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SHORT TERM COURSE ON

VACUUM TECHNOLOGY AND PROCESS APPLICATIONS

(17 th Nov – 27 th Nov 2007)

APPLICATIONS (17 t h Nov – 27 t h Nov 2007) Prof. V. Vasudeva Rao Coordinator

Prof. V. Vasudeva Rao Coordinator Vacuum Technology Laboratory Cryogenic Engineering Centre IIT Kharagpur

VVAACCUUUUMM ((LLaattiinn -- EEmmppttyy))

According to American Vacuum Society (1958) Any given space filled with gas at pressures below atmosphere (or) Molecular density < 2.5 x 10 19 mol/cm 3 …Vacuum. Atomic diameter of typical gas = 3A 0 = 3 x 10 -8 cm 1 cm length contains 3 x 10 7 atoms for

solid with tightly arranged atoms 1 cm 3 contains 3 3 × 10 21 = 3 × 10 22 atoms solid evaporates to gas,

volume changes by 1000 gas of 1 cm 3 contains 3 x 10 22 ÷ 1000 = 3 x 10 19

atoms even at 10 -12 torr (best possible vacuum in laboratory) we have 30,000 molecules per cm 3 and mean free path > diameter of earth. Vacuum is measured by measuring the absolute pressure in an enclosure.

In coherent unit system [F] = [l] [m] [t] -2

C.G.S

S.I (M.K.S) newton/m 2 = 1 pascal.

In non-coherent system, the pressure units Torr & mbar are popularly used in "Vacuum Technology"

and

[P] = [l] -1 [m] [t] -2

dynes/cm 2 = 0.1 pascal

dyne = 1gm.cm/s 2

1 atm

= 760 mm of Hg 760 Torr = 1013 mbar 0.1 Mega Pascal = 1.03 Kg/cm 2

NATURAL VACUUM

Human beings

Octopus

740 Torr – Respiration / 300 Torr - Suction 0.1 Torr

Space:

Pressure decreases with the altitude

- up to 100 km (troposphere & stratosphere) Pr. Decreases by a factor of 10 for each increase in altitude of 15 Km…. "10 -3 Torr at 90 Km"

- 100 - 400 Km (Inosphere) Pr. Decreases by a factor of 10 / every 100 - 200 Km… "10

-10 Torr at 1000 Km"

Above 1000 Km Pr. Decreases slowly.

-

Altitude Composition “10 -13 Torr at 10000 Km” < 200 Km 200 - 1000 Km
Altitude Composition
“10 -13 Torr at 10000 Km”
< 200 Km
200 - 1000 Km
700 - 1000 Km
>1500 Km
Vacuum of 10 -10 Torr
Highly expensive
technology on Earth - Naturally available in
Atm. is air.
Atomic N & O
Appreciable H e
Neutral atomic H,
Protons, electrons etc.
large volumes [Universe] Above 1000 Km in
Space.
Nature is powerful

Brief History of Vacuum Technology

1564

– 1642

Galileo

Vacuum with a piston in cylinder

1643

Torricelli

Vacuum produced at the top of a column of mercury

1623

– 62

Pascal

Barometer

1654

Guericke

Mechanical effects famous

1879

Edison’s

Invention of the incandescent lamp

1879

Crookes

Cathode ray tube & Evacuated flask by Dewar

1902

Vacuum diode / 1906 triode / 1909 tungsten filament electron & X-ray tubes electronics

1874

Mc Leod

Primary gauge

1906

Pirani’s

Thermal conductivity gauge

1915

Gaede’s and Langmuir’s

Diffusion pump

1916

Buckley’s

Hot cathode ionization gauge

1937

Penning’s

Cold cathode gauge

After 1940

Vacuum

Technology for nuclear research

1950

Bayard – Alpert

Ionization gauge

1953

H.J. Schwarz & R.G. Herd

Ion-pumps produced

1958

W.Becker

Molecular drag of a high speed rotor

1912

W. Gaede

Turbomolecular pumps

As pressure goes down in a vacuum system, a marked change occurs in the following physical parameters.

Average number of molecules per unit volume. For a given temperature and volume n p density p

Average distance that a molecule travels in a gas between two successive collisions with other molecules of that gas.

2. Mean free path 'λ':

1. Molecular density 'n':

λ = 1 / (2 π n d 2 )….kinetic theory (not interatomic distance) – Calcutta population example. For air at room temp. λ=5.1 x 10 -3 / P … (λ in cm and P in torr).

3. Time to form a monolayer 'τ': Time required for a freshly cleaved surface to be covered by a layer of the gas of one molecule thickness. τ is very long for UHV

 

(2.2 x 10 6 sec at

10 -12 torr)

 

Gas molecules impinging per sq. cm = ¼ (nv avg )

 
 

P (Torr)

N (mol/cm 3 )

 

λ (cm)

τ (sec)

760

2.46

x 10 19

 

6.7

x 10 -6

2.9

x 10 -9

1

3.25

x 10 16

5.1

x 10 -3

2.2

x 10 -6

10

-3

3.25

x 10 13

 

5.1

2.2

x 10 -3

10

-6

3.25

x 10 10

 

5.1

x 10 3

2.2

10

-9

3.25

x 10 17

5.1

x 10 6

2.2

x 10 3

10

-12

3.25

x 10 14

5.1

x 10 9

2.2

x 10 6

10

-15

3.25 x 10

5.1

x 10 12

2.2

x 10 9

By analysing the valves of η, λ, τ and D (characteristic dimension of the chamber), we can classify vacuum into three regions.

Low (medium) Vacuum:

The number of molecules of the gas phase is large compared to that covering the surface.

760 - 0.5 Torr Low Force effects can be felt. 0.5 - 10 -2 Torr Medium

λ << D

High Vacuum:

The gas molecules in the chamber are located principally on surfaces. Viscosity effects disappear.

10 -3 to 10 -7 Torr.

λ D

Ultra High Vacuum:

The time to form a monolayer 'τ' is longer than the usual time for laboratory measurements; thus clean surfaces can be prepared and their properties can be studied.

10 -7 to 10 -15 Torr

λ >> D

Pumping/measurement very difficult

Gas Compositions

Component

Atmosphere Partial Pr. (Torr)

Ultra High Vacuum Partial Pr (Torr)

 

N 2

 

595

----------

 

O 2

159

3

x 10 -13

Ar

7.05

----------

CO 2

0.25

6

x 10 -12

 

Ne

0.014

----------

He

0.004

----------

Kr

8.4

x 10 -4

----------

 

H

2

3.8

x 10 -4

2

x 10 -11

X

e

6.6

x 10 -5

----------

H

2

O

11.9

9

x 10 -13

CH 4

1.5

x 10 -3

3

x 10 -13

 

O

3

5.3

x 10 -5

----------

N

2

O

1.8

x 10 -4

----------

CO

------------

9

x 10 -12

In the ultra high vacuum range hydrogen is the dominant component coming mostly from the bulk of the materials (permeation).

VVaaccuuuumm TTeecchhnnoollooggyy -- PPrriinncciippllee // AApppplliiccaattiioonnss

1. Pressure difference : (Force : 1Kg/cm 2 )

(a)

Holding, lifting, transporting solids, liquids.

(b)

Vacuum sniffers; mouth is placed on the object to be lifted very precisely. (Ex: Vacuum cleaner - 600 Torr).

(c)

Chemical industry to accelerate filtering speed.

(d)

Railway breaks

Low vacuum > 10 Torr.

2. Removing chemically active elements :

(a)

Electric bulb To avoid heated filament oxidation.

