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Psychological Disorders Chapter 4 Marks: 10 2 marks: 1. Define abnormal behavior.

Abnormal behavior refers to away from the normal & implies deviation from some clearly defined norms and standards. The 4 aspects that contribute in the understanding of abnormal behaviour are deviant, distressing, dysfunctional and dangerous (4 D) 2. Explain the 4 core features to define abnormality. Psychological disorders are deviant, distressing, dysfunctional and dangerous (4 D)

a. Deviance: different, extreme , unusual and even bizarre. b. Distressing: unpleasant and upsetting to self & others. c. Dangerous to self & others d. Dysfunctional: interfering with the individuals ability to carry out daily activities in a constructive manner. 3. How does DSM define abnormal behavior. A mental disorder is conceptualized as a clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress or disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom. The syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event, for example, the death of a loved one. It must currently be considered a manifestation of a behavioural, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual Explain the bio psycho social model. Bio psycho social approach: takes into account all three aspects in defining abnormality. Social scientists look at three dimensions - biological, psychological, and sociocultural - and use the term BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL to characterize the interactions among these three dimensions in the expression and outcome of psychological disorders. Explain exorcism. Exorcism was a practice followed in ancient times to cure abnormal behavior. It involved removing the evil that resides in the individual through counter magic and prayer. In some societies it is still used and people doing so are called shaman or ojha. Explain the organismic approach in understanding abnormality. Organismic approach: was developed by greek physicians Hypocrites', Plato and Socrates who believed that disturbed behaviour is a resultant of emotions & conflict.Galen spoke of the 4 humors representing the 4 elements earth, water, Air and fire which formed to give black bile, yellow bile , blood, phlegm. Imbalance in these led to mental disorders. Treatment included Bleeding , Purging, Inducing ,Nausea & Proper Nutrition.

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Illustrate the two categories of substance use disorder. Disorders relating to maladaptive behaviors resulting from regular and consistent use of the substance involved (alcohol ,cocaine and heroin) are called substance abuse disorders. Following are the 2 sub groups of substance use disordersa) Substance dependence-there is an intense craving for the substance to which the person is addicted , and the person shows tolerance , withdrawal symptoms and compulsive drug-taking. b) Substance abuse-there are recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to the use of substances. people who regularly ingest drugs damage their family and social relationships, perform poorly at work, and create physical hazards. Differentiate between delusions of persecution and delusions of reference. Delusions: is a false belief that is firmly held on inadequate grounds. Persecutory delusions are a condition in which the affected person wrongly believes that they are being persecuted. Specifically, they have been defined as containing two central elements: The individual thinks that harm is occurring, or is going to occur. The individual thinks that the persecutor has the intention to cause harm. Delusion of reference: The person falsely believes that insignificant remarks, events, or objects in one's environment have personal meaning or significance. How does the psychodynamic model explain abnormal behavior. The psychodynamic model was first formulated by Sigmund Freud. It is the oldest and the most famous of modern psychological models. Psychodynamics theorists believe that behavior whether normal or abnormal is determined by psychological forces within the person of which he/she is most consciously aware. These internal factors are dynamic as they interact with 1 another & their interaction shapes behaviour thought and emotions. Abnormal behaviour is a conflict between these factors. Give four symptoms that could be seen in a person with suicidal tendencies. Four symptoms that could be seen in a person with suicidal tendencies are:Changes in eating and sleeping habits. Withdrawn from family, friends and regular activities. Drug and alcohol abuse. Loss of interest in pleasurable activities. Define major depressive disorder. Major depressive disorders is an unippolar disorder defined as a period of depressed mood and for loss of interest or pleasure in most activities together with other symptoms which may include change in body weight, constant sleep problems , tiredness , inability to think clearly and thoughts of deaths and suicide. State four characteristics of hyperactive children. Hyperactivity is defined under pervasive developmental disorders predominantly found in children. Children who are hyperactive display certain characteristicsa) they seem unable to control their immediate reactions or to think before they act . b) they find it difficult to wait or take turns. c) they have problem in listening ,cannot concentrate.

