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Appl. Sci. Res.

THE

OF ORTHOTROPIC

ANALYSIS

SKEW

BRIDGE

by A. COULL

Vol. 16

SLABS

Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University Southampton, England

Summary

A method is presented for tile direct stress analysis of orthotropic skew bridge slabs. The method of analysis employs the Principle of Least Work, in con- junction with the assumption that the stress resultants may be expressed as Fourier series in the chordwise co-ordinate, the coefficients being functions of the spanwise position only. A system of oblique co-ordinates is used to simplify the analysis.

 Nomenclature O(x, y) system of orthogonal co-ordinates O(u, v) system of oblique co-ordinates o; angle between axes Ou, Ov ~,~ non-dimensionM oblique co-ordinates l oblique span of slab L right span of slab C transverse slab width t slab thickness ri c/(2xil) Mx, My, M~y Mu, My, Muv Sx, Sy bending and twisting moments per unit length oblique bending and twisting moments shear forces per unit length normal load intensity p oblique normal load intensity Ez, Ev } elastic moduli defining stress-strain relationships in ortho- Exy, Gxy tropic plates A,j strain energy coefficients F~, Gt bending moment functions R~, S~ twisting moment functions C1, C~, C8 statical bending and twisting moment constants D operator d/d~/ Su, Sv oblique shear forces per unit length

--

178

--

,

SKEW

BRIDGE

SLABS

179

§ 1. Introduction. In spite of the fact that the majority of bridges in this country are skewed in planform, few methods of analysis exist for such structures. Because of the complex boundary con- ditions involved, only approximate analytical or numerical solutions have been produced. Previous solutions have aimed at the determination of the de- flection function, the corresponding moments and shear forces being obtained by double and triple differentiation. Even if the deflections are reasonably accurate, substantial errors are liable to be intro- duced by the process of differentiation. In the present work, this difficulty is avoided by a direct determination of the stress distri- bution in orthotropic skew bridge slabs. The partial differential equation of plate theory is reduced to a set of ordinary linear differential equations by the assumption that the load system and stress resultants in the plate may be expressed as Fourier series in the chordwise co-ordinate, the coefficients being functions of the spanwise position only. The series are chosen to satisfy both the free-edge boundary conditions and equilibrium equations for the plate, and the unknown coefficients are de- termined by minimisation of the strain energy. A system of ob- lique co-ordinates and oblique stress resultants is used to simplify the analysis.

§ 2. Analysis. The structure considered is a thin skew ortho- tropic bridge slab of uniform chord and thickness, simply supported along two opposite edges OA and BC, and free along the other two (fig. 1). In order to deal most conveniently with the free-edge boundary

0

I <

"

C

\ \

~]

Fig. 1. Skew bridge slab.

180

A. COULL

conditions, the stress distribution in the plate may be expressed in terms of a system of oblique bending and twisting moments Mu, My, Muv, and shear forces Su, Sv defined with reference to a skew co-ordinate system O(u, v) (fig. 1), as the oblique components of couples and shear forces per unit length of plate, acting across normal sections parallel to axes Ou and Ov. These are related to the usual orthogonal stress resultants by the transformations

 Mx = Mu sin c~, My = Mu cos ~ cot e q- My cosec c~-- 2Muv cot e, Mxy = Muv -- Mu cos ~, (1) Sx = Su, S v = Su cot ~ + Sv cosec ~.

If (x, y) are the rectangular co-ordinates of a point in the middle surface of the plate, with (u, v) the corresponding skew co-ordinates. then

 x = u sin ~, (2) y = v + u cos ~. For convenience, a set of non-dimensional co-ordinates used, defined with reference to fig. 1 as (7, ~) is

=

u/l,

~

=

2~r

--

C

v.