10 -5 Torr & sealing or

Inert gas filling after evacuation

(b)

Vacuum Metallurgy : To protect active metals from oxidation during melting, casting, sintering etc. (0.1 Torr).

(c)

Vacuum Packaging : of food materials sensitive to atmospheric reactions (low vacuum - 0.1 Torr).

(d)

Vacuum encapsulation : of sensitive transistors & capacitors.

3. Removing humidity from foods & chemicals :

(a)

Vacuum Concentration (removing water) at low heating of Fruit juice, concentrated milk etc.

(b)

Freeze drying for storage :

Cooling and removing water by sublimation under vacuum,

preserving volatile constituents.

- instant coffee, blood plasma.

(c)

Vacuum impregnation : Removing occluded humidity/ gases, filling their place by other materials. - insulation of motor windings, capacitors, cables etc.

4. Thermal & Electrical insulation :

(a)

Dewar flasks (LN 2 & LH e ), Thermos flasks - double walled with evacuated space – convection reduced.

(b)

Electrical insulation - vacuum switches/interuptors, high voltage tubes - Fusion reactors for energy production etc.

5. Avoiding atomic collisions :

(a)

Oscilloscopes, photo cells, X-ray tubes, Mass spectrometers, Electron microscopes etc. (10 -6 Torr).

(b)

Vacuum coating units : where coating materials evaporated from a source travels straight to the substrate with out collisions to create high quality thin film devices (< 10 -8 Torr).

(c)

Fresh surface analysis equipment - SEM, EDAX, ESCA etc. 10 -10 Torr where τ is very long.

6. Space simulation chambers

Ex: space shuttles etc. 10 -10 Torr. Simulating the conditions of far space.

7. Molecular distillation

of pure fractions by evaporating and condensing.

http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/rdg/vacuum/vacuum.html

Vacuum Pump
Vacuum Pump
IIT Kharagpur 20 m 40 m 13 m
IIT
Kharagpur
20 m
40 m
13 m

JSC Houston Space Simulation Chamber

IIT Kharagpur 20 m 40 m 13 m JSC Houston Space Simulation Chamber Cryopump Assembly

Cryopump Assembly

Production of Vacuum

Pressure ranges of vacuum pumps:

No single pump exits which can cover all ranges

Vacuum pumping is based on one of the following

Ex:-

Compression - expansion of gas Drag by viscosity effects

Ex:-

Rotary Vapour ejector

Drag by diffusion effects

Ex:-

Vapour diffusion pump

Molecular drag

Ex:-

Turbo molecular

Ionisation effects

Ex:-

Ion pumps

Physical & chemical sorption

Ex:-

Sorption & Cryopumps

Pump specifications :- Lowest pressure, Pressure range, Pumping speed, Exhaust pressure etc.

Piston Waterjet Rotary Sorption Roots Ejectors Diffusion Molecular Ion Cryogenic 760 10 2 10 0
Piston
Waterjet
Rotary
Sorption
Roots
Ejectors
Diffusion
Molecular
Ion
Cryogenic
760
10 2
10 0
10 -2
10 -4
10 -6
10 -8
10 -10
10 -12
10 -14

P (Torr)

Pumping Speed: (SP)

Throughput (Q):

- Volume of the gas per unit time which the pumping device removes from the system at the pressure existing at the inlet to the pump. (lit/sec, m 3 /hr).

- Product of pumping speed and the inlet pressure.

dV

dt

⎞ ⎟
Torr lit/sec or atm. Cm 3 /sec

dm

=

(

d NM

dt

=

=

)

Q

=

PS

p

= P

Q is proportional to mass flow rate

dt

d

dt

⎜ ⎝

MPV

KT

M d

KT dt

(PV)

9

8

7

5

A B (a)
A
B
(a)
B A (b)
B
A
(b)
A B B (c)
A
B B
(c)
B A
B
A

(d)

1 10 11 2 3 4 6
1
10
11
2
3
4
6

1.

Inlet tube, 2. Inlet port,

3. Top seal, 4. Vanes, 5.

Oil,

6.

Rotor, 7.

Stator, 8.

Exhaust port, 9. Exhaust flap valve

with backing plate, 10. Exhaust outlet, 11. Oil splash baffles

Stator – with eccentric Rotor

Stator – with eccentric Rotor Inlet & Exhaust Two vanes in diametrical slot (few degrees either

Inlet & Exhaust

Two vanes in diametrical slot

(few degrees either side of vertical line)
(few degrees either side of vertical line)

with filter

Neoprene constrained to hinge between stator & metal plate

stator – Rotor assembly is submerged in oil

since both vanes operate, in one rotation the volume

of the gas swept is twice that shown in figure (b).

If rotational speed is n/unit time (min)

pump displacement (pumping speed) = 2Vn

Rotary Vane Pump

Hyper Link for Rotary Animation

S

(L/m)

60 50 40 30 760 20 Torr 10 0 10 -4 10 -2 1 10
60
50
40
30
760
20
Torr
10
0
10 -4
10 -2
1
10 2
P (Torr)

Pumping speed Vs Pressure

Single StagePumping speed Vs Pressure Double Stage

Double StagePumping speed Vs Pressure Single Stage

The lowest pressure of Rotary pump depends on "Compression Ratio" and hence on dead volume.

As vacuum improves, pressure after compression is not above atmosphere. Then the gas cannot be discharged and subsequent pumping action re-expands and recompresses the same gas without reducing the pressure.

For getting 10 -2 Torr, compression ratio of 1,00,000 is required. Even with such ratios the lowest

pressure in single

stage pump is only 5 x 10 -3 Torr.

Parallel connections of two identical pumps provides twice the displacement but same ultimate pressure. Series connection provides same displacement but greater pumping speeds at low pressures. Hence, a two stage rotary pump may reach 10 -4 Torr.

The ultimate pressure is also limited by the leak across top seal and vapour pressure of lubricating oil.

How to get better vacuum < 10 -4 Torr ?

How to get more pumping speed at low pressure limit ?

Gas Ballast Operation

Gas Ballast Operation When water is present in a vacuum system, it turns out that if

When water is present in a vacuum system, it turns out that if the compression ratio of the pump exceeds approximately 8:1 water will condense. To avoid this a solution proposed by Gaede (Figure). Here atmospheric air be admitted to the pump during the compression cycle to reduce the effective compression ratio and thereby increase the proportion of non-condensable gases in the pump. By this means, the partial pressure of the vapour being pumped does not exceed its saturated vapour pressure at the time the exhaust valve lifts (the exhaust valve lifts earlier in the pump cycle than it otherwise would) and consequently vapour is discharged without condensing. The extra work done in compressing the gas introduced at gas ballast causes a temperature rise which also assists in preventing vapour condensing within the pump.

Gas ballasting also has the effect of transporting oil from the pump chamber and this oil appears as an oil mist. Since gas ballasting will usually be conducted for 20-30 minutes at a time, it is necessary to monitor the pump oil level. The reduction in compression ratio accompanying gas ballasting causes a reduction in the ultimate pressure attainable.

Pump Oil

The Rotary-pump oil is usually a hydrocarbon oil, chosen for its low vapour pressure. The oil must also possess the appropriate viscosity for the pump, since too low a viscosity will result in noisy pump operation and too high a viscosity may result in seal failure, loss of vacuum and possibly

pump seizure. Oil serves as a sealent, coolent and lubricant.

