Sie sind auf Seite 1von 107

Bachelor of Public Health (B Public Health) Curriculum Proposal A Project of the Ministry of Health and School of Public Health

School of Public Health College of Health Sciences University of Ghana P. O. Box LG13 Legon - Accra, Ghana Degree Awarding Institution University of Ghana, Legon

JUNE, 2010

Proposal for the Undergraduate Programme in Public Health


Introduction and Background The School of Public Health was established in 1994 in response to a growing demand for a cadre of public health practitioners who will provide leadership in public health practice as well as increase the public health workforce. The School has various graduate programmes which are now well established. At the inception of the School, the Ministry of Health requested that a Diploma programme should be instituted as part of the Schools programmes. The Diploma programme was intended to improve the competencies of the frontline public health practitioners. Currently, the University of Ghana has phased out Diploma programmes. The School of Public Health in fulfilling the expectations of the Ministry of Health to develop middle level human resources for the health sector has now designed an undergraduate programme, i.e. Bachelor of Public Health (BPH) instead of the proposed Diploma Programme. The pre-service training programmes of the middle level health professionals have been upgraded to the diploma level. The Health Training Schools run these programmes and graduates from these programmes are motivated and encouraged to uphold continuing professional education. This is necessary for maintaining the quality and level of health care delivery. Thus, this undergraduate programme has been designed to offer opportunities for these middle level health professionals to upgrade themselves and promote continuing professional development.

Justification for Undergraduate Programme in Public Health (BPH) The training programme is designed with the view to developing capacity to improve the implementation of public health programmes and interventions. It is intended to help develop mid-level public health practitioners who will work at the district level and programme level in the Ghana Health Service and its Allied institutions. Expected start date 2010 -2011 Academic year. Process of Curriculum Development The curriculum was developed through a series of workshops organised by the School of Public Health and the Ministry of Health/Ghana Health Service. The staff of the Departments of the School, namely Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Disease Control, Health Policy, Planning and Management, Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Social and Behavioural Sciences, Biological, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences helped to develop the relevant sections. The curriculum was circulated widely and received inputs from the relevant training institutions of the Ministry of Health and the Directors of the Ghana Health Service particularly the following divisions: 1

Human Resource and Development Division/Ghana Health Service Human Resource and Development Division/Ministry of Health Public Health Division Ghana Health Service Family Health division Ghana Health Service The Kintampo Rural Health Training Institution/Ministry of Health Programmes available under the Bachelor of Public Health The following programme options are available. They are: Public Health Nursing Nutrition Applied Environmental Health Sciences Disease Prevention and Control Health Information Systems Health Promotion Population Mental Health

Fieldwork Field practice in June August is mandatory every year for students at level 300. Students are required to participate in a field practicum of at least 8-10 weeks duration. Experiences to be gained include: community diagnoses, report writing, developing implementation strategies, and presenting reports at community meetings. During this period, students are given the opportunity to work at a district or health department. Students will then develop papers relevant to their practicum experience, into a project. The student will be provided with an opportunity to take a principal role in the development and conduct of a project within a community or a health department. The student will apply the principles learned in the classroom to planning, implementation, analysis and interpretation of the project. The project is to be completed within one academic year. The amount of time the student will spend at the agency or health department is expected to vary according to the needs of the project. The student will generally be expected to spend a greater time conducting background research, collecting and analysing data, writing up results and interpretation for the final report. Examples of field work projects could include programme evaluations, needs assessments, surveys, intervention implementation and analysis of existing data. Deployment of Bachelor of Public Health Programme The programme is being designed at the request of the Ministry of Health and Ghana Health Service. 2

The programme will be therefore be deployed for FIVE years in the first instance as a project. In the first five years of the programme, the School of Public Health proposes to only admit students with diploma certificates who are already working in the health service to Level 200 for a 3-year programme. However, candidates with diplomas will have their diploma coursework evaluated after admission, and if it is found out that they have undertaken all the Level 200 courses offered in the programme, they would be credited with those courses and moved to Level 300. It is worthy of note that the School of Public Health has been working with the Health Training Institutions of the Ministry of Health in drawing up the proposed curriculum taking into consideration courses covered at the diploma level.

REGULATIONS GOVERNING ADMISSIONS AND THE GENERAL ACADEMIC PROGRAMME OF THE BACHELOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH 1. 1.1 GENERAL UNIVERSITY REGULATIONS The University, since 1992 has re-modeled its academic structure in modular form and organized its academic calendar into a semester system. Instruction takes the form of courses evaluated in terms of credits. Units of Courses are examinable at the end of every semester and, if passed, a student shall earn credit(s) for the Units. The courses are coded and numbered in progressive order of difficulty or in levels of academic progression. (a) Each Faculty shall provide detailed information about the structure of courses leading to the award of Bachelors Degrees. (b) It is the responsibility of each student registered at the University of Ghana to be familiar with the specific requirements of the bachelors degree which he/she plans to pursue as well as the rules, regulations and policies of the University and of the Faculties or departments or Schools concerned. 1.3 Each student is responsible for ensuring that the courses in which registration is effected satisfy the programme requirements of the bachelors degree sought; advice and/or counseling for all who need assistance is freely available. It is also understood that every student by the act of registering agrees to abide by all rules, regulations and policies of the University of Ghana and of the Faculties, Departments or Schools in which that student is registered Each student is expected to be familiar with the General Information outlined in this Handbook as well as the information pertaining to the Faculty or 3

1.2

1.4

1.5

Department or School in which he/she is enrolled. Students shall therefore be held liable for any lapses. When in doubt, students may consult their Heads of Department in writing with a copy to the Director, Academic Affairs Directorate asking that advice be given in writing. 1.6 The University reserves the right to conduct academic work (especially examinations) in any particular day of the week. Except with the express approval of the Vice-Chancellor, no student is permitted to register for two programmes at the same time either within or outside the University. The sanction for such an offence shall be the cancellation of the University registration or loss of studentship. The University reserves the right to change rules, regulations and policies, as well as programme and course requirements given in this Handbook without prior notice. Exemption from any of these General Regulations may be granted only by the express permission of the Academic Board on the recommendation of the appropriate Faculty Board.

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0 THE BACHELOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMME 2.1 ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS Admissions eligibility shall be as follows: 2.1.1 DIPLOMA Candidates with Diploma in health or related sciences who satisfy the requirements for admission shall enter at Level 200 (the second year of the 4-year bachelors degree programme). Students admitted to Level 200 may be given exemption for some courses based on previous studies. 2.1.2 Credits for Courses undertaken. Candidates who have taken prescribed level 200 courses at the Diploma level will be credited with such courses. The Requirements: (i) Candidates with Diplomas awarded by University of Ghana, Institutions recognized by or affiliated to the University of Ghana and Institutions 4

under the Ministry of Health shall require an FGPA of better/equivalent and shall attend a selection interview. (ii)

3.2

or

Diplomas awarded by institutions other than those indicated in (i) above may be considered eligible on recommendation by a special committee to be appointed by the Dean. The committee shall assess the candidates transcripts and the course content of the diploma to determine the suitability of his/her previous training and make recommendations accordingly, to the Dean. Shortlisted candidates shall be required to sit an entrance examination attend a selection interview. and

2.2

ACADEMIC SESSION/ STRUCTURE

The academic year shall be two semesters. The First Semester session covers the period of August December and the Second Semester runs from January May. Each Semester is structured as follows: 13 weeks of Teaching 1 week of Revision 3 weeks of Examination

2.2.1

REGISTRATION

For a student to obtain credits in any course, he or she must be admitted into the School and must be properly registered for that course during the official registration period at the beginning of each semester. The student shall plan his/her courses in consultation with his/her course Advisor.

2.3

INTERNSHIP TRAINING

Students shall be affiliated to relevant institutions for their internship training during the long vacation of Level 300.

2.4

DURATION OF PROGRAMME

The duration of the BSc. Public Health Programme for individuals entering at various levels shall be as follows: 5

Level 100 entrants: Minimum of 8 semesters and maximum of 10 semesters Level 200 entrants: Minimum of 6 semesters and maximum of 8 semesters A Student who is unable to complete the programme within the stipulated maximum period shall forfeit all accumulated credits and lose his/her studentship. Such a student may however re-apply for admission into the University. The minimum and maximum periods are calculated from the date of first registration. 2.5 STUDY PROGRAMME FOR THE BACHELORS DEGREE

The Total Study Programme for the B. Public Health shall comprise the following: (i) General University Requirement (ii) Faculty Requirement (iii) Core Courses (to be determined by the School) (iv) Elective Courses (to be determined by the School/Department)

2.5.1

General University Requirement

(i) African Studies is a requirement for graduation by all students irrespective of their level of entry. 2.6 INTERRUPTION OF PROGRAMME OF STUDY

2.6.1 A student may interrupt his/her study programme for two continuous semesters only, provided that the maximum period allowable for the completion of the programme is not exceeded. 2.6.2 A student who wishes to interrupt his/her study programme shall apply at least four weeks before the commencement of the semester to his/her Dean of Faculty, through the Director of Academic Affairs, stating reasons why he/she wants to interrupt his/her study programme, and permission duly granted before he/she leaves the University. The decision of the Dean shall then be communicated to the Registrar, who shall also communicate same to the applicant before he/she leaves the University. The Dean, in giving approval, may consult with Counseling and placement Centre, where necessary. 2.6.3 At the express permission of the Vice Chancellor, a student may be permitted to interrupt his/her studies by two additional semesters, but not exceeding four semesters overall. 6

2.6.4 A student who interrupts his/her studies for more than 4 continuous semesters shall be deemed to have lost any accumulated credits. Consequently, his/her Studentship shall be cancelled. Such a student may, however, be allowed to reapply for admission into the University. 2.6.5 Where the ground for interruption of studies is medical, the Director of University Health Services shall be required to advise the Registrar on the propriety and length of period of interruption. The Registrar shall cause the Director of University Health Services to investigate any medical report reaching his office from any health delivery facility outside the University Hospital and advice accordingly. 2.6.6 Any student who does not go through the approved procedures before interrupting his/her studies shall be deemed to have abandoned his/her studentship. Subsequently, the Registrar shall cause the name of such a student to be removed from the student roll. 2.7 COURSE CREDIT One (1) course credit shall be defined as follows: (i) One Hour Lecture (ii) One Hour Tutorial, OR (iii) One Practical session (of two or three hours), OR (iv) Six Hours of Field Work per week for a semester

2.8

CODING AND NUMBERING OF COURSES The courses shall have letter and number codes beginning with four letters signifying a Department or subject, followed by a three-digit number is one of the following ranges: Level 100 Level 200 Level 300 Level 400 : : : : 100 199 200 299 300 399 400 499

The third digit in the number code shall be: Zero (0) Odd (1, 3, 5, 7, or 9) for a course that is offered in both Semesters; for a course offered in the first Semester; 7

Even (2, 4, 6, or 8) 2.9 2.9.1

for a course offered in the second Semester.

MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM WORKLOAD PER SEMESTER A full-time student shall be required to carry a minimum workload of 18 credits per semester and a maximum of 21.

2.9.2 Under special circumstances, a student may, with the approval of the Dean of Faculty, be allowed to carry a workload outside these limits, provided that the minimum workload will not fall below 15 credits per semester. 3.0 GRADING SYSTEM 3.0.1 Student performance in a course shall be graded as follows: Grade Numerical Marks Interpretation A 70 100 Excellent A65 - 69 Very Good B+ 60 - 64 Good B 55 - 59 Above Average B50 54 Average C+ 45 49 Pass C 40 44 Pass D 30 39 Fail F 0 29 Fail X Fail Z Disqualification I Incomplete Y - Continuing 3.0.2 Grade Point (GP): Each Grade is assigned an equivalent grade point as indicated above. The number of (grade) points earned by a student, for each course completed, is computed as the product of the number of credits for the course and the grade point equivalent letter of the grade obtained in that course. 3.0.3 Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA): The students cumulative grade point average is calculated by dividing the total number of grade points obtained, up to any specified time, by the total number for credits of all courses for which the student has registered up to that time. 3.0.4 Final Grade Point Average (FGPA): The FGPA is the CGPA for all courses under consideration calculated up to the end of a students academic programme. 3.1 DEFINITION OF GRADES 8

Grade Point 4.00 3.75 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.00

3.1.1 Pass Grades: Grades A to C constitute Pass grades 3.1.2 Failure Grades: Grades D, F, X, Z constitute Failure grades. 3.1.3 Continuing: A grade Y (for Continuing) shall be awarded at the end of a Semester to any student who is taking a course which continues into the next semester. 4.0 EXAMINATIONS 4.0.1 Continuous Assessment There shall be a continuous assessment of each course taken and marks obtained shall contribute 30% towards the final grade while the end of semester examination contributes 70% of the final mark. (Except for practicals or related courses which may be assessed entirely by continuous assessment). 4.0.2 Long Essay/Project Work Wherever applicable, Long Essay/Project Work shall be submitted for assessment before the date of the last paper of the second semester examination. In default the candidate shall be asked to submit the Long Essay/Project Work the following semester and shall be treated as a Repeat Examination, with all its implications. 4.0.3 End of Semester Examinations (i) Each course, with the exception of a Project, shall normally be completed in one semester. (ii) A final (end-of-semester) examination shall normally be required as a part of every course. An examination schedule showing time and place of examination for each course shall be published each semester The time allotted to the examination papers shall be as follows:
1 Credit Course 2 Credit Course - 1 hour - 2 hours

(i)

3 or 4 Credit Course

-2 to 3 hours

4.1 (i) (ii) (iii)

(iv)

ELIGIBILITY FOR EXAMINATION A student shall attend all such lectures, tutorials, seminars and practicals and undertake all other assignments as are approved by the University. Further to (3.1(i)), a student shall be expected to attend lectures, tutorials, practicals and execute all assignments given. Each Department shall, with the approval of the Academic Board, determine the requirements for the course they offer. A student who does not fulfill the requirement shall not be allowed to take the examination for that course. In any case, a student who is absent for a Cumulative Period of 25% from all lectures, tutorials, practicals and other activities prescribed for any course in any 9

semester shall be deemed to have withdrawn from the course. Such a student shall not be permitted to sit for the semester examination.

5.0
5.1

Credit Hours Required to Graduate


Requirement

A candidate shall be deemed to have: (a) Satisfied all General University and School requirements; (b) Obtained passes in all courses and subjects; (c) Accumulated all the credits for all the courses at Levels 100, 200, 300 and 400 as appropriate for the candidates level of entry. Entry into Level 100 i. Students can take a maximum of 142 credits hours and pass at least 132 credits hours including all core courses.

Entry into Level 200 ii. Students can take a maximum of 112 credits hours and pass at least 102 credit hours including all core courses.

5.2

Eligibility (a) A Bachelors Degree appropriately designated shall be awarded to a candidate who has been properly admitted to the University, has followed the approved courses of study over the prescribed period and has satisfied the conditions. (b) University requirements: i. Evidence of regular enrollment ii. Discharge of all obligations owed to the University iii. A pass in all University required courses i. Satisfactory performance in the appropriate University Examination. School/Department Requirement(s) Satisfactory Discharge of such requirement(s) as may be prescribed for the degree.

(c)

10

5.3

CLASSIFICATION OF BACHELORS DEGREE

5.3.1 All end-of-semester examination results from Level 300 shall be taken into account in the computation of the Final Grade Point Averages (FGPA) for the classification of the bachelors degree. 5.3.2 The GPAs at Levels 300 and 400 shall be weighted in the proportions 2:2. 5.3.3 In the determination of the FGPA, a weighted average of all repeat courses shall be used, as for instance, a 3-credit course with a D at first attempt and an A at the second attempt shall attract a total of 6 credits in the computation of the Grade Point Average of that particular course.

LECTURERS FOR THE B. PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMME Nursing 1. Prof. E.A .Afari 2. Dr. Philip Adongo 3. Dr. Patricia Akweongo 4. Dr. Laura McGough 5. Dr. Gameli Kwame Norgbe 6. Dr. Phyllis Antwi 7. Dr. Moses Aikins Disease Control 1. Prof. Fred Binka 2. Prof. John Gyapong 3. Dr. S. O. Sackey 4. Dr. O. B. Ahmad 5. Dr. Wisdom Atiwoto 6. Mr. Justice Nonvignon 7. Dr Ruben Essena Environmental Sciences 1. Dr. Mawuli Dzodzomenyo 2. Dr. Ishmael Norman 3. Mr. Julius Fobil 4. Mr. Uri McKakpo 5. Mrs. Judith Stephens 6. Mr. Raphael Arku

11

Health Informatics 1. Dr. O. B. Ahmad 2. Dr. Pasmor Kuranchie 4. Dr. Wisdom Atiwoto 5. Mr. Samuel Bosomprah 6. Prof. Fred Binka Nutrition 1. Dr. Richmond Aryeetey 2. Dr. Amos K. Laar 3. Mrs. Margaret Atuahene 4. Ms. Agnes Kotoh 5. Mr. Ireneous N. Soyiri 6. Mr. Thomas Glover-Akpey 7. Dr Margaret Gyapong Health Promotion 1. Dr. Philip Adongo 2. Dr. Margaret Gyapong 3. Dr. Phyllis Darko-Gyeke 4. Mr. Emmanuel Asampong 5. Mr. Kwabena Opoku-Mensah 6. Ms. Yela Awunyo-Akaba 7. Mrs. Mercy Ackumey 8. Dr Ruben Essena

SUMMARY OF COURSES FOR THE B. PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMME. The study programme for the B. Public Health will comprise the following a. General University requirements b. Core Courses c. Prescribed Electives General University Requirements UGRC 110 Academic Writing I UGRC 150 Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning UGRC 220 African Studies *UGRC 130 Understanding Human Societies will be replaced by GSPH 106 Health Behaviour and Society and UGRC 210 Academic Writing II will be replaced by GSPH 214 Writing for Public Health.

12

COURSES FOR LEVEL 100 AND 200


All Courses at levels 100 and 200 are Core (compulsory)

Level 100. Semester 1


Code GSPH 101 GSPH 103 GSPH 105 GSPH 109 UGRC 110 UGRC 150 Total Course Title Anatomy & Physiology Basic science Basic Concepts in Food and Nutrition Basic Concepts in Medical Sociology Academic Writing Critical thinking and Practical Reasoning Credit 3 2 2 2 3 3 15

Level 100. Semester 2


Code GSPH 102 GSPH 104 GSPH 106 GSPH 112 GSPH 114 GSPH 116 GSPH 118 Total Course Title Introduction to Public Health Computing in Public Health Health Behaviour and Society Introduction to Psychology Human Growth and Development Community Entry and Organisation Public Speaking and Presentation Credit 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 15

Level 200. Semester 1


Code GSPH 203 GSPH 205 GSPH 207 GSPH 209 GSPH 211 GSPH 213 GSPH 215 Total Course Title Epidemiology: Principles and Methods Medical Anthropology: Cultural Foundation for Health and Illness Introduction to Biostatistics Introduction to Microbiology Introduction to Pharmacology Introduction to Public Health Ethics Basic Principles of Environmental Health Credit 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 15 13

Level 200 Semester 2.


