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Name:…………………………………………………

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Biology Form :…………………………………………….
Paper 2
October
2007
1
2 hours
2
SEKTOR SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH
BAHAGIAN SEKOLAH
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

DIAGNOSTIC TEST
FORM FOUR

BIOLOGY

PAPER 2

Two hours thirty minutes

DO NOT OPEN THE TEST PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

1. This paper consists of three sections. Section A, For Examiner’s Use


Section B and Section C. Answer all the questions Full Marks
in Section A, one question in Section B and one Section Question
Marks Obtained
question in Section C. 1
2. Write your answers in the spaces provided for 12
Section A. Important steps in calculations must be 2
shown . 12
3. Write your answers on the separate answer sheets A
3 12
provided for Section B and Section C.
4. Answer Section B and Section C in detail. You may 4 12
use equation, diagram, table, graph and other suitable 5 12
methods to explain your answers. 6 20
5. Show your working, it may help you to get marks. B
7 20
6. If you wish to change your answer, neatly cross out
the answer that you have done. Then write down the 8 20
C
new answer 9 20
7. The diagram in the questions are not drawn to scale Total 100
unless stated.
8. Marks allocated for each question or part of the
question are shown in brackets.
9. The time suggested to answer Section A is 90
minutes, Section B is 30 minutes and Section C is 30
minutes.
10. The use of a non programmable calculator is
permitted.
This Question Paper Consists of 18 Printed Pages
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CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL 2 4551/2

SECTION A
[60 marks]

Answer all questions from this section.

1. Diagram 1.1 shows an example of cell organization in a multicellular organism.

Diagram 1.1

(a) (i) Name the different types of cells shown in P, Q and R

P: ……………………...........................

Q: ……………………………………..

R: ……………………………………..
[2 marks]

(ii) State the functions of these cells.

P: ………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………….

Q: ………………………………………………………………………..............

………………………………………………………………………………..

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R: ………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………..
[3 marks]

(b) Based on the information obtained from diagram 1.1, explain the meaning of
cell specialization.

……………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………...
[1mark]
(c) Name the organ in diagram 1.1 and the tissues that form it.

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]

(d ) The human skin and the epidermis of plants act as a barrier against water loss,
mechanical injury and infection by microorganisms. However, the human skin
can also perform other functions like temperature regulation, excretion and
sensory perception.

Explain the above statement.

……………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………
[4 marks]

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2. Diagram 2.1 shows a schematic diagram of the mechanism of photosynthesis.

Water

Process Z

H+ OH-

Oxygen
Hydrogen atom e-
Chlorophyll e-
Water

Reaction X

Reaction Y
ATP
Carbon dioxide Water

Glucose

DIAGRAM 2.1

(a) Identify the parts of a chloroplast where the two reactions of photosynthesis
take place.

Reaction X:

…………………………………………………………………………………

Reaction Y:

………………………………………………………………………………….
[2 marks]

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(b) Name one type of cell where reactions X and Y take place.

…………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]

(c) Compare reaction X and reaction Y in other aspects that do not involve light
energy.

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]

(d) Explain process Z.

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]

(e) The leaves of some temperate plants like pine trees are evergreen and do not
fall in winter.
(i) Explain the effect of winter on the rate of photosynthesis.

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks]

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(ii) Explain how farmers can overcome the above problems in order to maintain
the productivity of crops in winter.

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

[2 marks]

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3. Diagram 3.1 shows a part of the respiratory system of humans.

Blood
capillary

cell

DIAGRAM 3.1

(a)(i) Name structures X and Y

Structure X : ……………………………………………………………………

Structure Y : ……………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]

(ii) Name the process that enables the exchange of the respiratory gases to occur
between X and Y.

……………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark]

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(iii) Explain how the differences in the partial pressures can cause the exchange of
the respiratory gases between X and Y and between X and the body cells.

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………
[ 4 marks ]

(b) If carbon monoxide gas from the car exhaust was accidentally inhaled , explain how
exposure to the gas for several minutes can lead to death.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………… .
[ 2 marks ]

(c) During heavy physical activities the muscles of the hands and legs can become fatique
and the individual will pant, feel tired and weak. Explain the changes that occur in the
body during this period.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………..
[ 3 marks ]

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4. Diagram 4.1 shows a stage during a type of cell division in an animal cell.

homologous
chromosomes

DIAGRAM 4.1

a) (i) Name the stage of the cell division shown in diagram4.1

…………………………………………………………………………………
[ 1 mark ]

(ii) How many chromosomes are there in the cell?

