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Homework: 9/28 (only 13.

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6. Find the velocity, acceleration, and speed of a particle with the given position function. Sketch the path of the particle and draw the velocity and acceleration vectors for the specified value of t. r(t) = eti + e2tj, t = 0 Velocity and acceleration functions are easily o taina le y takin! t"e first and second deri#ati#es of t"e $osition function res$ecti#ely. %$eed in t"e $"ysics sense of t"e word is understood as ma!nitude of t"e #elocity& so its function is t"e 'a solute #alue( of t"e #elocity function. )ssem ly line style: v(t) * r+(t) * eti , (2)e2tj * eti , 2e2tj a(t) * r--(t) * v-(t) * eti , 4e2tj |v(t). * /((et)2 , (2e2t)2) * /(e2t , 4e4t) * et/(1 , 4e2t) 0o analy1e t"e function at t * 2& we e#aluate v(2) and a(2): v(2) * e(2)i , 2e2(2)j * i , 2j a(2) * e(2)i , 4e2(2)j * i , 4j

3ou mi!"t "a#e noticed t"at t"e y4com$onent of r(t) is actually 5ust t"e 64com$onent s7uared. 8f you did& t"en t"e sketc" ecomes muc" easier:

(%orry for t"e stretc"9 :olframal$"a likes to set t"e window itself)

18.a. Find the position vector of a particle that has the given acceleration and the specified initial velocity and position. a(t) = ti + etj + e tk, v(0) = k, r(0) = j + k :e a$$roac" t"is $ro lem y first understandin! t"at t"e acceleration function is t"e $osition function twice differentiated. 0"en to o tain t"e $osition function from t"e acceleration function& we need only to inte!rate twice. ;et-s start wit" one inte!ration& w"ic" would yield t"e #elocity function: v(t) * a(t)dt * (ti , etj , e4tk)dt * (ti)dt , (etj)dt , (e4tk)dt * <t2i , etj = e4tk , C1 >i! t"in! to notice is t"at our constant 'C1( is old& w"ic" means it-s a #ector. >efore we take t"e ne6t inte!ration& reali1e t"at we actually can find t"e #alue of t"at #ector C1 first& ecause we know w"at t"e #elocity #ector e7uals at t"e $oint t * 2: v(2) * <(2)2i , e(2)j = e4(2)k , C1 * j = k , C1 * k C 1 * 4j , 2k 0"erefore& v(t) * <t2i , (et = 1)j , (4e4t , 2)k

8n a similar manner: r(t) * v(t)dt * (<t2i , (et = 1)j , (4e4t , 2)k)dt * (1/?)t3i , (et = t)j , (e4t , 2t)k , C2 )nd also in a similar manner& to e#aluate C2: r(2) * (1/?)(2)3i , (e(2) = (2))j , (e4(2) , 2(2))k , C2 * j , k C2 * 0 (@>: t"is is a olded '2(& so it-s a #ector& not a 7uantity) 0"us& r(t) * (1/?)t3i , (et = t)j , (e4t , 2t)k

