecome ,oth technologically as 0ell as logically united and strong enough to e3tract a ,right future for us an mother nature*