Code GSPH 202 GSPH 204 GSPH 208 GSPH 212 GSPH 214 UGRC 220 Total Course Title Ecological Approach to Health The Health Care System in Ghana Population, Health and Development Introduction to Research Methods Writing for Public Health African Studies Credit 2 2 3 2 3 3 15

COURSES AT LEVEL 300 AND 400 Level 300 Semester 1


CORE COURSES FOR LEVEL 300 (All Options) Code GSPH 305 GSPH 307 GSPH 309 GSPH 311 GSPH 313 Core Electives Total Course Title Principles of Disease Control Public Health Nutrition Primary Health Care System Environmental Health and Sanitation Monitoring and Evaluation of Health Programmes I Credit 3 2 2 2 13 5-8 18-21

Electives (level 300) Code GSPH 315 GSPH 301 GSPH 303 GSPH 319 GSPH 317 GSPH 321 GSPH 323 GSPH 325 GSPH 327 GSPH 329 GSPH 331 GSPH 333 Course Title Research Methods I Child Survival Programme: Expanded Programme Of Immunization Reproductive Health: Maternal Health Care Neglected Tropical Diseases Introduction to Health Policy Zoonotic Infections Non-Communicable Diseases Environmental Quality and Sanitary Inspection Municipal Sanitary Services and Amenities Hygiene of Food Processing and Handling Introduction to Population and Health Database System Management I Credit 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 14

GSPH 335 GSPH 337 GSPH 339 GSPH 341 GSPH 343 GSPH 345 GSPH 347 GSPH 349 GSPH 351

Health Data Management Information Security Nutrients and their Metabolism Assessment of Nutritional Status Malnutrition and Food Security Contemporary Issues in Health Promotion Health Communications Theory and Practice Research Methods in Social and Behavioural Sciences Information Technology Application in Health Care management

2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2

Level 300 Semester 2


CORE COURSES FOR LEVEL 300 (All Options) Code GSPH 304 GSPH 312 GSPH 314 GSPH 322 GSPH 324 Core Electives Total Course Title Fundamentals of Public Health Surveillance Management and Leadership of Health Services Health Management Information Systems Research Methods I I Public Health Seminar I Credit 2 2 2 2 2 10 8-10 18-20

ELECTIVES(Level 300) Code GSPH 302 GSPH 306 GSPH 308 GSPH 316 GSPH 318 GSPH 326 GSPH 328 GSPH 332 GSPH 334 GSPH 336 GSPH 338 GSPH 342 Course Title Infant and Young Child Feeding Child Survival: Management of the Sick Child Family Planning Methods and Practice School Health Services I Introduction to Occupational Health and Safety Global Climate Change and Health Effects Control of Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases Integrated Disease Surveillance Systems Geographic Information Systems I Water Supply and Treatment Solid Waste Management Pest and Vector Control Credit 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 15

GSPH 344 GSPH 346 GSPH 348 GSPH 352 GSPH 354 GSPH 356 GSPH 358 GSPH 362

Environmental Exposure Assessment System Analysis and Design Data Analysis and Presentation (HMIS) I Applied Nutrition Nutritional Surveillance Lifestyle and Nutrition Behavior Change Communication Mass Communication in Health Education and Public Health

2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2

Level 400 Semester 1


CORE COURSES FOR LEVEL 400 (All Options) GSPH 405 Introduction to Gender and Health Care GSPH 410 Project Work GSPH 413 Scientific Communication including Report Writing GSPH 415 Public Health Ethics Core Electives Total 2 8 2 2 10 (-4) 8-11 18-21

ELECTIVES (Level 400) Code GSPH 401 GSPH 403 GSPH 405 GSPH 407 GSPH 409 GSPH 411 GSPH 417 GSPH 421 GSPH 423 GSPH 427 GSPH 429 GSPH 431 GSPH 433 GSPH 435 Course Title Biostatistics for Public Health Reproductive Health IV Comprehensive Care for HIV/AIDS Introduction to Gender and Health Care School Health Services II Reproductive Health and Culture Health problems of infants and children Database Management II Public Health Surveillance of Chronic Diseases Emergency/ Preparedness and Outbreak Investigation Domestic and Industrial Waste Water Disposal Health Aspects of Housing Gender and Environmental Health Public Health Legislation, Regulation and Enforcement Human Excreta and Sewage Disposal Credit 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 16

GSPH 437 GSPH 439 GSPH 441 GSPH 443 GSPH 445 GSPH 447 GSPH 449 GSPH 451 GSPH 453 GSPH 455 GSPH 457 GSPH 459 GSPH 461 GSPH 463 GSPH 465 GSPH 467

Introduction to Field Epidemiology Geographic Information Systems II Clinical Data Classification and Coding I Electronic Health and Data Systems Data Base Systems and Management II Food and Nutrition Policy Communication for Nutrition and Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition Transition in Ghana Diet and Disease School Feeding Programmes Food Safety and Hygiene Intervention Strategies for Health Promotion Principles and Practice of Community Organisation Psychological Influence on Health School Based Nutrition Education Adolescent Health: Social and Behavioural Perspective

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Level 400 Semester 2


CORE COURSES FOR LEVEL 400 (All Options) GSPH 410 GSPH 414 GSPH 420 Core Electives Total Project Work Public Health Seminar II Field Attachment 8 2 2 8 (-4) 10-13 18-21

ELECTIVES (Level 400) Code Course Title GSPH 402 Health Promotion and Education GSPH 404 Health Care for Aged and Elderly GSPH 406 Mental and Social Health Care GSPH 408 Monitoring and Evaluation of Health Programmes II GSPH 412 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention GSPH 416 International Health Regulations GSPH 418 Global Health Security GSPH 422 Environmental Health Promotion and Education GSPH 424 Institutional Development and Sector Management

Credit 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 17

GSPH 426 GSPH 432 GSPH 434 GSPH 436 GSPH 438 GSPH 442 GSPH 444 GSPH 446 GSPH 448 GSPH 452 GSPH 454

Environmental Epidemiology Medical Records and Management Public Health Programme Planning and Evaluation Clinical Data Classification and Coding II Nutrition Rehabilitation Programmes Food Laws and Regulations Nutrition Seminar Change Interventions for Chronic Disease Rights for the Health of Women and Children Reproductive Health in Developing Countries Mental Health as a Public Health Issue

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS LEVEL 100 Semester 1


GSPH 101 Anatomy & Physiology 3 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course, the student will be able to: Describe the anatomical structures of the respiratory, circulatory, muscular, organs of digestive system and the nervous system State the relationship between the blood supply, lymphatic drainage, nervous system and the organs and structures described. State the metabolic processes and its effects on the body Describe the concept of transport in the biological system Describe the functions of the major organs of the Human body Describe some disorders of the human body Outline the patho-physiology of outlined disorders Discuss the reactions of individuals of different age groups and the family to various disease manifestations and their coping mechanisms Course content Definition and the scope of anatomy; organization of the body systems, the cell, embryology, body cavity and its contents; digestive, respiratory and circulatory system the nervous system; human metabolism other physiological processes.

18

The various organs of the body, their functions in health and illness; The various body systems such as the blood system, the lymphatic system, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system etc. Normal values of the body functions and their relationship to health and illness. Course Readings 1. Elaine N. Marieb, Katja N. Hoehn 2006. Human Anatomy and Physiology 7th Edition. Publisher: Benjamin Cummings 2. Michael McKinley, Valerie O'Loughlin 2005. Human Anatomy: McGraw-Hill 3. Murphy et al, Immuno Biology 7th ed, (2008) Garland Science, New York. 4. Keith L. Moore et al, 2009. Clinically Oriented Anatomy 6th ed. Lippincott Williams & wilkins 5. Rohen J. W. et al, 2006. Color Atlas of Anatomy: A Photographic Study of the Human Body. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 6. Kent Van De Graaff et al, 2001. Schaums Outline of Human Anatomy and Physiology The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. USA. 7. Anatomy & Physiology (2000). Rod S. Seeley, Trent D. Stephens, Philip Tate McGraw-Hill Higher Education/McGraw-Hill Companies 5th edition 8. Silverthorn D. U. et al, 2000. Human Physiology, an Integrated Approach 2nd ed. Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersey. 9. Widmaier P. E., Vanders 2007. Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Function 11th ed McGraw- Hill Companies GSPH 103 Basic Science 2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to State and explain laws of motion, levers, pulleys as well as the phenomenon of work, energy and power Explain principles of optics for example: laws of reflection, real and virtual images, reflection and mirrors, lenses, telescopes etc; State and explain concepts of electricity for example; electrostatics, resonance Outline radioactivity and its application in medicine; State hazards of radiation and how to minimize exposure to radiation Describe atoms, elements and electronic configurations Describe chemical bonding of elements Explain reactions between ions and bases Calculate molarity, percent concentrations of solutions State gas laws and kinetic molecular theory Explain radioactivity, half life and radiation protection Describe the structure of organic substances Describe enzymatic reactions and its effect on the body. Understand the basic principles of genetics and chromosome cytology 19

Describe the principles of parasitism and the important parasitic groups Have an overview of parasites of medical importance Understand the principles and ecological basis of insect and pest control Course Content; Mechanics (Laws of motion, levers and pulleys, work energy and power), Optics (law of reflection, real and virtual images, reflection and refraction, dispersion of light, lenses and lens aberrations, optical instruments eg human eye, magnifying glasses, microscopes and telescopes), electricity and radioactivity. The students will be introduced to measurements, conversion factors, atoms and elements, electronic configuration, the periodic table. Discuss chemical bonding, ionic and covalent bonds, bond polarity. Electrolytes and non- electrolytes, acids and bases, ionization of water, pH scale, buffers. Solutions, water as solvent, nature of solutesolvent interactions, concentration of solutions, structure and oxidation of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. amino acids, protein structure denaturation of proteins by temperature, enzymes and their effects on reactions in the body, nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, base pairing. Basic concepts in genetics, Sickle cell disease, thalassemias and related genetic diseases, genetic screening, principles of parasitism, parasitic groups and their relation to disease, insects of medical importance, principles of pest control. Course Reading 1. Ken Dobson, David Grace and David Lovett. Physics. 2008. Collins Educational 3rd Revised Edition 2. Crowell Benjamin, 2008. Newtonian Physics, Fullerton, California 3. Richard A. Muller, 2009. Physics For Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines Norton. 4. Charles Robert Cross, 2007. Course in Elementary Physics (2007), Press of A.A. Kingman 5. Chris Conoley & Phil Hills. 2008. Chemistry. Collins Educational;3rd Revised Edition 6. Steven S Zumdahl 2000 Introductory Chemistry: A foundation, 5 th Edition, University of Illinois 7. Lionel M. Raff, (2001), Principles of Physical Chemistry. Prentice Hall 8. Clyde Metz, (1988) Schaums Outlines of Physical Chemistry 2 nd Ed., McGrawHill Publication. 9. Steven S. Zumdahl & Susan Zumdahl. 1999. Chemistry 5th ed (1999), Houghton Mifflin Company 10. Jeffrey K Conner. 2004. A primer of ecological genetics. Sinauer Associated Incorporated 11. Jaroslav Weiser, 1991. Biological control of Vectors, John Wiley publishers. 12. D Marvin Gliek et al 1991. The Process of Science: Seven Studies of Life 4 th ed Hunter 20

Campbell NA, Reece JB. Biology. 2004. 7th ed. Redwood City, CA: Benjamin Cummings; 14. Freeman S. Biological science. 2004 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
13.

GSPH 105 Basic Concepts in Food and Nutrition Course Objectives At the end of this course, the student should be able to: Understand the dimensions of the food systems and barrier to food access Discuss the quality and attributes of food and how it is influenced by technology Identify the major nutrients derived from food, their sources and the role they play in growth and metabolism Describe the role of food and nutrition in health and survival Discuss the concept of food habits and the factors that shape peoples food habits Course content Agriculture, food storage, food systems and food security; food preservation, food development and sensory characteristics; nutrients and food sources; carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals; cultural economic and traditional factors that shape food habits Course Readings 1. Shils ME,Shike M,Ross AC, Caballero B,Cousins RJ Eds.2009 Modern nutrition in health and disease.Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.Philadelphia 2. Gibney MJ,Vorster HH,Cassidy A, Lanham S (Eds.)Introduction to Human Nutrition.Blackwell Publishing .Oxford 1. James Hartley & Wilbert J. Mckeachie, 1990. Teaching Psychology: a handbook: readings from Teaching of Psychology Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2. Richard A. Griggs et al, 2001 Handbook for Teaching Introductory Psychology with an Emphasis on Assessment. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 3. Michael W. Eysenck 2000. Fundamentals of Psychology. Psychology Press. GSPH 109 Basic Concepts in Medical Sociology 2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: 1. Learn the concepts in medical sociology 2. Understand the social determinants of health and illness 3. Learn about medical pluralism 4. Learn about the institutional and organization setting of health care systems 21

Course content This introductory course will examine the basic concepts of medical sociology with particularly focus on the perspective on health and illness and health care systems. The course will assess the social aspects of health including the problems addressed by health care institutions, societal response to disease and sickness and institutional and organizational setting of health care systems. Course Reading 1. J P Gabe, M A Elston and M Bury (2004) Key concepts in medical sociology. Sage Publication. 2. Max Weber and H P Secher (2000) Basic concepts in sociology. Sage Publication 3. P Twumasi (1979). The social history of Ghanaian pluralistic medical systems. Social Science and Medicine. 4. David M. Newman, 2008. Sociology 7th ed (2008) Pine Forge Press 5. Kathleen McKinney & Barbara S.Heyl, Ludy T. Benjamin. 2009. Sociology through Active Learning: Student exercises 2nd ed (2009) Pine Forge Press.

UGRC 110 Academic Writing 3 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Acquire the techniques for choosing appropriate topic to write about and think through the ideas before writing, Describe who the audience for a particular writing is, Demonstrate the ability to use correct grammar, punctuation and spelling Develop an outline for organizing a paper, Develop skills for constructing an essay, editing and rewriting drafts Course content Usage and conventions, percentages and proportions, sentence connectors, prefixes and suffixes; constructing an essay, general principles, constructing a paragraph, paragraph logic, constructing a sentence; well crafted sentences ,standard errors, punctuation and presentation, direct speech, presentation conventions, quoting from a text, summary; punctuation, how punctuation can strengthen a sentence, the use of colon and semi-colon Course reading 1. John Speck and Martin Coyle. 1999. The students guide to writing. Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling. PALGRAVE 2. R.R Jordan. 1997. English for academic purposes. A guide and resource book for teachers. Cambridge Academic Press. 22

Level 100. Semester 2


GSPH 102 Introduction to Public Health 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Understand the dimensions of public health Discuss the key public health functions Review the modern public health Course content Definition of public health; the dimensions of public health, preventive medicine, social medicine, community health, and community medicine; three levels of prevention, primary, secondary and tertiary; key public health functions. The enter relationship between human beings and their total environment Course Readings 1. Lucas A O and H M Gilles 2003 Short textbook of public health for the tropics. 4thEdition 2. Beaglehole R. &Bonita R. 1997. Public Health the crossroads. Cambridge University Press.Cambridge . 3. Bernard J. Turnock. 2007. Essentials of Public Health. Jones and Bartlett Publishers 4. Jan Kirk Carney 2006. Public Health In Action: Practicing in the Real World. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 5. Bernard J Turnock. 2006. Public Health: Career Choices That Make a Difference. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

GSPH 104

Computing in Public Health

2 Credits

Course Objectives: At the end of the course the student will be able to Use basic word processing (Microsoft word and spread sheet software (Excel) Basic data base, data entry and questionnaire design using Epi info Run basic frequencies and produce tables and histograms Use relevant computer software in organizing public health data Course content 23

Basic concepts of the computer and the peripherals, web structure and email. Introduction to Epi info, data base structure, questionnaire development, data collection, data screens and data entry, data cleaning and basic data analysis. Course Readings 1. MS Office manuals 2. Web access for Epi Info information and http://www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/about.htm. 3. Printed manuals and disks are sold by http://www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/EIvendor.htm

software

is

at see

distributors;

GSPH 106

Health Behaviour and Society

3 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Understand social aspects of health behaviour Define societal groups as key partners in health Determine societal groups influence on health behaviour Understand societal correlates of health status and sickness behaviour Course content Define health, society, social groups, illness, sickness, health care, mental illness. Interface of social system and culture, levels of social change, social dimension of healthcare system. Course Readings 1. Richard K. Thomas. 2003. Society and health: sociology for health professionals,. Springer. 2. By Martin Fishbein, Icek Ajzen, Dolores Albarracin, Robert Hornik 2007. Prediction and Change of Health Behavior: Applying the Reasoned Action Approach. Routledge. meaning for the individuals and institutions. The functions and structures of politics and religion and its effects on society and individuals will also be examined. Course Readings 1. An Introduction to Medical Sociology by David Tuckett. 2003 Routledge. 2. Medical Sociology (11th Edition) 2008 William Cockerham, Prentice Hall

24

GSPH 112

Introduction to Psychology

2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the students will be able to Understand psychological theories Explain the principles underlying behavior Discuss the basic concepts in psychology Demonstrate the relevance of psychology in everyday living Understand health-realated behaviour including healthy living Understand the doctor-patient relationship Course content Define social psychology, basic concepts of symbolic interactionism, cognitive basis of role making and role taking related to health situations, establishing horizontal and vertical linkages deviance and identity. Theories biological foundations of behavior, sensation and perception, basic principles of learning, information processing, memory, language, intelligence, motivation, emotion, personality, social behavior, mental disorders and therapies. Course Readings 1. Tata McGraw 2008. A brief introduction to Psychology. 2 nd Edition Paperback. Hill Publishing Limited 2. Ludy T. Benjamin 2007. A brief history of modern psychology, Blackwell Publication

GSPH 114 Human Growth and Development 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Understand how humans are born and who we are Understand what makes people grow and change. Understand the role of genetic and environmental factors in growth and development Course content Birth of human being, inherited and environmental factors, changes in adolescence, adults, family systems and lifestyle. Challenges of adulthood, Ageing, death and dying, Course Readings 1. Chris Beckett, Human growth and development. 2002 SAGE 2. Neil J. Salkind 2004. An introduction to theories of human development. SAGE,

GSPH 116

Community Entry and Organization

2 Credits 25

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: List general characteristics of the community. Establish a working relationship with a community. Assist a community to identify its needs and prioritize them Develop effective communication skills that would be necessary to: (i) Establish communication links with the community. (ii) Organize a health-related activity with full community participation. Plan with the community to seek a solution. Execute the plan with the community. Assess the effectiveness of community organization and participation in health related activities. Provide feedback findings to the community. Explain the basic concepts and principles of health education/promotion. Course Contents The course content includes: Community structure and governance, community resources, community organization, Community entry and needs assessment; Communication channels, advantages and disadvantages; Health education/promotion; Community participation; gender roles in community organization and communication. Course Readings 1. Developing a Culturally Appropriate Family Planning Program for the Navrongo Experiment . 1995. Alex Nazzar, Philip B. Adongo, Fred N. Binka, James F. Phillips and Cornelius Debpuur . Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. pp. 307-324 2. The Influence of Traditional Religion on Fertility Regulation among the KassenaNankana of Northern Ghana. 1998. Philip B. Adongo, James F. Phillips and Fred N. Binka Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 23-40 3. Ministry of Health, Ghana, DISTRICT HEALTH SYSTEMS OPERATIONS, COMMUNITY ENTRY AND PARTICIPATION MANUAL, No. 3. Alex Nazzar, Stephen Ntow, Philip Adongo, Kofi Asobayire, William Sopiimeh, February 2002

GSPH 118

Public Speaking and Presentation

2 Credits

Course objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Discuss how public speaking is part of communication process Explain what public speaking involves and will be able to prepare public presentations Perform audience analysis 26

Discuss how language is the key to effective presentation Discuss the techniques for informative speaking Understand the need preparing different presentations for a variety of audience Course content Introduction to public speaking, the process of communication; models of communication, knowing your audience, performing audience analysis, listening, adapting to an audience the goal statement, organising a speech, selecting and narrowing ideas for presentation, beginning and ending a presentation, difference between oral and written style, supporting ideas with arguments, informative speaking, persuasive speaking, speaking in groups.

27

Course Reading 1. M.Osborn, S.Osborn 1999. Public speaking Houghton Miffin Company 2. SA Beebe, SJ Beebe 2003. Public speaking: an audience-centered approach..Allyn and Bacon 3. GL Grice, JF Skinner. 2001. Mastering public speaking. Allynand Bacon Boston 4. D. Zarefsky 1996. Public speaking: strategies for success. Allyn and Bacon

28

Level 200 Semester I


GSPH 203 Epidemiology: Principles and Methods 2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Understand the basic concepts and methods of epidemiology Identify the key sources of data for epidemiologic purposes Describe a public health problem in terms of magnitude by person, time and place Apply the basic terminology and definitions of epidemiology Calculate basic epidemiology measures Draw appropriate inferences from epidemiologic data Explain the use of epidemiology in public health practice Course Content Measures of disease frequency, rates, ratios; descriptive studies, analytic studies geographic comparisons, temporal comparisons ;survey sampling ;epidemiological study design; surveillance Course Readings 1. Kahn HA. 1983 An introduction to epidemiologic methods. New York:Oxford University Press, 2. Mausner & Bahn W.B. 1985. Epidemiology; An introductory Text, Saunders Company; 2 Sub edition 3. Last.J.M 1995A Dictionary of Epidemiology3rd Edition New York: Oxford University Press. 4. Leon Gordis.1995 Epidemiology.4th Edidition W.B.Saunders Company 5. Lilienfield

GSPH 205 Medical Anthropology: Cultural Foundation for Health and Illness 2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Describe the basic scope of medical anthropology Identify the causes of social and behavioral factors that affect the health of individuals and populations Discuss the societal and cultural issues that underpin different health and illness Explain the cultural basis for health behavior (beliefs and practices) Discuss Medical pluralism and health seeking behavior 29

Explain the relevant and application of Culture and social epidemiology in the health systems. Course Content This course will help the student to understand the societal and cultural determinants of health. The content of the course will include the definition and concept of culture and health; the practice of medical anthropology; Social structures and conceptions of disease; treatment and outcome; influence of culture and religion on behavior in relation to health and diseases; health decision making, modern and traditional systems for health care and culture and social epidemiology. Course Reading 1. Cecil G. Helman. 2002. Culture, health and illness. Arnold. Fourth edition. 2. Halhn R. A. 1995. Sickness and healing: An anthropological perspective. Yale University Press 3. Foster G M and Anderson, BG. 1978 Medical anthropology. Wiley.

GSPH 207 Introduction to Biostatistics 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course students will be able to: Describe the roles of biostatistics serves in the discipline of public health Apply descriptive techniques used to summarize public health data Understand measures of association. Organization of data including presentation, charts graphs etc. Course content Descriptive statistics; sampling techniques, summary measures, measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, normal distribution, data presentation, measures of association. Course Readings: 1. NNN Nsowah-Nuamah. 2005. A Hand Book of descriptive Statistics for Social and Biological Sciences, Basic Statistics. Academic Press Accra. 2. by Chap T Le 2003. Introductory Biostatistics John Wiley and Sons.