(3)

On substituting equations (1), (2) and (3) into the small-deflection equations of equilibrium for a thin plate, the equilibrium conditions become, in terms of the skew system of stress resultants,

 1 cnS~ 2~ DSv ----+ +p=0, l c~r~ c O~ 1' OMu 2~ ~Muv s~ = 0, (4) 1 &l c O~ 2~ OMv 1 OMuv S v ~- O~ c ~ l ~

where p is the oblique load intensity, related to the normal ortho- gonal load intensity i~ by the transformation

15 =/5

sin e.

SKEW BRIDGE

SLABS

] 81

On transforming into the oblique system, Kirchhoff's boundary conditions for the free edges of the slab reduce to

 1 ~Muv Mv = S, l ~ -- O.

(5)

Any system of normal loading of skew intensity p may be ex- pressed as a Fourier series of the form

 n P = p0 + X (Pl, cos i~ + p~, sin i~), (6)

where the coefficients of the series are functions o1 the spanwise co- ordinate ~ only, and 'n' is some integer, chosen to enable the series (6) to represent as closely as desired the given load function. Statically correct solutions to the equilibrium equations (4), satis- fying also the free-edge conditions (5), may then be obtained by expressing the skew stress-resultants as corresponding series

Mu

My

Muv :

:

= Z{Mvx,(COS i~ --

Muo +

Z(Mul, cos i~ +

1) +

Mu2, sin i~), My2, sin i~},

Mu,o + Z(M~vl, sin i~ + Murk, cos i~),

(7)

 Su = Su + Z(Sul, cos i~ + Su2, sin i~), 1 dMuvo 1 Z dM~v~, Sv -- I d~ + l d~ +Z(Svl'sini~+Sv2'(c°si~--l)}

in which, in every case, summation is to be carried out in the range i = 1 to n. The coefficients of the series are again assumed to be functions of the spanwise position ~ only. Substitution of equations (6) and (7) into (4) yields three equi- librium conditions which must be true for all values of ~. Hence, on equating corresponding coefficients, a set of (6n + 3) equations in terms of the original (10n + 3) unknown functional coefficients of equations (7) is obtained, enabling the stress resultant system to be expressed in terms of a chosen set of 4n arbitrary functions. If these arbitrary functions are defined as

 Mul, = Fi(V), Mu2, -~ Gi(~), Muvl, : R,(~]), Muv2, = Sl(~),

the bending and twisting moments, and shear forces become, on

182

solving

Mu

=

A. COULL

the resultant set of equations

{c2 + clz~

_f

(f po(*) z2 dr) d~} +

 0 0 + X(Fi cos it + G, sin it)

E{(r~D2Ft -- 2r,DR, + pl l~r~)(cos it --

1) +

+ (r~D2Gi + 2riDS, + p2~12ry)sin it}

Muv

Sv

~_

Ca + ½Z{r~DG~ + f p212ri d,/} +

+ X(R, sin it

0

S, cos it)

+

C1--

f

0

pol d~ +

X

1

lrt

•{(r,DFi -- R d cos it

+

(riDG, +

S d sin it}

zG

1

{(r~DR, -- r~D2F, -- p~12r~) sin it +

+ (r~DZG, + riDS, + p~,12r~)(cos it --

+ ½(r~D2G,+ 2r,DS, + p2Fr~)}

1) +

(8)

in which, for simplicity, the operator D = d/d~ is used, ri = c/(2~il), and C1, C2 and Ca are constants, the former two being dependent on the overall statical conditions of spanwise (bending and shear) equi- librium, the latter being dependent on torsional conditions in the slab. As the overall system is statically determinate, the support re- actions at ,/= 0, 1 are found to be

Ro ~

1

lc f po(1 -- ~1) d~,

0

R1 =

1

lc f

0

po~ d~

and the total skew spanwise moment and shear force at any section

*1becomes, on using the transformations

(1),

-~u

Su

 = Rol~ -- f po('r) 12c(~ -- 0 ~7 = Ro -- f po(r) lc dr. o

-r) d-r,

(9)

The total internal spanwise bending moment and shear forces are

SKEW

BRIDGE

SLABS

183

given by, in the skew system,

Mu

=

2~

Mu

d~,

~,u :

cj

~-

2n

Mu d~.