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d)the child may fidget , squirm ,climb and run around the room aimlessly 13. Explain the term anorexia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa refers to refusal to maintain weight within a normal range for height and age (more than 15 percent below ideal body weight) . The individuals have a fear of weight gain and a compulsive need to control their weight by monitoring their food, exercising compulsively or developing unusual eating habits. A severe body image disturbance in which body image is the predominant measure of self-worth with denial of the seriousness of the illness Explain hyperactivity. One of the characteristics symptoms of ADHD is hyperactivity. It refers to the following characteristics:

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often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat (b) often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected (c) often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness) (d) often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly (e) is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor" (f) often talks excessively. a. 15. Define bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder or manic depressive disorder is a psychotic disorder with the prevalence of both manic and depression symptoms. It might be interrupted with normal periods. Symptoms might include: mania: extremely active, euphoric, talkative and easily distractible. Depression: refers to loss of interest in most activities, hopelessness, helplessness and suicidal idealation. Symptoms include excessive guilt or feeling of worthlessness. Differentiate between hallucination and delusion. Delusions: is a false belief that is firmly held on inadequate grounds. A delusion is a belief held with strong conviction despite superior evidence to the contrary. It is of 4 types: grandeur, persecution, reference and control. Unlike hallucinations, delusions are always pathological (the result of an illness or illness process). Hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a conscious and awake state in the absence of external stimuli which have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space. Hallucinations can occur in any sensory modality visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile. Differentiate between externalizing and internalizing disorders. Achenbach identified 2 factors in diagnosing behavioual problems Externalising disorders: or under controlled problems, behaviours that are disruptive, aggressive and aversive to childs development. Disorders such as conduct, oppositional difiant disorder, ADHD are covered under this. Internalising disorders: or overcontrolled problems, where a child experiences depression, anxiety and discomfort that might not be evident to others. Disorders such as autism, separation anxierty disorder and depression are covered under this.

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What is antisocial behavior. Antisocial behaviour: refers to age inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, societal norms and aggressive behaviour . Aggressive behaviour can be in the form of Verbal, physical, hostile and proactive aggression.

What is deinstitutionalization? Deinstitutionalization was part of the reform movement started in the 1900 to help mentally ill patients to be included into the community post their recovery. The premise being that mentally ill patients would do well under the community care. Prior to this mentally ill patients were kept in mental hospitals away from the family and community as they were considered a threat to the society. marks: 19. 1. Explain the approaches used to distinguish between normal and abnormal behaviour. The approaches used to distinguish normal and abnormal behaviour areAbnormal behaviour is deviation from the social norm: it includes emotions, thoughts and behaviours. Social norms are based on culture & society we live in. it is based on the assumption that socially accepted behaviour is not abnormal, that normalcy is conformity to the norm.

Abnormal behavior is maladaptive: normalcy of behaviour is defined by well being of behaviour of self & in turn the group. Well being takes into account maintanence, survival & growth & development of the individuals. Thus conformity behaviour is seen as abnormal if it is maladaptive. Maladaptive behaviour implies that the problem exists & reflects vulnerability, inability to cope & high stress levels. It reflects a failure in adaptation. Somatogenic abnormality is seen as a result of biological disorders in the brain. However, this approach has led to the development of radical biological treatments, e.g. lobotomy. Psychogenic abnormality is caused by psychological problems. Psychoanalytic (Freud), cathartic, hypnotic and humanistic psychology (Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow) treatments were all derived from this paradigm. 2. Whats the difference between ICD 10 And DSM IV ICD 10: stands for international classification of diseases. It is in it 10 version and is internationally recognized. It has been published in multiple languages and has 1 axis for classification. It has alphanumerical classification and 10 major categories. It has been made by world health organization or WHO. DSM IV: stands for diagnostic and statistical manual. It is in its 4 version and is nationally recognized. It is made by the American psychiatric association and is in 1 language. It has 17 broad categories and is numerically classified. It has multi axis for classification
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Whats the diathesis stress model .