22. Show that if a particle !oves with constant speed, then the velocity and acceleration vectors are orthogonal. ;et-s first a!ree to denote t"e $osition function& #elocity function& and acceleration function of t"is $article as r(t)& v(t)& and a(t) res$ecti#ely. %$eed in t"e $"ysics sense of t"e word is t"e 'a solute #alue( of t"e #elocity& and t"e s$eed function is t"e 'a solute #alue( of t"e #elocity function. %o in our $ro lem we "a#e .v(t). * A. %o we-#e translated t"e first $art of t"e 7uestion& w"at a out t"e secondB 0"e $rimary way we discuss ort"o!onality is t"at t"e an!le etween two #ectors is 92C9 or more analytically& t"eir dot $roduct is e7ual to 2. %o& if #elocity and acceleration are !oin! to e ort"o!onal: v(t) D a(t) * 2 (1) 0"at-s !reat& ut "ow do we !et t"ere from .v(t). * AB ;et-s s$ot t"e difference: 1) 0"e ri!"t sides are 2 and A (A could e7ual 2). 2) Ene of t"em on t"e left side is dotted y a(t). 3) 0"e v(t) on t"e left is in 'a solute #alue( in one of our e7uations. Fifferences 1) and 2) seems #ery difficult to incor$orate& since t"ere-s no way to relate A to 2 (we could set A * 2& ut t"is would ne!ate t"e !enerality of our $roof)& or to add in a(t) (well& we could try to dot $roduct ot" sides of .v(t). * A& ut t"is wouldn-t make sense considerin! you can-t dot $roduct eit"er side (@>: A is not a #ector "ere& and neit"er is .v(t).)). %o t"at lea#es us wit" 3). 0"e relations"i$ etween v(t) and .v(t). is standard: v(t) D v(t) * .v(t).2. >ut from our !i#en& we know t"at .v(t).2 * A2. >y transiti#ity& v(t) D v(t) * A2. (2) %eems we-re !ettin! somew"ere. ;et-s try to s$ot t"e difference a!ain& etween (1) and (2): 1) 0"e ri!"t sides are 2 and A2 (A2 could e7ual 2). 2) :"ere one "as an a(t)& t"e ot"er "as a v(t). Gor t"e same reason as a o#e& we can-t deal wit" 1) so easily. Fifference 2) mi!"t seem like t"e same& ut t"ere-s a crucial difference. 0"is time& it-s not t"at we "a#e to 'add in( a(t) w"ere t"ere was not"in! efore& we 5ust "a#e to find some way to !et v(t) to ecome a(t). )nd in t"e $"ysics sense& a(t) * v-(t). %o let-s take t"e deri#ati#e:

v(t) D v(t) * A2 (v(t) D v(t))- * (A2) 2(v(t) D v-(t)) * 2 2(v(t) D a(t)) * 2 v(t) D a(t) * 2 )nd we-re done. Gast track: |v(t). * A .v(t).2 * A2 v(t) D v(t) * A2 d/dt(v(t) D v(t) * d/dt(A2) 2(v(t) D v-(t)) * 2 v(t) D a(t) * 2

(|v(t).2 * v(t) D v(t)) (d/dt(u(t) D v(t)) * u-(t) D v(t) , v(t) D u-(t)) (v-(t) * a(t))

23. " pro#ectile is fired with an initial speed of 200 !$s and angle of elevation %0&. Find (a) the range of the pro#ectile, (') the !a(i!u! height reached, and (c) the speed at i!pact. 8f you-#e e#er taken mec"anics in H"ysics& t"is $ro lem s"ould e #ery strai!"tforward. 8f not& let-s start wit" t"e asics. 0"e information we-re !i#en is a out its #elocity (t"e $ro lem says s$eed& ut ecause it doesn-t !i#e us a direction& we can set $ositi#e and ne!ati#e oursel#es). %o our first !oal s"ould e to come u$ wit" a function t"at descri es its #elocity. 0o "el$ us& let-s look at a $icture.

Vector e7uations are always s$lit into com$onents& so let-s do t"at. Grom our dia!ram we can turn t"is into a tri!onometry $ro lem& and so w"ere t"e $ro lem tells us t"e initial s$eed is 222