GSPH 209 Introduction to Microbiology 3 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to recognize the importance of different microbial agents in the causation of diseases. Describe the concept of bacteriology Explain the process of bacterial infections Describe the concept of parasitology Describe the concept of virology Describe the concept of mycology 30

Course content Foundation and overview of microbiology, the structure and functioning of fungi, bacteria and viruses, the methods used to culture, control and study these organisms in the laboratory, Isolation, Classification and Identification of Microbes. Course Readings 1. J Heritage, EGV Evans, RA Killington 1998 Introductory Microbiology, Cambridge University press 2. Introductory microbiology : by T. Gross, J. Faull, S. Ketteridge and D. Springham Chapman & Hall, 1995 ISBN 0 412 45300

GSPH 211 Introduction to Pharmacology 2 Credits Course Objectives This course will provide student with the basic understanding of the effects and use of drugs in maintaining health and prescribe appropriately (within their limits) Explain the scope of pharmacology Explain the principles of drug administration Classify drugs Explain the uses, effects and side effects of drugs. Course Contents General principles of pharmacology; mechanism of drug action; classification, drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, introduction to toxicology, principles of adverse drugs reactions; poisoning including insecticides and agrochemicals. Reactions to common domestic chemicals including corrosives and heavy metals such as in the digestive, neurological, cardiovascular systems. Introduction to safety monitoring. Course Readings 1. H.P Rang,M.M.Dale, J.M.Ritter 2006. Pharmacology. Churchill Livingstone 3rd Edition. 2. Alan Galbraith, Bullock S & Manias E.2006. Fundamentals of Pharmacology. 5 ed. Prentice Hall. 3. Curtis, Walker & Hoffman. Mosby, 2006. Integrated Pharmacology. 3 ed. Page,
rd th

GSPH 213 Introduction to Public Health Ethics 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Draw a distinction between public health ethics and medical ethics. Identify and evaluate ethical questions in public health Differentiate between various schools of thought of ethics.

31

Course content Traditions and values in public health, social determinants of health, ethical analysis and decision making, ethics and pandemic power, participation and disparities, research with human subjects, professional ethics, cross-cultural ethics Course Reading 1. Thomas JC,Sage M,DillenbergJGuillory VJ.A 2002. Code of ethics for public health. Am J Public Health; 92:1057-9 2. Roberts MJ,Reich Mr. 2002. Ethical Analysis in public health .Lancet;359:1055-9 3. Golloglyl L, Momen H. 2006. Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication; pitfalls and solutions for editors.Rev Saude Publications 40:24-9 4. Freda MC Learney H. 2005. Ethical issues faced by nursing editors. West J Nurs Res 27:487-99 5. Anekwe TD. 2009. Profits and Plagiarism: the case of medical ghost writing. Bioethics 6. Marcovitch H. 2007. Misconduct by researchers and authors. Gac.Sanit 21:492-9 7. World Health Organization 2002. Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences. (CIOMS) International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research involving Human Subjects. Geneva.

GSPH 215

Basic Principles of Environmental Health

3 Credits

Course Objectives This course is designed to introduce students to knowledge of the relationship between health and the physical environment. At the end of the course students may be able to: Describe the physical environment and identify its elements: land, water, air, climate, flora and fauna etc Classify the elements and relate them to common health problems State basic principles and measures for the control of environmental hazards associated with them. State how these elements constitute hazards and sources of hazards State the basic preventive principles and measures for control of environmental hazards. Course Content The course will include the following: 1. Definitions: Environment, health, environmental health, environmental health hazards. 2. Classification of the elements of the environment (physical, biological, chemical, radiological). 3. Sources of environmental health: waste materials (human, industrial, etc) and support media (food, water, soil, air). 4. Methods of transmission of environment hazards from source to objects at risk. 32

5. Impacts of environmental hazards on man, animals and the environment. 6. Methods of control of environmental hazards. 7. Applications of concepts and principles. Course Readings 1.WHO .Global Water supply and sanitation assessment 2000 Report. World Health, Geneva. 2.Essentials of Environmental Health, Robert Friis, Jones & Bartlett, 2007. ISBN 0763747629. Health and environment in sustainable development: five years after the Earth Summit. Geneva. World Health Organiastion.1997

Level 200, Semester 2


GSPH 202 Ecological Approach to Health 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Explain the relationship between humans and their total environment Identify important biologic, social and environmental determinants of health Discuss the role of individuals and the family in maintaining health Analyse the role of The community in the spread of disease and illness Course content Environment and human biology, climate, chemical pollution, food production, food conservation; poisons and toxic agents, organic pollution of water; effects of environmental degradation: greenhouse effect of ozone layer depletion, desertification Course Readings 1. Powles J. 1992. Changes in disease patterns and related social trends. Social Science Medicine 35:377-87 2. McMichael AJ, Haines A. 1997. A global climate change: the potential effects on health. British Medical Journal, 315:805-809 3. Morse S.S. 1995. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1:7-15 4. Health and environment in sustainable development: 1997. Five years after the Earth Summit. Geneva. World Health Organiastion.

GSPH 204 The Health Care System in Ghana 3 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to understand the health system and its organization in the country. Explain the concept of health systems, public health 33

What is meant by a health system/ health system organization and structure Discuss the important landmarks in the development of Ghanas health system Suggest challenges that face Ghanas health system Describe some the challenges for health system development Describe some of the strategies for health system development Suggest measures to meet the challenges in health system development. Adapt appropriate strategies for the development of the health system Course content This course will cover the concepts of health systems and public health, national health systems, historical development of Ghanas health system, challenges and strategies for health systems. Measures to meet challenges of the health system. Course Readings (1) Roemer M. I. (1993) Chapter 3: Health System components and their relationship. In National Health Systems of the World by Milton I. Roemer, New York: Oxford University Press, pp 31-82. (2) Kadder M. (1996) Draft: Health Systems and Structures. Geneva WHO. (3) Andrew Cresse (1994) Global trend in Health Care Reform. World Health Forum 15:317-322. (4) Sector Wide Approaches for health development (December 1999). Dutch Field Experiences in international Cooperation. Published by the Information and Communication Department Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Authors Rene Duddeldam and Leon Bijlmakers, ETC Crystal (5) Agyepong I. A. (1999) Reforming Health Service Delivery at district level in Ghana. The perspective of a district medical officer. Health Policy and Planning; 14(1): 59-69.

GSPH 208 Population, Health and Development 3 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Identify how population dynamics after health and development, Calculate population health indices Understand the concept of demographic transition Assess the usefulness and limitation of routinely collected data such as vital registration, national census, demographic health surveys Course content Factors affecting population distribution, implications of population distribution, Components of population change, factors in historical decline and mortality and morbidity, general overview of demographic analysis, vital registration, population growth and distribution, mortality measurements, fertility measurements; population policies and programmes in Ghana 34

Course Readings 1. Helen Ginn Daugherty, Kenneth C. W. Kammeyer. 1995. An Introduction to Population, Guildford Press 1995. ISBN 0898626161 2. R. Wilkinson and M. Marmot 2003. World Health Organization, Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts, 2nd Edition , eds. (Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO, 2003). 3. M. Marmot and R. G. Wilkinson (eds). 1999. Social Determinants of Health, eds. (New York: Oxford University Press,

GSPH 212 Introduction to Research Methods 2 Credits Course Objectives: The end of the course the student will be able to: Formulate research questions and research objectives Describe the qualitative survey methods, purposive sampling, sample size determination. Apply appropriate data collection methods including participant observation, Focus group discussions Construct variables and understand the generalizability, reliability, and validity. Apply basic analysis of qualitative data and presentation of data. . Course Content The course will introduce the formulation of research questions, research objectives, Describe the qualitative methodology, purposive sampling, sample size determination, Construct variables, and discuss the generalization, validity and reliability. Data analysis including thematic and network analysis and presentation Course Readings 1. Stephen Polgar and Shane Thomas. 1999. Introduction to research in the health science. 3rd Edition. Churchill & Livingstone. 2. Principles of Social Research (2006) edited by Judith Green & John Browne, Open University Press, McGraw-Hill Education. 3. Judith Green and N. Thorogood. Eds (2004) Qualitative Methods for Health research London. Sage 4. Stephen Polgar and Shane Thomas 1999. Introduction to research in the health science. 3rd Edition. Churchill & Livingstone. 5. Principles of Social Research (2006) edited by Judith Green & John Browne, Open University Press, McGraw-Hill Education.

35

GSPH 214 Writing for Public Health 3 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the students will be able to: Understand the importance of organizing the content of public health communication in a clear manner, Develop skills to write readable health messages Acquire the skills and techniques to undertake critical appraisal of scientific publication Course content Writing readable health messages, summarizing, important points, write lists, choosing a style that is easy to follow; using the active voice; defining difficult words by context clues Course Readings 1. Teaching students how to read and write science: a mandatory course on scientific research and communication medicine. 2. Edwards R, White M, Gray J. 2001. Use of a journal club and letter-writing exercise to teach critical appraisal to medical undergraduates. Med Educ.; 35:691-4 3. Use of modified journal club and letters to editors to teach critical appraisal. J.Allied health

LEVEL 300 Semester 1


GSPH 301 Child Survival Programme: Expanded Programme on Immunization 2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course Explain the Global and National immunization strategy Describe the types of vaccines given to children in the EPI programme Describe how cold chain of vaccines is maintained and its relevance Explain how vaccination sessions are organized in communities and health facility based ones. Describe how access and coverage of EPI can be improved Determine vaccination coverage and explain immunization surveillance Course Content Global and national immunization strategy; types of vaccines; vaccine management, maintenance of the cold chain system, organization of immunization sessions, improving access and coverage of immunization; community mobilization for vaccination programmes, monitoring and supervision of immunization activities; immunization surveillance, vaccination coverage survey

36

Course Readings 1. Ghana Expanded Programme On Immunization: Reducing Missed Opportunities. 9. GHS, 2003. The National EPI Integrated 5-Year Communication Plan 20032007...www.who.int/countries/gha/publications/EPI_Profile.pdf 2. WHO | Expanded Program of Immunization - EPI 3. Expanded Program of Immunisation. The National EPI Policy in Ghana.www.who.int/countries/gha/areas/immunization/en/index.html 4. Semba RD, Munasir Z, Akib A, Melikian G, Permaesih D, Muherdiyantiningsih, Marituti S, Muhilal. 2001. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the Expanded Programme on Immunization: lack of impact on morbidity or infant growth. Acta Paediatr. Oct; 90(10):1107-11 5. Newton S, Owusu-Agyei S, Filteau S, Gyan T, Kirkwood BR. 2008. Vitamin A supplements are well tolerated with the pentavalent vaccine. Vaccine. Oct 1. 6. Browne EN, Bonney AA, Agyapong FA, Essegbey IT. 2002. Factors influencing participation in national immunization days in Kumasi, Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. Jan; 96(1):93-1 7. Cold chain and logistics Quality of the cold chain: WHO-UNICEF policy statement on the use of vaccine vial monitors in immunization services. www.who.int/vaccines

GSPH 303

Reproductive Health: Maternal Health Care

2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Discuss the contemporary issues in maternal health care Describe the sources of data that can be used for reproductive health surveillance Describe methods and systems useful for conducting reproductive health surveillance Review the strategies for reducing maternal mortality Understand how to assess facility based maternal deaths Understand how to link indicators of maternal morbidity/mortality to programme objectives Acquire the skills to assess the availability of essential and emergency obstetric care at the regional and district levels Course Content Maternal health care : antenatal care, labour and postnatal care; emergency obstetric care strategies, appropriate technologies for monitoring pregnancy and labour; Definitions of maternal death, identifying maternal deaths, facility based maternal deaths review, verbal autopsy for maternal death, epidemiology of maternal mortality in Africa; near miss obstetric events. Issues relating to reproductive morbidities in women.

37

Course Readings 1. Safe motherhood: Ten years of lessons and progress. Technical consultation. Colombo.18-23 October 1997. 2. Contemporary issues in maternal health care in Africa. Nasha, Boniface T. Harwood Academic Publishers. GmBh 1994 3. WHO. Beyond the numbers: reviewing maternal deaths and complications to make pregnancy safer. World Health Organisation. 2004 4. The World Health Report 2005: Make every mother and child count. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 5. WHO. Maternal mortality: helping women off the road to death. WHO Chronicle 1986;40:175-83 6. Strategies for reducing maternal mortality: getting on with what works. Lancet 2006;368:1284:99 7. Daniel Isabella and Bartlett Linda 2003 .Maternal health epidemiology. Centers for Disease Prevention and Control

GSPH 305 Principles of Disease Control 3 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the student will be able to Explain the causes of infectious disease Discuss the epidemiology of infectious disease Describe the determinants of infectious disease Explain the approaches for prevention and control of infectious disease

Course Content
Burden and trends of infectious diseases, Determinants of infectious disease, natural history of infectious disease, management and control strategies, problems and challenges, specific interventions for selected infectious diseases

Course Reading
D.T. Jamison and J.G. Breman (2006) Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press USA. th 2. David L. Heymann (2009) Control of Communicable Disease Manual. 19 Edition rd 3. Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice 3 edited CDC
1.

GSPH 307 Public Health Nutrition 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Discuss the role of proteins, fats carbohydrates, micronutrients in health and disease and the consequences of their deficiency Explain the importance of good nutrition in pregnancy and lactation Determine the nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, infant and young children and adolescents 38

Describe and evaluate some of the strategies in existence to promote better nutrition Describe the common nutritional disorders Explain the concept of nutritional surveillance Course Contents Various food groups, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, trace elements; specific micronutrient deficiencies, Vitamin A deficiency , iron deficiency and anemia, iodine deficiency disorder ; nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, infants and children; obesity and related conditions; growth monitoring and promotion; undernutrition; community based nutrition programmes; nutritional surveillance, growth monitoring and promotion. Retrieval of medical data, develop and modify questionnaires. Course Readings 1. Anderson, A,S, Porteous LEG, Foster, E, et al., (2005). The impact of a schoolbased nutrition education intervention on dietary intake and cognitive and attitudinal variables relating to fruits and vegetables. Public Health Nutrition: 8(6), 2. Beauman, C., Cannon, G., Elmadfam I., et al., (2005). The principles, definition and dimensions of the new nutrition science. Public Health Nutrition: 8(6A), 695698. 3. De Heer, N.A., 1970. The role of Nutrition in the control of communicable diseases. Journal of the Ghana Society for the Prevention of Tuberculosis, Volume 1 No. 3 pp 18-23. 4. Laar, A.K., Owusu, W.B., and Yeboah, K. 2003. Anthropometric Characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients in Accra, Ghana. J Gh Sc Assoc vol 5, no. 2 pp 326-332. 5. W.B. Owusu, A. Lartey, M. de Onis, A.W. Onyango and E.A Frongillo (2004) Factors associated with unconstrained growth among affluent Ghanaian children. Acta Paediatrica 93: 1115-1119.

GSPH 309 Primary Health Care System 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Discuss changing concepts of Primary Health Care since Alma Ata. Understand the emphasis on preventive care as opposed to curative care. Identify the important role of community mobilization Understand that primary care is shaped around the life patterns of peoples. Monitor and evaluate programme implementation with the community Course Content Definition of primary care and history, common health problems, maternal and child health care, including family planning, nutrition, immunization, safe water supply, basic sanitation, locally endemic diseases and what can be done to prevent and control them. Treatment of common diseases and injuries. Preventive, promotional, and rehabilitative 39

services for the individual, family and community. Community involvement in the formulation and implementation of health care activities. Discussion on continued dialogue with the community and health care professional. The role of primary care in the National health care system. Course Readings 1. E. Tarimo. 1991. Towards a healthy district, WHO. 2. Boniface Tatchwenglie Nasah, J. K. G. Mati, Joseph M. Kasonde Taylor & Francis, 1995. Contemporary Issues in Maternal Health Care in Africa. ISBN 3718655608 3. The World Health report 2008: primary health care now more than ever. WHO.

GSPH 311 Environmental Health and Sanitation 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course, the student will be able to: Learn the fundamentals of environmental health and sanitation Learn about the agents of environmental diseases and illness Understand a number of emerging and controversial issues in environmental and public health Learn the major biological organism and chemical contaminants Course Content The course will introduce students to the basics of environmental health and sanitation and will cover environmental epidemiology, toxicology, policy and regulation. Students will have the opportunity to study various agents of environmental diseases- including zoonotic and vector-borne diseases, toxic mental and elements, pesticides and other organic chemicals. Students will also be introduced to the application of environmental health and sanitation in the area of water and air quality, food safety, solid and liquid water and occupational health. Course Readings 1. Dade W. Moeller (2005) Environmental Health. 3 rd Edition. United States of America Congress 2. Robert H. Friis (2007) Essentials of Environmental Health. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

GSPH 313 Monitoring and Evaluation of Health Programmes Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Discuss the difference between monitoring and evaluation. Describe the comprehensive evaluation framework

2 Credits

40

Review examples of how monitoring data are collected and analyzed Understand how a comprehensive evaluation plan is developed Course Content Formative evaluation research, project monitoring-process evaluation; evaluationeffectiveness evaluation, framework for evaluation-inputs, outputs, outcome and impact, programme indicators, data collection methods, types of analysis, key elements of evaluation plan, scope of the evaluation, methodological approach, implementation plan, dissemination and utilization of results Course Readings 1. Joseph S.Wholey, Harry P.Hatry, Kathryn E.: Handbook of practical program evaluation. Newcomer. Jossey-Bass Second Edition. 2. Don McNeil. 1996. Epidemiological Research Methods. John Wiley & Sons 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Framework for program evaluation in public health. 48(No. RR-11) Electives (level 300) GSPH 315 Research Methods 2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Describe the research process, Formulate a research problem/question Formulate general and specific objectives for a research question Formulate a hypotheses for a research question Course Content The course introduces the basic concepts of research including a historical perspective. Discusses the scientific method for research, advantages and disadvantages, describes the research process and explains the various components of the research process. It explores several methods of formulating a research question. It introduces the formulation of general objectives and specific objectives. The courses address the formulation of research hypothesis and it relations with the research question. Course Readings: 1. Stephen Polgar and Shane Thomas. 1999. Introduction to research in the health science 3rd Edition. Churchill & Livingstone.

41

GSPH 317 Introduction to Health Policy 2 Credits Course Objectives This course is designed to provide students the opportunity to discuss issues relating to the health policy process. At the end of the course the student should be able: Have an overview of the Policy Process Describe the key health policy issues and debates that public health must address Understand the theoretical framework for analyzing the complex interaction of the evidence with social, economic, cultural and political context, actors and process in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of policies which promote health Identify concepts and methods for promoting appropriate policies Describe the principles involved in health policy advocacy Course Content Factors influencing public social policy development, Environmental context of reform, the role of different players within the policy process, effective use of modern tools in policy making, forging consensus in policy making research., Agenda setting, Policy design factors, policy background, policy process variables, policy participation, policy implementation Course Readings 1. Grindle M.S & Thomas J.W (1991) Public Choices and Policy Change. The Political Economy of reform in developing countries. The John Hopkins University Press 2. Milstead Jeri.A.( 1991) Health Policy and Politics: A nurses guide. Aspen Publishers Inc. 3. Selected articles in the Journal of Health Policy and Planning

GSPH 319 Neglected Tropical Diseases 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Describe the burden of the neglected tropical diseases Understand the epidemiology of the neglected tropical diseases Review the control measures for the neglected tropical diseases Describe the Global efforts to Control and eliminate NTDs Course Content Burden of neglected tropical diseases, prevalence of trachoma, soil transmitted helminthes, schistosomiasis lymphatic filariasis, treatment of neglected tropical diseases. Prevention of NTDs and global effort to control and eliminate NTDs. Course Readings 1. World Health Organisation (2007) Global plan to combat neglected tropical diseases.2008-2015 42

2. World health organization (2006). The control of the neglected zoonotic diseases: A rout to poverty alleviation 3. Molyneux DH, Hotez PJ, Fenwick A (2005).Rapid impact interventions: How a policy of integrated control for Africas neglected tropical diseases could benefit the poor.PloS med 2 4. Butler D 2009. Neglected Disease Boost Nature 457:772-3 5. Hotez, PJ Molyneux DH; Fenwick A; Kumaresan JSachs,SE et al. 2007. Control of neglected tropical diseases.N.Engl J Med: 357:1018-1027

GSPH 321 Zoonotic Infections 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Describe the magnitude of the problem of zoonoses Identify the various zoonotic diseases Describe the joint disease surveillance for animals and humans Review the factors contributing to the emergence of zoonotic diseases. Identify the ecologic factors contributing to the emergence of zoonotic Discuss the health implications of emerging zoonoses Describe the role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses Course Content The burden of zoonotic diseases, prevalence and control of zoonotic diseases, surveillance and control of emerging and re-emerging diseases and the challenge of veterinary public health, global trends in emerging infectious diseases, wildlife and zoonoses. Course Readings 1. Meslin F X, Stohr, Heyman D. 2000. Public health implications of emerging zoonoses. Rev Sci.Tech 2. Murphy FA. 2003 Emerging Zoonoses. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19984:429-435 3. Kraus H Zoonoses: 2003 Infectious diseases transmissible from animals to humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 4. KE Jones et al. 2008. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 451:990-993

GSPH 323 Non-Communicable Diseases 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course, students will be able to: List and explain the types of Non communicable diseases Discuss the burden of NCDs Discuss the risk factors Describe the strategies for control and their application. 43

Course Content Definitions, Types of non-communicable diseases and the burdens especially those relevant to Ghana. Risk factors and their management and strategies for prevention and control. Non-communicable diseases; cancer registers and other registers used in disease control. Course Reading 1. M.D. Gregg (ed). (1996) Field Epidemiology. Oxford University Press. N.Y 2. Steven Teutsch and R. Elliot Churchill. (2000) 2nd ed. Principles and Practice of Public Health Surveillance Oxford University Press. USA 3. Communicable and Non- Communicable Disease Basics; A Primer Madeline Hurster, Bergin & Garvey 1997.