Inlet

Additional Precautions The pump should be vented back to atmosphere as soon as it is
Additional Precautions
The pump should be vented back to atmosphere
as soon as it is stopped as otherwise the oil in the
pump will enter into the system due to suction.
During unattended operation, this situation may
occur due to power failure. Solenoid valves can
also be used to close off the pump from the rest
of the system and to vent it to atmospheric
pressure if the power is turned off. Further, a
reservoir to catch the oil is added between the
pump and the system as a safety precaution
Exhaust
Vanes
Inlet filters are added to filter glass particles or
abrasive materials that may be present in the
system under evacuation.
http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/rdg/vacuum/vacuum2.html

Rotor

Oil

Spring

Stator

Diffusion Pump

1.

High Vacuum

2.

Water Cooling

3.

First Stage

4.

Second Stage

5.

Pump Oil

6. Heater

7. Fore Vacuum (Rotary Pump)

2

System 1 3 7 4 5 6
System
1
3
7
4
5
6

The molecules of the oil vapour travel up the chimney and are deflected by the umbrella and jet towards the walls. There the vapour condenses back due to water cooling, return back to the boiler, gets heated to form the vapour streaming up.

During expansion in the nozzles the oil molecules given a downward momentum to the air molecules to push them (compress them) towards fore vacuum pump. The air molecules from the system slowly diffuse down to bottom of the pump. The oil column can sustain the pressure difference and act like an atomic compressor. The air at relatively high pressures at the bottom can be removed by a matching rotary pump.

12

1.

Water-cooling coils First compression stage Second compression stage Third compression stage Vapour condenses and returns to boiler Boiler Electric heater Pump fluid Fourth stage compression Foreline baffle Foreline (pump outlet) High pressure Pump inlet (low pressure)

2. 3. 4. 1 Pump fluid 5. Gas molecules 6. 7. 2 8. 11 9.
2.
3.
4.
1
Pump fluid
5.
Gas molecules
6.
7.
2
8.
11
9.
10.
3
10
11.
4
12.
Properties of some common diffusion pump fluids
5
Fluid
Composition
Mol.wt.
Ultimate pressure *
@ 20 o C
mbar
9
Apiezon A
Mixture of hydrocarbon
354
6.5
x 10 -5
6
Apiezon B
Mixture of hydrocarbon
420
1.3
x 10 -6
8
Apiezon C
Mixture of hydrocarbon
279
1.3
x 10 -7
Edwards L9
Napthalene based
407
5 x 10 -9
7
Silicone DC 702
Mixture of Polysiloxanes
530
6.5
x 10 -6
Silicone DC 703
Mixture of Polysiloxanes
570
6.5
x 10 -6
Fig. Pumping mechanism of a vapour jet.
Silicone DC 704
Single molecule siloxane
484
6.5
x 10 -8
Silicone DC 705
Single molecule siloxane
546
1.3
x 10 -9
Santovac 5
Polyphenylether
446
1.3
x 10 -9
Fomblin 18/8
Perfluoropolyether
2650
2.7
x 10 -8
Mercury
---
201
1.2
x 10 -3

Rotary pump to Diffusion pump

The rotary pump is matched to a diffusion pump according to the relation given for vapour booster. Critical backing pressures for diffusion pumps are typically0.35 torr and maximum throughput occurs in the constant throughput-pumping region at pressures between 10-1 and 10-3 torr and can generally be considered to occur at 10-2 torr. Thus for a diffusion pump with a speed of 700 1s-1 at 10-2 torr and a critical backing pressure of 0.35 torr the minimum rotary pump sped required is

Equation:

S rotary

=

12

700 10

×

120

0.35 100

×

= 24ls

1

or 51ft

3

min

1

Holding rotary pump to diffusion pump large rotary pumps is required to produce fast roughing cycles and to back large diffusion plumps operating at high throughput. Once these conditions have been fulfilled the large rotary pump can be replaced with a much smaller pump giving lower power consumption and lower noise level. Holding pumps are use full to back large diffusion pumps operating at small throughput, i.e. low process pressures, or operating in an idle condition against a closed isolation valve.

Fractionating Pump

Fractionating Pump The various constituents of the pump fluid are so selected that the high vacuum
Fractionating Pump The various constituents of the pump fluid are so selected that the high vacuum

The various constituents of the pump fluid are so selected that the high vacuum nozzle is only supplied by the fraction of the pump fluid which has the lowest vapour pressure. This assures a very low ultimate pressure. Fractionating occurs because the degassed oil first enters the outer part of the boiler, which serves the nozzle on the backing vacuum side. Here a part of the more volatile constituents evaporates. In this way, the already purified pump fluid reaches then the intermediate part of the boiler, which serves the intermediate nozzle. Here lighter constituents evaporate in greater quantities than the heavier. When the oil enters the central region of the boiler which serves the high vacuum nozzle, it is freed of the light volatile constituents.

http://www.2spi.com/catalog/vac/santovac-5-diffusion-pump-fluid-technical-

paper.html

Pumping Speed

PPeerrffoorrmmaannccee CChhaarraacctteerriissttiiccss

The pumping performance of a diffusion pump is displayed in the form of a plot of pumping speed versus inlet pressure in the figure. The graph consists of four distinct sections. To the left, the speed is seen to decrease near the limit of obtainable vacuum. The constant speed section results from constant gas arrival rate at molecular flow conditions and a constant capture efficiency of the vapor jets.

At molecular flow, the gas molecules arrive into the pump due to their normal molecular velocities, which depend on temperature and the molecular weight. The rate of arrival also depends on the conductance of the inlet ducts and the geometry of the pump entrance. A certain percentage of molecules reaching the vapor jets will be captured. The capture rate is usually constant until the vapor jets become overloaded. The part marked "over-load" is a constant-throughput section which indicates that the maximum mass flow capacity of the pump has been reached. In the last section, at the right, the performance is highly influenced by the size of the mechanical backing pump (critical backing pressure).

2

1

3

4

~10 -8

~10 - 8 ~10 - 3 ~10 - 1 Torr
~10 - 8 ~10 - 3 ~10 - 1 Torr

~10 -3

~10 -1 Torr

Inlet Pressure (Torr)

1. Ultimate Vacuum Limitation.

2. Constant speed.

3. Constant through put (Overload).

4. Mechanical Pump effect

Typical speeds 100 l/s to 45000 l/sec, commercially available.

The pumping speed of a diffusion pump can be obtained from

S

=11.6 A H lit/sec

(for air)

A

= Area of intake annulus

H

= Ho-factor (0.3—0.5)

S

1/

M

M

M = mol. wt of gas.

Pump fluids:

1. Silicone DC 702 – 705 (siloxane) mol.wt 500; ultimate pr: 10 -6 —10 -9 mbar higher resistance to oxdidation.

H 2 He N 2 Ar 10 -13 10 -11 10 -9 10 -7 10
H
2
He
N
2
Ar
10 -13
10 -11
10 -9
10 -7
10 -5
10 -3
10 -1
Relative pumping speed

Inlet pressure (Torr)

Typical performance of diffusion pumps with various gases

2. Apiezon (A, B, C) Mixture of hydro carbon mol. wt. 350 to 480, ultimate pressure 10 -5 –10-7 mbar

3. Santovac Polyphenyl ether mol.wt 446 ultimate vacuum 1.3 Χ 10 -9 mbar.

BBaacckk SSttrreeaammiinngg -- BBaafffflleess // CCoolldd TTrraappss

Back-streaming occurs when pump fluid molecules move above the upper jet so that they can enter the chamber, causing possible contamination. This can be largely prevented by the use of chilled baffles or a cold trap. It can also be greatly reduced by proper design of the top jet and by the use of a large cold cap.