Diathesis stress model states that Psychological disorders develop when a diathesis is set of by a stressful situation. 3 important factors are: a. b. c. Diathesis or the presence of some biological aberration which may be inherited Diathesis may carry a vulnerability to develop the disorder Presence of pathogenic diseases or stressors that lead to the psychopathology. This model has been applied to several disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety and depression.

4. Whats the difference between behavioural and cognitive approach in explaining abnormality. The goals of behaviourism were to move psychology toward a scientific model, which focused on the observation and measurement of behaviour. Its assumptions were that behaviour is primarily the result of the environment rather then genetics (or instincts) and so the behaviourists reject the view that abnormal behaviour has a biological basis. It believes that all abnormal behavior is learnt. It has many techniques for treatment of disorders Whereas , The cognitive approach is both an outgrowth from, and a reaction to, the behaviourist approach. The basic assumption of the cognitive approach holds that mental events cause behaviour in that we interpret our environment before we react to it. In the case of abnormal behaviour, it is the interpretations and disordered cognitions that lead to the behavior. All abnormal behavior is as a result of our cognitions and therefore a change in the cognitions would help in removing abnormal behavior. 5. Briefly explain the four types of somatoform disorders. Somatoform disorders , the individual has psychological difficulties and complains of physical symptoms, for which there is no biological cause. They include pain disorders, somatisation disorders, conversion disorders and hypochondriasis.

a. Pain disorders-involve reports of extreme and incapacitating pain, either without any identifiable biological symptoms or greatly in excess of what might be expected to accompany biological symptoms. b. Somatisation disorder-a person exhibits vague and recurring physical/bodily symptoms such as pain, acidity etc., without any organic cause. c. Hypochondriasis-a person interprets insignificant symptoms as signs of a serious illness despite repeated medical evaluation that point to no pathology/disease. d. Conversion disorders-the person suffers from a loss or impairment of motor or sensory function that has no physical cause but may b a response to stress and psychological problems.

6. What do you understand by the term Schizophrenia? Briefly explain its negative symptoms. The schizophrenic disorders are psychotic disorders characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception, and affects that are inappropriate or blunted. Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time. In these social, cognitive, occupational functioning deteriorates because of distorted perceptions, unusual emotional states, motor abnormalities and disturbed thought processes. It is a debilitating disorder. THE SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA-

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poverty of speech or alogia or reduction in speech or speech content, blunted or flat effect or expression of affect being reduced, Loss of volition or apathy to start or complete a certain course of action Social withdrawal or focus on their own thoughts and fantasies

7. What do you understand by the term dissociation? Explain any three types of dissociative disorders. Dissociation can be viewed as severance of the connections between ideas and emotions. It involves feelings of unreality, estrangement, depersonalization and sometimes a loss or shift of identity. It also includes sudden temporary alterations that blot out painful experience.The Types are: dissociative amnesia, Dissociative fugue, Dissociative identity disorder and depersonalisation. Dissociative amnesia: it is characterized by extensive but selective memory loss that has no known organic cause. Some people cannot remember anything but their name. Dissociative fugue: it has as its specific feature, an unexpected travel away from home and work place. The assumption of a new identity and the inability to recall the previous identity. Dissociative identity disorder: is referred to multiple personality disorder. Individual demonstrates two or more distinct identities or personality states. Each personality is distinct. At least two of these personality states take control of the individuals behavior. Unable to recall extensive personal information. Depersonalization: involves a dreamlike state in which a person has a sense of being seperated both from self and reality. Persons perception or experience of the self is disconcertingly and disruptively altered. Dissociative disorders are neurotic disorders with a major precipitating factor being stress. 8. What do you understand by pervasive developmental disorders? Pervasive developmental disorders are characterized by severe and widespread impairment in social interaction and communication skills, stereotyped patterns of behavior, interest and activities. Autism is a catergory of pervasive developmental disorder. These disorders are first diagnosed in childhood and with intervention individuals diagnosed with this can adjust to society and manage themselves. Identify six symptoms of Autism. Autistic disorder (also called autism) is a neurological and developmental disorder that usually appears during the first three years of life. A child with autism appears to live in his/her own world, showing little interest in others, and a lack of social awareness. Some of the symptoms are:

