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CYCLICAL MODEL Wheeler -an extension model of the objective model -logical and sequential, flexible -the curriculum

process as a continuing activity - Constantly in a state of change as a new information become available -the cyclical model is responsive to needs which are on-going, necessitating constant updating of the curriculum process Key Elements -initial situation analysis - inputs from teachers and experts - reports from state education depts - survey from people and public their view - research of evidence of what is going on, stats and etc - local trends/current issues to keep us update for the latest issues -identification of aims and objectives - current needs of the Ts and Ss - short/long term planning/product -contents selection and organization - cultural and social background - level of proficiency (urban and rural) - geographical factor -selection and organization of learning activities - methods and approaches - aims and objectives -the assessment/evaluation process - pilot study - monitor implementation - feedback - provide support

1. Needs analysis 2. Planning Curriculum committee 3. Design and development stage Develop the curriculum document 4. Do pilot study Selected schools

Different part of the country (urban, rural) Obtain feedback 5. Implementation 6. Evaluation

OBJECTIVE MODEL -was proposed by Ralph Tyler in 1949 -stating objectives, selecting learning experiences, organizing learning experiences, evaluation OCME (OBJECTIVE, CONTENT, MATERIAL, EVALUATION) Tylers 4 Principle of Teaching -Principle 1: Defining appropriate learning outcomes - stating objectives (Denham, 2002) the progressive emphasises the importance of studying -Principle 2: Establishing useful learning experiences -tyler believes that Ss learn through exploration -like his mentor, John Dewey, he believes T should encourage children to become actively participated in discovering what the world is like Priniciple 3: Organising learning experience to have a maximum cumulative effect -central to Tylers Model is effectively organizing the learning activities -continuity sequence integration -Principle 4: Evaluating the curriculum -begins with the objectives of the educational program -the process of evaluation is essentially the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are actually being realized by the program of curriculum and instruction The strengths -provide curriculum developer with a clear direction and a guide for the remaining process -provide a fixed guide which could simplify the process -provide a logical sequence The weaknesses -a passive view of humanity -controversial issues and areas of curriculum -a view of learning as a linear process - Limit the expression of inquiry, discovery and creativity - Objectives and means (content and method) are treated separately - Does not explain where the objectives come from The compromising logical sequence Objectives-content-method-evaluation

WALKERS NATURALISTIC MODEL -curriculum supposed to be done by curriculum experts -platform (beliefs, theories, conceptions, points of view, aims/objs) : shared principles that evolve through the discussion of participants -deliberation : discussion of all sides of a question, can take many forms(argumentation and debate), proposed decisions are formulated and alternatives to those proposed decisions are suggested, and then considered by the group -curriculum design : a set of abstract relationship embodied in the designed object, involve progression through curriculum elements according to the objectives or interaction model The strengths -provide an accurate description of the process of curriculum planning -allows for confrontation of conflicts The weaknesses -may be applicable to certain curriculum planning only -less appropriate for schools that do not have much time for platform and deliberation -very time consuming -involve may parties, processes/stages