An important element of any vacuum system is the baffle or cold trap. A trap (cold trap) is actually an entrapment pump for condensable vapours. A baffle is a device designed to condense pump fluid vapours and return them to the pump. It is therefore generally associated with diffusion pumps. Although modern diffusion pump fluids such as DC705 or Santovac have vapour pressure in the region of 10 -10 mbar at room temperature, some decomposition of the pump fluid does occur in the pump boiler and lighter fractions are generated. Many of these may be trapped by means of a water- cooled (chilled) baffle situated above the pump first jet.

An even more effective trap is provided by liquid nitrogen cooling of such a baffle. A more generally useful arrangement is the liquid nitrogen cold trap situated immediately above the mouth of the diffusion pump. In this position the cold trap not only holds the more volatile oil fractions arising from the pump, but also water vapour or other condensables arising from the vacuum chamber.

System LN 2 Cold Trap Chevron Baffle Diffusion Pump
System
LN 2
Cold
Trap
Chevron
Baffle
Diffusion Pump

CCrriittiiccaall bbaacckkiinngg pprreessssuurree

During normal operation the supersonic high pressure region of oil vapour overtakes the slower moving gas molecules which have sonic speeds. There is a consequent pressure rise resulting in a steep and stable wave front, i.e. a shock wave is formed in which the gas is rapidly compressed. This shock wave acts as a "dam" or "seal" across the pump so that gas from the backing region cannot surmount the pressure step of the shock wave and return the high vacuum inlet.

If the backing pressure is too high the shock wave front will be too near the nozzle outlet giving a less satisfactory sealing effect. In this way if the backing pressure rises to a critical point (typically 0.5 mbar) the vapour jets break down (due to the increased gas density in the pump) and gas molecules then back diffuse to the pump intake aperture increasing the ultimate pressure drastically.

P 2 P 1
P
2
P 1

The Critical backing pressure.

1 P 2 (mbar) -7 10 -3 3 10 1 10 P 1 (mbar)
1
P 2 (mbar)
-7
10
-3
3
10
1
10
P 1 (mbar)

Typical High Vacuum Pumping System

Ionization/penning Gauge Chamber Pirani/thermocouple gauge <10 -7 Mbar Roughing Valve Air inlet valve Main
Ionization/penning Gauge
Chamber
Pirani/thermocouple gauge
<10 -7
Mbar
Roughing Valve
Air inlet valve
Main isolation Valve
Gauge
Backing valve
Roughing Line
* Cryobaffle N 2
Baffle
Diffusion Pump
Backing line
Cooling Water
Isolation/air
Admittance valve
Backing line Cooling Water Isolation/air Admittance valve Rotary pump • Eliminates back streaming of pump fluid

Rotary pump

Eliminates back streaming of pump fluid and increases

pumping speed

for condensable gases

Liquid Nitrogen Traps : The above Figure (a) shows a re-entrant trap of low conductance used in backing lines to suppress back migration of rotary pump oil vapours to high vacuum systems, and occasionally above low speed diffusion plumps. These traps are sometimes used in backing lines to protect a rotary pump from condensable vapour loads that are beyond its capacity on full gas ballast, but they are comparatively ineffective, since under viscous flow conditions, vapour is swept through without hitting a cold surface. At system pressures below 1 torr however, they protect the vacuum chamber against hydrocarbon and water vapour contamination originating from the rotary lump. The application of backing line traps for us e with clean system is more fully discussed in section 3.2 Figure (b) shows a high conductance high vacuum trap thermally insulated by the high vacuum achieved but not optically dense, i.e. a molecule can travel from pump connection to system connection making collisions with room temperature surfaces only and a certain proportion of molecules will find these paths Figure (c) is an optically dense version of that shown in Figure (b). This has been achieved by the use of the two overlapping cylinders at the lower end.

This has been achieved by the use of the two overlapping cylinders at the lower end.

Fig. Typical liquid nitrogen traps

FFoorree--lliinnee TTrraapp

The presence of oil vapour in the work-chamber is often thought to arise from back-streaming from the diffusion pump, but investigations have shown that this is in fact rotary pump oil which has entered the chamber via the roughing line. When the roughing pressure drops below 10 -2 mbar rotary pump vapour molecules can move in any direction as they are in molecular flow. This can be greatly reduced by the use of a correctly maintained fore-line trap. It is important however that if a roughing line is used then once the chamber pressure reaches the correct value, the roughing valve should be closed to minimize the back-streaming of rotary pump vapour into the vacuum chamber.

Diffusion Perforated Can Zeolite pellets /Alumina Rotary Pump
Diffusion
Perforated
Can
Zeolite pellets /Alumina
Rotary Pump
A fore-line trap Rotar y Pump

A fore-line trap

Rotary Pump

A fore-line trap Rotar y Pump

It is necessary to isolate the trap with suitable valves when system is exposed to atmosphere. Saturated alumina can be reactivated by heating to 250 0 C with the help of a heating rod.

Roots Blower

Pumps without a discharge valve, which move gases by the propelling action of rapidly rotating members, are called Rotary Blowers. A fairly common representative of this type is the Roots pump. This type of pump contains two counter-rotating lobes, each with a Figure-eight cross-section. The lobes do not touch each other or the casing. The clearance between lobes and between the lobes and the casing is of the order of 0.010 inch. A single shaft may drive the machine with the second rotor synchronized and driven through a set of timing gears.

rotor synchronized and driven through a set of timing gears. Fig. Roots blower (cross-section) Fig. Operating

Fig. Roots blower (cross-section)

a set of timing gears. Fig. Roots blower (cross-section) Fig. Operating principle of Roots pump. In
a set of timing gears. Fig. Roots blower (cross-section) Fig. Operating principle of Roots pump. In

Fig. Operating principle of Roots pump.

In the first position, air enters on the inlet side. The lower impeller, as indicated in the second position traps part of this air. This volume is discharged in the third and fourth positions. The latter also shows another quantity of gas trapped by the upper impeller, which will be discharged during the next quarter revolution.

The main advantage of Roots pumps is their ability to handle large gas loads in a pressure region where neither rotary nor diffusion pumps are fully efficient It is sometimes desirable to make use of a pump capable of reaching lower pressure than the single or double-stage rotary pumps and having very high throughput at these low pressures. In addition, it may be desirable to use such a pump to prevent the migration of oil molecules from the mechanical pump into the system. For these purposes, a Roots pump (booster) is frequently employed. Commercial models are available with high pumping speeds in the range 10 4 to 10 6 liter/min. They are rarely used in high vacuum systems,

but offer economic advantages in industrial applications requiring 10 to 10

Torr pressure. By

staging two such blowers in series with a mechanical pump, even lower pressures can be reached, although their general field of usefulness lines in the range of 1 x 10 -2 Torr to 5 x 10 -4 Torr.

-4

Due to the initial high viscosity of the air at atmospheric pressure, it is necessary to delay the start of the Roots pump until the backing pump has reduced the pressure to 100 mbar or to a use by-pass valve. This prevents the rotors becoming overheated, expanding and coming into contact with each other or the walls. Canned motors are sometimes used as drives for Roots pumps, where the rotor operates in vacuum but the stator windings are at atmospheric pressure, separated by a non- magnetic sleeve. This removes the need for a shaft seal and is often used when clean gas recovery is needed.

(Hyper Link for Roots Blower Animation)

The RSV “B”models have a by-pass valve and mani fold integrated into the Roots stator.

The RSV “B”models have a by-pass valve and manifold integrated into the Roots stator.