GSPH 325 Environmental Quality and Sanitary Inspection 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course a student would be able to; 1. Describe the state of environmental hygiene at the premises and community levels using approved parameters. 2. Identify violation of existing sanitary legislation, regulations, policies, bye-laws and good practice. 3. Determine measures for achieving compliance with the legislation, regulation etc. 4. Identify appropriate public agencies for specific responsibilities. Course Content Concepts of environmental quality (hygiene);Practice at community level (prevention of contamination of land, premises and infrastructures and pollution of water infrastructures (roads, drainage systems, parks, etc.) and the pollution of water bodies (beaches, river banks, etc).Identification of environmental hygiene problems at premises level (residential, commercial, industrial, institutional), public places (markets, lorry parks, beaches, river banks, lagoons, stadia, and open undeveloped lands). Legislation: Role of legislation in environmental quality (hygiene) promotion; procedures for the making and review of national and local legislation; practices in Ghana. Sanitary Inspection: Environmental hygiene monitory by Sanitary Inspection; hygiene education; compliance enforcement and procedures. Institutional Arrangements: Institutional and development concept and principles; structure of appropriate department/units; sanitary inspection in Ghana. Identification the source of air pollution both indoor and outdoor. Course Readings 1. Annalee Yassi 2001. Basic Environmental Health. Oxford University Press. 2. Sandy Cairncross & RG Feacham. Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics: An Introductory Text, John Wiley. 3. Duncan Mara 2004. Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries, , Earthscan Publications

44

GSPH 327 Municipal Sanitary Services and Amenities 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: 1. List and describe essential sanitary services and amenities for public convenience and maintenance of clean environment. 2. State health and other justifications for investment in municipal sanitary services and amenities. 3. Suggest strategies for financing development operations and maintenance. 4. Suggest legislation, regulations, standards and institutional arrangements for sustainable programmes. Course Content Concept of provision of municipal sanitary services and amenities. Elements of municipal services: Public cleansing (streets, drains, markets, lorry parks, stadia, etc); maintenance of hygienic conditions at waste storage and disposal sites; pest control (mosquitoes, flies, rodents). Elements of Municipal Amenities: Litter bins; waste storage site/containers and final disposal; Sites and facilities; public urinals and toilets; cemeteries; food and meat markets; public spots (parks and seats); developed beaches. Strategies for Financing Municipal Programmes (financing, modernization, maintenance, expansion, etc). Standards of design operation and maintenance. Institutional arrangements for the municipal programmes. Course Readings 1. Alabster G. (1995).Waste minimization in municipal solid waste management. 2. Rushbrook P. (1995) Waste land filling: Practices, problems and progress. 3. Sandy Cairncross & RG Feacham: Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics: An Introductory Text, John Wiley.

GSPH 329

Hygiene of Food Processing and Handling

3 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: 1. Explain the role of food in human growth and health promotion. 2. Describe food-borne diseases, classification, methods of transmission and implicated foods. 3. Describe how foods are made hazardous (unsafe) from stage of growth or manufacture to stage of food preparation and serving. 4. Describe the methods of ensuring safety of foods. 5. Explain the importance of food safety standards, and national and local legislation. 6. Describe appropriate institutional arrangement of standards and promotion of food safety practices.

45

Course Content Definitions: Food-borne Diseases, Food hygiene, food infection, food intoxication. Principles: Food and nutrition; food-borne diseases: classification of diseases (infection, intoxication), causative agents, transmission mechanisms, manifestation; incriminating food; preventive measures. Food and Safety Practices: (i) Raw food and meat (prevention of contamination, meat hygiene) (ii) Primary processing (hygienic practices, milling, packaging, storage, etc) (iii) Prepared foods (hygiene in preparation, storage, serving, etc) Food establishments: Approval of sites, facilities, design of layout, display equipment, permits and certificates of operation. Food Inspection and Hygiene Education: (i) establishment of departments/units (ii) design of appropriate educational programmes. Legislation: National and. local; permits/certificates, enforcement of legislation (notices, prosecution, sanctions). Institutional Arrangements: Roles of government, business association, etc; department/unit of local authority; mechanisms for inter-agency coordination and collaboration Course Readings 1. Norman G. Marriott, 1998. Essentials of food sanitation. Tata McGraw Hill. 2. Roday, Sunetra 1998. Food Hygiene and Sanitation. Tata McGraw-Hill 3. Gibney et al, 2004. Public Health Nutrition. Blackwell Publishing, UK.

GSPH 331 Introduction to Population and Health 2 Credits Course Objectives By the end of the course, the student should be able to: Describe the national population situation and produce a health and demographic profile of a district. Define the concept of population and describe its importance in overall Socioeconomic development. Assess the usefulness and limitations of routinely collected data (such as national censuses, sample surveys, hospital records, population registers, and vital registration systems). Explain the interrelationships between population variables and the provision and utilization of health and related services Contribute to public health and population education programmes at the district and community level. Course Content Basic concepts of population growth and socio-economic development, rates and ratios, sources of demographic data, data evaluation, age-sex composition, ideal family size, 46

fertility preference, measures of infant, foetal and perinatal mortality, construction of crude and adjusted mortality rates, demographic transition and Hoover theory. Course Readings 1. Siegel, J.S. and Swanson, D.A. (eds.), 2004. The Methods and Materials of Demography (Second Edition), Academic Press, New York. 2. Ghana Statistical Service (1995a), The Pattern of Poverty in Ghana: 1988-92, Accra, Ghana. 3. An Introduction to Population: Second Edition Helen Ginn Daugherty & Kenneth Kammeyer GuildFord Press 1995

GSPH 333

Database Management System I

3 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Explain the concept of Database Management system Course Content The evolution of database systems, early database management systems, overview of database management system components, the storage manager, the query manager, the client server architecture. Introduction to Data Protection, overview of storage technology, backup and restore, remote copy and replication, basic security concepts, storage system security, policy based data protection, Information lifecycle management Course Readings 1.Garcia-Molina,Hector;Ullman Jeffrey D; Widom Jennifer 2006 Database systems: The Complete Book(GOAL Series) Second Edition 2. A First Course in Database Systems Third Edition 3. Hellerstein, Joseph M. and Stonebraker M. Fourth Edition. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. 4.Petrocelli, Thomas D.Data protection and information lifecycle management., 2006 Pearson Education Inc

GSPH 335 Health Data Management 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Review the collection of data at the various levels of the health care system Have skills to organize data ,analyze data and present health care data, Have skills to compute and interpret health care statistics Have skills to prepare health care statistical reports 47

Course Content Collection, organization, analysis and presentation of health care data; vital and public health statistics; calculation of health care specific statistics, hospital utilization; mortality rates, autopsy rates, outpatient statistics; preparation of statistical reports; methods of ensuring data quality-accuracy, timeliness, completeness and validity Course Readings 1. A Principle of Medical Statistics. Bradford Hill 2. Betty Kirkwood and Sterne: Essentials of Medical Statistics. Blackwell Scientific Publications 3. Karen G.Youmans: Basic Healthcare Statistics for Health Information Management Professionals. AHIMA 4. Lorreta Harton: Calculating and Reporting Healthcare Statistics. 2nd Edition 5. Carol Osborn: Statistical applications for Health Information Management. AHIMA and Jones &Bartlett

GSPH 337 Information Security Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Understand the concept of information security Review importance of data security breach Discuss the notification of breaches Discuss the privacy and security issues in a digital world Course Content Information security management; information security culture; misuse and abuse of computer systems; computer ethics and security; authorization and access control; malicious software in ubiquitous computing; statistical database security; copy protection system; information security culture; security governance and compliance; data warehousing, data mining and security Course Readings 1. Whitman Michael E. and Martord Herbert J. Management of information security. Third Edition 2. Reynolds George Ethics in Information Technology.Third Edition 3. Thuraisingham Bhavani.2005 Database and Applications Security: Integrating Information Security and Data Management. Auerbach Publications. 4. The Information Security Management Handbook 2009 Sixth Edition Auerbach Publications 5. Westerman, George 2007.IT risk: turning business threats into competitive advantage 6. Dhillon,Gurpeet.2006.Principles of information systems security: text and cases.

48

GSPH 339 Nutrients and their Metabolism 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Understand the carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Discuss the effects of various hormones on the metabolism of macronutrients Understand diet factors affecting nutrient absorption and metabolism Discuss the interaction of nutrition and infection Course Content Nutrient utilization: digestion, absorption and metabolism, metabolic relationships among carbohydrate, protein and fat in the major tissues of the body Reading List

GSPH 341 Assessment of Nutritional Status 3 Credits Course Objectives This course will introduce students to Indices used in assessing nutritional status of individuals and communities in health and disease Anthropometric measurements of individuals and communities using dietary, biochemical, and clinical measurements. Measurement of the dietary intake of individuals and communities Biochemical assessments of individuals and communities Clinical and functional appraisal of nutritional status and vital statistics Nutritional surveillance and growth monitoring Application and dissemination of nutrition knowledge in the community Field survey of a community using various assessment methods. Analysis of dietary, biochemical, clinical and anthropometric data collected from the field survey using various computer software and laboratory techniques Report writing Course Content Study the techniques used in assessing nutritional status of individuals and communities during health and disease using dietary, biochemical, and clinical and anthropometric measurements. Methods of measuring the dietary intake of individuals and communities; anthropometric measurements of individuals and communities and how to do them; biochemical assessments of individuals and communities; clinical and functional appraisal of nutritional status and vital statistics and nutritional surveillance as well as growth monitoring. Course Readings 1 Frisancho, AR. 1990. Anthropometric standards for the assessment of growth and nutritional status. University of Michigan Press.

49

2 Jelliffe DB; Jelliffe EF; Zerfas A; Neumann CG. 1989. Community nutritional assessment with special reference to less technically developed countries. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press. 3 Jelliffe, D. :The assessment of the nutritional status of the community. Nutrition, Volume 13, Issue 7, Page 714 4 Jelliffe, DB. 1966 The assessment of the nutritional status of the community (with special reference to field surveys in developing regions of the world. WHO, Geneva. 5 Bailey KV, Ferro-Luzzi A.: Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 19 - whqlibdoc.who.int

GSPH 343 Malnutrition and Food Security 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; The relationship between diet and diseases of common origin The epidemiology of diseases with dietary origin Understand the principles of using diet to prevent and control diseases Course Content Relationships between diseases; nutrition and diets. Epidemiology of diseases with dietary origins Vitamin A deficiency disorders, Iron deficiency anaemia, Iodine deficiency disorders, dental disorders, GIT disorders, Gallstones, Cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes, cancers. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Dietary management in therapy. Food fads and disease prevention. Management of food fads. Course Readings 1. Whitney, E. N., and S. R. Rolfes. 2008. Understanding Nutrition, 11th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. 2. Maurice E Shils, Moshe Shike, A. 2005. Catharine Ross, and Benjamin Caballero. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams and Welkins.

50

GSPH 345 Contemporary Issues in Health Promotion 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to understand: Definition of health Objectives for promoting health and disease prevention Emerging Populations and health Health Promotion and the community The Helping or Therapeutic relationship Ethical Issues and Principles to Health Promotion Interventions for Health Promotion Course Content The course will deal with contemporary issues in promoting health and exploring concepts of health, wellness illness continuum, levels of prevention, culture and values, sources of community information, health as a value, folk healing and professional care system. It will also introduce students to the communication process and ethics, barriers to effective communication, health care ethics, screening: advantages and disadvantages and sources and effects of stress. Course Readings: 1. Murray R. et al, 2009. Health Promotion Strategies through the Life Span 8 th ed, Prentice Hall Publishers. 2. Rootman et al, 2001. Evaluation in Health Promotion: Principles and Perspectives, WHO Regional Publications. 3. Edelman C., and Mandle C. L., 2005. Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span 6th ed, Elsevier Health Sciences 4. Tones K., Green J. 2004. Health Promotion: Planning and Strategies. Sage Publications, London.

GSPH 347 Health Communications Theory and Practice 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to understand: The theories of health communication The conceptual framework for strategic communication Development and production of communication strategies Implement and evaluate a communication strategies Course Content Communicating is key to the implementation of public health programmes. The course will introduce students to the various communication theories including theories of communication impact on behavior, various cognitive theories, social process theories, emotional response theories and mass media theories. The course will also provide students the opportunity to learn various frameworks for designing and producing communication strategies and how to introduce such strategies into intervention programmes and evaluate them. 51

Course Readings 1. Bandura, A., (1977). The social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. PrenticeHall. 2. 1. Renata Schiavo (2007) Health communication: from theory to practice. John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0787982059, 9780787982058. 3. Kincaid, D L. (1988) The convergence theory of communication: Its implications for intercultural communication. YY Kim et al (edited), Theoretical perspective on international communication. Sage 4. Rogers E M.1995 Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press. 5. Andy O. Alali and B. A. Jinadu (edited) 2002: Health Communication in Africa: Contexts, constrains and lessons. University Press of America 6. Phyllis Tilson Piotrow; D. L. Kincaid; J G Rimon II and W Rinehart 1997: Health communication: lessons from family planning and reproductive health 7. Gardner G. 1977. Mass media policies in changing cultures. New York. Wiley 8. Tones K., Green J., Health Promotion: Planning and Strategies (2004), Sage Publications, London.

GSPH 349 Research Methods in Social and Behavioural Sciences 2 Credits Course Objectives By the end of the course, students are expected to acquire the following competencies: Understand research methods in the social science Understand the principles underlying the design, process and analysis of a range of social research Identify appropriate research methods for particular research questions and settings Demonstrate how theoretical perspectives relate to different research methods. Show an awareness and sensitivity to the ethical and political issues of research Conduct small scale social science research project Course Content The course will introduce students to research methods to improve knowledge, theory and practice in the field. It will provide students the epistemological and theoretical framework to both quantitative and qualitative research methods in the social sciences. The course will assess the principles and applications of both quantitative and qualitative methods. It will cover sampling methods, questionnaires, structured and unstructured interviews, ethnography, participant observation, participatory action research and ethical issues of research. Course Reading 1. Norman K Denzin and Yvonna Lincoln (2005) The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research Sage Publication Limited 2. Corlien M. Varkevisser, Indra Pathmanthan, Ann Brownlee (2003) Designing and Conducting Health System Research Projects, Volume I, Data Analyses and Report Writing. KIT Publishers International Development Research Centre

52

Robert K. Yin (1994) Case Study Research Design and Methods. Third edition Thousand Oaks. Sage 3. Hammersley, M & Atkinson, P (1987) Ethnography Principles in Practice, London, Routledge 4. Reinharz, S (1992) Feminist methods in Social Research, New York, Oxford University Press 5. David, M and Sutton, C D (2004) Social Research: The Basics, Sage, London 6. Gomm, R (2003) Social Research Methodology: A Critical Introduction, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke 7. May, T (2001) Social Research, Issues, methods and Process, Buckingham, Open University Press 8. David, M and Sutton, C D (2004) Social Research: The Basics, Sage, London 9. Denzin, N K and Lincoln, Y S (2003) Strategies of Qualitative Data, Sage, London 10. Gomm, R (2003) Social Research Methodology: A Critical Introduction, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke 11. Crotty, M (1998) The Foundations of Social Research, London, Sage 12. Eyen, E (1990) Comparative Methodology: theory and practice in international social research, London, Sage 13. Mauther, M, Birch, M, Jessop, J and Miller, T (2002) Ethics in Qualitative Research, London, Sage 14. Gregory, I (2003) Ethics in Research, Continuum

GSPH 351 Information Technology Application in Health Management II 2Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Define information technology, its impact on health information Review the role of information technology in health service delivery Course Content Managerial-oriented approach to the use of IT in organizations to improve quality and productivity. Case studies highlight new technology and applications, including fuzzy logic, neural computing, and hypermedia, problems many district teams encounter. Course Readings 1. Hassey A, Gerrett D, Wilson A.A survey of validity and utility of electronic patient records in a general practice. BMJ 2001; 322:1401-5 2. Chin HL, Krall MA. Successful implementation of a computer-based system in Kaiser Permanente Northwest: strategy and experience. Effective Clinical Care Practice 1998; 1:51-60 3. Souther E. Implementation of the electronic medical record: the team approach. Computers in Nursing 2001;19:47-55

53

LEVEL 300 SEMESTER II GSPH 302 Infant and Young Child Feeding 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Review the nutritive needs of infants and young children Discuss the rationale for promoting breastfeeding Describe the difference between complementary and supplementary feeding Describe the feeding methods for infants with special needs including those infected with HIV Course Content Nutritive needs of infants and young children, Breastfeeding and its challenges, Supplementary and complementary feeding, International code for breastfeeding, feeding of the low-weight-birth infant, weaning practices, effects of early feeding on later life. Goals of nutritional management of infant and young children. Course Readings 1. Breast Feeding the Newborn. Marie Biancuzzo, 2001. Elsevier. 2. Selected journal articles

GSPH 304

Fundamentals of Public Health Surveillance

2 Credits

Course Objectives
At the end of the course the student will be able to: Explain the basic principles of public health surveillance Describe functions of public health surveillance Outline the component of a public health surveillance system Use public health data for non-communicable and communicable disease control Course Content Historical development of surveillance; planning a surveillance system, sources of health related information, collecting surveillance data, analyzing and interpreting surveillance data, use of surveillance data for public health action. Evaluating public health surveillance system. Course Reading 1 Steven Teutsch and R. Elliot Churchill. 2nd ed (2000) Principles and Practice of Public Health Surveillance, Oxford University Press, USA. 2 D.T. Jamison and J. G. Breman 2nd ed (2006) Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, Oxford University Press, USA. 3 Government of Ghana, Ministry of Health, National Surveillance Unit. (2002). Technical Guidelines for Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response in Ghana (IDSR 54

GSPH 306 Child Survival: Management of the Sick Child 2Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Explain the rationale for the integrated management of the sick child strategy Describe the management of the various childhood illnesses Discuss the relationship between malnutrition and childhood illnesses Describe the community roles in management of the sick child Discuss infant and perinatal health surveillance Course Content Define IMCI, Improving case management skills of health-care staff, Improving overall health systems, Improving family and community health practices, algorithms for diagnosis and treatment of Acute respiratory Infections, Diarrhoea, malaria, ear infection, malnutrition and vaccination status. Community IMCI . Course Readings 1. WHO: Integrated management of childhood illness, www.who.int/child_adolescent_health/topics/prevention_care/child/imci/en/index. html. 2. Gove S. Integrated management of childhood illness by outpatient health workers: technical basis and overview. The WHO Working Group on Guidelines for Integrated Management of the Sick Child. Bulletin of WHO, 1997. 75 Suppl 1:7-24 3. World Health Organisation 2006. Neonatal and perinatal mortality. Country, regional and global estimates

GSPH 308

Family Planning Methods and Practice

3 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Explain the benefits of family planning and child spacing Provide detail information on the various contraceptive methods Undertake a situation analysis of the family planning programme in a region or a district Review infection prevention in FP/MCH clinics Discuss the benefits of integrating family planning and PMTCT services Course Content Description of various contraceptive methods, mechanisms of action, failure rates, safety issues and warnings, barriers to increased use, a management of unsafe abortion, emergency contraception, approaches to delivery conducting situational analysis, family planning and HIV positive women. 55

Course Reading 1 Infection Prevention Guidelines for Family Planning Service Programmes. Essential Medical Information Systems, Inc: Durant 1992 2 N.Rutenberg 2003. Family Planning and PMTCT services, examining interrelationships, strengthening linkages. Horizons Population Council. 3 Integrating family planning and prevention of mother-to-child transmission in resource limited settings. The Lancet.Vol 366:9481pp 261-263 GSPH 312 Management and Leadership of Health Services 2 Credits Course Objectives Management and Leadership course will provide the student with an overview of management and also explore issues related to leadership. At the end of the course the student will be able to understand the management and leadership in the health sector context. At the end of the course you should be able to; Describe the management function and process, discuss management skills and roles. Explain the importance of planning and the planning process and prepare a strategic plan. Discuss the key principles of organizing, the organizing process and manage change in an organization. Define critical competences for public health leaders and exhibit effective communication skills. Describe the management of conflict and the pros and cons of different approaches in different situations Course Content This course will cover the nature of management, different management skills, roles in the management model, planning and the planning process; organizing, division of work, delegation and coordination; leading and understanding and managing conflict for health services. The importance of leadership, the leading process, and leadership treats and styles. Interpersonal conflict, beneficial and dysfunctional aspects of conflict, sources of conflict, managing and resolving conflict. Course Readings 1. Aryee, JRA. 2000. Saints, Wizards, Demons and Systems: Explaining the Success or Failure of Public Policies and Programs. 2. Wilder SS and Sorensen C 2000. Essentials of Aggression Management in Health Care. Prentice Hall. First Paperback. 3. Finkleman, A. 2005. Leadership and Management. First Edition. 4. Gill R. 2006. Theory and Practice of Leadership. SAGE. 5. Adair, J. 2007. Develop Your Leadership Skills. Kogan Page Ltd. 6. Ginsberg, R & Davies TG. 2007. The Human Side of Leadership: Navigating emotions at work. Business and Economics. 56

GSPH 314 Health Management Information Systems 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course, students will be able to: Understand the basic concept of health management information systems Describe health management information systems Explain the steps in developing health management information systems Describe the various health management information systems used at the district, regional and national levels Describe the importance of health management information systems to quality service delivery Course Content The course will aim at introducing students to the general concepts of health management information systems. Description of various health management information systems used at all levels of the health system and their linkage will be made. Course Reading 1. WHO (2004). Developing Health Management Information Systems. A Practical Guide for Developing Countries. 2. Roemer, MI (1993). National Health Systems of the World. Volume II. Oxford University Press, Inc. 3. Odhiambo-Otieno, GW (2005). Evaluation of existing district health management information systems. A case study of the district health systems in Kenya. International J of Medical Informatics, 74, 733 744.