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a. Delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime) b. In individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others. c. Stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language. d. Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level.

e. A lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people, (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people) f. Lack of social or emotional reciprocity (note: in the description, it gives the following as examples: not actively participating in simple social play or games, preferring solitary activities, or involving others in activities only as tools or "mechanical" aids

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Explain dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue. Dissociative disorders are neurotic disorders marked as a result of stress. Dissociation can be viewed as severance of the connections between ideas and emotions. It involves feelings of unreality, estrangement, depersonalization and sometimes a loss or shift of identity Dissociative amnesia-is characterized by extensive but selective memory loss that has no known organic cause (eg. Head injury).some people cannot remember anything about their past. Others can no longer recall specific events, people , places , or objects, while their memory for other events remain intact. This disorder is often associated with an overwhelming stress. Dissociative fugue-has, as its essential feature , an unexpected travel away from home and workplace , assumption of a new identity, and the inability to recall the previous identity. The fugue usually ends when the person suddenly wakes up with no memory of the events that occurred during the fugue

Differentiate between impulsivity and hyperactivity. Attention deficit hyperactive disorder is diagnosed mostly in children. 2 most common symptoms are hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention. Hyperactivity-children find it difficult to sustain mental effort during work or play. They have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing or in following instructions .common complaints are that the child does not listen, cannot concentrate, does not follow instructions, is disorganized , easily distracted , forgetful , does not finish assignments , and is quick to lose interest is boring activities. Impulsive-child seems unable to control their immediate reactions or think before they act. They find it difficult to wait or take turns, have difficulty resisting immediate temptations or delaying gratification. Minor mishaps such as knocking over are common whereas more serious accidents and injuries can also occur. 11. 12. a. b. Explain the following anxiety disorders: Generalised Anxiety Disorder Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Both these disorders are covered under the neurotic spectrum and come under the broad category of anxiety disorders. the key symptom being anxiety.

Generalized anxiety disorder- Excessive anxiety or worry occurring more days than not for at least 6 months about a number of events or activities.Difficulty controlling worry. 3 of 6 symptoms are present for more days than not: restlessness, easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbancewhich consists of

prolonged, vague, unexplained and intense fears that are not attached to any particular object. The symptoms include worry and apprehensive feelings about the future; hyper vigilance, which involves constantly scanning the environment for dangers. It is marked by motor tension, as a result of which the person is unable to relax, is restless, and visibly shaky and tense. B)Obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce uneasiness, apprehension, fear, or worry, by repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing the associated anxiety, or by a combination of such obsessions and compulsions.Symptoms of the disorder include excessive washing or cleaning; repeated checking; extreme hoarding; preoccupation with sexual, violent or religious thoughts; aversion to particular numbers; and nervous rituals, such as opening and closing a door a certain number of times before entering or leaving a room. These symptoms can be alienating and time-consuming, and often cause severe emotional and financial distress. The acts of those who have OCD may appear paranoid and potentially psychotic. However, OCD sufferers generally recognize their obsessions and compulsions as irrational, and may become further distressed by this realization.OCD is the fourth most common mental disorder, and is diagnosed nearly as often as asthma and diabetes mellitus 13. Distinguish between obsessive and compulsive behaviour giving examples. Obsessive compulsive disorder is a neurotic disorder classified under anxiety disorder. The predominant symptoms are obsessions and compulsions. People affected by OCD ARE UNABLE TO control their preoccupation with specific ideas or unable to prevent themselves to carry out certain behavior. Obsessive behavior-is the inability to stop thinking about a particular idea or topic. The person involved, often finds these thoughts to be unpleasant and shameful. Compulsive behavior-is the need to perform certain behaviors over and over again. Many compulsions deal with counting, ordering, checking, touching and washing.