The concept allows extended operation at a high inlet pressure or pump down from atmospheric pressure simultaneously with a mechanical roughing pump. The by-pass action is activated by high differential pressure inside the Roots vacuum chamber which opens the by-pass valve. The “excess” gas is metered to the mechanical pump with a portion recycled into the Roots to assist in cooling the lobes during high pressure operation. The by-pass reduces the demand of the drive motor, reducing energy consumption and the need for an external pressure switch.

If higher speeds are required near 1 torr, Roots Pump is used as a booster

If higher speeds are required near 1 torr, Roots Pump is used as a booster to backing rotary vane pump, whose individual speed is falling down. Both sides bearings/ one side synchronizing gears, located in separate chambers. Shaft seals both sides to isolate the auxiliary chambers from the pumping chambers

Higher pressures heating problems sound Pressure ratio at atmosphere – 3 & at high vacuum 40 - 50 by pass valve for initial evacuation. Two roots blowers in series < 10 -4 Torr

In compression mode the staging ratio can range between 2 - 15 while the compression ratios achieved range between 5-40, depending upon combination selection.

Initially, pumping is initiated at atmospheric pressures by Rotary pump and after achieving the recommended cut in pressure the booster is switched on. A bypass line around the booster may be provided for the initial pump down period. Boosters with hydrokinematic / electronic drive are also available which allow simultaneous start-up of the booster & the fore pump. This initial pumping by fore pump is necessary since pumping gas at high pressures with the booster generates considerable heat and the power input is also considerably higher. For this reason the booster is generally switched on at cut-in pressures of 20-60 Torr. A suitable vacuum switch can be installed between the booster & the fore pump, set for cut-in pressure, so that the booster is switched on only on achieving the designed cut-in pressures. However, for short duration the booster can withstand excessive differential pressure across it. The Booster-Rotary Pump combination are generally recommended when speed of 3000 LPM or higher are required since the combination is most economical and power saving than any rotary pump of similar capacity.

and power saving than any rotary pump of similar capacity. Combination 1: Everest Booster EVB30 Backed

Combination 1: Everest Booster EVB30 Backed by 3000 LPM rotary pump Single stage

Combination 2: Everest Booster EVB30 Backed by 3000 LPM Rotary pump Double stage

  PUMP   PUMPING POWER ULTIMATE   SPEED   VACUUM   Rotary Pump   5000
 

PUMP

 

PUMPING

POWER

ULTIMATE

 

SPEED

 

VACUUM

 

Rotary Pump

 

5000

lit

10 HP

2

× 10 -3

Rotary Pump (5HP) + Roots Blower

 

5700

lit

7 HP

2

× 10 -4

(2HP)

RRoottaarryy eecccceennttrriicc ccyylliinnddeerr vvaaccuuuumm ppuummpp

Instead of employing moving vanes a tube (F) of rectangular cross-section which is a sliding fit in an auxilIary small cylinder, connects the gas inlet port to the rotor or plunger. This plunger is mounted eccentrically about the motor driven revolving axle (E) and is in two parts: the inner drum (C) rotates with the axle (E) but the cylindrical shell (D) is a sliding fit on (C) and, since it is rigidly attached to the inlet sliding tube (F), will not rotate with (C) but undergoes a rocking motion, whereby the point G (where there is close contact between the plunger and stator) sweeps round the inner wall of the stator. As the plunger moves in the direction of the arrow it rapidly creates extra space at (A) into which some of the gas is admitted through the inlet port. Simultaneously, compression of the gas previously trapped in volume (B) is taking place. When the plunger has almost reached its highest point it expels all air or gas and surplus sealing oil through the outlet valve and nozzle (H) into the oil separator tank, where the oil is retained and the air or gas is discharged into the atmosphere. A baffle trap is incorporated into air exhaust line to trap any oil mist which is carried over when pumping large quantities of air.

These days most mechanical pumps are fitted with the gas ballast facility and in the example shown in figure the air admittance hole to the chamber is seen to be just to the right of the air inlet tube.

is seen to be just to the right of the air inlet tube. Cross-section of a

Cross-section of a rotary piston pump

1.

Housing

2.

Cylindrical piston

3.

Eccentric

4.

Pump chamber open to intake port

5.

Hinge bars

6.

Flat slide valve

7.

Oil-immersed pressure valve

8.

Filter

9.

Intake port

10.

Exhaust port

11.

Baffle

12.

Shut-off pump chamber

13.

Temperature regulator

14.

Gas ballast duct

15.

Oil-drain plug

Position 1. T.D.C Position 2. The slot in the intake-duct of the slide valve begins to open. Start of intake process. Position 3. B.D.C. The slot in the intake duct is completely open. The gas to be removed (arrow) flows freely into the pump chamber (shaded). Position 4. The slot in the intake duct is closed again by the hinge bars. End of the intake process. Position 5. T.D.C. Maximum volume of pump chamber Position 6. Just before the start of the compression processes, the front end of the pump piston moves away from the gas ballast orifice so that it is exposed. Start of gas ballast cycle. Position 7. Gas ballast orifice completely free. Position 8. End of gas ballast cycle. Position 9. End of pumping processes.

Operation and processes of a Rotary piston pump

OOiill VVaappoouurr BBoooosstteerr PPuummpp

Capacities available:

Up to 23000 1 s -1 (50,000 ft 3 min-1) and throughputs of up to 1500 Torr 1 s -1 at 0.1 torr.

Operating pressure range: 1 torr to 10 -4 torr using water-cooled baffles.

A typical 3- stage vapour booster is illustrated in Fig.2.10 and consists of an annular jet followed by an ejector jet. If the pump consists only of an ejector stage then it is generally referred to as vapour diffusion pump, and requires initial evacuation to below 1 torr. The booster pump differs from the diffusion pump primarily with regard to boiler pressure, which is normally about 30 torr. This is achieved by using a high heater input and volatile oils such as pentachlor-diphenyl, which has a vapour pressure of somewhat less than 10 -4 torr at 15ºC.

The oil return to the boiler is arranged to flow through pipes, and during operation the head of oil established in these return lpipes balances the boiler presdsure. The hydrogen speed of this type of

pump is normally about twice its air speed. The vapour booster pump exhibits considerable plumping speed for permanent gases below its ultimate pressure, which is limited to 10 -4 to 10 -5 torr by the vapour pressure of the oil. The high critical backing pressure, between 2 and 6 torr, allows the use of relatively small backing pumps. Vapour booster pumps are used for high-speed duties in the

pressure range 10 -1 to 10

-3

torr, where rotary pumps are at their limit and diffusion plumps unstable.

They are particularly suitable for dirty and mainly hydrogen loads such as are widely encountered in metallurgical applications in combination with a small rotary pump they provide a compact arrangement for backing large diffusion pumps.

Slotted Cathode: A slotted cathode presents a surface to a portion of the impinging ions such that glancing incidence and high sputtering rates occur, see Fig. 2.13(a). The bottom of the groove is then subjected to this high sputtering rate and argon ions buried at the bottom of the groove are substantially covered and permanently trapped. This arrangement increases the argon speed from 1% to 6% of the nitrogen speed.