(10)

0

0

(3) into

sulting moments and shear forces with (9), the constants C1 and C2 are found to be

On

substituting

equations

(10), and

comparing

the

re-

1

 C1 = /|'po(l --~)d~7-- Ro, (11) d C 0 C2 = 0.

The solution is left at present in terms of the constant C3. For an orthotropic plate, the stress-strain relations for the case of plane stress in the 0 (x, y) plane may be written

 ~x = Exez + Exyey, fly ~ Exyex + Eyey, "rxy ~ Gxyyxy.

By making the usual assumption that strains are proportional to their distances from the middle surface of the plate, the strain energy of bending may be shown to be

u

-

~t 3

 1 2n {A1MX + A2M~ + A3ML + 2A12M~,Mv -- o o -- 2A13MuMuv -- 2A23MvMuv} d~ d~,

(12)

where the coefficients A assume tile forms

A

1

=

A{(E' -- 2EzvGxv) cos 2 c~sin 2 ~ +

Gzy(Ex cos 4 ~ + Ey sin 4 ~)},

A 2

A 3

= 4{E,,G~,y},

= A{E' sin 2~ +

4ExGxv cos2 ~},

A 12 =

A

13 =

A{Gxy(Ez cos 2 c~-- Exv sin~ ~)},

A{E' cos c~sin 2 ~ +

2Gxv(Ex cos 2 ~ -- Exv sin 2 c~) cos c~},

A 23 = A{2ExGxv cos a},

 184 A. COULL in which

zl --

cosec

GxyE'

and

E'

=

ExEy

--

Exy.

Substitution of equations (8) into (12), followed by integration over the width of the plate, yields an energy integral of the form

U --

1

3cl t3 f

0

/(F,, G,, R,, S,, 7) d~.

This integral must be a minimum, by virtue of the Principle of Least Work. Minimisation by the calculus of variations leads to a set of 4n hnear differential equations with constant coefficients, together with a complete set of boundary conditions which arise naturally in the minimising procedure. On performing the process, it is found that the condition for minimum energy is that the functionals Fi, G,, R, and S, obey the following set of differential equations

(A~r~D4 + 2A12r~D2 + A1) F, -- 2(A2r~D~ +

A12r,D) Ri +

+

~

t=l

A2ar~DSG~-- (A2ar~D2 +

AI~) S, +

+ 2A2 Z

1=1

(r~D4Fj- 2r~DSRj + 12r~D2pl,) +

+ 2A12poFr~ + (A2r~D~ + A12)pi,Fr~ +

+

A~.3 ~

l~r~Dpej ----0,

i=1

(A23riD2

2 +

Ala) R, --

(A 2r~D4 +

2A 12r~D~ +

A 1) G, --

--

2(A2r~D~ + A19.r,D) S, +

/b

+ A23 Z

~=1

+ ½As ~

f=l

(r~D2GI+ P2,12r~)--

-- Ala(Cllr, -- f pol2r, d~) --

0

(13a)

SKEW

BRDIGE

SLABS

A12r,D) F, -- (4A2r~D 2 -- A3) Ri --

185

-- (A23r/2D2 4- A13) G~ -- 4A2ar,DSl 4-

+ 4A2

~

j=l

4, 2A~3 E

i=1

(r~DUG~4" P2/2r~) -- 4A12(Cllri -- f pol2ri d2]) 4"

0

+ 2A 212raDpl, -- A 23P2f2r2 =

0

(13c)

(A23r,~D2 +

Ala) F, -- 4A23r,DRi 4" 2(A2raDa 4" A12r,D) G, 4"

4" (4A2r/2D~ -- Aa) S, 4" A23P1,12r~4"

4" 2A 212raOp2, = 0,

(i =

1, 2

n).