m/s& we can $arse t"is into t"e "ori1ontal initial s$eed& and t"e #ertical initial s$eed: 222cos(?2C)& and 222sin(?2C) res$ecti#ely. >ut we can-t write our #elocity #ector e7uation v(t) 5ust yet. >ecause t"is is a $"ysics $ro lem& we-re res$onsi le for understandin! t"e $"ysics e"ind it. 0"e "ori1ontal com$onent& accordin! to $"ysicists& will not e deterred (air resistance is usually ne!lected)& and t"e #ertical com$onent is su 5ect to !ra#ity (8 will e usin! 9.8 m/s2 as my #alue for t"e acceleration of !ra#ity for sim$licity& ut you may use more si!nificant di!its if you so c"oose). 0"at is& for e#ery second t& t"e #ertical com$onent of #elocity will decrease y 9.8 m/s. @ow we-re ready: v(t) * 222cos(?2C)i , (222sin(?2C) = 9.8t)j * 122i , (122/3 = 9.8t)j :e can #erify t"is answer y lookin! at t * 2. 0"e #elocity #ector re#erts to 122 * 222cos(?2C) for t"e 64com$onent and 122/3 * 222sin(?2C) for t"e y4com$onent (w"ic" is e6actly "ow we ori!inally constructed it). Harts (a) and ( ) deal wit" $osition& not #elocity& so t"is raises t"e 7uestion a out w"at t"e $osition #ector is. 8n $"ysics& t"e $osition function is understood as t"e inte!ral of t"e #elocity function. %o: r(t) * v(t) * (122i , (122/3 = 9.8t)j)dt * 122ti , (122/3It = 4.9t2)j , C 0o e#aluate C& we need only understand t"at t"e 7uestion "as not s$ecified t"e $ro5ectile-s ori!inal location. %o& we !et to decide. :e will set it at (2& 2) for con#enience: r(2) * 122(2)i , (122/3I(2) = 4.9(2)2)j , C * 0 C*0 %o& we !et t"at r(t) *122ti , (122/3It = 4.9t2)j @ow to actually address $art (a)& we must understand t"at t"e 'ran!e( t"ey-re askin! for is e7ui#alent to "ow far does t"e $ro5ectile tra#el efore it "its t"e !round. Hittin! t"e !round we must understand as w"ere t"e y4com$onent e7uals 2. 8f we use t"is $ers$ecti#e& t"e 7uestion ecomes #ery strai!"tforward. Girst $art is to find w"en y(t) * 2 (y(t) is t"e $arametric e7uation relatin! to t"e y4com$onent of t"e #ector e7uation r(t)). ;et t1 denote t"e time at w"ic" y(t) * 2: y(t) * 122/3It = 4.9t2 y(t1) * 122/3It1 = 4.9t12 * 2 t1(122/3 = 4.9t1) * 2 t1 * 2& (122/3)/4.9 0"e case w"ere t1 * 2 is not interestin! to us& ecause we knew at t * 2 (at t"e first moment we fire t"e $ro5ectile) it-s still at t"e ori!in. %o let t1* (122/3/4.9). @ow we "a#e to see w"at t"e "ori1ontal com$onent e7uals (t"at is& t"e function 6(t)) at t"is $oint in time: 6(t) * 122t 6(t1) * 122t1 * 122 I (122/3)/4.9 J 3K3Km

Hart ( ) asks for t"e ma6imum "ei!"t& and for t"is we first "a#e to acknowled!e t"at y(t) is a function& and t"at in sin!le #aria le calculus we learned t"at e6tremums of a function are o tained w"ere t"e function-s deri#ati#e e7uals 2 (or at t"e end $oints for functions wit" limited domain). ;et t2 denote t"e time at w"ic" y-(t)* 2: y-(t) * (122/3It = 4.9t2)- * 122/3 = 9.8t y-(t2) * 122/3 = 9.8t2 * 2 t2 * 122/3/9.8 0"en we 5ust "a#e to see w"at t"e "ei!"t (#alue of y(t)) is at t"is $oint: y(t2) * y(122/3/9.8) * 122/3I122/3/9.8 = 4.9(122/3/9.8)2 J 1K31m (@>: t"e end$oints of t"is $ro lem are w"ere t"e $ro5ectile "its t"e !round& so o #iously t"ose $oints are not t"e ma6imum "ei!"t. Grom t"at& we also know 1K31 is not a minimum.) Hart (c) asks us for t"e s$eed at im$act. 0"e $oint in time t"at t"is is referrin! to is w"en t"e $ro5ectile "its t"e !round& and as $osited efore& t"is is w"en y(t) * 2. :e already found t1 t"ou!"& so we don-t "a#e to look for it a!ain. >ut notice t"ey-re not askin! for "ori1ontal #elocity& or #ertical #elocity& or e#en #elocity. 0"ey-re askin! for s$eed& w"ic" is t"e ma!nitude of t"e #elocity #ector at a !i#en $oint. %o& let-s find t"e #elocity #ector first: v(t1) * 122i , (122/3 = 9.8t1)j 122i = 122/3j @ow t"e ma!nitude: .v(t1). * /(12&222 , 32&222) * 222m/s 3ou s"ould note t"at t"is is t"e same s$eed wit" w"ic" it started. 0"is is not a coincidence. (Gor an e6$lanation& look u$ t"e conce$ts of potential and kinetic energy.)