Fig. Vapour booster pump

1% to 6% of the nitrogen speed. Fig. Vapour booster pump (b) (a Fig. Methods for
(b)
(b)
(a
(a

Fig. Methods for increasing pumping speed for argon (a)Slotted (b)Triode pump

Triode pump: The electrode arrangement of the triode pump is shown in Fig. 2.13(b) and consists of a stainless steel anode held at earth potential a titanium cathode in the for a of an open structure honeycomb held at minus 5kV and a collector which is normally the plump envelope and hence of stainless steel and at earth potential. The pumping mechanisms are exactly the same as in the diode plump. The significant difference arises from the fact that most of the positive ions striking the cathode do so at glancing incidence so that there is a substantial increase in the amount of titanium sputtered from the cathode. The bulk of the sputtered titanium showers onto the collector and will cover any inert gases that stick to the collector. With the honeycomb type of cathode argon speeds are raised to about 30% of the rated air speed. The principal advantage of the triode pump is its increased pumping speed for the inert gases, it should be used when inert gas pressures exceed 1x 10 -7 torr, and a secondary advantage is a some what faster start up compared to diode plumps and the ability to start readily at high roughing pressures of up to 10 -1 .

Titanium Sublimation Pump

Capacities available:

Operating pressure range:

Titanium is evaporated from a tungsten filament over wound with titanium wire or from a filament of titanium molybdenum ally (McCracken, G.M & Pashley, N.A.,1966) onto a substrate or vacuum chamber wall. Active gases are pumped by chemical combination, but there is no pumping sped for inert gas or saturated hydrocarbons so that sublimation plumps are always used in conjunction with diffusion or sputter-ion plumps. The rate at which gas is taken up by the titanium, film, is determined by the rate at which titanium is sublimed, the chemical nature of the compound formed, the nature of the film and the gas access to the film.

Filaments designed for high-vacuum application are normally operated at constant voltage and the filament current is used to indicate the completion of useful filament life. Cartridges carrying multiple filaments are available and control units have the facility of switching between filaments and also provide automatic sublimation cycles.

Up to many thousands of liters per second. 10 -3 torr (normal upper limit) to below 10-11 torr.

Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps

Discharge Suction Liquid Ring Shaft Discharge Port Suction Port Impeller Impeller Blades
Discharge
Suction
Liquid Ring
Shaft
Discharge Port
Suction Port
Impeller
Impeller Blades

Fig. Operating Principle of Liquid Ring Pump

Liquid ring vacuum pumps are used to evacuate the environments having condensable vapours or wet loads. They are used through out the process industries. These pumps are the only alternative to steam jet ejectors for handling large amounts of wet vapour or liquids and small amount of solids as the pump operates in a liquid environment. It is ideal for wet processes such as filtration, drying, condenser exhausting and distillation.

Figure shows the schematic diagram of a typical liquid ring vacuum pump. It is basically a type of rotary positive displacement pump. In this pump, liquid is used as an element to compress the gas molecules. The compression is achieved by a ring of liquid and a rotating

multi blade impeller located eccentrically in the pump casing. The eccentricity causes the filling and emptying of the each rotor (impeller) chamber. The concentric liquid ring is formed as a result of centrifugal force by the rotation of the

impeller. The liquid ring also seals the space between the impeller blades and the casing. The pump is driven by an electric motor at standard speeds from 400 to 1750 rpm.

At the inlet port, the space available between the impeller blades and the liquid ring increases with rotation of impeller. Due to this increase in area, suction of the process load takes place and the gas enters the space between the impeller blades and the liquid ring. Further rotation isolates this trapped gas from the inlet. Now onwards the area between the impeller and the liquid ring starts reducing. This will cause the gas to be compressed. After the desired compression is attained, the gas will escape through the discharge port. The liquid ring acts as coolant to absorb the heat of compression and heat due to friction. Further, it also acts as condenser for condensable vapours.

Operating pressures of liquid ring vacuum pumps are in the range of 760-100 torr for single stage and 760-25 torr for two-stage. Liquid ring vacuum pumps with different capacities upto 6000 m /hr are available. Any type of liquid can be used as sealant as long as it is not prone to vaporization (and thus cavitation) at the process conditions. Popular sealant liquids are water, glycol, mineral oils and organic sealants. Compression is accomplished without any metal-to-metal contact. This eliminates the need for lubrication and reduces pump wear to a minimum. The clearances between metal surfaces are large compared to other mechanical pumps. This allows the pumps to handle small solid particles as long as they are not abrasive.

3

Liquid ring pumps are used as backing pumps for steam jet ejectors, mercury ejectors, mechanical boosters and condensers. Combinations of liquid ring pumps and steam jet ejectors reduce the noises and maintenance hazards. Finally, the advantages of liquid ring vacuum pumps are simple design, ease of fabrication, low cost, minimum noise/vibration, compatibility to liquids or vapours. The disadvantage of liquid ring vacuum pump is the limitation of the vacuum attainable by the sealant liquid due its vapour pressure.

SStteeaamm JJeett EEjjeeccttoorrss

Steam jet ejectors are widely used in various process industries, especially for operations such as exhausting fumes; exhausting air from condensers; vacuum evaporation, distillation, crystallization; refrigeration; filtration; drying; air conditioning, and for pumping large volumes of vapours and gases at low pressures. They provide the best way to produce a vacuum in the process plants because they are rugged and simple in construction—therefore, easily maintained. Their capacities can be varied from small volumes to enormous quantities (30000 m /min). They are simple in design, have no moving parts, operate with cheap, readily available fluids, and are reliable in service.

Ejectors are basically momentum exchange pumps and the working of a typical single stage ejector is shown in figure.1. The ejector consists of three basic parts: steam nozzle, suction chamber and diffuser. High-pressure motive steam expands adiabatically in a converging-diverging nozzle. As a result, the velocity of the motive steam reaches to supersonic value having a mach number 3 - 4 (typically 1000 m/s). During the expansion process, the motive steam expands to a pressure below the suction fluid pressures. This will act as the driving force for the suction of fluid. Both steam and the process load mix in the mixing chamber. The resulting mixture is still supersonic.

3

This supersonic mixture is passed through a diffuser where the velocity is reduced and the pressure is increased. In the converging portion of the diffuser, the velocity is reduced as the area is reduced. The throat section is designed to reduce the supersonic velocity into sonic velocity. Thereafter in the diverging portion of the diffuser, the velocity is further decreased as the area increases. This causes an increase in pressure (exhaust pressure). The capacity of steam jet ejector system can be increased by connecting them in parallel. The ultimate vacuum can be improved by staging them in series. The ultimate vacuum attainable with different stages of ejectors is given in table. Materials used in construction of steam jet ejectors are stainless steel, bronze, gun metal, cast-iron, Monel, carpenter 20, hastalloy, and titanium. Non-metals that are frequently specified for highly corrosive applications involves porcelain, impervious graphite etc.

Table: Vacuum Ranges for Different Ejectors

No. of stages

Minimum practical

absolute

Pressure

Torr

1

 

50

2

 

5

3

 

2

4

 

0.2

5

 

0.03

6

 

0.003

Ejector motive steam requirement increases as the compression ratio across the ejector increases. An ejector discharging to the atmosphere can be designed for a compression ratio of 20: 1, but economics normally limits the maximum compression ratio to approximately 10:1.

Intercondesners are used in between the stages to reduce the load on the next stage. A precondenser is also used to reduce the load on the first stage ejector. Figure.2 shows an example for a four-stage ejector with intercondensers. Intercoolers are used between stages to condense steam from preceding stage or stages, thus reducing the load to be compressed in succeeding stages. The first stage discharges directly to the second stage because the interstage pressure (typically 3 to 6 torr) is too low to permit condensation of motive steam using a water-cooled condenser. The first stage and the second stage operate as a two-stage “noncondensing” unit. Two-, three-, four-, and five stage condensing jets are routinely specified for process applications. Six- stage systems have been built for steel degassing and other metal processing applications.