GSPH 316

School Health Services I

2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Describe the components of a school health service Design a programme for monitoring the health of school children Design programmes to influence health-related behaviours: knowledge, beliefs, skills, attitudes, values for health lifestyles especially sanitation and good hygiene. Course Content School Health service, including role of the school teachers and parents, Child growth and development, basic hygiene including oral hygiene, sanitation, nutrition including common foods , fruits and their nutrient value. Physical exercise and health. Course Readings: 1. World Health Organization (1996a). Promoting Health through Schools. The World Health Organization's Global School Health Initiative. Prepared for WHO/HPR/HEP by S. Cohen and C. Vince-Whitman, Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, Mass., U.S.A. Geneva: World Health Organization. 57

2. WHO Information Series on School Health: 3. Local Action: Creating Health-Promoting Schools (WHO/NMH/HPS/00.4) 4. Strengthening Interventions to Reduce Helminth Infections: An Entry Point for the Development of Health-Promoting Schools (WHO/HPR/HEP/96.10) 5. Sun Protection: An Important Element of a Health-Promoting School (WHO/FHE and WHO/NPH, 2002) 6. Creating an Environment for Emotional and Social Well-Being: An Important Responsibility for a Health-Promoting and Child-Friendly School (WHO/MNH and WHO/NPH, 2003) 7. Skills for Health: Skills-Based Health Education Including Life Skills (WHO and UNICEF, 2003) 8. Family Life, Reproductive Health and Population Education: Key Elements of a Health-Promoting School (WHO/NPH, 2003) 9. The Physical Environment: An Important Component of a Health-Promoting School: (WHO/PHE and WHO/NPH, 2003) Oral Health: An Essential Element of a Health-Promoting School (WHO, UNESCO, EDC)

GSPH 318 Introduction to Occupational Health and Safety 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Discuss the protection of the worker against sickness, disease and injury arising out of employment Have an overview of pre placement screening Describe the monitoring of occupational diseases Discuss the management of sickness absence Understand the principles of rehabilitation and resettlement at work Course Content Pre-placement screening; Occupational lung diseases, silicosis, asbestos -related diseases, occupational asthma, and byssinosis; health monitoring and investigation of a hazard; use of protective clothing; sickness absence, measuring absence, basic statistics and misconceptions, factors known to influence sickness absence; rehabilitation and settlement at work; principles of toxicology Course readings 1. H.A. Waldron. Butterworth-Heinemann 1995. Occupational Health Practice. 3rd Edition. 2. Paul Erickson, 1996 Practical Guide to Occupational and Safety. Academic Press.

58

GSPH 322 Research Methods II 2 Credits Course Objectives: At the end of the course the student will be able to: Formulate research questions and research objectives Describe the qualitative survey methods, purposive sampling, sample size determination. Data collection methods including participant observation, Focus group discussions Construct variables and understand the generalizability, reliability, and validity. Basic analysis of qualitative data and presentation of data.. Course Content: The course will introduce proposal writing from formulation of research questions, research objectives, design of the study, data collection, analysis, discussion and presentation of results. Principle of ethical conduct of research, Grant writing and sourcing of funding to conduct research Course Readings: 1. Stephen Polgar and Shane Thomas. 1999. Introduction to research in the health science 3rd Edition Churchill & Livingstone. 2. Judith Green & John Browne. Edited 2006. Principles of Social Research Open University Press, McGraw-Hill Education. 3. Presenting Medical Statistics from Proposal to Publication. A step by Step Guide edited by Janet Peacock and Sally Kerry. 2007, Oxford University Press.

GSPH 324 Public Health Seminar I 2 Credits Course Objectives This course is designed to provide students the opportunity to discuss issues of public health importance. At the end of the course the student should be able to Identify public health issues of global importance and their relevance to current public health issues of concern in Ghana Make a presentation on a public health issue of importance Read and understand literature on issues of public health concern. Review and critique published papers on issues of public health importance. Course Content Global public health diseases affecting developing countries; control measures in place for global public health diseases affecting developing countries. Course Readings: 1. Selected articles from leading public Health journals such as the Ghana Medical Journal, The Lancet, Tropical Medicine and International Health, WHO Bulletin. etc 59

ELECTIVES(Level 300) GSPH 326 Global Climate Change and Health Effects 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Understand and analyze the social changes and adaptations that human communities will make as a result of climate change Understand the effect of increased sea levels ,warming temperatures and increased incidence of floods and droughts on diseases Discuss issues of environment raised during various UN conventions on climate change Course Content Variety of effects associated with climate change in different regions on health, malaria, contamination of water bodies, pollution adaptations of human communities to climatic change Course Readings 1. WHO Methods of assessing human vulnerability and public health adaptation to climate change .WHO Europe,Copenhagen,2003 2. Spencer R. The Discovery of Global Warming. 2008 3. Alley Richard B. Abrupt Climate Change. Scientific America.2004

GSPH 328 Control of Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Identify the concept of emerging and re-emerging diseases Understand the evolutionary properties of pathogenic microorganisms and their relationships between micro-organisms, their hosts and their environment Discuss the climatic factors influencing the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases Discuss the challenges of emerging infectious diseases Review the framework for addressing the international spread and control of infectious diseases Course Content Emerging infections in historical context, geographical spread of infections, human demographics and behavior, climate and weather, international travel and commerce, war and famine, technology and industry, microbial adaptation and change, economic development and land use, development of multiple-resistant bacterial pathogens, emerging issues in blood borne infections, resurgent vector borne diseases. Course Readings 1. Morse S: The public health threat of emerging viral diseases.J.Nutr;127:95 1S 60

2. Morens DM, Folkers GK and Fauci AS. 2004. The challenge of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases Nature. 3. Resurgent vector borne diseases as a global health problem. Nature 4. Kombe GC and Darrow DM. 2001. Revisiting emerging infectious diseases: the unfinished agenda. Journal of Community Health; 26:113-122 5. Alterkuse SF, Cohen ML and Swerdlow DL. 1997. Emerging food borne diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3:285-293 6. Institute of Medicine. Emerging Infections: microbial threats to health in the United States. Washington D.C: National Academy Press 1992

GSPH 332 Integrated Disease Surveillance Systems 3 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Understand the concept of integrated disease surveillance and response Develop the skills to use standard IDSR case definitions to identify and report priority diseases. Specify the surveillance and response requirements for each priority disease condition targeted by IDSR. Understand what resources an integrated disease surveillance and response would require. Investigate and respond to suspected outbreaks. Learn how to collect and use surveillance data and alert higher levels and trigger local action. Be able to monitor and evaluate IDSR implementation. Course Content Overview of surveillance, importance of surveillance, standard case definitions, standard methods for reporting priority diseases district level indicators for monitoring quality of surveillance and response at the health facility, community based surveillance, alert thresholds, information flow in integrated disease surveillance, developing public health bulletin, IDSR contribution to epidemic preparedness. Course Reading 1. Gregg, MB. 2002. Field Epidemiology. New York City: Oxford University Press. 2. Nsubuga, P., Mcdonell, S; Perkins, B; Sutter, R; Quick, L;White, M:Cochi, S;Otten, M. 2002. Polio eradication in Africa: Influence on other infectious disease surveillance development. BMC Public Health2:27 3. World Health Organisation. 1999. Regional Office for Africa. Integrated Disease and Response: A regional strategy for communicable Diseases1999-2003 (AFR/RC/488) Harare: WHO. 4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems: recommendations from the guidelines working group. MMWR 50 61

GSPH 334 Geographic Information Systems I 2 Credits Course Objectives Explain what Geographical information systems are Understand the use of GIS for epidemiology investigations and diseases surveillance Discuss the advantages of geographical information systems Explain the use of GIS in outbreak investigation Course Content Definition of geographical information system; spatial data; database management; data input and editing; data analysis; data editing; data quality issues; GIS project editing and management, use of GISs in surveillance and monitoring vector-borne diseases, environmental health, children and pedestrian Course Readings 1. Burrough PA, McDonnell RA. 1998. Principles of geographical information systems. Oxford University Press. 2. Melnick AL. 2002. Introduction to geographic information systems in public health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

GSPH 335 Health Data Management 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Describe the management of various health data Discuss the analysis of public health data Assess the quality of hospital data Course content Analysing public health data; validity of ICD 10 Hospital discharge data, applied spatial statistics for public health data, analysis of hospital data of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes. Course Readings 1. Waller L.A and Gotway CA (2004) Applied spatial statistics for public health data. John Wiley and Sons

62

GSPH 336 Water Supply and Treatment 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: State the importance of water for human growth, health promotion and other uses. Describe the various sources of water and the characteristics of the water of the sources. State the classification of water-related diseases and describe how they are transmitted. Describe the methods of protection of water sources and simple methods of making water safe for drinking purpose. Describe the conventional method of water treatment for urban water supply. Explain the uses of water quality standards and state the relevant functions of public agencies responsible for water standards. Course Content Definition: Water resources, source of supply, portability, safeness etc. Sources of Water Supply (Water resources): Sources: Surface water (rivers, lakes, dams, ponds, lagoons, sea water); Ground water (springs, water table); Rain water. Uses of Water Resources: Human physiological requirement; Domestic (personal hygiene, food preparation, waste disposal); Industrial and commercial (manufacturing, food and drink services); Agricultural (irrigation, crop watering, etc); Public cleansing (drain cleansing); Fire fighting. Water Associated Diseases: (i) Waters role in disease transmission (ii) Classification of water-associated diseases (water-borne, water-based, water-washed, water-related) Water Purification: Purpose: Provision of safe water for drinking; production of water meeting industrial standards. Methods of Source Protection: Protection of sources of supply (springs, rivers, etc); Household methods (boiling, cloth filtration, chemical disinfection, etc); Conventional water treatment Drinking Water (Quality) Standards: Parameters (Bacteriological, physical, chemical, radiological); Indicators and limit setting. Water Supply Development: Classification of schemes: Rural Water Supply (sanitary wells, bore-hole supply, springs); small town supply (limited pipe-borne distribution; Urban supply (pipe-borne supply. Course Readings 1 Frank R Spellman. 2008. Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, Second Edition. CRC Press. 2 by Guy Alaerts, Nicolas Dickinson (Edited) 2001. Proceedings of the International Symposium Water for a Changing World Developing Local Knowledge and Capacity, Delft, The Netherlands, June 13-15,

63

GSPH 338 Solid Waste Management 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: State and describe the classification and characteristics of solid wastes. Describe the potential environmental hazards associated with the management of solid wastes. Identify various types of waste and relate them to sources of generation. Describe the methods of storage, collection, transportation, treatment and final disposal of solid wastes. Explain the importance of use of legislation and tariff systems to efficiently manage solid wastes. Describe the institutional arrangements for management of solid wastes. Course Content The course will examine the following: Definition: Waste, refuse, rubbish, recycling, waste management. Classification of solid wastes by characteristics and source. Sources of solid waste generation: domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, hospital, institutions, etc. Waste generation: Individual, community. Hazards of solid waste accumulation in the community (health, land, degradation, property devaluation, etc) Methods of Storage, collection, transportation, treatment and final disposal.Financing and tariff systems for solid waste management. Types of legislation and bye-laws needed for solid waste management. Institutional arrangements: Central, regional, district and town level organizations, human resource development. Course Readings 1. Forbes McDougall, Peter White, Marina Franke, Peter Hindle, Procter & Gamble 2001. Integrated Solid Waste Management: A Life Cycle Inventory (2nd edition). (www.pg.com). Blackwell Science Ltd. 2. George Tchobanoglous, Frank Kreith 2002. Handbook of Solid Waste Management., McGraw Hill GSPH 339 Nutrients and their Metabolism 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Understand the carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Understand diet factors affecting nutrients absorption and metabolism. Discuss the effects of various hormones on the metabolism of macronutrients. Discuss the interaction of nutrition and infection. Course content Nutrient utilization: digestion, absorption and metabolism, metabolic relationships among carbohydrates, proteins and fat in the major body tissues, differences in digestibility of foods and physiologic implications, influence of food and non-nutrienfood components, nutrient nutrient interactions in foods, effects of macronutrients and fiber. 64

Course Readings 1. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 1994.Edited by Maurice E.Shils, James A.Olson, and Moshe Shike 8th Edition 2. Public Health Nutrition.Edited by Michael J.Gibney,Barrie M.Margetts,John M.Kearney and Lenonre Arab.2004. Blackwell Publishing. 3. Human Nutrition. Helen A.Guthrie and Mary Frances.1995 Mosby

GSPH 342 Pest and Vector Control 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Explain the importance of role of pests and vectors in public health Relate pest and vectors of public health importance to diseases and other health problems. Describe the approved control methods and schemes. Describe the classes of pesticides and the methods of application State the relevant governmental and other bodies who play roles in pest and vector control. Course Content Definitions: Pest, vector, vector control, pesticide, insecticide, larvicide, adulticide, biolarvicide, etc.Importance of pest and vectors: Agents of disease transmission Causes of nuisance (biting, irritation, itching. Droppings, odour, etc); General Control Principles: Identification and morphological characteristics Biology (Life cycle, behavior, resting place, dispersal, ecology, food, etc) Public health importance: Diseases: Nuisance (irritation, biting, itching, droppings, odours, etc); Pest/Vectors and Disease: Pesticide Classification, Formulation and Use Regulation of Pesticide Use: Legislation to control import and export, labeling, packaging, storage, transportation, safe use, etc. Institutional Arrangements: Central government (Agriculture, Health and Environment) Ministries, districts and local authorities; private sector (importers/retailers, pest control, service providers) Course Reading 1. CA Maxwell, K. Mohammed, V. Kisumuku, CF Curtis. 1999. Can vector control play a useful supplementary-role against bancroftian filariasis? Bulletin World Health Organisation. 2. A Their Balancing the risks: vector control and pesticide use in response to emerging illness. Journal of Urban Health 2001 3. RI Rose. 2001. Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol 7. 4. C Curtis Should DDT 1994. Continue to be recommended for malaria vector control? Medical and Veterinary entomology.

65

GSPH 344 Environmental Exposure Assessment 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the students will be able to: Understand the principles of study design for exposure studies for gas and particle properties Describe the measures use to assess environmental exposures to chemicals and biological contaminants. Discuss the direct measurements of human exposure using personal air quality monitors and direct reading monitors for important air pollutants such as fine and ultrafine particles, measurements of ingestion hazards such as aflatoxins Understand methods of determining dermal exposure etc. Course Content Environmental exposures to chemicals and biological contaminants; study design issues relating to air water sediment and soil sampling, water protection inspection, water management and protection of water quality, monitoring air quality, measures for the protection of farmland quality Course Readings 1. Lipmann M.(ed) 2009.Environmental toxicants: human exposures and their heath effects.Third Edition.Wiley: New York 2. World Health Report.2002 Reducing risks, promoting healthy lives. World Health Organisation. 3. Masters G M 1998.Introduction to environmental engineering and science. Second edition.Prentice Hall,Englewood Cliffs

GSPH 346 Systems Analysis and Design 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Learn systems definition, theory and concepts Learn how to analyze systems Understand systems relationships Learn the applications and management of systems Course Content The course will include the following: Basic definition-systems, systems analysis, information system, General overview of systems development, systems theory and relevance to information system, systems life cycle (SLDC)-preliminary investigation, the analysis phase, the design phase, development stage, implementation, systems evaluation. System design tool-systems flow charts, Entity relationship diagrams, data flow diagrams, Hipo chart, Warnier Orr diagram, decision tree, pseudo code, data dictionary, application of systems analysis/design, systems management, systems professionals, systems engineers, analysts, designer, architect, owner, developer user. Course Readings 1. P. Checkland Chichester 1999. System Thinking, Systems Practice.: John Wiley. 66

2. J.Rowley 1990. The basic of systems analysis and design for information managers. London: Clive Bingley Ltd. 3. L.I OLeary and T.J.OLeary 2004. Computing Today. Boston: McGraw. 4. J. Whitten et al.: System Analysis and Design methods. 6 th Edition. Boston: McGraw Hill 5. S.E. Hutchinson, and S.C .Sawyer. 1994. Computers and Information System. Burr Ridge III: Irwin

GSPH 348 Data Analysis and Presentation (HMIS) I 3 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course students will be able to; Describe the Health Management Information System (HMIS) of the Ministry of Health Describe and generate the Basic outputs of the HMIS Document the quality of the data include completeness of reporting. Provide feedback to the institutions generating the basic data Present the data for the District Health Management Team Course Content Review of the database structure, the Ministry of Health HMIS, coding system, the basic indicators and their definition, analysis of defined dataset from the HMIS, generate basic indicators and presentation of data. Course Readings Jack Smith, 1999. Health Management Information System: A hand book for decision makers. Oxford University, Press. GSPH 352 Applied Nutrition 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be conversant with Applied nutrition programmes, their implementation and evaluation Effects of socio-economic factors on nutrition Urbanization and nutrition Nutrition education and methods of delivery of nutrition information to the public Role of national and international organizations in combating hunger and malnutrition Course Content Structure of nutritional programmes, mode of implementation and evaluation; effects of socio-economic factors on nutrition; how urbanization affects nutrition; mode and objectives of nutrition education to the public and methods of delivery and the role of local and international organizations in combating hunger and malnutrition. 67

Course Readings 1. Burtis G, Davis J, 1988. Martin S, Applied nutrition and diet therapy. Saunders, Philadelphia (USA). 2. Davis JR, Sherer K, Burtis G. 1994. Applied nutrition and diet therapy for nurses. WB Saunders. 3. Miller DS, Baker J, Bowden M, Evans E, Holt J et al. 1976. The Ethiopia applied nutrition project. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol. 194, No. 1114 (Aug. 27, 1976), pp. 23-48. 4. Pilch SM. 1985. Assessment of the vitamin A nutritional status of the U.S. population based on data collected in the health and nutrition examination surveys. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Bethesda, MD.

GSPH 354 Nutritional Surveillance 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the semester the student will be able to; Understand disease surveillance as applied to nutritional diseases Identify nutritional diseases of public health importance Understand the epidemiology of nutritional diseases of public health importance Set up a system of surveillance for nutritional diseases of public health importance Indicators for nutritional surveillance Course Content Principles of disease surveillance and how it applies to nutritional diseases. Nutritional diseases of public health importance and their epidemiology. Surveillance of nutritional diseases of public health importance. Standard indicators for nutritional surveillance and how to collect data. Course Readings 1. Mason JB, Habicht JP, Tabatabai H, Valverde V. 1981. Nutritional surveillance. CAB International. 2. Habicht JP. 1980. Some characteristics of indicators of nutritional status for use in screening and surveillance. The American journal of Clinical Nutrition 33. March pp.531-535. 3. Mei Z, Scanlon KS, Grummer-Strawn LM, Freedman DS, Yip R, Trowbridge FL.1983. Increasing Prevalence of Overweight Among US Low-income Preschool Children: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance, 1983 to 1995 PEDIATRICS Vol. 101 No. 1 January, p. e12

68

GSPH 356 Lifestyle and Nutrition 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Describe the relationship between diet and diseases of common origin Describe the epidemiology of diseases with dietary origin Understand the principles of using diet to prevent and control diseases Course content Relationships between diseases, nutrition and diets. Epidemiology of diseases with dietary origins, Vitamin A deficiency disorders, Iron deficiency anaemia, Iodine deficiency disorders, dental disorders, GIT disorders, Gallstones, Cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes, cancers. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Dietary management in therapy. Food fads in disease prevention and management. Course Readings 1. Whitney, E. N., and S. R. Rolfes. Understanding Nutrition, 11th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008. 2. Maurice E Shils, Moshe Shike, A. Catharine Ross, and Benjamin Caballero. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams and Welkins. 2005

GSPH 358 Behaviour Change Communication 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course, students will be able to; Understand the concept of health communication Identify various communication medium and/or channels Acknowledge the strengths and weaknesses of the various medium for health communication Understand the processes involved in designing behaviour change communications Course Content The course will introduce students to definition of principles and concepts such as behavior, communication and behavior change communication. It will also deal with the various steps to behavior change, health communication in cultural context, the challenges and considerations of behavior change communication. Course Readings 1. Renata Schiavo. 2007. Health communication: from theory to practice. John Wiley and Sons. 2. Hornik, Robert (ed) 2002. Public Health Communication: Evidence for Behavior Change. Routledge. 3. Edward W. Maibach 1995. Designing Health Messages: Approaches from Communication Theory and Public Health Practice. Sage Publications. 4. Haider M., (2005). Global Public Health Communication: Challenges, Perspectives, and Strategies Jones and Bartlett Publishers, USA.