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State the major anxiety disorders. Explain phobias. Anxiety disorder is a neurotic disorder. The term anxiety is usually defined as a diffuse, vague, very unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension. The anxious individual also shows combination of the symptoms: rapid heart rate, shortness of breathe, diarrhea, loss of appetite, fainting, dizziness, sweating, sleeplessness, frequent urination and tremors. There are different subcategories of anxiety disorders. These include a) generalized anxiety disorder b) panic disorders c) A phobia (from the Greek: Phbos, meaning "fear" or "morbid fear") is, when used in the context of clinical psychology, a type of anxiety disorder, usually defined as a persistent fear of an object or situation in which the sufferer commits to great lengths in avoiding, typically disproportional to the actual danger posed, often being recognized as irrational. In the event the phobia cannot be avoided entirely the sufferer will endure the situation or object with marked distress and significant interference in social or occupational activities. People who have phobias have irrational fears related to specific objects, people, or situations. Phobias often develop gradually or begin with a generalized anxiety disorder. Phobia can be grouped into three main types- a) specific phobias b) social phobias

c) agoraphobia

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What are specific phobias? Are the most commonly occurring phobias. This group includes irrational fears, intense fear, and embarrassment when dealing with others characterises social phobias. Specific phobias: fear of a single specific panic trigger such as spiders, snakes, dogs, water, heights, flying, catching a specific illness, etc. Many people have these fears but to a lesser degree than those who suffer from specific phobias. People with the phobias specifically avoid the entity they fear. Agoraphobia: a generalized fear of leaving home or a small familiar 'safe' area, and of possible panic attacks that might follow. It may also be caused by various specific phobias such as fear of open spaces, social embarrassment. Agorophobia refers to the fear of entering unfamiliar situations. It impacts their life dramatically. Explain autistic disorders. Autistic disorder (also called autism) is a neurological and developmental disorder that usually appears during the first three years of life. A child with autism appears to live in his/her own world, showing little interest in others, and a lack of social awareness. The focus of an autistic child is a consistent routine and includes an interest in repeating odd and peculiar behaviors. Autistic children often have problems in communication, avoid eye contact, and show limited attachment to others. Autistic disorders-children with autistic disorder have marked difficulties in social interaction and communication, a restricted range of interests, and strong desire for routine. About 70% of children with autism are also mentally retarded. They experience profound difficulties in relating to other people. They are unable to initiate social behavior and seem unresponsive to other peoples feelings. They also show serious abnormalities in communication and language that persist over time. Many autistic children never develop speech and those who do, have repetitive and deviant speech patterns. Explain post traumatic stress disorder using an example. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to any event that results in psychological trauma. This event may involve the threat of death to oneself or to someone else, or to one's own or someone else's physical, sexual, or psychological integrity, overwhelming the individual's ability to cope. As an effect of psychological trauma, PTSD is less frequent and more enduring than the more commonly seen acute stress response. Diagnostic symptoms for PTSD include reexperiencing the original trauma(s) through flashbacks or nightmares, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, and increased arousalsuch as difficulty falling or staying asleep, anger, and hypervigilance. Distinguish between panic disorders and phobias. Both panic attacks and phobias are part of anxiety disorders that occur because of excessive stress. They are broadly covered under neurotic disorders. Panic disordersConsists of recurrent anxiety attacks in which the person experiences intense terror. A panic attack denotes an abrupt surge of intense anxiety rising to a peak when thoughts of particular stimuli are present. Such thoughts occur in an unpredictable manner. Symptoms include: shortness of breath, dizziness, nausea, choking, chest pain, discomfort fear of going crazy or losing control or dying.