44. )f a particle with !ass m !oves with position vector r(t), then its angular momentum is defined as L(t) = !r(t) * v(t) and its torque as (t) = !r(t) * a(t). Show that L+(t) = (t). ,educe that if (t) = 0 for all t, then L(t) is constant. (-his is the law of conser#ation of an!ular momentum.) 8f t"ey-re askin! us to s"ow t"at L-(t) * somet"in!& and we "a#e L(t) * somet"in! else& we-re $ro a ly !oin! to "a#e to take t"e deri#ati#e of ot" sides. %o let-s try t"at: L(t) * mr(t) L v(t) L-(t) * mMr-(t) L v(t) , r(t) L v-(t)N M0"eorem 13.2.3 $art KN 8f we try and s$ot t"e difference& we see t"at (t) makes use of a(t)& w"ic" we don-t "a#eO or do weB 8n $"ysics& acceleration is understood as t"e deri#ati#e of #elocity& w"ic" we "a#e& and for !ood measure& #elocity is understood as t"e deri#ati#e of $osition& w"ic" we also "a#e:

L-(t) * mMr-(t) L v(t) , r(t) L v-(t)N mMv(t) L v(t) , r(t) L a(t)N >ut we know t"at t"e cross $roduct of a #ector wit" itself is 0. 0"us: mMv(t) L v(t) , r(t) L a(t)N mM0 , r(t) L a(t)N mr(t) L a(t) * (t) 0ada. 8f we "a#e (t) * 0 for all t& t"en y w"at we 5ust $ro#ed& L-(t) * 0 for all t. )nd so y sim$le inte!ration rules& we know t"at L(t) will e a constant function for all t.

45. -he position function of a spaceship is r(t) = (. + t)i + (2 + ln(t))j + (/ 0 1$(t2 + 2))k and the coordinates of a space station are (%, 1, 3). -he captain wants the spaceship to coast into the space station. 4hen should the engines 'e turned off5 0"ere are a lot of assum$tions t"at t"e $ro lem asks us to make& and if you aren-t #ery familiar wit" mec"anics from t"e $ers$ecti#e of $"ysics& t"en t"is-ll e a little "ard to follow. >ut& let-s try and understand w"at-s !oin! on slowly. %u$$osedly& t"is s$ace s"i$ already "as its en!ines on& and wit" its en!ines on& it-ll car#e out t"is $at" r(t). 8f we make t"e assum$tion t"at no forces act on t"e s$aces"i$ aside from its en!ines (t"at is& it-s in s$ace)& t"en if we were to turn its en!ines off& it would continue to cruise in w"ate#er direction it was !oin! in t"e moment efore t"e en!ines turned off. Gor a 'real life( e6am$le of t"is sort of motion& consider a '"ammer4t"row( scenario. 0"is is w"ere you s$in around in a circle wit" a wei!"ted o 5ect in outstretc"ed "ands& and t"en you let !o. 0"e trick to aimin! is to let it !o before your "ands are $ointin! at your tar!et. 8f you let it !o w"en you are are $ointin! at your tar!et& t"en it will tra#el perpendicular to t"e direction you want it to tra#el (it-ll fly sideways). 0"e reason is ecause it will maintain its #elocity #ector once all ot"er forces "a#e sto$$ed actin!. 8f you don-t elie#e me& try it out wit" a $en in your room. )side from some friction and reaction time& your $en s"ould !o sideways. %o first order of usiness is to descri e t"e motion of t"e s$aces"i$ )G0PQ t"e en!ines are turned off& since we know t"is will "a$$en e#entually and also t"at t"e motion of t"e s$aces"i$ will no lon!er e $redicted y r(t) anymore. :e-ll denote t"is new $osition function as s(t). >ut t"is isn-t "ard. 8f no ot"er forces are actin! on t"e s$aces"i$& and it-ll continue to tra#el in w"ate#er direction it was w"en t"e en!ines were turned off& t"en we can conclude it-ll mo#e in a