………………………………………………………………………………….
[ 1 mark]

(b) Based on what you have learnt about mitosis and meiosis, explain whether the cell
in Diagram 4.1 is formed by a normal cell division.

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………
[ 2 marks ]

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(c) If the cell in Diagram 4.1 undergoes a meiotic division, draw a labelled diagram to
show the behavior of the chromosomes during Metaphase 1.

[ 3 marks ]

(d) Down’s Syndrome is the result of an additional chromosome, causing each


somatic cell to have a total of 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46
chromosomes. The affected individual have certain characteristics like slanted
eyes, short stature and mental retardation.

Based on the above information, explain what went wrong to the gametes that
form a child with the above mentioned genetic disorder.

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………
[ 2 marks ]

(e) Explain how meiosis plays an important role in sexually reproducing organisms
whilst mitosis plays an important role in the formation of clones.

……………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………...
[ 3 marks ]

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5. Three different populations in a small lake are linked in a food chain. Diagram 5.1
shows the changes in size of these populations over a period of time.

Diagram 5.1

(a)(i) Using the information in Diagram 5.1 identify the producer

..........................................................................................................................

(ii)Name the trophic level in the food chain of organisms A.

…………………………………………………………………………....................
.[2 marks]

(b) Referring to the graphs, suggest what substances may have entered the lake at
time B. Explain your answer.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

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[5 marks]

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(c) Explain how the change in the size of the population of bacteria after time C is
related to the size of the plant population.

.....................................................................................................................................

………………………………………………………………………………………....

………………………………………………………………………………………..
[2 marks]

(d) Suggest a method to estimate the fish population in the lake throughout the period.

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………
[1mark]

(e) Diagram 5.2 is a graph that shows the amount of oxygen in the same lake before
time B. Complete the graph to show how the oxygen concentration will change over
the same time period shown in Diagram 5.1.
[2 marks]

Diagram 5.2

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SECTION B
[20 marks]

Answer any one questions from this section.

6 (a) Diagram 6.1 shows the structure of an enzyme and two types of substrate in
one part of the human digestive system.

DIAGRAM 6.1

Based on diagram 6.1, explain the mechanism of enzyme action .


[ 4 marks ]

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b. Diagram 6.2 shows the digestive system of humans, ruminants and rodents .

DIAGRAM 6.2

Based on diagram 6.2, compare the digestive system of humans, ruminants and
rodents and the digestion of cellulose.

[ 10 marks]

(c) A patient suffering from intestinal cancer has to undergo an operation to


remove a part of his intestines.
Explain the problems regarding nutrition that the patient would be facing after
the operation.
[ 6 marks]

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7. The graph in Diagram 7.1 shows the relationship between the populations of rats
and owls in an oil palm plantation.

Population
of animals owls

rats

Time (months)

DIAGRAM 7.1

a Based on diagram 7.1, describe the relationship between the rats and the
owls in the oil palm plantation ? .
[ 6 marks ]

b Describe the interactions between the following organisms.

- A clown fish and sea anemones


- Alga and fungus ( lichen )

[ 4 marks]

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c. Diagram 7.2 shows the nitrogen cycle in a vegetable farm .

DIAGRAM 7.2

Describe what will happen to the rate of vegetable production if organisms P and
Q die as a result of excessive use of pesticides in the vegetable farm.

[ 10 marks]

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SECTION C
[20 marks]

Answer any one questions from this section.

8 (a) Table 1 shows a daily energy requirement of various individuals.