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Phobias-A phobia (is, when used in the context of clinical psychology, a type of anxiety disorder, usually defined as a persistent fear of an object or situation in which the sufferer commits to great lengths in avoiding, typically disproportional to the actual danger posed, often being recognized as irrational. In the event the phobia cannot be avoided entirely the sufferer will endure the situation or object with marked distress and significant interference in social or occupational activities. 19. Distinguish between somatoform and dissociative disorders. Somatoform disorders: these are conditions in which they are physical symptoms in the absence of a physical disease. The individual haspsychological difficulties and complains of physical symptoms. These disorders include pain disorder, hypocondriasis, conversion disorder, somatization.

Dissociative disorder: this is viewed as severance of the connections between ideas and emotions. It involves feelings of unreality, estrangement, depersonalization and sometimes a loss or shift in identity. Disorders under this include: amnesia, fugue, depersonalization and dissociative identity disorder. 20. Differentiate between depression and mania. Depression: is a major mood disorder which covers a variety of moods and behavioural disorder. Symptoms include low mood, loss of interest, helplessness, hopelessness, suicidal idealation, low self esteem. Depression leads to breakdown of social and occupational functioning. Mania: is part of the bipolar disorder. It is the exact opposite of depression. Manics become euphoric, extremely active, excessively talkative and distractible. It does not usually occur by itself but alternates with depression. Differentiate between neurosis and psychosis. Neurosis: are disorders caused by psychological disturbance usually being stress. These disorders lead to temporary break in the individuals functioning. They are less serious and have complete recovery. Some of the disorders covered under it are anxiety, somatoform and dissociative disorders. Some of the common symptoms found under this disorder are anxiety, fear, irrational behavior, escape from present condition. Psychosis: are disorders caused by biological or psychological disorders. individuals are unable to cope with the present stressful condition and therefore escape from reality, have the presence of hallucinations and delusions. The prognosis of these disorders is poor. The individual must go through medical and psychological intervention. Disorders under this category are schizophrenia, paranoia and mood disorders. Explain the various forms of delusions. Delusions: is a false belief that is firmly held on inadequate grounds. A delusion is a belief held with strong conviction despite superior evidence to the contrary. Unlike hallucinations, delusions are always pathological (the result of an illness or illness process). Delusion of control: This is a false belief that another person, group of people, or external force controls one's general thoughts, feelings, impulses, or behavior. Delusion of reference: The person falsely believes that insignificant remarks, events, or objects in one's environment have personal meaning or significance.

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Delusion of grandeur: An individual is convinced he has special powers, talents, or abilities. Sometimes, the individual may actually believe they are a famous person or character. Persecutory delusions are a condition in which the affected person wrongly believes that they are being persecuted. Specifically, they have been defined as containing two central elements: The individual thinks that harm is occurring, or is going to occur. The individual thinks that the persecutor has the intention to cause harm. 23. Explain the various forms of hallucinations. Hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a conscious and awake state in the absence of external stimuli which have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space. Hallucinations can occur in any sensory modality visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile. Visual: These include the phenomena of seeing things which are not present or visual perception which does not reconcile with the physical, consensus reality. Auditory: (also known as paracusia) are the perception of sound without outside stimulus. Auditory hallucinations can be divided into two categories: elementary and complex. Elementary hallucinations are the perception of sounds such as hissing, whistling, an extended tone, and more. Complex hallucinations are those of voices, music, or other sounds which may or may not be clear, may be familiar or completely unfamiliar, and friendly or aggressive, among other possibilities. Olfactory: is the phenomenon of smelling odors that aren't really present. The most common odors are unpleasant smells such as rotting flesh, vomit, urine, feces, smoke, or others. Tactile hallucinations are the illusion of tactile sensory input, simulating various types of pressure to the skin or other organs. Gustatory: This type of hallucination is the perception of taste without a stimulus. These hallucinations, which are typically strange or unpleasant. General somatic sensations of a hallucinatory nature are experienced when an individual feels that his body is being mutilated i.e. twisted, torn, or disemboweled. Explain the various subtypes of schizophrenia. The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception, and affects that are inappropriate or blunted. Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time. Paranoid schizophrenia is characterized mainly by delusions of persecution, feelings of passive or active control, feelings of intrusion, and often by megalomanic tendencies also. Hebephrenic schizophrenia is characterized by disorganized thinking with blunted and inappropriate emotions. It begins mostly in adolescent age, the behavior is often bizarre. There could appear mannerisms, grimacing, inappropriate laugh and joking, pseudophilosophical brooding and sudden impulsive reactions without external stimulation. There is a tendency to social isolation. Catatonic schizophrenia is characterized mainly by motoric activity, which might be strongly increased (hypekinesis) or decreased (stupor), or automatic obedience and negativism.