69

5. Figueroa et al., 2002. Communication for Social Change: An Integrated Model for Measuring the Process and Its Outcomes. The Rockefeller foundation, New York. 6. Coombs W.T., 1999. Ongoing Crisis Communication: Planning, Managing and Responding Sage Publications.

GSPH 362 Mass Communication in Health Education and Public Health-3 credits Course Objectives: The student should at the end of the course be able to: Explain the concepts and principles of health communication Use the media to communicate health matters Marketing health and health related commodities Discuss how the mass media can be used to change health behavior Prepare scripts for health communication Build partnerships with other sectors for health communication Course Content: The course content will include mass communication theory and practice; community entry processes, media use as a health promotion/health communication strategy; use of radio, television, and the internet for health promotion; media use in health promotion campaigns (HIV prevention campaigns; malaria prevention campaign, tobacco campaigns); marketing and unhealthy advertising (alcoholic beverages); television and children's health; marketing and social marketing; working with the media and writing media releases; Writing for the print media; cross cultural communication; communication with people with disability; pre-testing developed media materials; health sponsorships; coalition building, political lobbying and media advocacy for health. Course Readings 1. Bandura, A., (1977). The social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. PrenticeHall. 2. T L. Thompson, Dorsey A. M, Miller K. I., Parrott R. (edited ) 2003.Handbook of Health Communication. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. London. 3. Du Pre A. (2000) Communicating about health: Current issues and perspectives. Mountain View CA: Mayfield Publishers. 4. Eng, T R., Maxfield, A., Patrick, K., Deering, M J., Ratzan, S C., & Gustafson, D H., (1998). Access to health information and support: A public highway or a private road? Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 1371-1375. 5. Frost, K., Frank, E., & Maiback, E. (1997). Relative risk in the news media: A quantification of misrepresentation. American Journal of public Health, 87(5), 842-845.

70

LEVEL 400 SEMESTER I GSPH 401 Biostatistics for Public Health 2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course, the student will be able to; demonstrate the understanding of basic statistics concepts demonstrate capacity to types of measurement apply the concepts to collate statistics on common public health problems summarize and present the data to any public health audience Interpret the data and report information Course Content The course focuses on basic statistical concepts especially on types of measurement in public health. Basic concepts in data analysis, presentation of data and reports. The course will be very practical using data from Ghana Health Service reports to illustrate the concepts and provide analysis of reports in public health Course Readings 1. Biostatistics: The bare essentials, Norman. BC Decker Inc. ISBN: 1550094009 (2008) 2. Ghana Health Service Annual Reports. 3. CDC Epi Info Software Manual. version 3.5.1

GSPH 403 Reproductive Health: Comprehensive Care for HIV/AIDS 3 Credits Course Objectives Understand concepts of prevention of HIV transmission Review the concept of comprehensive care and support for HIV/AIDS Understand factors influencing the acceptability of voluntary counseling and HIV testing among pregnant women; Analyze current issues in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV Describe the continuum of care for people with HIV/AIDS; Understand and discuss the concept for the comprehensive care and support for persons living with HIV/AIDS Describe the 3 by 5 initiative to make access of antiretroviral therapy available to persons living with HIV/AIDS Course Content Prevention of HIV transmission,HIV counseling and testing, opt out screening, prevention of mother to child transmission, antenatal couple counseling; anti retroviral therapy and prevention, perception of HIV risk; 3 by 5 initiative Course Readings 1. Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe M M, Jansssen R S, Taylor A W, Lyss B B, Clark J E. 2006. Revised recommendations for HIV testing for adults, 71

adolescents, and pregnant women in health care settings .MMWR Recomm Rep. 55(RR-14):1-17 2. PR Lamptey,P Zeitz, C.Larivee (Edited) 2001. Strategies for an Expanded and Comprehensive Response(ECR) to a national HIV/AIDS Epidemic. A handbook for designing and implementing HIV/AIDS programs. Family Health International

GSPH 405 Introduction to Gender and Health Care 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Discuss the gender differences in the use of health care Describe gender differences in health perceptions and the reporting of symptoms and illnesses Course Content Health and social construction of gender, gender stereotypes, health beliefs and behaviors: resources for constructing gender, the social construction of disease, medical Institution and its construction of gender and health, gender and utilization of health services, gender and responses to symptoms Course Reading 1. Will H. Courtenay 2000. Constructions of masculinity and their influence on mens well being: a theory of gender and health. Social Science and Medicine. 50:1385-1401 2. (Author) 1983. Gender roles, illness orientation and use of medical services. Social Science and Medicine. 17:129-37 3. Krieger, N. 2003. Genders, sexes and health: what are the connections- and why does it matter? Int J. Epidemiol 32:652-657 4. Tolhurst, R., de Koning, K., Price, J., Kemp, J., Theobald, S., Squire, S.B. 2002. The challenge of infectious Disease: Time to take gender into account. Journal of Health Management. 4:135-151 5. Holge-Hazelton, B., Malterud, K. 2009. Gender in Medicine does it matter? Scand J. Public Health 37:139-145

GSPH 407 School Health Services II: 2 credits Course Objectives: At the end of the course the students will be able to; Design programmes specifically targeting the prevention of common health and disease problems such as malaria, helminthes, tobacco use, HIV/AIDS/STDs, drugs and alcohol, violence and injuries. Design programmes with support from the teachers on physical activity and its health benefits Promote importance of local foods and fruits in the diet for a healthy life style. Monitor and evaluate school health programmes. 72

Course Content: Basic cause of common childhood diseases such as malaria common cold, HIV/AIDs, TB, helminthes infection, cuts and wounds, and methods to prevent them. Alcohol use and smoking and their effects on health. Local foods and fruits and their nutrient value and use. Monitoring and evaluation of school health programmes. Course Readings 1. World Health Organization (1996b). Research to Improve Implementation and Effectiveness of School Health Programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO/HPR/HEP/96.3). 2. WHO School Health Series 3. Violence Prevention: An Important Element of a Health-Promoting School (WHO/HPR/HEP/98.2) 4. Healthy Nutrition: An Essential Element of a Health-Promoting School (WHO/HPR/HEP/98.3) 5. Tobacco Use Prevention: An Important Entry Point for the Development of a Health-Promoting School (WHO/HPR/HEP/98.5) 6. Preventing HIV/AIDS/STI and Related Discrimination: An Important Responsibility of Health-promoting Schools (WHO/HPR/HEP/98.6) 7. Skills for Health: Skills-Based Health Education Including Life Skills (WHO and UNICEF, 2003) 8. Family Life, Reproductive Health and Population Education: Key Elements of a Health-Promoting School (WHO/NPH, 2003) 9. The Physical Environment: An Important Component of a Health-Promoting School: (WHO/PHE and WHO/NPH, 2003) Oral Health: An Essential Element of a Health-Promoting School (WHO, UNESCO, EDC)

GSPH 409 Reproductive Health and Culture 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Discuss the social factor and cultural factors affecting reproductive health Describe the influence of cultural values on reproductive health Course Content Define reproductive health, cultural context of sexuality, cultural factors & determinants of use of family planning, sexual violence, female genital mutilation, Reproductive tract infections, and treatment, effects of contraception and health of mothers and children, adolescent fertility and contraception Course Readings 1. Tsui, Wasserheit & Haaga ed. 1997. Reproductive Health in Developing countries National Academy Press. 2. A Trostle: Epidemiology and culture. James. Cambridge. Studies in Medical Anthropology. 73

3. Airhinhebuwa C.O. 1995. Health and culture: beyond the Western paradigm. Sage publications. 4. Hahn RA. 1999. Anthropology and public health: Bridginng differences in culture and society. Oxford University Press. 5. Adongo P, Akweongo P, Binka F, Mbacke C. 1998. Female genital mutilation: socio-cultural factors that influence the practice in Kassena-Nankana District Ghana. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2:25-36

GSPH 410 Project Work 8 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the project work, the student will be able to; Identify a question or a practical problem that needs solution Develop appropriate questions Collect the necessary data Write up a long essay Make a presentation to the district or sub-districts

GSPH 411 Health problems of infants and children 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of course the student will be able to; Describe the various childhood morbidity and mortality. Discuss the progress made in improving childhood morbidity and mortality. Discuss the neonatal health care and surveillance Course Content Definition of the childhood morbidity and mortality; causes of perinatal and neonatal mortality, prematurity and low birth weight; childhood diseases of public health importance. Course Reading 1. Ghana VAST Study Team. 1993. Vitamin A Supplementation in Northern Ghana: effects on clinic attendances and hospital admissions, and child mortality. Lancet 342 :7-12 2. UNICEF State of the Children Reports 3. Ghana MICS surveys 4. WHO Child Survival Programme Reports.

GSPH 413 Scientific Communication Including Report Writing 2 Credits Course Objectives By the end of the course the student should be able to; Understand the scope of scientific communication Understand what a scientific paper is 74

Describe the components of a scientific paper Discuss how to communicate scientific information to the public Understand the process for submitting articles to peer-reviewed journals Course Content Definition of scientific communication; writing a scientific paper; when to begin writing; preparing the text, abstract preparation, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgments, citation of references, ethics in scientific publishing; The publishing process, conference communications, oral presentation, poster presentation, scientific style. Course Reading 1. Booth, V. 2003 Communicating in science: writing a scientific paper and speaking at scientific meetings. Second Edition 2. Day, R. A. Gastel B. (ed). 2006. How to write and publish a scientific paper. Cambridge University Press 3. Hancock, E. 2003. Ideas into words: mastering the craft of science writing. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

GSPH 414 Public Health Seminar II Course Objectives The course is designed to provide the students opportunity to discuss public health issues of importance. At the end of the course the student should be able to; Identify public health issues of global importance and their relevance to current public health issues of concern in Ghana. Read and understand literature on poverty and health Review literature on the Millennium Development Goals Course content Global public health diseases and developing countries, Poverty and health, measurements of poverty and health; indicators of the Millennium Development goals Course Readings 1. Selected readings from Journals. 2. Documents from multilateral and bilateral agencies

75

GSPH 415 Public Health Ethics 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Draw a distinction between public health ethics and medical ethics. Identify and evaluate ethical questions in public health Differentiate between various schools of thought on ethics. Course Content Traditions and values in public health, social determinants of health, ethical analysis and decision making, ethics and pandemic power, participation and disparities, research with human subjects, professional ethics, cross-cultural ethics. Course Readings 1. Thomas JC, Sage M, Dillenberg J, Guillory VJ. 2002. A code of ethics for public health. Am J Public Health; 92:1057-9 2. Roberts MJ, Reich MR. 2002. Ethical Analysis in public health .Lancet; 359:10559 3. Golloglyl L, Momen H. 2006. Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication; pitfalls and solutions for editors.Rev SaudePublica 40:24-9 4. Freda MC Learney H. 2005. Ethical issues faced by nursing editors. West J Nurs Res 27:487-99 5. Anekwe TD 2009. Profits and Plagiarism: the case of medical ghost writing. Bioethics 6. Marcovitch H. 2007. Misconduct by researchers and authors. Gac.Sanit. 21:4929 7. World Health Organization Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences. (CIOMS) International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research involving Human Subjects. Geneva 2002 ELECTIVES (Level 400) GSPH 417 Database Management II 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Have an overview of database systems Define the elements of a health database Understand the need to develop high quality clinical databases Discuss the uses of the various health database Course Content Database concepts-database files, types, records field, advantages and disadvantages of DBMS, types of database organization, features of data-query, report data dictionary, utilities systems recovery, database application development; overview of storage and indexing; database profession, new developments in database management, data service delivery, diagnosis, health information management and 76

administration, ethics of using databases, health database systems, features of application software, developing databases for health systems. Course Readings 1. Proctor SJ, Taylor PRA. 2000. A practical guide to continuous population-based data collection(PACE): a processing facilitating uniformity of care and research practice.QJM 93:67-73 2. P Helman 1994. The Science of Database Management. Burr Ridge: Irwin 1994

GSPH 421 Public Health Surveillance of Chronic Diseases 2Credits Course Objectives: At the end of the course the student will be able to understand; History of Public Health Surveillance Chronic Disease surveillance especially in developing countries Determinants of health and chronic disease (Risk factors). Major health problems Prevention and control of public chronic diseases Course Content The course content will include the new public health priorities, characteristics of chronic disease surveillance, reporting of chronic disease surveillance, behavioural determinants of health and disease, determinants of population health, global burden of disease approach, risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The epidemiology and prevention of diabetes mellitus, Neoplasms, HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis will be reviewed. Course Readings 1. Detels et al, 2009. Oxford Textbook of Public Health 5th ed, Oxford University Press, UK 2. Vipat Kuruchittham, Fred Binka & Chitr Sitthi-Amorn.: Information systems and community diagnosis in low- and middle-income countries 3. Halperin, W, Baker E. L. Jr, 1992. Public Health Surveillance 1st ed, Wiley Publications

GSPH 423 Emergency/ Preparedness and Outbreak Investigation 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course, students are expected to have basic knowledge on how to; Detect disease outbreaks/ epidemics early Organize and analyze data Interpret and use data for outbreak/epidemic investigation Respond to suspected outbreaks/epidemics Acquire skills in Report writing 77

Course Content The course will investigate the steps in outbreak investigation and the importance of team work in the investigation of outbreak and the role of Laboratory in the disease outbreak investigation. Course Reading 1. IDSR Technical Guidelines for Ghana IDSR Training modules 2. Standard Case Definitions for 23 Priority Disease Surveillance for Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). Ghana Health Service/ Ministry of Health. May 2002. 3. E. Churchill. 2002. The Fine Science of Abstracting or Concrete Facts about Abstracts. CDC, Atlanta GA.

GSPH 427 Domestic and Industrial Waste Water Disposal 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Describe the sources of waste waters and their modes of generation. Describe the classification of waste waters. Describe the composition and degradation processes of waste waters. Explain the need for efficient collection, treatment and disposal with reference to impacts on health and the environment. Describe drainage systems approved for disposal of wastes waters. Explain the importance of legislation and public education in management of waste water disposal. Describe the institutional arrangements for promoting development and enforcement of legislation. Course Content Principles: Definitions: Waste, Waste water, Sullage, Sewer, Soil pipe. Sources of waste water: Domestic, Commercial, Industrial, etc.Classification: Liquid, Semi-liquid, Turbidity, colour, Odour ; Characteristics: 1) Composition (water, solids, dissolved matter Degradability (organic decomposition, clarification, gaseous emissions, etc) Facilities/Infrastructures for disposal of waste waters: Street drains, Storm water drain (natural, built), house drains, open spaces, ponds, etc. Development and Management of Drainage: Drainage network design, construction and maintenance. Private and public premises connections, Legislation and bye-laws and enforcement. Institutional Arrangements: Roles of District Assemblies and local councils; definition of the responsibilities of property owners; monitoring and promotion of development. Course Readings 1. Water Environment Federation (WEF), Industrial Wastewater Management, Treatment, and Disposal 3rd ed (2008), McGraw Hill Professional Publications. 2. Jern Wun, Industrial Wastewater Treatment (2006), World Scientific Publishing Company. 78

3. Metcalf and Eddy (1995) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse. McGraw-Hill, New York. 4. Sperling V. M., Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal (2007) Vol. 1, IWA Publishing GSPH 429 Health Aspects of Housing 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course, students should be able to; Describe the elements that constitute the housing environment. Explain how the general environment of the location of housing impacts on health State the town planning principles applied to achieve healthful housing. State the criteria for assessing a healthful housing. Course Content Definitions: Housing, premises, workplace, ventilation, illumination, town planning, zoning, building code, building permit, etc; Health problems attributed to housing (diseases, injuries, nuisance, etc);Town planning (physical planning) principles for development of communities (layout, zoning, etc) Criteria for assessing healthfulness of housing: Fundamental physiological needs; Protection against contagion (diseases); Protection against accidents; Legislation: Building Code, permits, building inspection and enforcement of code; demolition; Institutional Arrangements: Establishment of department/unit for regulation of building construction; human resource development; logistics. Course Readings 1. Jill Stewart. 2001. Environmental Health and Housing. Routledge. 2. Paul Balchim and Maureen Rhoden edited. 1998. Housing: The essential foundations. Routledge.

GSPH 431 Gender and Environmental Health Care 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course students will be able to; Discuss the concept of gender as a social and theoretical concept Compare the different perspectives of gender and how various social frameworks affect the health and development of individuals and societies Explore the social patterns and socio-cultural factors related to health, disease and well-being Discuss current gender based-health care issues related to reproductive health, sexual health Assess the gender sensitivity of Ghanas health care policies Discuss gender and environmental health care 79

Course Content This course introduces students to the construction of gender and sex and gender as a theoretical concept. It also looks at the historical, international, and domestic perspectives of gender, the social structures that affect the development of individual and societys health, and how gender influences the construction of public health in different societies. The course will provide some understanding into societal patterns of health, disease, and well-being, and the socio-cultural determinants that affect peoples experiences and expectations of health. This course examines some health issues where gender plays an important role: reproductive health, sexual health, health policy etc. Course Readings 1. Langley, R. L. (2003). Gender and Health: Sex and Gender Differences in Health and Disease, Carolina University Press. 2. Bird C. E. & Rieker, P. P. (2008). Gender and Health: The Effects of Constrained Choices and Social Policies, Cambridge University Press. 3. Doyal L. 1995. What Makes Women Sick: Gender and the Political Economy of Health, Rutgers University Press.

GSPH 433 Public Health Legislation, Regulation and Enforcement 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course students will be able to; State the role of legislation in the development of environmental health programmes and general promotion of public health. Describe pressures that cause initiation and promulgation of environmental health legislation. Describe the formal procedures used to enact national and local legislation. State and describe national and local legislation (in Ghana) that are relevant to development and promotion of environmental health. Describe the institutional arrangements for enforcement of legislation and promotion of coordination between the various relevant agencies. Course Content Definitions: Legislation, Acts, Regulations, Bye-laws, enforcement, sanctions. Role of Legislation: Establish governmental institutions and agencies (eg. Local Government Administration, Food and Drugs Board, etc); Regulations, Standards and tariff systems. Pressures that initiate legislation: Problems with public cooperation, revenue mobilization, demand for projects and services, etc. Relevant legislation for Environmental Health (i) National (e g. Environmental Health Policy of Ghana, Environmental Protection Agency), (ii) Local (e g. District Assembly bye-laws on sanitation), Procedures for Enactment of Legislation 80

Monitoring and Enforcement: Establishment of department/office/unit for monitoring and enforcement; provision of appropriate courts (e g.Sanitary courts); mechanisms for inter-agency coordination and collaboration. Course Readings 1. Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, 1992. 2. Ghana Health Service and Teaching Hospitals Act, 1996. Act 525. 3. The Nurses and Midwives Council Act, 2005 (Bill). 4. The Centre for Plant Medicine Research Act, 2005 (Bill). 5. National Council for Mortuaries and Funeral Facilities Act, 2005 (Bill). 6. Health Care Agency Act 2005 (Bill). 7. The Traditional Medicine Council Act, 2005 (Bill). 8. Food and Drugs (Amendment) Act, 1996 Act 523. 9. The Allied Health Professional Act, 2005 (Bill). 10. Medical and Dental Council Act, 2005 (Bill). 11. Draft Public Health Bill. 12. Diseases of Animals Act, 1961, Act 83.