INDIVIDUAL DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENT


(kJ)
i Very active man 15 100
ii Breast feeding woman 10 000
iii Average woman aged 25 9 200
iv Boy aged 12 – 15 11 700
v Girl aged 12 – 15 9 600
vi Child aged 7 7 500
vii Man aged 70 8 500

TABLE 1
Explain the daily energy requirement for any three groups of individuals
as compared to that of an average woman aged 25. [10 marks]

(b) Based on Table 2, suggest and justify an appropriate menu for each target
group:
(i) pregnant mothers
(ii) people with cardiovascular disease
(iii) teenagers aged 17

Food Protein Lipid Carbohydrate Minerals Vitamins


(g) (g) (g)
Calcium Ferum A (µg) D B1
(mg) (mg) (µg) (mg)
Rice 6.2 1.0 86.8 4.0 0.4 0 0 0.08
Bread 8.00 1.70 54.30 100.00 1.70 0 0 0.18
Beef 18.10 17.10 0 7.00 1.90 0 0 0.06
Eggs 12.30 10.90 4.20 100.00 0.10 155.0 0.10 0.09
0
Fish 17.40 0.70 0 16.00 0.50 0 0 0.08
Milk 3.30 3.80 4.80 120.00 0.10 44.00 0.05 0.04
Margarine 0.20 81.50 0 4.00 0.30 900.0 8.00 0
0
Oranges 0.80 0 8.50 41.00 0.30 8.00 0 0.10
Yoghurt 5.00 1.00 6.40 180.00 0.10 10.00 0.02 0.05

TABLE 2
[ 10 marks]

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9. Diagram 9 shows one source of air pollution.

DIAGRAM 9

a Name three other types of air pollutants and describe their effects on living things.

[ 10 marks]

b Suggests strategies that can be taken to reduce air pollution.


[ 10 mark]

END OF QUESTION PAPER

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MARKING SCHEME: BIOlOGY PAPER 2

Parts of Criteria/Explanation Mark/ Remark


question score
1(a)(i) P : red blood cell
Q: heart muscle cell 2 marks 3 correct- 2m
2 correct- 1m
R: epithelial cell 1 correct- 0m

(ii) Sample answer:


P: Transport oxygen from lungs/heart to all the cells 3 marks
in the body in the form of oxyhaemoglobin/
Transport carbon dioxide from cells to lungs in the
form of carbaminohaemoglobin

Q: Form the muscular tissues of the wall of the heart


that can contract and relax to pump blood to all
parts of body.

R: Form a continous protective layer over the surface


of the heart ( pericardium) /other body surfaces

(b) Sample answer:


Process in which cells grow, change shape and 1mark
differentiate in order to carry out specific functions.

(c) F1: Heart


F2: The heart has muscle tissues, connective tissues 2 marks
and epithelial tissues ( also nerve tissue but not
in diagram)

(d) Sample answer:


F1: The human skin is an organ whereas the 1 mark
epidermis of a plant is a tissue
E1: Both skin and epidermis consist of cells that are 1 mark
interconnected and continous
E2: form a protective layer over the surface
F2: Skin has other tissues :
- connective tissues like blood for temperature Any 2
regulation correct
- nerve tissue for sensory perceptions and 2 marks
temperature control
- epithelial tissue forms protective layer and
sweat glands for excretion (urea)
- muscle tissue like erector pili muscle for Total=12
temperature control.
Parts of Criteria / Explanation Mark / Remark
Question Score
2(a) Able to identify the parts of
chloroplast where reaction X
(light reaction) and reaction Y (dark
reaction) take place.

Answer :

Reaction X : grana 1 Accept also


Reaction Y : stroma 1 thylakoid

(b) Able to name one type of cell where


reaction X takes place.

Answer :

Palisade mesophyll cell / spongy 1


mesophyll cell / guard cell

(c) Able to contrast between reaction X


(light reaction) and reaction Y (dark
reaction).

Sample Answer :

Reaction X Reaction Y
(light (dark reaction)
reaction)

F2 Require water Require


for photolysis hydrogen for
reduction of 1 2
carbon dioxide
F3 Produce ATP Produce glucose 1
and oxygen as the final
product
Parts of Criteria / Explanation Mark / Remark
Question Score
(d) Able to explain process Z based on
the criteria below :

F : name of process Z
E : products of process Z

Sample Answer :

F : photolysis of water 1
E : Light energy is used to split
water molecules into hydroxyl 1
ions
(OH-) and hydrogen ions (H+)
(e) (i)
Able to explain the effect of winter
on the rate of photosynthesis.

Sample Answer :

F : Rate of photosynthesis 1
decreases
E1 : Low light intensity 1
(e) (ii) E2 : Low temperature 1

Able to identify and explain ways to


maintain the productivity of crops in
winter.

Sample Answer :

F : Grow the crops in greenhouse. 1


E : Temperature and light intensity 1
are artificially controlled.