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Undifferentiated schizophrenia: Psychotic conditions meeting the general diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia but not conforming to any of the subtypes. Residual schizophrenia: A chronic stage in the development of schizophrenia with clear succession from the initial stage with one or more episodes characterized by general criteria of schizophrenia to the late stage with long-lasting negative symptoms and deterioration (not necessarily irreversible). 25. How are psychological disorders diagnosed? A classification of disorders consists of a list of categories of specific psychological disorders grouped in to various classes on the basis of some shared characteristics. Classification helps mental health professionals to communicate with one another about the disorder & help in understanding the causes of psychological disorders & the processes involved in their development & maintenance. DSM IV: The American psychiatric association came up with Diagnositic & Statistical manual of mental disorders evaluate the patient on 5 axes. The dimensions are bio psycho social model. Each axis represents a different type of mental illness or a way in which a mental illness may be influenced. This allows for a much more detailed diagnosis. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Axis I - Clinical Disorders Axis II - Personality Disorders & Mental Retardation Axis III - General Medical Conditions Axis IV - Psychosocial & Environmental Problems (stressors) Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning. INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES: classification of behavioural & mental disorders prepared by WHO. It gives description of the main clinical features & of associated features including diagnostic guidelines. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10), of 1992, is a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO), for the coding of diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases. At what stage does anxiety become a disorder? Mention its types. Some amount of anxiety is normal and is associated with optimal levels of functioning. Only when anxiety begins to interfere with social or occupational functioning is it considered abnormal. It is covered as anxiety disorder and is most common form of psychological disorder. Anxiety: diffused, vague, unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension. An anxious individual shows combination of the following symptoms: Rapid heart beat, Shortness of breath, dizziness, Sweating, Sleeplessness, Frequent urination, Tremors ,Fainting and Loss of appetite . Some of the subtypes are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Panic Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Specific Phobia Social Phobia

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Explain the symptoms of mania. Mania: is part of the bipolar disorder. It is the exact opposite of depression. Manics become euphoric, extremely active, excessively talkative and distractible. It does not usually occur by itself but alternates with depression. One week of persistently high, expansive, or irritable mood, and 3 of: Grandiose self-esteem, lower sleep need, Overly talkative, Racing thoughts, Easily distracted,Increased activity or agitation and High risk activities 6 marks: 27. 1. Describe the historical background to understand abnormal behavior. Or Differentiate between normality and abnormality. How has our understanding about abnormal behaviour grown over centuries ? Abnormal behaviour: refers to away from the normal & implies deviation from some clearly defined norms and standards. Abnormal behavior as we understand it today has gone through a lot of changes. Some of the important stages of defining abnormal behavior are: a. Abnormal behaviour is a resultant of supernatural & magical forces such as exorcism. Ojha & shaman have contact with the supernatural & magical forces and share with them which spirit is responsible for the problem. This period also saw the emergence of Trephining (drilling a hole in the head to remove the evil spirit) and Exorcism ( removing the devil from the body through prayers and chants). The belief during this period was that outside forces influenced abnormal behavior and once the spirit of the devil was removed, the individual would go back to the normal behavior. b. Abnormal behaviour is a result of organic or biological causes. It states that disorders are a result of body and brain not functioning properly. The approach takes into account abnormal brain functions, the working of the neurotransmitters and abnormal brain development as a cause for deviance from the normal. c. Organismic approach: was developed by greek physicians Hypocrites', Plato and Socrates who believed that disturbed behaviour is a resultant of emotions & conflict. Galen spoke of the 4 humors representing the 4 elements earth, water, Air and fire which formed to give black bile, yellow bile , blood, phlegm. Imbalance in these led to mental disorders. Treatment: Bleeding , Purging, Inducing ,Nausea & Proper Nutrition. d. Psychological approach: inadequacies in the way people think ,feel, behave and perceive the world. Thus the prevalence of psychodynamic approaches to work on the unconscious motives and desires of the people. Treatment for disorders such as hysteria was prevalent. e. Middle ages: was heavily influenced by demonology which related to the belief that people are evil & there are numerous instances of witch hunts. St. Augustine wrote about feelings, mental anguish and conflict leading the way for modern psychodynamic theory. f. Renaissance period: J Wayne emphasized on psychological conflict & disturbed interpersonal relationship as a cause of psychological disorders. This was a more humane stage as people were treated with respect. g. Reform stage saw the emergence of deinstitutionalization and having mentally ill people integrated back into the community and being provided with community care. Today abnormal behavior is seen as consisting of the 4D Deviance: different, extreme , unusual and even bizarre. Distressing: unpleasant and upsetting to self & others. Dangerous to self & others