(13d)

The required boundary conditions are derived from the integrated terms which arise in the minimising procedure, in conjunction with the known physical edge requirements of vanishing normal moment and deflection. In this case, the appropriate boundary conditions reduce to, at ~ -----0, 1.

Fi = G~ = 0

A~((r~D2FI -- 2rtDRt 4" Pl,/2r/2) 4"

2

i=1

(4D

F; --

2rjDRj +

-- A 2a{S~ -- 2(Ca 4" ½ ~

i=1

(rDG, 4" f P2,12r,d~))} = 0,

0

(14)

A2(r~D2Gi 4" 2r~DS~ 4- p2,12r~) -- A23Ri = O.

At any spanwise section W, the overall twisting moment, about

the edge v =

0, of the internal stress resultants is given by

T~ = f

o

(Mzv 4" Sxv) dv,

which becomes, on using equations (1) and (8),

T~=c{Cs--½2(rDGi4,2s,--fp212ri

o

d0-

 --(Cll~ -- f ( f Po(')12d'r)d~])cos~ 4"2 (Cl-- f flold~])}. o o o

186

A. COULL

The total twisting moment on the bridge slab, due to the extelnal load system, is

 1 e r = f f pv dv du,

o o

which becomes, on substitution of equation (6),

1

T = f {½pol2c -- Sp~,l%ri} d~7.

o

The condition of torsional equilibrium for the slab is that T = = T(~ = 0) -- T(~ = 1), in which the undetermined constant Ca vanishes. Thus, as the internal stress resultants are chosen to be in statical equilibrium with the applied loads, torsional equilibrium is always maintained irrespective of the value of the constant Ca. On minimising the strain energy by differentiating the integral with respect to Ca, and using the boundary conditions (14), the constant C~ eventually reduces to

C3 =

--½ f

o

1

Z f P2~12r,d~ @ o

+Al:~-{½GZ--f (f {fPoe~)12d~'Idv)dv}--

o

o

o

0

1

The problem then reduces to the solution of the set of linear simultaneous equations (13), subject to the boundary conditions (14) and the torsional condition (15).

§ 3. Example. As a particular example, in order to compare the present results with previous solutions, the case is considered of a skew slab subjected to a uniformly distributed load of oblique in- tensity p0.~For a simple load system of this form,, the series with

1 in equations (7) is assumed adequate to describe the stress distribution,

n

=

SKEW BRIDGE

S LABS

187

The moments and shear forces are then given by

 Mu = ½Po12(*l -- ,12) + F cos ~ + G sin ~. My = (raD2F -- 2rDR)(cos ~ -- I) + (r2D2G + 2rDS) sin ~. Muv = Ca q- ½rDG + R sin ~ -1- S cos ~. 1 Su = ½Po/(1 -- 2.1) + -~r {(rDF -- R) cos \$ + (rDG + S) sin ~}. 1 Sv -~ l-~-{(rDR -- r2D2F) sin ~e_~_ (r2D2G @ rDS)(cos ~ -- 1) -~

+

½(r2D2G q- 2rDS)}.

The governing equations (13) reduce to, respectivelY,

 (3A~r4D4 + 2Al~r2D2 + A1) F -- 2(3A2raD a + A12rD) R + q- A2araDaG -- (Aear2D 2 q- Ala) S q- 2A12Po12r 2 = O, (16a) (2A2araDa) F -- 2(A2ar2D2 -- Ala) R -- -- {2A2r4D 4 + (4A12 -- Aa) rg'D2 + 2A1} G -- -- 4(A2raD a q- A12/D) S -- AlaPol2r(1 -- 2,1) = 0. (16b) 2(3A2raD a + AI~rD) F -- (12A2rgD 2 -- Aa) R + + (A2ar2D 2 -- Ala) G -- (4A2~rD) S -- 2A12Pol~r(1 -- 2.1) = 0. (16c) (A23r2D 2 + Ala) F -- 4A2arDR q- 2(A2raD a + A12rD) G + q- (4A2r2D 2 -- As) S -- 0, (16d) where r = c/(2xl), and, for convenience, the suffices have been omitted from the unknown functions. The boundary conditions become, at .1 = 0, 1, F=G=0, 3A2(r2D2F-- 2rDR) -- A23(S -- rDG -- 2Ca) = 0,

where

A2(r2D2G

+

2rDS)

