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Induction Motors

Masoud Fathizadeh, PhD, PE

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology

Purdue Calumet

Hammond, Indiana 43323

3-Phase Induction Motors

Introduction

3-Phase Induction Motors

Introduction

• 3-phase induction motors are simple, rugged, low cost, and easy to

maintain.

• They run at essentially

constant speed from zero-to-full load.

• Therefore, they are the

motors most frequently encountered in industry.

3-Phase Induction Motors Introduction 3-Phase Induction Motors Introduction • 3 -phase induction motors are simple, rugged,

Lecture Outline

Induction Motor Components • Operating Principle • Synchronous Speed and Slip • Active Power Flow • Torque/Speed Curves • Starting & Braking Induction Motors • Abnormal Operating Conditions • Standard Classifications of Induction Motors

Induction Motor Components

A 3-phase induction motor has two main parts:

• A stator – consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow,

cylindrical core of stacked laminations. Slots on the internal

circumference of the stator house the stator winding.

• A rotor – also composed of punched laminations, with rotor slots for

the rotor winding.

Induction Motor Components • A 3-phase induction motor has two main parts: • • A stator

Induction Motor Components

There are two-types of rotor windings:

• Squirrel-cage windings, which produce a squirrel-cage induction motor (most common) • Conventional 3-phase windings made of insulated wire, which produce a wound-rotor induction motor (special characteristics)

Induction Motor Components

Squirrel cage rotor consists

of copper bars, slightly

longer than the rotor, which are pushed into the slots. The ends are welded to

copper end rings, so that

all the bars are short circuited. In small motors, the bars and end-rings are die cast

in aluminum to form

an integral block.

Induction Motor Components Squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars, slightly longer than the rotor, which
Induction Motor Components Squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars, slightly longer than the rotor, which

Induction Motor Components

A wound rotor has a 3-phase winding, similar to the stator

winding.

The rotor winding terminals are connected to three slip

rings which turn with the rotor. The slip rings/brushes

allow external resistors to be connected in series with

the winding.

The external resistors are mainly used during start-up

under normal running conditions the windings short circuited

externally.

Induction Motor Components • A wound rotor has a 3-phase winding, similar to the stator •

Induction Motor: Operating principle

Operation of 3-phase induction motors is based upon the application of

Faraday’s Law and the Lorentz Force on a conductor.

Consider a series of conductors (length L) whose extremities are shorted by

bars A and B. A permanent magnet moves at a speed v, so that its magnetic field sweeps across the conductors.

Induction Motor: Operating principle • Operation of 3-phase induction motors is based upon the application of

Induction Motor: Operating principle

The following sequence of events takes place:

  • 1. A voltage E = BLv is induced in each conductor while it is being cut by the Flux (Faraday’s Law)

  • 2. The induced voltage produces currents which circulate in a loop around the conductors (through the bars).

  • 3. Since the current-carrying conductors lie in a magnetic field, they experience a mechanical force (Lorentz force).

  • 4. The force always acts in a direction to drag the conductor along with the

magnetic field. Now close the ladder upon itself to form a squirrel cage, and place it in a rotating magnetic field you have an induction motor!

Induction Motor: Operating principle The following sequence of events takes place: 1. A voltage E =

Induction Motor: Rotating Field

Consider a simple stator with 6 salient poles - windings AN, BN, CN.

The windings are mechanically spaced at 120° from each other. The windings are connected to a 3- phase source.

AC currents Ia, Ib and Ic will flow in

the windings, but will be displaced in time by 120°.

Each winding produces its own MMF,

which creates a flux across the

hollow interior of the stator.

The 3 fluxes combine to produce a magnetic field that rotates at the same frequency as the supply.

Induction Motor: Rotating Field Consider a simple stator with 6 salient poles - windings AN, BN,

Induction Motor: Rotating Field

Induction Motor: Rotating Field

Induction Motor Rotating Field

Direction of rotation

The phase current waveforms follow each other in the sequence A-B-C. This produces a clockwise rotating magnetic field. If we interchange any two of the lines connected to the stator, the new phase sequence will

be A-C-B.

This will produce a counterclockwise rotating field,

reversing the motor direction.

Induction Motor – Rotating Field Direction of rotation The phase current waveforms follow each other in

Induction Motor: Stator Winding

In practice, induction motors have internal diameters that are smooth, instead of having salient poles. In this case, each pole covers 180° of the inner circumference of the rotor (pole pitch = 180°). Also, instead of a single coil per pole, many coils are lodged in adjacent slots. The staggered coils are connected in series to form a phase group. Spreading the coil in this manner creates a sinusoidal flux distribution per pole, which improves performance and makes the motor less noisy.

Induction Motor: Stator Winding In practice, induction motors have internal diameters that are smooth, instead of
Induction Motor: Stator Winding In practice, induction motors have internal diameters that are smooth, instead of

Induction Motor:

Number of Poles Synchronous Speed

The rotating speed of the revolving

flux can be reduced by increasing the number of poles (in multiples of two). In a four-pole stator, the phase groups span an angle of 90°. In a six-pole stator, the phase groups span an angle of 60°. This leads to the definition of synchronous speed:

Ns = 120 f / p

Ns = synchronous speed (rpm) f = frequency of the supply (Hz)

p = number of poles

In Australia (50Hz), synchronous

speeds include 3000rpm,

1500rpm, 1000 rpm, 750rpm…

Induction Motor: Number of Poles – Synchronous Speed The rotating speed of the revolving flux can

Induction Motors: Operation

Locked rotor: When the rotor is stationary, the field rotates at a

frequency (relative to the rotor) equal to the supply frequency. This induces a large voltage hence large currents flow within the rotor, producing a strong torque.

