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CHAPTER

13

Fluids

Find the mass of air in a room 4 m 5 m 4 m. m = (1.293 80) kg = 103 kg

m = V 9*

Find (a) the absolute pressure and (b) the gauge pressure at the bottom of a swimming pool of depth 5.0 m. P = (1.01 105 + 9.81 103 5) = 1.5 105 N/m2 = 1.5 atm Pgauge = 0.5 atm

(a) P = Pat + gh (b) Pgauge = P Pat

17* Many people have imagined that if they were to float the top of a flexible snorkel tube out of the water, they would be able to breathe through it while walking underwater (Figure 13-24). However, they generally do not reckon with just how much water pressure opposes the expansion of the chest and the inflation of the lungs. Suppose you can just breathe while lying on the floor with a 400-N weight on your chest. How far below the surface of the water could your chest be for you still to be able to breathe, assuming your chest has a frontal area of 0.09 m 2? P = wgh = F/A; h = F/wgA h = (400/1 103 9.81 0.09) m = 0.453 m = 45.3 cm

31 A block of an unknown material weighs 5 N in air and 4.55 N when submerged in water. ( a) What is the density of the material? (b) Of what material is the block made?

= Ww/(w w) (see Problem 30)

= 1 103(5/0.45) kg/m3 = 11.1 103 kg/m3 Pb

37* A helium balloon lifts a basket and cargo of total weight 2000 N under standard conditions, in which the density of air is 1.29 kg/m3 and the density of helium is 0.178 kg/m3. What is the minimum volume of the balloon? 1.29gV = 0.178gV + 2000 N 1. Set FB = total weight = HegV + 2000 N 2. Solve for and evaluate V V = [2000/9.81(1.29 0.178)] m3 = 183 m3

44 A horizontal pipe narrows from a diameter of 10 cm to 5 cm. For a fluid flowing from the larger diameter to the smaller, (a) the velocity and pressure both increase. (b) the velocity increases and the pressure decreases. ( c) the velocity decreases and the pressure increases. (d) the velocity and pressure both decrease. ( e) either the velocity or pressure changes but not both.

(b) 45* When water emerges from a faucet, the stream narrows as the water falls. Explain why. Pressure within the stream diminishes as the velocity of the stream increases. 60 True or false: The buoyant force on a submerged object depends on the shape of the object. False 62 Why is it easier to float in salt water than in fresh water? The density of salt water is greater than that of fresh water. 74 When submerged in water, a block of copper has an apparent weight of 56 N. What fraction of this copper block will be submerged if floated on a pool of mercury? w = CugV = HggV, where V is submerged volume V/V = Cu/Hg = 0.657; 65.7% is submerged