Total=12
Parts of Criteria/Explanation Mark/Score Remark
Quest.

3a(i) Structure X: red blood cell 1


Structure Y: alveolus 1

a(ii) Simple diffusion 1

a(iii) Sample answer:

At alveolus :
F1- partial pressure of oxygen is higher in 1 1 mark for
Y(alveolus) than in X(red blood cell) each pair of
E1- oxygen diffuses from Y to X fact and
following the concentration gradient. explanation
correct.
F2- partial pressure of carbon dioxide is 1
higher in X /blood than in Y
E2- Carbon dioxide diffuses from X to Y
following the concentration gradient

At body cells :
F3- partial pressure of oxygen is higher in X 1
than in body cells
E3- oxygen diffuses from X into body cells.

F4- partial pressure of carbon dioxide is 1


higher in body cells than in X
E4- carbon dioxide diffuses from body cells 4marks
to X

(b) Sample answer:

F1- carbon monoxide combines faster with 1 F1 correct


haemoglobin than oxygen
E1- form carboxyhaemoglobin Any
(permanently) / carboxyhaemoglobin 1 explanation
does not breakdown to release (E1/E2/E3)
haemoglobin
E2- haemoglobin cannot transport oxygen to
cells 2 marks
E3- cells lack oxygen for respiration and die.
(c) Sample answer:

F1: oxygen debt occurred/ anaerobic 1


respiration occurred
E1: blood cannot supply enough oxygen to
muscle cells 1
E2: muscle cells undergo anaerobic
respiration to obtain extra energy
E3: glucose breakdown partially into lactic 1 fact and any
acid 2 explanations
E4: accumulation of lactic acid causes 1
muscle fatique
E5: panting occurs to inhale more oxygen
to oxidize lactic acid to carbon dioxide
and water. 3 marks

Total=12
Criteria/ Explanation Mark/score Remark
Parts of
Question
4(a) (i) Able to name the stage of the cell
Sample Answer: 1
 Prophase (of mitosis)
 (Early) Prophase I (of Meiosis)
(ii) Able to count the number of
chromosomes:
- 7 chromosomes 1

(b) Able to give a definite answer


Answer: No 1

Able to explain
 fact
 explanation
Sample Answer:
 F1 : This is not a normal diploid cell
 P1: because there is an extra
chromosome that cannot form a
homologous pair 1 2

(c) Able to draw the Metaphase I accurately: 1


 3 pairs of homologous
chromosomes at the equatorial plate
 1 chromosome without its
homologous pair
 Spindle fibers formed 1
Able to label chromosome and spindle
fiber 1 3
Sample answer

Refer diagram 4c

(d) F:Abnormal meiotic division 1 1F and


E1: form abnormal gametes with extra 1E
chromosomes
E2 : fusion of normal sperm with 23 1
chromosomes with abnormal ovum
with 24 chromosomes
E3 : Zygote formed has 47 chromosomes
(e) Able to state the importance of meiosis:

Sample Answer: 1
F: Maintain the chromosomal number
of an organism from generation to
generation
E:Produce gametes (with haploid 1
number of chromosomes.)

Able to state the importance of mitosis:


Sample answer: 1 3

E: Produce genetically identical organisms


with the same characteristics.

12marks
TOTAL

Diagram 4 c
Metaphase 11
( abnormal cell division)
Parts of Criteria/explanation Mark/ Remark
Question Score
5(a)(i) Algae/ phytoplanktons/ aquatic plants 1 mark

(ii) Trophic level 2 (primary consumer) 1 mark

Sample answer
(b)
F1: Inorganic fertilizers/ domestic sewage 1 mark
entered lake.

E1: Nutrients encourage algae to grow


rapidly ( algal bloom) Any 4
E2: High density of algae cause light correct
intensity in water to be greatly explanation
reduced
E3: Death of plants/algae/submerged
plants/ eutrophication
E4:: decomposition by bacteria
E5: Population of bacteria increases
E6: dissolved oxygen concentration
decreases ( BOD increases)
E7: Death of aquatic organisms eg.
population of fish decreases 5marks

(c ) Sample answer:

F: Population of plants decreases but 1mark


population of bacteria increases.