Acceleration: When released, the rotor accelerates rapidly. As speed

increases, the relative frequency of the magnetic field decreases. Therefore, the induced voltages and currents fall rapidly as the motor accelerates.

Synchronous speed: The relative frequency of the rotating field is zero,

so the induced currents and voltages are also zero. Therefore, the

torque is zero too. It follows, that induction motors are unable to reach synchronous speed due to losses such as friction.

Motor under load: The motor speed decreases until the relative

frequency is large enough to generate sufficient torque to balance

the load torque.

Induction Motors: Slip

The difference between the synchronous speed and rotor speed can be expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed, known as the slip.

s = slip, Ns = synchronous speed (rpm), N = rotor speed (rpm)

• At no-load, the slip is nearly zero (<0.1%).

• At full load, the slip for large motors rarely exceeds 0.5%. For small

motors at full load, it rarely exceeds 5%.

• The slip is 100% for locked rotor.

s = (Ns N)/Ns

Induction Motors:

Frequency induced in the rotor

f R =f s

The frequency induced in the rotor depends on the slip:

fR = frequency of voltage and current in the rotor

f = frequency of the supply and stator field

s = slip

Induction Motors: Active Power Flow

Efficiency by definition, is the ratio of output / input power:

Rotor copper losses:

Mechanical power:

Motor torque:

η = Pm / Pe Pjr = sPr Pm =( 1− s )Pr

Induction Motors: Active Power Flow Efficiency – by definition, is the ratio of output / input

Induction Motors: Torque/Speed Curve

Induction Motors: Torque/Speed Curve

Induction Motors: Torque/Speed Curve

Induction Motors: Torque/Speed Curve

Induction Motors: Torque/Speed Curve

Induction Motors: Torque/Speed Curve

Induction Motors: Torque/Speed Curve

The torque (T s ) produced at a slip (s) by an induction motor is given (approximately) by:

Induction Motors: Torque/Speed Curve The torque (T ) produced at a slip (s) by an induction

where s m is the slip for maximum torque and T m is the maximum torque.

Complete Torque-Speed Curve for and Induction Motor

Complete Torque-Speed Curve for and Induction Motor

Induction Motors: Effect of Rotor Resistance

Induction Motors: Effect of Rotor Resistance

Induction Motors: Effect of Rotor Resistance

Induction Motors: Effect of Rotor Resistance

Induction Motors: Effect of Rotor Resistance Wound rotor machine provides option of variable rotor resistance

Induction Motors: Effect of Rotor Resistance Wound rotor machine provides option of variable rotor resistance

Starting an Induction Motor

High-inertia loads put a strain on induction motors because they prolong the starting period. The current is high during this interval such that overheating is a major concern.

Rule of Thumb 1:

The heat dissipated in the rotor during start-up (from zero to rated speed) is equal to the final

kinetic energy stored in all the revolving parts.

Assumes motor is not loaded mechanically (apart from inertia)

Braking an Induction Motor

Sometimes an induction motor (and its load) needs to be stopped suddenly. This can be achieved by interchanging the phase sequence, so that the field is rotating backwards relative to the rotor. This is known as plugging.

During plugging, the motor absorbs kinetic energy from the still rotating load and dissipates it

as heat in the rotor. However, the motor also continues to receive electrical power from the

supply, which is also dissipated as heat in the rotor.

Rule of Thumb 2:

The heat dissipated in the rotor during plugging (from rated to zero speed) is equal to three times the kinetic energy stored in all the revolving parts.

Assumes motor is not loaded mechanically (apart from inertia)

Abnormal Operating Conditions

  • 1. Mechanical overload

  • 2. Supply voltage changes

  • 3. Frequency variation

Abnormal Operating Conditions

4. Single phasing

Abnormal Operating Conditions 4. Single phasing

Standardization of Induction Motors

The frames of all industrial motors under 500hp have standardized dimensions.

Therefore, motors (of the same frame size) can be interchanged without changing the mounting holes, the shaft height or the shaft coupling.

The standards also establish limiting values for electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics (such as starting torque, locked-rotor current, overload capacity and temperature rise).

Classifications According to Operating Environment

  • 1. Drip-proof motors

  • 2. Splash proof motors

  • 3. Totally enclosed, non-ventilated motors

  • 4. Totally enclosed, fan-cooled motors

  • 5. Explosion-proof motors

Classifications According to Operating Environment 1. Drip-proof motors 2. Splash proof motors 3. Totally enclosed, non-ventilated

Explosion proof motor

Classifications According to Electrical/Mechanical Properties

  • 1. Motors with standard locked-rotor torque (NEMA B) Good for fans, centrifugal pumps, machine tools…

  • 2. High-starting torque motors (NEMA C) Good for starting under load hydraulic pumps and piston-type compressors

  • 3. High-slip motors (NEMA D) Good for starting high-inertia loads

Classifications According to Electrical/Mechanical Properties

Classifications According to Electrical/Mechanical Properties

The End