Nozzle Diffuser Section Fluid Suction Mixing Port Zone Pressure Profile Velocity Profile Motive fluid Mixture
Nozzle
Diffuser Section
Fluid
Suction
Mixing
Port
Zone
Pressure
Profile
Velocity Profile
Motive fluid
Mixture
Suction
Fluid

Motive

Intercondenser 1

fluid Mixture Suction Fluid Motive Intercondenser 1 Intercondenser 2 Y stage W stage Z stage Aftercondenser
fluid Mixture Suction Fluid Motive Intercondenser 1 Intercondenser 2 Y stage W stage Z stage Aftercondenser
fluid Mixture Suction Fluid Motive Intercondenser 1 Intercondenser 2 Y stage W stage Z stage Aftercondenser

Intercondenser 2

Suction Fluid Motive Intercondenser 1 Intercondenser 2 Y stage W stage Z stage Aftercondenser X stage
Suction Fluid Motive Intercondenser 1 Intercondenser 2 Y stage W stage Z stage Aftercondenser X stage
Suction Fluid Motive Intercondenser 1 Intercondenser 2 Y stage W stage Z stage Aftercondenser X stage

Y stage

W stage
W
stage
Z stage Aftercondenser
Z stage
Aftercondenser
1 Intercondenser 2 Y stage W stage Z stage Aftercondenser X stage Barometric Legs Fig.2. Multistage
1 Intercondenser 2 Y stage W stage Z stage Aftercondenser X stage Barometric Legs Fig.2. Multistage
1 Intercondenser 2 Y stage W stage Z stage Aftercondenser X stage Barometric Legs Fig.2. Multistage
X stage
X stage
Barometric Legs
Barometric Legs

Fig.2. Multistage Steam Jets with Condensers

Fig.1. Schematic diagram of Steam jet ejector with pressure and velocity profiles

Measurement of Pressure in Vacuum Systems

1. Primary Gauges:

Respond directly to the pressure of ambient. Manometers, Mcleod gauge (10 -7 Torr).

2. Secondary gauges: Respond to the pressure dependent property of the rarified gas. 10 -3 T – Thermal Conductivity - Pirani, Thermo Couple. < 10 -3 T - Ionization Current - Bayert Albert, Penning.

Mc Leod Gauge : (1874)

Vacuum System atm U-tube manometer
Vacuum
System
atm
U-tube manometer
To system C 1 C h 0 1 h 3 h 2 A Bulb Mercury
To
system
C 1
C
h 0
1
h 3
h 2
A
Bulb
Mercury

Mc.Leod gauge

By lowering mercury, bulb is brought to the system pressure.

Compress the bulb gas into capillary

C 1 .

C 1 & C 2 same dia - capillary effect is same

The pressure of the compressed gas in the closed capillary is P + (h 2 - h 1 ) where 'P' is system pr. According to Boyle's law

[P + (h 2 - h 1 )] A (h 0 - h 1 ) = PV

Where V Bulb vol., A Cross sectional area of capillary.

[P + (h 2 - h 1 )] A (h 0 - h 1 ) = PV

P = A(h 2 - h 1 )

(h 0 - h 1 ) /[V - A (h 0 - h 1 )]

Bring the mercury level upto h 2 = h 0 (end of the closes C 1 ) or h 1 = h s standard level.

For h 2 = h 0 and h 2 - h 1 = (Δh 1 )

P = A (Δh 1 ) 2 /[V - A(Δh 1 )] (A/V) (Δh 1 ) 2

--------------------------------------

(1)

For h 1 = h s and h 0 - h s = const.

P = A(h o - h s )

(h 2 - h s ) /[V - A (h o - h s )]

(A/V) (h 0 - h s )(Δh 2 )

-------------------------------------- (2)

where, (Δh 2 ) = h 2 - h s

To system
To
system
C 1 h 0 C 1 h 3 h 2 A Bulb
C 1
h 0
C 1
h 3
h
2
A
Bulb

Mercury

Mc.Leod gauge

1 st method - pr. is proportional to square of the reading. 2 nd method - pr. is proportional to the first power of the reading - linear scale.

By properly designing the volume of the bulb and the diameter of the capillary, we can use this gauge as primary standard down to 10 -7 Torr. Not to be used for condensable vapours. Cold trap to be used to avoid Hg vapour in system. Discontinuous measurement.

SSeeccoonnddaarryy GGaauuggeess ((TThheerrmmaall CCoonndduuccttiivviittyy)) To system These two bulbs with their
SSeeccoonnddaarryy GGaauuggeess ((TThheerrmmaall CCoonndduuccttiivviittyy))
To system
These two bulbs with
their platinum filaments
are as nearly alike as
practical
This bulb is highly
evacuated and
sealed
Wheatstone bridge
circuit
R 1
R 2
R 3

Pirani vacuum gauge

as practical This bulb is highly evacuated and sealed Wheatstone bridge circuit R 1 R 2
To system
To system
To system Heater junction Thermocouple Principle: 1. Both depend on the fact that the thermal conductivity
Heater junction
Heater
junction

Thermocouple

Principle:

1. Both depend on the fact that the thermal conductivity of a low pr. Gas depends upon the pressure.

2. Cooling of the heated element changes with pressure.

-

This

is

picked

up

by

change

in

Milliammeter

Microammeter

115 V 60 ∼
115 V
60 ∼

Pirani

Resistance.

Calibration curve for a commercial thermocouple gauge

Thermocouple - This is picked up by change in the equilibrium Temperature.

IIoonniizzaattiioonn GGaauuggee :: HHoott CCaatthhooddee

Electrons from hot filament are accelerated towards anode, miss it and oscillate, thereby ionizing the gas molecules.

The negative gas ions are collected by ion collector set at a negative potential. This ion current is a measure of pressure.

B Cathode Anode System + H.V _ Cathode
B
Cathode
Anode
System
+
H.V
_
Cathode

Penning Gauge: (1937)

Cold cathode Electrons are emitted due to field emission discharge (small in number). These electrons are made to travel in helical path due to high electric and magnetic field ionise the ambient.

The positive ion current is measured in the anode circuit and is calibrated in terms of pressure units. This gauge is rugged, no heating required sensitivity is low at lower pressures.

System Ion Collector Anode +150 V -20V Filament OV This gauge works down to 10
System
Ion Collector
Anode +150 V
-20V
Filament OV
This gauge works down to 10 -8 Torr.
Photo electric emission error.

BBaayyaarrdd -- AAllppeerrtt GGaauuggee:: ((11995500))

The residual current found in a conventional ionisation gauge is caused by photo electrons ejected from the ion collector by soft X-rays produced by 100-200 V electrons striking the cylindrical anode grid. External circuit current is both due to ions incident on collector (α pressure) and Photo electrons emitted from collector (error). At 10 -8 Torr Photo effect is 100%.

Bayard - Alpert Inverting (or) exchanging the positions of filament and ion collector, this problem is solved. The filament is now placed outside the cylindrical anode grid, and the ion collector which is now a fine wire rather than a large area cylinder, is suspended at the center of the anode grid.

As usual electrons from hot cathode accelerated to grid Ionization by collisions A large fraction of ions collected by center wire. But solid angle presented by the ion collector to the X-rays emitted by the anode grid is heavily reduced (factor of several hundreds).

X-rays error limit extended to 10 -11 Torr.