strai!"t line. :e define a line wit" a $oint& and a direction. 0"e $oint is w"ere t"e en!ines turn off& and let-s call t"is $oint t2. 0"e direction& as esta lis"ed efore& is t"e #elocity #ector at t"e $oint R. )nd its motion will e mo#ement directed alon! t"is #elocity #ector& startin! at t"is $oint. 0"erefore& we "a#e: s(R) * r(t2) , Rv(t2) See$ in mind t"at t2 is a constant and t"at our #aria le 'R( starts some time after 't2( seconds "a#e $assed. >efore we can start workin! wit" our function to find a t2 suc" t"at r(t2) and v(t2) are set in suc" a way t"at s(R) will !o t"rou!" t"e $oint (?& 4& 9)& we "a#e to actually find out w"at t"e function is. :e-re !i#en r(t)& ut as for v(t)& we first understand t"at in $"ysics& t"e #elocity function is understood as t"e deri#ati#e of t"e $osition function. %o: v(t) * r-(t) * i , (1/t)j , (8t/(t2 = 1)2)k 0"us& s(R) * ((3 , t2)i , (2 , ln(t2))j , (T = 4/(t22 = 1))k) , R(i , (1/t2)j , (8t2/(t22 = 1)2)k (3 , t2 , R)i , (2 , ln(t2) , R/t2)j , (T = 4/(t22 = 1) , 8t2R/(t22 = 1)2)k 0"is seems really com$licated& ut it-s actually not so ad w"en we s$lit it into com$onents. %o w"at we-re doin! ri!"t now is tryin! to find out t2& suc" t"at e#entually& as R !oes from 2 to w"ate#er& t"is $osition function s(R) will cross t"rou!" t"e $oint (?& 4& 9). %o we "a#e two unknowns& ut let-s try and e6tract as muc" information as $ossi le. ;et-s say t"at t"e $oint at w"ic" t"e s$aces"i$ reac"es t"e s$ace station is R2. 0"at is& t"e s$aces"i$ will tra#el for t2 seconds wit" its en!ines on& t"en for R2 seconds wit" its en!ines off& and at t"e end of t2 , R2 seconds& t"e s$aces"i$ will reac" t"e $oint (?& 4& 9). 8t mi!"t seem as t"ou!" we "a#e one e7uation& ut actually we "a#e 3& one for eac" com$onent. >ut we don-t e#en need to use all of t"em. Uust from lookin! at t"e 64com$onents we see: 3 , t2 , R2 * ? t2, R2 * 3 R2 * 3 = t2 @ow we "a#e a relations"i$ etween R2 and t2 suc" t"at we can su stitute one for t"e ot"er (namely& 3 = t2 for R2). ;ookin! at our y4com$onents: 2 , ln(t2) , R2/t2 * 4 Vsin! our su stitution: 2 , ln(t2) , (3 = t2)/t2 * 4 ln(t2) , 3/t2 = 1 * 2 ln(t2) , 3/t2 * 3 Grom "ere& or a $oint sooner& or e#en a $oint later if you need& we can see t"at t"is e7uation will e satisfied w"en t2 * 1.

>ut Pddie& w"y in t"e world did we !o t"rou!" all t"at trou leB :e didn-t e#en use t"e 14 com$onent of eit"er function& and we ne#er e#en found R2. :"y did we take suc" care definin! t"em allB Wood 7uestion. 8 can t"ink of two !ood answers. 0"e first is t"at we wanted to stay as or!ani1ed as $ossi le and take e#ery $recaution settin! u$ our $ro lem. :e ended u$ not usin! t"e 14 com$onents& ut we (or at least 8) didn-t know t"at w"en we started. Uust in case& ecause we weren-t sure w"at information would e useful& we were meticulous. 0"ink of it as $ractice& since a second $art could easily "a#e een created t"at in#ol#ed t"e 14com$onents. 8f it still ot"ers you& you can use t"e 14com$onent to c"eck t"at our answer for t2 is #alid. 8f t"e $ro lem "ad asked us w"et"er any suc" t2 e6isted& we definitely would need to use t"e 14com$onent. 0"e second answer is t"at it was all necessary. P#en t"ou!" we ne#er e#aluated R2& we could not "a#e done t"e $ro lem wit"out first a!reein! u$on a 7uantity of time R2 at w"ic" t"e s$aces"i$ would arri#e at t"e s$ace station. :e couldn-t "a#e cancelled out or su stituted ot"erwise (unless you "ad some wicked intuition). O OEkay so t"e 14com$onents weren-t necessary& ut t"at-s w"y 8 offered two !ood answers.

(Fisclaimer: t"is solution set is su 5ect to ty$os or careless errors. 8 a$olo!i1e in ad#ance for any of t"ose.)