GSPH 435 Human Excreta and Sewage Disposal 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student would be able to; Identify and describe the human physiological process that generates human wastes and discharge. Characteristics of waste. Composition: Waste, Solids, living organisms (bacteria, virus, etc); Degradability: Degradation processes that generate (factors of humidity, temperature) by-products (gases, water, dissolved matter) Describe human excreta-related diseases; Describe the impact of the disposal of human waste discharges on the quality of the environment (waste, solid, air, etc) Describe the disposal systems used for safe and efficient disposal. Describe the institutional arrangements for proper management of human waste disposal. Course Content Definitions: Human excreta, night soil, sanitary waste, degradability and sewerage. Principles: Prevention of risk of exposure (hygienic handling), treatment to reduce hazardousness and facilitate disposal. Collection and transportation (cartage, sewerage).Treatment methods and systems: On/off site systems, types of facilities (toilets, urinals).Final disposal methods (land, water, sea disposal) Institutional Arrangements: Relevant organizations and stakeholders: Central Government (Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing, EPA, District/Local Government, Waste Collection Service Providers, Households, establishment of district departments/units to regulate services, sector organization. Course Readings 1. Yassi et al, 2001. Basic Environmental Health, Oxford University Press, New York. 81

GSPH 437 Introduction to Field Epidemiology 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Discuss the components of field epidemiology Explain how to conduct a field investigation Use a computer for field investigation Analyze and interpret data during field investigations Communicate epidemiologic findings after field investigation Course Content Definition of field epidemiology, operational aspects of epidemiologic investigations, conducting a field investigation, surveys and sampling, using a computer for field investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, Course Readings 1. Field Epidemiology Micahael B.Gregg Oxford University Press 3rd Edition 2. Woodall, J (1998) The role of computer networking in investigating unusual disease outbreaks and allegations of biological and toxin weapons use.Crit Rev Microbial 24 (3), 255-72 3. Eng,S.B.Werker,D.H,King,A.S.et al.(1999) Computer-generated dot maps as an epidemiologic tool investigating an outbreak of toxoplasmosis. Emerg Infect Dis 5(6) 815-9 4. Rothman,K.J., Greenland S.(1998). Modern Epidemiology, 2nd ed., Little, Brown, Boston. 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1992).Principles of Epidemiology. A Self-study Course, 2nd ed., Atlanta 6. Dean,AG, Arner, T.G.,Sunki,G.G.,et al (2002) Epi Info Tm, a database and statistics program for public health professionals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta

GSPH 439 Geographic Information Systems II 2 Credits Course Objectives Explain what Geographical information systems are Understand the use of GIS for epidemiology investigations and diseases surveillance Discuss the advantages of geographical information systems Explain the use of GIS in outbreak investigation Course Content Definition of geographical information system; spatial data; database management; data input and editing; data analysis; data editing; data quality issues; GIS project editing and 82

management, use of GISs in surveillance and monitoring vector-borne diseases, environmental health, children and pedestrian Course Readings 1. Graves B.A. Integrative literature review: a literature related to geographical information systems, health care access and health outcomes. Perspect Health Inf Manag 2008 29;5:11 2. GIS and Health Anthony C.Gatrell and Markku Loytonnen Eds 1998. London: Taylor and Francis 3. GIS and Public Health. E.K.Cromley, S.Mclafferly.Guildford Press. New York 2002

GSPH 441 Clinical Data Classification and Coding I 3 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Have knowledge of historical development and the relevance of diseases classification Understand the current system of disease classification Apply the concept of the current diseases classification in coding diseases and health related problems Develop skills in clinical classification of diseases and procedures using the International statistical classification of diseases and health related problems (ICD 10) Course Content History and development of disease classification, the structure and conventions of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems; tenth Revision, Basic coding principles, retrieval of relevant information from health records for the classification of diseases and procedures in medicine. Course Readings 1. Cancer Registration: Principles and methods. O.M.Jensen et al. Edited .Lyon France. International Agency for Research on Cancer 2. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, ICD-O.A. Fritz et al edited. WHO. Geneva 2000 3. World Health Organisation,(1992) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and related Health Problems(ICD-10) Vol.1 10th ed.,Geneva WHO library Cataloguing

GSPH 443 Electronic Health and Data Systems 2 Credits Course Objectives: At the end of the course the student will be able to; Define the concept of electronic health record use in health care Understand the benefits of using electronic health records 83

Discuss the data quality issues to be addressed when using electronic health records Understand the advantages of using an electronic system for reporting public health data Have skills to implement the use of electronic health records within the health system Course Content Definition of electronic health record, difference between electronic health record and electronic medical record; structure of electronic health records, context of use of electronic health records, functions of an electronic health record, informed consent and electronic health records; standardization of electronic health records; implementing security and access control for an electronic health record, access to electronic health records, security infrastructure and archives for electronic archives and electronic health records; secondary uses of electronic health records, medico-legal purposes, quality management, education research, policy development/health service management, health statistics analysis and trend analysis Course Readings; 1. France FH, Beguin C, van Breguel R, Piret C. 2000. Long term preservation of electronic health records. Recommendations in a large teaching hospital in Belgium. Stud Health Technol Inform. 77:632-6 2. Bean N H, Martin SM, Bradford J PHLIS 1992. An electronic system for reporting health data from remote sites .American Journal of Public Health 82:1273-1276 3. Barrows RC, Clayton PD. Privacy, confidentiality, and electronic medical records J Am Med Inform Assoc.1996;3:139-148 4. Henry SB, Morris JA, Holzemer WL. Using structured text and templates to capture health status outcomes in the electronic health record. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 1997;23:667-77 5. Physicians, patients, and the electronic health record: An ethnographic analysis. Annals of Family Medicine. Inc 2006; 124-131 6. Agrawal R., Johnson C. 2007. Securing electronic health records without impeding the flow of information. International journal of Medical Informatics ;76:471-479

GSPH 445 Data Base Systems and Management II 3 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Have an overview of database systems Define the elements of a health database Understand the need to develop high quality clinical databases Discuss the uses of the various health database Course Content Database concepts-database files, types, records field, advantages and disadvantages of DBMS, types of database organization, features of data-query, report data 84

dictionary, utilities systems recovery, database application development; overview of storage and indexing; database profession, new developments in database management, data service delivery, diagnosis, health information management and administration, ethics of using databases, health database systems, features of application software, developing databases for health systems Course Readings 1. Proctor SJ, Taylor PRA. 2000. A practical guide to continuous population-based data collection(PACE): a processing facilitating uniformity of care and research practice.QJM ;93:67-73 2. P Helman. 1994. The Science of Database Management Burr Ridge: Irwin

GSPH 447 Food and Nutrition Policy 2 Credits Course Description The course is designed to help students know the role of policy in food and nutrition programming at the national level. The course will engage the students in discussing how policies are developed and evaluated. Course Objectives At the end of the course, students should be able to; Discuss the role of nutrition policy development Describe the types of food and nutrition policies Compare food and nutrition policies across countries Identify the impact of food and nutrition on food markets, household incomes and public health Describe the processing involved in Food and nutrition policy development Understand the principles involved in engaging stakeholders in nutrition policy development Appreciate the need for sensitivity to vulnerable groups during the development of food and nutrition policies Course Content Policy Definition, Framework, Food and Nutrition Problems Food & Nutrition PoliciesThe Actors, Structures and Instruments: Food and Agric Ministry, Food and drugs board, Ghana Health Service; Dietary Guidelines & Food Labels, infant and young child feeding. Methods of Evaluating Food & Nutrition Policies: assessment of costs in relation to effect and benefit, and against alternative programs National Food & Nutrition Policies -Ideal vs. Reality: The role of food Industry, Agricultural Policy, Food Availability, Consumer Demand and Impact on Dietary Choices Community Programs targeting vulnerable groups (Women, children): growth monitoring, Livelihood empowerment against poverty, regenerative health Policies for emergency situations: conflicts, floods, food shortages, food aid, 85

Role of international, Bilateral and National Agencies in development of Policy Instruments Course Readings 1. Michael J. Gibney, Hester H. Vorster, Aedin Cassidy, Susan Lanham(Eds). 2009. Human Nutrition. Wiley John & Sons. Oxford 2. Gibney MJ, Margetts BM, Kearney JM, Arab L (Eds). 2004. Public Health Nutrition. Blackwell Science. Oxford 3. Ghana Health Service. Imagine Ghana Free of malnutrition. Ghana Health Service, 2005. 4. Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ (Eds). 2009. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 5. Updating and implementing intersectoral food and nutrition plans and policies Report of an Intercountry Workshop, Hyderabad, India, 4-8 April 2005. http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Meetings_Seminars_NUT164.pdf

GSPH 449

Communication for Nutrition and Healthy Lifestyle 3 Credits

Course Objectives By the end of the course, students will be able to; Understand key principles and practice of social marketing Understand simple models for application of nutritional and healthy life styles communication Identify key audience with nutrition and healthy life styles messages Design and measure the success of nutritional and healthy life styles campaign Course Content The premise of this course is that nutritional and life styles problems are caused by human behavior and have long-term implications. To address and create long-term solutions to these problems, behavior needs to change. This course provides students with a practical introduction to the strategies, methods and tools of nutrition and health life styles communication that effectively leads to changes in behavior. The field-based skills gained through this course will provide students the skills of communicating nutritional and health life styles messages for changing behaviors. The course will focus on nutritional and healthy life styles social marketing strategies to ensure desired changes in behavior. Course Readings 1. Philip Kotler and Nancy R. Lee 2008. Social Marketing: Influencing behaviors for Good. Third Edition. Sage Publications. 2. Alan R. Andreasen 1995. Marketing for social change: Changing behavior to Promote Health, Social Development and the Environment. Georgetown University, Washington. 86

3. Katharine R. Curry and Amy Jaffe. 1997. Nutrition counseling and communication skills. Saunders 4. Kathleen Bauer and Carol Sokolik. 2001. Basic nutrition counseling skill development. Brooks Cole. 5. Isobel R. 2007. Nutrition education: Linking research, theory, and practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers

GSPH 451 Nutrition Transition in Ghana 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Understand the concept of nutrition transition Discuss the global challenge of nutrition transition Explain the risk factors for obesity in adults and children Describe the link between diet and non-communicable diseases Discuss the concept of nutrition transition and its implications for the developing world including Ghana Course Content The concept of nutrition transition, obesity trends in the developing world, biological factors, genetic factors, ecological factors, food availability and dietary intake; obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Course Readings 1. Popkin BM 2001 Nutrition in transition: the changing global nutrition challenge. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 10; Suppl: S13-8 2. Amuna P, Zotor FB 2008 Epidemiological and nutrition transition in developing countries: impact of human and development. Proc Nutr Soc 2008 67:82:90 3. Popkin B.M, (2006) Global nutrition dynamics: the world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with non communicable diseases. Am J. Clin Nutr 84:289-98

GSPH 453 Diet and Disease 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Describe the different methods of dietary assessment and its relation to chronic diseases Understand the causal pathways between nutrition and chronic diseases Investigate the role of nutrition in different types of chronic disease including HIV/AIDS, TB and Cancer and the impact on public health Course Content Nutritional measurement, chronic diseases, epidemiology of chronic diseases, relationship between nutrition and chronic diseases, public health impact of nutrition in chronic diseases. 87

Course Readings 1. Epidemiological and nutrition transition in developing countries: impact on human health and development..Muna P, Zotor FB. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008 Feb;67(1):8290. 2. Effect of economic inequality on chronic childhood undernutrition in Ghana. Hong R. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Apr;10 (4): 371-83. http//whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_916.pdf

GSPH 455 School Feeding Programmes 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Have an overview of the historical development of school feeding programmes Discuss the types of school feeding programmes Develop the skills for designing school feeding programmes Develop the skills to evaluate school feeding programmes Course Content History of school feeding, school health and nutrition recovery, school feeding as a nutrition intervention, school feeding to improve child cognitive development, school feeding and short and long term food and security, designing school feeding programmes, evaluating school feeding programmes. Course Readings 1. Bundy D (2005) School health and nutrition: Policy and programmes. Food and Nutrition Bulletin(26)Supplement 2 S186-S192 2. World Bank (2006b)Repositioning nutrition and central to development: A strategy for large scale action. Directions for Development. World Bank. Washington World Food Programme (1990) Food AID for Education: Past Experience and Future Directions. World Food Programmes

GSPH 457: Food Safety and Hygiene 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course, students should be able to; Identify agents and factors that lead to Food Spoilage and contamination Define the parameters for safe, quality, and acceptable food Describe food safety hazards and explain the need for food safety procedures Outline optimal personal hygiene and food handling procedures Discuss the role of policy and institutions involved in regulating food safety Describe the procedures for monitoring food safety Course Content Principles, science and technology of Food preservation, Food deterioration, food additives; food toxins, bacterial contamination 88

Food quality and acceptance; quality characteristics of foods and their measurement Development of specifications and standards of quality, sampling for quality control; Policies and guidelines for regulating and monitoring public food safety and hygiene; HACCP, Codex; Personal hygiene in food safety regulation; Pest management in food storage and transport; Food poisoning; epidemiology of food contamination Health effects of eating spoiled foods; toxins in food; Food chain and bioterrorism Agencies involved in food safety and hygiene control: FDB, Standards board, Port Health Course Readings 1. Bell, Chris and Alec Kyriakides. 2002. Salmonella. In Foodborne Pathogens: Hazards, Risk Analysis and Control edited by Clive de W. Blackburn and Peter J. McClure. Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC. Boca Raton, FL. 2. Bryan, Frank L., John J. Guzewich, and Ewen C.D. Todd. 1997. Surveillance of Foodborne Disease III. Summary and Presentation of Data on Vehicles and Contributory Factors; Their Value and Limitation. Journal of Food Protection. Vol. 60, No. 6: 701-714. 3. Tammy Foster, P.C. Vasavada 2003Beverage Quality and Safety CRC Press. Edited by Ho, Peter; Cortez Vieira, Maria Margarida. Eds. 2007. Case Studies in Food Safety and Environmental Health. Springer.

GSPH 459 Intervention Strategies for Health Promotion 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course students will be able to: Explain the concept of intervention strategies Develop an understanding of Strategic Framework Identify various strategies that have been adopted, adapted or designed for health promotion interventions in the past and present. Identify environmental factors that influence the choice of implementation strategies Develop an understanding of the strategies, activities, and processes employed in interventions that respond to health-related issues Develop an understanding of the steps required to develop, implement, and evaluate health promotion interventions that more closely reflect a real world ideal of health promotion best practices Identify, analyze, and discuss the strategies, activities, and processes employed by an intervention in addressing health-related issues Course Content: Health promotion interventions have become important aspect of health care provision in recent years. A number of health promotion programmes have failed to achieve their intended goals due to the fact that appropriate strategies were not put in place regarding the broader environment within which such programmes were implemented. 89

Sometimes the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of a strategy is dependent upon time and season the intervention is implemented. The course will deal with the following: Introduction to intervention strategies, definition of terms; (health promotion, intervention, strategy), strategic frameworks for health promotion, the Need for health promotion interventions, past and present health intervention strategies (planning, implementation, monitoring, sustainability, partnership building, evaluation), factors that determine the choice of strategies and communication as a strategy for intervention. Course Readings 1. Egger, Garry (2005) Health Promotion Strategies and Methods. McGraw-Hill Medical 2. Nyamwaya, D (2003) Health promotion in Africa: strategies, players, challenges and prospects. Volume 18, Number 2, Oxford University Press 3. Zulmira Hartz et al (2009) Multi-strategy in the Evaluation of Health Promotion Community Interventions: An Indicator of Quality. In Health Promotion Evaluation Practices in the Americas (Edited by Potvin, L and McQueen, D) (Cht 14 or pp 253-267 ). Springer New York, ISBN 978-0-387-79732-8 4. Bartholomew, L. K., Parcel, G. S., Kok, G., & Gottlieb, N. H. (2006). Planning health promotion programs: An Intervention mapping approach (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. (Approximately $95.00). (10+ chapters will be assigned) 5. Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (Eds.). (2008 ). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research and practice (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (Approximately $77.00). 6. Nova Corcoran (2008) Communicating Health: Strategies for Health Promotion. SAGE Publications Ltd ISBN: 9781412924030 7. Website: http://www.library.utoronto.ca/resources/index.html

GSPH 461 Principles and Practice of Community Organization 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course students will be able to; Explain the concept of intervention strategies Develop an understanding of Strategic Framework Identify various strategies that have been adopted, adapted or designed for health promotion interventions in the past and present. Identify environmental factors that influence the choice of implementation strategies Appreciate time and season as important components of implementation strategy Describe the issue of involvement as a strategy for implementation Course Content: Community involvement in the implementation of health interventions has become an important part of intellectual discourse. This course aims at providing a general 90

understanding of the basic principles behind community organization for health. It is also intended to expose students to community entry processes towards community organization for health. It will deal with the following: definition of terms and concept (Community, organization, community entry, community organization), the concept of community, types of community (geographical, professional, etc), principles of community organization, steps in community organization (stages of community organization), community analysis (strengths, weaknesses, available resources, potentials, etc), major stakeholders in the community (governmental and nongovernmental agencies, traditional institutions, youth, religious and other identifiable groupings), importance of community entry for health intervention (identification of community and group leadership, social marketing. Course Readings 1. Mary L. Ohmer and Karen DeMasi (2009): Consensus Organizing: A Community Development Workbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Community Change Initiatives. Sage Publications, Inc 2. Minkler, M. (2004) Community organizing & community building for health, 2nd ed. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, WA546 AA1 C7342 2005 (Health Science Library) 3. Hodges, BC and Videto, DM. (2005) Assessment and planning in health programs. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett, 2005. WA590 H688a (Health Science Library) 4. Meredith Minkler (Edit, 2004) Community Organizing and Community Building for Health by, Meredith Minkler (2nd Edition) Long leaf Services.

GSPH 463 Psychological Influence on Health 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course, students should be able to; Explain the basic concepts related to the field of Health Psychology. Describe the psycho-physiological basis of health and illness. Identify the social and cultural basis of health and illness. Demonstrate an understanding of the psychological contributors to the development, treatment and prevention of illness. Identify psychological contributors to health promotion, the health care system and disease prevention. Demonstrate an understanding of the current trends in health care and health psychology. Demonstrate an understanding of future possibilities and probabilities within the field of health psychology. Course Content Health Psychology is an area that studies the social, behavioural, cognitive and emotional factors that influence the maintenance of health, development of illness and 91

disease, course of illness or disease and client/patient as well as familys response to illness and disease. Generally, understanding how social factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of good health/wellness gives way to an appreciation of the causation, prevention and treatment of illness. Course Readings 1. Edward P. Sarafino (2008) Health Psychology: Biopsychosocial Interactions. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. 2. Jane Ogden (2007) Health Psychology: A text book. McGraw Hill. 3. Lee M. Cohen, Dennis E. McChargue, Frank L. Collins (2003) The Health Psychology Handbook: Practical Issues for the Behavioural Medicine Specialist. Sage Publications. 4. Friedman, H. S. (2002) Health Psychology. 2nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

GSPH 465 School Based Nutrition Education 2Credits Course Objectives The course will provide students the following competencies; Learn about health academic performance Learn about appropriate message and content for children and parents Learn nutritional composition food for children in school Learn to manage work with teachers and parents to improve on child nutrition Course Content Nutrition, health and academic performance. The School as a vehicle for nutrition interventions. School-based nutrition interventions as a component of school health program. School-based nutrition education, nutritional status assessment of school age children, school feeding policy, program implementation and monitoring. Pre-school age feeding. Food choice and preferences of school-age children. School feeding dietary quality. Costs and benefits of school-based nutrition interventions. Course Readings 1. Del Rosso JM, Marek T. 1996. Class Action: Improving School Performance in the Developing World through Better Health and Nutrition. Directions in Development, World Bank. 2. Glewwe, Paul, and Hanan Jacoby. 1994. An Economic Analysis of Delayed Primary School Enrollment and Childhood Nutrition in Ghana. LSMS Working Paper 98. World Bank, Washington, D.C. 3. Ghana school Feeding program Policy document 4. Partnership for Child Development (1998b) The health and nutritional status of school children in Africa: evidence from school-based health programmes in Ghana and Tanzania. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92:254-261.

92

5. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Articulating the Impact of Nutritional Deficits on the Education for All Agenda. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2005, Vol. 26, no.2, Supplement 2.

GSPH 467 Adolescent Health: Social and Behavioral Perspective 2 Credits Course Objectives: The course will provide students the following competencies; Learn about the theoretical framework for adolescent behavior Learn the social environment of adolescents and it affects on the wellbeing and health of adolescents Understand the public health implications of adolescent behavior Learn about the major health issues confronting adolescents Learn about interventions to change behavior and improve the wellbeing of adolescents Course Content This course is designed to assist students to learn about adolescent social and behavioral environmental of adolescent health using theoretical frameworks based on contemporary theories and strategies. Students will examine how adolescent behavior impacts their health within the context of individuals, groups and communities and its Public health implication of adolescent health. It will also cover key issues that concerns adolescents including adolescence sexuality and sexual health, contraception, teenage pregnancy and abortion, peer influence, substance abuse, adolescent friendly programmes and recreational activities. Course Readings 1. Lynn Rew 2005. Adolescents Health: A multi-disciplinary Approach to Theory, Research and Intervention. Sage Publication 2. Jan L. Wallander and Lawrence J. Siegel. 1995. Adolescent Health Problem: Behavioral Perspectives. New York Guilford Press. 3. Ajzen I., & Fishben M., (1990), Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behaviour. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 4. Berzonsky, M. D. (1993b), Identity Style, Gender, and Social-Cognitive Reasoning. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8, 289-296. 5. Brown L. K. & Lourie K. J. (2001). Motivational Interviewing and the Prevention of HIV among Adolescents. In P. M. Monti, S.M Colby, & T.OLeary (Eds), Adolescents, Alcohol and substance Abuse: Reaching Teens through Brief Interventions (pp. 244-274). New York: Guilford. 6. Carlson, E. A., Sroufe, L. A., Collins, W. A., Jimerson S., Weinfield, N., Hennighausen, K., et al. (1999). Early Environmental Support and Elementary School Adjustment as Predictors of School Adjustment in Middle Adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(1), 72-94.