Anode Grid Ion Collector Filament +150V - 40V
Anode Grid
Ion Collector
Filament
+150V
- 40V
System Ion Collector Anode +150 V -20V Filament OV
System
Ion Collector
Anode +150 V
-20V
Filament OV

TABLE : Calibration Factors

(True pressure = indicated pressure x gauge calibration factor)

Gas Penning and Alphatron ® Gauge Ionization Gauge (approx.) Air Hydrogen Helium Argon Neon Nitrogen
Gas
Penning and
Alphatron ® Gauge
Ionization Gauge
(approx.)
Air
Hydrogen
Helium
Argon
Neon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Water Vapour
Mercury Vapour
1.0
1.0
3.1
4.0
7.7
4.8
0.9
0.85
3.9
1.6
1.0
1.0
0.9
-
1.0
-
0.7
0.6
0.7
-
0.85 – 1.16
1.16
0.37
-

Interpretation of Spectra: The below figure Illustrates a typical residual gas spectrum traced by a strip chart recorder. The spectrum was obtained with a nude ion source quadrupole analyzer fitted with an electron multiplier from an unbaked sputter-ion pumped system. The pertinent data were a nitrogen equivalent total pressure of 1.3 × 10 -9 torr.

CCaappaacciittaannccee MMaannoommeetteerr ((SSeeccoonnddaarryy ssttaannddaarrdd))

Typical arrangements for the pressure sensor of a capacitance manometer are shown in figure. The differential pressure design can be used for absolute measurements by connecting the reference pressure port Pr to a high vacuum pumping system. A more practical variation makes use of a permanently sealed reference cavity, avoiding the need for a pumping system on the reference side. With either variety, the latest sensor technology incorporates a single electrode on the reference side of a thin metal diaphragm under radial tension. The higher pressure on the process side will deflect the flexible diaphragm toward the reference side. A deflection in the metal diaphragm causes a change in capacitance between the diaphragm and the electrode. The change in capacitance is converted to a frequency change, which is passed through another converter to produce a change in the output voltage of the sensor. The signal from the sensor is modified in a unit called the signal conditioner and the output is then registered on an analog or digital meter and/or recorder as a pressure change. The output can also feed a pressure controller.

Differential Pressure Absolute Pressure P P P r x x Getter
Differential Pressure
Absolute Pressure
P
P
P
r
x
x
Getter

With the single-side sensor, all that the incoming process gases encounter is a deflection baffle to prevent the high-speed impingement of incoming particles on the diaphragm. The process side can even be cleaned with solvents if necessary. Diaphragm deflections as small as 10 -9 in (10 -11 m) can be detected with capacitance manometers. With the thinnest diaphragm this corresponds to a pressure of about 10 -7 torr.

The useful range for accurate measurements extends down to approximately 10 -5 torr. The use of stronger diaphragms allows for pressure measurements at higher pressure. Capacitance manometers are sensitive to changes in ambient temperature since sensor materials like the ceramic electrode and metal diaphragm have different thermal expansion coefficients. Temperature compensation can be used successfully if the sensor temperature does not fluctuate rapidly.

BBoouurrddoonn GGaauuggee

Because these gauges are rugged and inexpensive, they are the usual choice as a permanently mounted local gauge in rough vacuum systems. The bourdon gauge named for its main pressure- sensing element a bourdon tube. This is a thin walled metal tube with an elliptical cross section, which is usually bent into an arc resembling the letter C. The tube is closed at one end and open to the system pressure at the other. A sketch of the gauge internals is shown in figure.

Bourdon tube

of the gauge internals is shown in figure. Bourdon tube The outside of the tube is

The outside of the tube is subjected to atmospheric pressure. If the gauge is connected to a system under vacuum, the inside of the tube will begin to be evacuated. The resulting difference between the internal and external pressures will cause the Bourdon tube to curl inward and indicate a lower pressure through the pointer linkage. An increase in pressure will produce the opposite effect, with the curved element opening slightly to indicate a rise in pressure. With proper design and adjustment of the pointer linkage, the relationship between movement and pressure changes can be made very nearly linear.

Since the Bourdon element moves with respect to the difference between atmospheric pressure and the measured pressure, readings are affected by change in the local barometric pressure. The measured pressure should be corrected by using the barometric pressure and calibrated at the time of the reading in calculating the absolute pressure.

Pointer leakage
Pointer
leakage
the reading in calculating the absolute pressure. Pointer leakage Pointer To vacuum system Bourdon-tube vacuum gauge

Pointer

To vacuum system Bourdon-tube vacuum gauge

To vacuum system

To vacuum system Bourdon-tube vacuum gauge
Bourdon-tube vacuum gauge

Bourdon-tube vacuum gauge

Bourdon-tube vacuum gauge

MMeecchhaanniiccaall DDiiaapphhrraaggmm GGaauuggee

The pressure –sensing element is a beryllium copper capsule which has been evacuated to a pressure well below the lower limit of gauge pressure measurements and has been hermetically sealed. The out side of the capsule, as well as the linkage mechanism and the pointer, are all exposed to the unknown system pressure with in a sealed instrument housing. As the gauge is evacuated, the sealed capsule begins to expand. The flexible capsule face acts like a diaphragm, pushing a connecting rod as it expands. The capsule expansion is eventually translated into pointer movement by the linkage mechanism. Since the capsule flexure is with reference to essentially zero pressure (the pressure inside the hermetically sealed capsule), the indicated readings are not affected by the barometric pressure. Measured pressure is total system pressure independent of gas composition.

Pointer Mechanical diaphragm gauge Capsule Capsule Stop Calibration Adjustment Pinion Geared Sector Backlash
Pointer
Mechanical diaphragm gauge
Capsule
Capsule Stop
Calibration
Adjustment
Pinion
Geared Sector
Backlash
Eliminator
Revolution
Indicator
Flexure
(a) front view
(b) gauge internals.

Typical gauge accuracies range from 0.05 to 1.0 percent of the full-scale reading. Pressures approaching 0.5 torr can be accurately measured on gauges designed with thinner sensing capsules. Since their entire instrument housing of this gauge is exposed to the process gases and vapors, the gauge must be protected from liquids and dust particles, which could enter the gauge and bind the linkage mechanism. The gauge can hold its calibration for years if reasonable care is exercised in its use.

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The calibration of any vacuum gauge is important taking into account the pressure range of interest and accuracy necessary to ensure operation within this pressure range. Perhaps the most important feature of any gauge is the repeatability. One calibrate the vacuum gauge by measuring it relative to a direct reading standard gauge or by measuring the gauge at a fixed known pressure. In the region from atmospheric to about 0.5 torr the use of U-tube manometers of one sort or another, corrected for local atmospheric pressure and temperature. In the region from 0.5 torr to 10 -5 torr, McLeod gauges with calibrated volumes can be used as standards, but care must be taken to eliminate condensable vapours and the possibility of mercury contamination of sensor and system the spinning rotor gauge can also be used as a calibration standard.

Static Expansion Method: In this method a known small volume of a known gas (usually nitrogen or argon) of known pressure measured by direct reading gauge such as a U-tube is allowed to expand into a large volume. Then all, or in most cases a small volume, of the expanded gas is allowed to expand into a larger volume, and so on, until the desired pressure is obtained. With care, one can obtain known final pressures as low as 10 -7 torr. Gauges can be calibrated at the final pressure or at several points in the expansion process.

Dynamic Method : A gas introduced into a vacuum chamber at a constant known throughput Q. At the same time the gas is pumped at a constant speed S. The equilibrium pressure P can be calculated from P = Q/S and used as a reference pressure for calibration.

Pressure gauge

P 1 V 1 = P 2 (V 1 + V 2 )

V 1

V 2

V 2

V 2
V 3

V 3

as a reference pressure for calibration. Pressure gauge P 1 V 1 = P 2 (V

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