--

A2aR

=

O,

 1 Ala A2a Ca- pol 2 -- -- [r2D2F -- 2rDR]01. 12 Aa Aa

For the particular

the

same

right

span

case of an isotropic plate

and

chord,

of 45 ° skew. and with

by

solutions have

been

obtained

188

A. COULL

Jensenl), using finite difference techniques, by Rushton2), using an electrical analogue, by Daya), using the 'dynamic relaxation' method, and by the author4), using a direct experimental investi- gation. This particular plate problem is useful as a test of the analysis, since it represents a high degree of skew, and the span: chord ratio is sufficiently low to give wide variations of stress in the chordwise direction.

Fig. 2. Comparison

(A) ?-o.s

between

t~

6

Fig. 2a

stress

resultant

-/

[v1~

X

distributions

at

spa,nwise

positions ~ = 0.5 and 0.35, for skew angle of 45°.

Overall statical conditions are always satisfied, but, with a uni- form load, checks on the numerical work are afforded by the fact that the functions F and S must be symmetrical, and G and R must be anti-symmetrical, about the centreline of the slab. The results from the present theory are compared with the previ- ous solutions, for two typical spanwise positions, in figs. 2(a) and

SKEW

BRIDGE

SLABS

189

2(b), the values being expressed as ratios of the mid-span bending moment given by ordinary beam theory. A value of Poisson's ratio ot 0.3 was used in the calculations. Reasonable agreement is obtained between chordwise bending and twisting moments, and between spanwise bending moments at mid-span. Greater discrepancies occur between spanwise bending moments at the typical off-central asymmetrical position investi- gated, since the few terms used in the series approximations are incapable of reproducing accurately the large variations of moment

./,"

ACUTE

/

EDGE

o

i

o U SE

~.

EDGE ~"

~4,9

¢~o °~

s ~

.i

LEGEND

i

(5

I

>

i

-

I PRESENT THEORY

-/

.~

 0 JEN SEN'S RESULTS X RUSHTON'S RESULTS

-----

DAY'S

EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS

RESULTS

(s) ?=0.35

Fig. 2b

Fig. 2. Comparison between stress resultant distributions at spanwise positions ~ = 0.5 and 0.35, for skew ~ngle of 45 °.

190

SKEW BRIDGE SLABS

across the chord of the plate. However, the maximum values, which are of greatest interest for design calculations, are given fairly accurately. The use of full-range Fourier series compels the stress resultants to have the same magnitude at the free edges, at each spanwise position. This restriction is most serious in the case of the spanwise moments, which have the greatest chordwise range of values. For the given number of terms in the assumed series, greater accuracy must be expected for smaller skew angles, where chordwise stress variations are not so great.

§ 4. Conclusions. An approximate method has been presented for the direct determination of the stress distribution in orthotropic skew bridge slabs. Any degree of approximation may be made, de- pending on the number of terms used in the assumed series for the stress resultants in the plate, the problem finally reducing to a set of linear differential equations, with constant coefficients as a result of using an oblique system of both co-ordinates and stress resultants. Although laborious, the solution of the resulting set of equations is fairly straightforward with the aid of modern computing facilities. The free-edge boundary conditions, which are usually difficult to deal with along skew edges, are satisfied readily by the use of an oblique system of stress-resultants. The method presented is an extension of an analysis developed originally for the direct determination of the stress distribution in right bridge slabsS). With skew slabs, it is no longer possible to simplify the problem by splitting any load system into symmetrical and antisymmetrical components with respect to the spanwise centreline.