E: After time C death of plants leads to 1mark


decomposition of these organisms by
bacteria./dead plant matter become food
for the bacteria ( decomposers)=

(d) The capture , mark , release and recapture 1mark


technique

(e)
Concentration of oxygen increased slighty but 2 marks
after time C the concentration of oxygen
decreases sharply to a very low value.
MARK SCHEME - ESSAY 1

No Sec. Accepted points / description / explanation M1 M


Sum

6 a Able to explain the mechanism of enzyme action

Sample answers

1. Enzyme has an active site that complement to the protein. 1


2. Protein binds to the active site to form enzyme-protein substrate. 1
3. The enzyme catalyses the protein to form products/ polypeptide. 1
4. Products leave the active site of enzyme molecules. 1
4

b Able to state the differences in the digestive process of humans,


ruminants and rodents

Humans Ruminants Rodents

Omnivores Herbivores Mostly are


herbivores, some 2
are omnivores
Single stomach Stomach with four Single stomach
chamber chambers chamber 2
Caecum are about Caecum are about Big and well
the same size as the same size as developed caecum
other parts of colon other parts of colon 2
Bacteria present Bacteria and Bacteria and
throughout the large protozoa present in protozoa present in
intestine the stomach the caecum 2

Unable to digest Able to digest Able to digest


cellulose cellulose cellulose 2 10

* 3 corrects = 2 marks
2 corrects = 1 mark
1 correct = 0
MARK SCHEME - ESSAY 2

6c Able to explain the problems regarding the nutrion after the


operation.

Sample answer

F1: Less production of the enzyme erepsin/ 1


peptidase/maltase/sukrase/lactase/ lipase.
E1: The rate of food digestion is slow 1

F2: Slow absorption of glucose/ galactose/ fructose / amino acid/ 1


glycerol and fatty acid/ vitamin/ mineral
E2: Less digested food absorbed 1

F3: The patient become exhausted 1


E3: Less absorption of glucose in the blood// rate of respiration is 1
low.

F4: Late recovery / healing of wound 1


E4:Slow cell replacement because of slow absorption of amino acid. 1
6
Max:6

TOTAL 20
MARK SCHEME - ESSAY 3

No Sec. Accepted points / description / explanation M1 M


Sum

7 a Able to describe the relationship between the rats and the owls

P1: The relationship between rats and owls are prey-predator 1


P2: The owl is the predator of rats 1
P3: The rat is the prey of owls. 1
P4: An increase in the rat population is followed by an increase in 1
the owl popuation.
P5: Conversely when the rat population decreases the owl 1
population decreases.
P6: The prey and the predator regulate each other’s population and 1
this maintains the population of both organisms in a dynamic 6
equilibrium.

Able to describe the interactions between

i. Clown fish and sea anemones

P1: Type of interaction is commensalism 1


P2: The clown fish lives among the tentacles of sea anemones 1
b. P3: The clown fish is protected from its predators and it also 1
feeds on the remnants of the anemones’ food.
P4: On the hand , the sea anemones, do not benefit from this 1
relationship.
Max: 2

ii. Alga and fungus ( lichen)

P1: Type of interaction is mutualism 1


P2: Relationship between two species of organisms in which 1
both benefit.
P3: The alga produces food for itself and also for the fungus. 1
P4: The fungus supplies carbon dioxide and nitrogen for 1
alga to produce food.
Max: 2
4
MARK SCHEME - ESSAY 4

No Sec. Accepted points / description / explanation M1 M


Sum

7 c Able to describe the rate of production of vegetables if organsims P


and Q die because of excessive use of pesticides in vegetable farms.

Sample answers:

P1: Organism P ( decomposer) will die 1


P2: Breakdown of protein in dead organisms will not occur. 1
P3: Less nitrogen compounds in the soil. 1
P4: Less production of protein from the producers 1
P5: Organism Q ( Nitrogen fixing bacteria) will die 1
P6: Nitrogen from the atmosphere will not undergo the process of 1
nitrogen fixing.
P7: No production of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite ions in the soil. 1
P8; No absorption of minerals such as ammonium, nitrate and 1
nitrites to the plants.
P9 Less production of protein from the producers 1
P10: Lack of protein sources in plants/ vegetables. 1

10

TOTAL 20
MARK SCHEME - ESSAY 5

No Sec. Accepted points / description / explanation M1 M


Sum

8 a Able to explain the factors tha affecting the daily energy


requirement of human body based on the criteria below:

F: Statement of the daily energy requirement of human body based


on the criteria below:

F: Statement of the daily energy requirement of the group in relative


to that of an average woman.
E: Explanations.