93

7. Donovan J. E., Jessor R. & Costa F. M. (1998), Syndrome of Problem Behaviour in Adolescence: A Replication. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 762-765.

CORE COURSES FOR LEVEL 400 (All Options) GSPH 410 GSPH 414 Project Work Public Health Seminar II 8 Credits 2 Credits

GSPH 420 Field Attachment 2 Credits Course Objectives Field attachment comprises a 3-month field residency after the second semester of the third year (level 300). During Field attachment, students work as part of the health team to acquire competencies in the specific area of specialization.

LEVEL 400 SEMESTER II ELECTIVES (Level 400) GSPH 402 Health Promotion and Education 2 Credits Course Objectives By the end of the course, students will be able to; Understand the theory and principles of Health Promotion and education Describe the interdisciplinary nature of Health Promotion and education Explain the processes of health promotion and education Understand the regional and international perspective of the practice of health Promotion and education Course Content The course will equip the student with basic knowledge on the theories and principles of health promotion and education. It will enable students to understand the complex and dynamic nature of health promotion processes, and how to relate these to underlying themes of social and health inequalities and to a broader societal values and practices. The course will provide a multidisciplinary approach to health promotion from a subSaharan Africa and an international perspective. Course Readings 1. Randall R. Cottrell, James T. Girvan, James F. McKenzie (2005) Principles and foundation of health promotion and education. Benjamin Cummings. 2. Karen Glanz, Barbara K. Riner and K. Viswanath (editors) (2008) Health Behavior and health education: Theory, and practice. Jossy-Bass 94

3. Ralph D J diClemente, Richard A Crosby and Michelle C. Kegler (2002) Emerging theories in health promotion and research: Strategies for improving public health. Jossey-Bass

GSPH 404 Health Care for Aged and Elderly 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of this course the student should be able to understand the; Important principles in the care of the elderly The major health problems of the elderly The clinical care for the aged and elderly Primary health services available to the aged and elderly Nutrition and healthy lifestyles needs for the aged and elderly Ethical issues in the care of the elderly Course Content The course will introduce students to major public health problems (both communicable and non-communicable diseases) of the aged and elderly which include; food borne diseases; emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria; sexually transmitted diseases; vector borne diseases; vaccine preventable diseases on the one hand and Diabetes mellitus, obesity, high blood pressure, hypertension, stroke on the other hand. Students will be introduced to the provision of palliative care for people with chronic conditions and complex care needs and provision of primary health care for the aged and elderly. The course will also deal with nutrition and healthy eating, health promoting physical activity and promoting healthy weight. Course Readings 1. Jan Busby-Whitehead, Christine Arenson, Kenneth Brummel-Smith, James G. O'Brien, Mary H. Palmer, William Reichel. 2009. Reichel's Care of the Elderly. Clinical Aspects of Aging. 6th Edition. Cambridge University Press.

GSPH 406 Mental and Social Health Care 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of this course the student should be able to; Understand cognitive behaviour in medicine and psychiatry Understand techniques of mental health in the context of theory Learn the skills of assessing mental health in the community Learn about the various forms of mental health conditions and their manifestation Learn about the management of various forms of mental illness at individual, community, and population levels Learn about the various institutions that deals with mental health problems in the community

95

Course Content The course will deal with the theories and principles of medicine, mental health and the socio-culture context of seeking care for mental health. In recent times, mental health has become an important public health issue. Student will get the opportunity to acquire the skills of taking history and assessing individual status of mental health. In addition to this, the course will teach students the various forms of mental health conditions including depression, mania and cyclic mood change, anxiety, psychosis, dementia and mild cognitive impairment and substance abuse and dependence. The course will stress on how to manage such conditions at the community level. Course Readings 1. Erving Goffman (1986) Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Touchstone 2. Erving Goffman (1961) Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. Anchor. 3. James Lake (2006). Textbook of integrative mental health care. Thieme Medical Publisher 4. Alec Grant, Jen Mills, Ronan Mulhern and Neil Short. (2000) Cognitive behavioral therapy in mental health care. Sage Publications

GSPH 408 Monitoring and Evaluation of Health Programmes II 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course, the student will be able to; Understand the framework for monitoring and evaluating specific programmes Review a number of evaluations conducted for specified health programmes Design monitoring and evaluation instruments for specified health programmes Course Content Framework for monitoring and evaluation of programmes; structure and responsibilities of the monitoring and evaluation systems of various control programmes; data collection, collation and management, Methodological frameworks for evaluating health programs, Health evaluation categories & indicators, Typologies of indicators for evaluation of public health services, Research designs for evaluative studies, How to quantify effects of health programmes, Reporting health evaluation. Course Readings 1. Principles of Epidemiology. (1992) 2nd edition. CDC 2. Don McNeil. Epidemiological Research Methods. (1996) John Wiley & Sons 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Framework for program evaluation in public health. MMWR 1999;48(No. RR-11) . 4 Step-by-Step Guide to Evaluation Department of Education, Lifelong Learning. Llywodraeth 6.

GSPH 412 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Course Objectives

2 Credits 96

At the end of the course, students should be able to understand the; Theories and practice of health promotion and as it applied to disease prevention Assessment of the health promotion needs, conduct a research, plan and evaluate a public health intervention programme. Planning and management of a community health promotion programme. Planning of a health promotion activity and involve the mass media. Translation of public health research findings into policies and practice. Course Content: The key challenge facing illness prevention today is how to effectively communicate public health messages to the population at risk of getting certain diseases. This course will seek to introduce students to health promotion theories and principles that will equip them to effectively communicate public health issues to the general population. Students will be given the opportunity to plan and implement community based health promotion activity and involve the mass media in the activity. Particular attention will be paid to communicable (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS) and non-communicable diseases (heart disease, cancer, and diabetes). Issues relating to adopting responsible and health behaviors to avoid ill-health will be addressed. Course Readings 1.Linda Ewless and Ina Simmett. Promoting health: (2003) A Practical guide. Bailliere Tindall. 2.Randall R. Cottrell, James T. Girvan, James F. McKenzie (2005) Principles and foundation of health promotion and education. Benjamin Cummings. 3.Karen Glanz, Barbara K. Riner and K. Viswanath (editors) (2008) Health Behavior and health education: Theory, and practice. Jossy-Bass

GSPH 416 International Health Regulations 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Explain the rationale for the development of International Health Regulations Have an overview of the historical development of International Health Regulations List and discuss the case definitions for the diseases requiring notification to WHO under the International Health Regulations Understand how to assess events that may constitute public health emergency of international concern Discuss the specific diseases that require prophylaxis or vaccination Discuss the indicators for monitoring the implementation of International Health Regulations Course Content Definition of International Health Regulations; Purpose and scope, principle and responsible authorities; information and public health response; points of entry; public health measures; communicable disease control; health documents; general provisions; 97

core capacity requirements for surveillance and response; core capacity for designated airports, ports and ground crossings; international cooperation; legislation. Course Readings 1. World Health Organisation. International Health Regulations 2005 2 nd ed 2. Global Crises, global solutions: managing public health emergencies of international health concern through the revised International Health Regulations. World Health Organisation. 2000.

GSPH 418 Global Health Security 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Explain how global health security is variously defined Identify some of the global health threats Discuss the impact of human activity on the global ecological system and environment and its effect on health Identify some of the interventions being adopted to improve global health security Course Content Definition of global health security, tropical infectious diseases, bioterrorism, trafficking of illicit drugs, smuggling of people, illegal weapons sale, dumping of unsafe and ineffective pharmaceuticals, food security Course Readings 1. WHO. World health report 2003: shaping the future. Geneva: world Health Organisation,2003 2. WHO. The world health report 2007: a safer future: global health security in the 21 st century. 3. Guerrant RL 1998.Why America must care about tropical medicine: threats to global health and security from tropical infectious diseases. Am.J.Trop.Hyg .59:3-16 4. Global defence against the infectious disease threat. M.K. Kindhauser, editor. World Health Organisation.2003

GSPH 422 Environmental Health Promotion and Education 2 Credits Course Objectives The student upon completion of the course will be able to; Describe the relationship between health promotion and education environmental health.

and

98

Learn about key components of contemporary health promotion approaches and models of health behavior. Describe health promotion in an environmental health context. Demonstrate an understanding of communicating environmental health issues. Describe principles of adult learning appropriate for environment health education programs. Develop a plan for a practical environmental health promotion activity. Course Content: This subject will provide students with an opportunity to identify, develop and evaluate practical applications of health promotion with particular in environmental health. The subject introduces the principles and theory of health promotion within environmental and community development framework. Principles that guide education for health and planning education sessions will be critically examined. Course Readings 1. Linda Ewless and Ina Simmett. Promoting health: (2003) A Practical guide. Bailliere Tindall. 2. Randall R. Cottrell, James T. Girvan, James F. McKenzie (2005) Principles and foundation of health promotion and education. Benjamin Cummings. 3. Philip Kotler and Nancy R. Lee 2008. Social Marketing: Influencing behaviors for Good. Third Edition. Sage Publications. 4. Alan R. Andreasen 1995. Marketing for social change: Changing behavior to Promote Health, Social Development and the Environment. Georgetown University, Washington.

GSPH 424

Institutional Development and Sector Management for Environmental Health 2 Credits

Course Objectives At the end of the course students may be able to; Describe what institutions and sectors are. Explain the terms institutional development and sector management. Explain the following terms: Institutional Vision, mission, mission statement. Develop vision and mission statements. Assess (diagnose) institutional strengths and weaknesses and recommend reforms. Describe sectoral issues in water and sanitation and constraints to sectoral performance in water and sanitation. Identify stakeholders of the environmental health (sanitation) sector and their roles. Explain the principles of decentralization and their application for structuring the local government systems and environmental health services. 99

Explain the importance of private participation in environmental health (sanitation) services provision. Course Content Definition: Institution, sector, vision, mission statement, management; development; Institutional development process: stages of development, pressures for institutional developments, etc.; Diagnosis (assessment) of institutional strengths and weaknesses and management of change; Sector organizational development: Constraints to sectoral performance; pressures for sectoral change, etc; Framework for assessing sectoral organization; sector institutions and their roles;Special topics: Decentralization principles; local government system in Ghana; private sector participation. Course Readings 1. D Sitarz 1993 Agenda 21 The Earth summit strategy to save our planet. 2. I Serageldin 1994.Water supply, sanitation, and environmental sustainability: the financial challenge. World Bank Washington.D.C 3. KW Easter,MW Rosegrant,ADinar Edited 1998.Markets for Water: Potential and performance.Kluwer Academic Publishers. 4. Robert R.Hearne and K.William Easter 1995.Water allocation and markets. World Bank Publication

GSPH 426 Environmental Epidemiology 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the students will be able to; Understand the principles of environmental epidemiology Describe the measures used to assess environmental exposures to chemicals and biological contaminants. Discuss the direct measurements of human exposure using personal air quality monitors and direct reading monitors for important air pollutants such as fine and ultrafine particles, measurements of ingestion hazards such as aflatoxins Understand methods of estimating the effect of spatial and temporal environmental exposure Course Content Environmental epidemiology and assessment of chemicals and biological contaminants; study design issues relating to air water sediment and soil sampling, water protection inspection, water management and protection of water quality, monitoring air quality, measures for the protection of farmland quality, statistical methods for environmental epidemiology. Course Readings 1.Lipmann M.(ed) 2009.Environmental toxicants: human exposures and their heath effects.Third Edition.Wiley: New York 2.World Health Report.2002 Reducing risks, promoting healthy lives. World Health Organisation. 100

3.Masters G M 1998.Introduction to environmental engineering and science. Second edition.Prentice Hall,Englewood Cliffs 4.Baker D and M.J Nieuwenhuijasen edited 2009Environmental Epidemiology study methods and Applications.Oxford University Publication 5. Duncan C. 2009 Statistical Methods for Environmental Epidemiology. Oxford University Press

GSPH 432 Medical Records and Management 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the students will be able to: Have skills on how to structure medical records Course Content Evolution and the development of the health record; the context of health records management; the principles and practices of health records management; appraisal; storage and access issues; confidentiality and security issues; organization and management of health records service: patient identification and registration procedures, indexes and registers, filing and retrieval systems, admission and discharge procedures. Course Readings 1. B Benjamin 1977 Medical Records, London, William Heinemann Medical 2. Kathleen M.Latour and Shirley Eichenwald Maki 2006 Health information Management Concepts, Principles and Practice. Second Edition, American Health information Management Association. 3. Merida L. Johns 2002 Information Management for Health Professionals Second Edition. Delmar Professionals 4. M. A Abdelhak 2001. Health Information: Management of a Strategic Resource. W.B Saunders 5. Berg M. Implementing information systems in health care organizations: myths and challenges. International Journal of Medical Informatics.2001; 64:143-156 6. Gladwin J, Dixon RA, Wilson TD. Implementing a new health management information system in Uganda.2003; 18:214-224 7. Gladwin J. Information Management Strategies and Death Certification in the UK.Health Informatics Journal.2003; 9: 283-300

GSPH 434 Public Health Programme Planning and Evaluation Course Objectives At the end of the course the students will be able to understand; The context of health program development and evaluation How to define Health Problems Community Health Assessment for Program Planning Health Program development

2 Credits

101

Implementing and monitoring health programs Sampling designs and data sources for evaluation Responsibilities of Program Evaluators Course Content The course will involve introducing students to the history of health program planning, planning and evaluation cycle, public health pyramid, use of public health pyramid in programme planning and evaluation, defining community, community needs assessment, sample construction, sample size and ethics and evaluation. Course Readings 1. L. Michele Issel, Health Program Planning and Evaluation: A Practical, Systematic Approach for Community Health 2nd ed (2008), Jones and Bartlett Publishers 2. O Carrol et al, Public Health Informatics and Information Systems 1 st ed (2002), Springer Publications

GSPH 436 Clinical Data Classification and Coding II 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to: Understand the structure and application of health interventions Review the general principles and guidelines for the development of disease registry Have the skills to develop and implement a registry system for specific noncommunicable diseases Design and organize presentations on the specific registries that has been created Course Content Structure and applications of internal classification of health interventions; structure and application of the international classification of diseases for oncology (ICD-O); General principles and guidelines for the development of disease registry; Role of disease registry in health care delivery and research; specific development and implementation of registry system for non-communicable diseases such as cancers, development of communication and presentation skills Course Readings 1. Cancer Registration: Principles and methods. O.M.Jensen et al. Edited .Lyon France. International Agency for Research on Cancer 2. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, ICD-O.A. Fritz et al edited. WHO. Geneva 2000

GSPH 438 Nutritional Rehabilitation Programmes Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Review the rationale for nutritional rehabilitation programmes

2 Credits

102

Implement community based therapeutic care management of malnourished children Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of outreach nutrition rehabilitation centre Understand the follow up needs of families who default Course Content Protein-energy malnutrition in young children, under-nutrition, nutritional marasmus and kwashiorkor; hospital based rehabilitation of severe malnutrition, acute phase, rehabilitation phase, catch-up growth, methods to detect cases of severe malnourished children in the community, distribution of supplement foods to children, Course Readings 1. WHO.1999 Management of severe malnutrition: a manual for physicians and other health workers.WHO:Geneva 2. Essentials of human nutrition.Jim Mann and Stewart Truswell. Edited Oxford University Press. 2000

GSPH 442 Food Laws and Regulations 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Describe the common national laws and regulation related to food Understand the basis for common food standards Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of common food laws and conventions Course Content International and national laws, regulations, policies and conventions related to processing, packaging, marketing, distribution, and usage of foods. Food standards and quality. Emphasis on public protection and safety aspects of food laws and regulations. Role of international and national level agencies in the application, enforcement and monitoring of food laws (WHO, FAO, Codex, WTO, FDB, GSB). Food laws and public safety advocacy. Course Readings 1. Patricia A. Curtis. :Guide to Food Laws and Regulations.Blackwell Publishing 2. Codex Alimentarius website: http://www.codexalimentarius.net/

GSPH 444 Nutrition Seminar 2 Credits Course Objectives This course is designed to provide students the opportunity to discuss the available knowledge in the field of nutrition and health. At the end of the course the student should be able; Identify trend of global effort to solve the nutritional problem of the world and their relevance to current practice in Ghana Explain current and topical nutrition and health issues at the national level Course Content 103

The course will attempt to expose students to the role nutrition plays in healthy living and longevity. It will provide students the opportunity to review and learn from both international and national research work on nutrition and health. Course Readings 1. Selected Journal articles in public health Journals such as Ghana Medical Journal, Tropical Medicine & International Health, WHO Bulletin etc

GSPH 446 Change Interventions for Chronic Disease 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course, the student will be able to; Learn about major chronic and lifestyles related diseases Learn to apply major health behavior theories and models to chronic diseases Learn the design and implementation of interventions for chronic diseases including strategies to asses target populations needs/priorities Learn quantitative and qualitative methods for evaluating change interventions Develop and implement a practical change intervention for chronic disease activity Course Content The course focuses on understanding theory-based chronic and lifestyle interventions at different levels of change (individuals, networks/groups, organizations and communities). The course will deal with research aspects of change interventions and this will take students through formative (qualitative) research, Community-based participatory research, intervention Design and evaluation. Key theories that students will be introduced to will include transtheoretical model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action/Planned behavior, health belief model, social networks and social support, mass communication, social marketing Course Readings 1.T L. Thompson, Dorsey A. M, Miller K. I., Parrott R. (edited ) (2003). Handbook of Health Communication. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. London. 2.Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4th Edition. Jossey-Bass Publishers 3.Andrea L. Dunn, Kenneth Resnicow and Lisa M. Klesges. (2006) Improving measurement methods for behavior change interventions: Opportunities for Innovation. Health Education Research 21, 121-124 3.Bandura, A., (1977) The Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice-Hall.

GSPH 448 Rights for the Health of Women and Children 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be; Introduced to the issues around women and childrens rights and health 104

Introduced to existing national laws, legislations and provisions on women and childrens rights and health Exposed to international provisions, conventions, protocols and instruments on the rights and health Will be equipped with skills to identify the lapses in the enforcement of health legislations and conventions for women and children and design programmes to address the deficiencies. Course Content The rights for the health of women and children in Ghana; laws and legislations for women and childrens rights ; lapses in the legislations on the rights and health of women and children; enforcement of legislations on the rights for the health of women and children, design and implementation of programmes to promote women and children health rights. Course Readings 1. UN and AU Conventions on the Rights for the Health of Women and Children. Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1948 2. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979 3. African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights, 1981 4. The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC), 1991 5. Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 6. International Conference on Population and Development (nonbinding),1994 7. Beijing Declaration and Platform of Action (nonbinding),1995 8. Beijing Declaration and Platform of Action +5 (nonbinding), 2000 9. International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, 1966 10. Millennium Development Goals (nonbinding),

GSPH 452 Reproductive Health in Developing Countries 2 Credits Course Objectives At the end of the course the student will be able to; Review the challenges in promoting womens reproductive and sexual rights Discuss issues relating to maternal mortality as a human rights and gender issue Course Content Healthy sexuality, sexual violence, reproductive tract infections, family planning including long term methods and services, pregnancy and child bearing, interventions to reduce maternal mortality. Organizational issues for reproductive health programmes. Course Readings 1. Developing a human rights -based approach to addressing maternal mortalityDesk review. Kirston Hawkins, Karen Newman, Deborah Thomas and Cindy Carlson. DFID Health Resource. January 2005 2. Reproductive Health, Gender and Human Rights: A dialogue. Elaine Murphy and Karin Ringhelm. Edited 2001 105

GSPH 454 Mental Health as a Public Health Issue Course Objectives By the end of the course the student will understand;

2 Credits

How mental health issues affect everyone Theories and debates about mental health and the relevance of a wide range of sources of evidence. A holistic model for understanding mental health and distress The importance of service users/survivors experiences and perspectives The structure of contemporary mental health services, including legislation, policy, planning and delivery Course Content The course will cover emerging and contemporary debates in mental health. mental health challenges facing both younger and older people, the influence of the life-course and life events on mental health alongside the development and significance of personality, the wider implications and possibilities for mental health services, the use of alternative and complementary approaches Course Readings 1. Golberg DP and Huxley P. Common mental disorders: a biosocial model.London, Routledge,1992 2. Desjarlais R et al World Mental Health: problems and priorities in low income countries. New York, Oxford University Press

106