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Hydrogen Hydrogen: First element in the periodic table Electronic configuration is 1s1.

It resembles with both alkali metals and halogens to a certain extent. It is present in the atmosphere as dihydrogen, which is the most abundant element in the universe and the principal element in the solar atmosphere. Isotopes of hydrogen: Protium; Deuterium (Heavy hydrogen); Tritium; or T or D

Tritium is radioactive. (t1/2 = 12.33 years) Dihydrogen Laboratory preparation:

Commercial preparation: Electrolysis of acidified water

High purity H2 is obtained by electrolysis of warm aqueous Ba(OH) 2 between nickel electrodes. It is also obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of NaOH and Cl2 by electrolysis of brine solution. Obtained by the reaction of steam on hydrocarbons at high temperatures

The mixture of CO and H2 is also called water gas. It is also called synthetic gas or syngas. [The process of producing syngas from coal is called coal gasification .] If carbon monoxide of syngas mixtures is treated with steam in the presence of iron chromate as catalyst, then the production of dihydrogen increases. This reaction is called water-gas shift reaction .

Physical properties: Colourless, odourless, tasteless, combustible gas It is lighter than air and insoluble in water.

Chemical properties: Reaction with halogen:

Reaction with O 2 :

Reaction with N2 :

Reaction with metals:

Reaction with metal ions and metal oxides It reduces less reactive metals in aqueous solution and oxides.

Reaction with organic compounds (i) Hydrogenation of vegetable oils (ii) Hydroformylation of alkenes to produce aldehydes, which further gives alcohols

Uses: Used in the synthesis of ammonia, methanol, metal hydrides, hydrogen chloride, and vanaspati fat. Used as rocket fuel in space research Used in fuel cells for generating electricity. Used in atomic hydrogen and oxy-hydrogen torches, which are used for cutting and welding purposes.

Hydrides (Binary compounds with other elements): Ionic or saline hydrides: Stoichiometric compounds with highly electropositive s-block elements. Example: NaH, CaH2 , AlH 3 , etc.

Covalent or molecular hydrides: Compounds with p-block elements such as CH4, NH3 , H2 O Molecular hydrides are further classified into: Electron-deficient hydrides Electron-precise hydrides Electron-rich hydrides

Metallic or non-stoichiometric hydrides LaH2.87, TiH1.5-1.8, VH0.56, etc.

In the gas phase, water is a bent molecule with a bond angle of 104.5.

Ice has a highly ordered three-dimensional hydrogen bonded structure.

Chemical properties: Amphoteric in nature (acts as acid as well as base) Undergoes redox reactions Certain covalent and some ionic compounds are hydrolysed in water. Aqueous solution of many salts can be crystallised as hydrated salts. Hard water: Water containing calcium and magnesium salts of hydrogencarbonate, chloride, and sulphate It forms scum/precipitate with soap.

Soft water: Water free from soluble salts of calcium and magnesium Temporary hardness: Due to the presence of magnesium and calcium hydrogencarbonate Removal: By boiling

By Clarks method (by adding lime water)

Permanent hardness: Due to the presence of soluble salts of magnesium and calcium in the form of chlorides and sulphates Removal: By treating with washing soda

By Calgons method

By ion-exchange method

By synthetic resins method Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation:

Structure: Nonplanar Physical properties: Almost colourless (very pale blue) liquid Miscible with water and forms a hydrate (H2 O.H2 O) Chemical properties: Acts as an oxidising as well as reducing agent in both acidic and alkaline medium Storage: Stored in wax-linked glass or plastic vessel in dark as it decomposes on exposure to light Uses:

As hair bleach, disinfectant, antiseptic In manufacture of chemicals used in high quality detergent Widely used as an industrial bleach In synthesis of food products and pharmaceuticals In pollution control treatment

Heavy water (D2 O): Preparation: By the electrolytic enrichment of normal water As by-product in some fertilizer industries Uses: As moderator in nuclear reactors In exchange reactions to study mechanism of reactions To prepare other deuterium compounds Dihydrogen as a fuel: On combustion, it releases large amount of heat.

Hydrogen economy: Basic principle: Transportation and storage of energy in the form of liquid or gaseous dihydrogen