Sample Answer:

F1: Man aged 70 years old requires lower daily energy requirement 1
E1: Age factor/ the man is older than the average woman. 1
E2: The old man is less active than the average woman. 1

Any three groups 3X3=


9

KS: Able to give three sets of statement with any one corresponding
explanation.

Example:

F1 +F2+ F3 and any corresponding E 1 10


MARK SCHEME - ESSAY 6

No Sec. Accepted points / description / explanation M1 M


Sum

8 b Able to justify the selection of an appropriate menu for target group


based on the criteria below :
For each target group :
F1 statement of menu
E1 justifications

F2 statement of menu
E2 justifications
Max 3

Sample Answer :

(i) Pregnant mothers should take :

F1 : Beef / eggs / fish. 1


E1 : High protein diet for growth of foetus. 1

F2 : Yoghurt / milk / eggs. 1


E2 : Calcium / vitamin D rich for bone development of foetus. 1

F3 : Beef / bread. 1
E3 : For manufacture of haemoglobin. 1

Any 2F with one corresponding E


Max 3 3

(ii) People with cardiovascular disease should take :

F1 : Fish / yogurt / oranges. 1


E1 : Low cholesterol food. 1

F2 : Use less oil in cooking / steam food/ boil / grill. 1


E2 : Lipid can be converted to cholesterol // excessive 1
cholesterol can deposit in the
artery wall.

Any 2F with one corresponding E 3


Max 3
MARK SCHEME - ESSAY 7

(iii) Teenagers should take

F1: bread/ rice 1


E1: high carbohydrate to supply energy for active lifestyle. 1

F2: beef/ fish 1


E2: high protein for growth 1

F3: Yoghurt / milk 1


E3: high ccalcium for growth and development of bones. 1

F4: Margarine 1
E4: high vitamin D for growth and development of bones . 1

Any 2F with one corresponding E


Max: 3 3

KN= For a complete combination of F and E from each group

Example:
Group (i) : F1+ E1// F2 + E2
Group(ii) : F1+ E1// F2+ E2 1
Group(iii) : F1+ E1// F2+ E2
10

TOTAL 20
MARK SCHEME - ESSAY 8

No Sec. Accepted points / description / explanation M1 M


Sum

9 a Able to name any three types of pollutant :


Sulphur dioxide 1
Nitrogen oxides 1
Carbon dioxide 1
1
Lead
Max: 3

Able to describe the effects of pollutants on living things

Pollutants Effect on living things

Sulphur dioxide - Irritates and damages the lining of the 1


eyes, air passages and lungs.
1
- Combines with rainwater to form acid
rain that may cause skin diseases

Nitrogen oxides - Damages tissues of the lungs and cause 1


bronchitis
- Irritate the eyes 1
-Lower the body’s defence against flu 1

Carbon monoxide - Combines with haemoglobin to form 1


carboxyhaemoglobin which reduces the
capacity of the blood to transport oxygen .
- Causes dizziness and headache 1
- Slows down the brain. 1

Lead - Reduces the sensitivity of the hands and 1


feet coordination
- Coma or death 1
- Disrupts the ability of the body to 1
produce new cells.
1
- Cause retardation of brain in children.
Max: 7
10
MARK SCHEME - ESSAY 9

b. P1: Encourage sharing of vechicles to reduce congestion on the 1


roads.
P2: Provide sufficient and alternative types on transport services 1
which are more effective .
P3: Campaign programmes should be carried out to attract the usage 1
of public transport by the public.
P4: Enforce the usage of petrol without lead. 1
P5: Make it compulsory to use pollutant filters for the exhaust pipes 1
of vechicles and factory chimneys.
P6: Strict measures should be taken against open burning by 1
punishing offenders with heavy fines.
P7: Implemetation of laws to punish offenders 1
P8: use of technology examples; use of catalytic converters, 1
unleaded petrol, air filters for chimneys.
P9: Education: example: reduce, reuse and recycle resources 1
P10: renewable energy, example: solar energy, wind energy , 1
geothermal
P11; efficient use of energy. 1

Max:
10 10

TOTAL 20