Dysfunctional: interfering with the individuals ability to carry out daily activities in a constructive manner. 2. What are the factors underlying abnormal behavior. Abnormal behaviour: refers to away from the normal & implies deviation from some clearly defined norms and standards. Abnormal behavior as we understand it today has gone through a lot of changes .The factors underlying abnormal behavior are biological,genetic,psychological,socio cultural,diathesis stress model.

a. Biological- Abnormal behaviour has a biochemical or physiological basis studies indicate that abnormal activity by certain neurotransmitters can lead to specific psychological disorders.A patient presenting with symptoms of depression (e.g., extreme tiredness, difficulty in sleeping, lack of interest in life, possible suicidal tendencies) would be diagnosed as having a problem resulting from an imbalance of brain chemicals. This could be corrected by prescribing drugs to restore the balance, or in severe cases ECT (electro convulsive therapy). b. Genetic- No single gene has been identified but it has been found that mood disorders, schizophrenia, MR have a genetic disposition. c. Psychological- Psychological & interpersonal factors have a significant role to play in abnormal behaviour. Some of the factors are: Maternal deprivation, Faulty parent child relationship, maladaptive family structures and Severe stress. All neurotic disorders are caused due to severe stress and the breakdown of the defense mechanisms. The psychological aspect covers: psychodynamic theories, behavioural, cognitive and humanistic theories to explain why abnormal behavior occurs. d. Socio-cultural: Abnormalities can be influenced by social experiences and cultural values. Abnormalities a result of a dysfunctional system, not just an individuals pathology. e. Biopsychsocial model states that it is the interplay of all three factors which contributes to abnormal behavior. It is the Interaction of these factors and no one cause in particular. Relative importance of each factor depends on individual and environment. f. Diathesis stress model states that Psychological disorders develop when a diathesis is set off by a stressful situation. 3 important factors are: a. b. c. Diathesis or the presence of some biological aberration which may be inherited Diathesis may carry a vulnerability to develop the disorder Presence of pathogenic diseases or stressors that lead to the psychopathology. This model has been applied to several disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety and depression. Thus the following factors help us in understanding abnormal behavior.

3. Explain the psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive model to understand mental disorders. or Elaborate any THREE psychological models proposed to explain mental disorders. A psychological disorder, also known as a mental disorder, is a pattern of behavioral or psychological symptoms that impact multiple life areas and/or create distress for the person experiencing these symptoms. There are various modles to help understand mental disorders. some of these are; a. Psychodynamic: The oldest & the most famous model which believes that behaviour whether normal or abnormal is determined by psychological factors within the person of which he/she is not consciously aware. These internal factors are dynamic as they interact with 1 another & their interaction shapes behaviour thought and emotions. Abnormal behaviour is a

conflict between these factors. Freud proposed a model of personality & stated that abnormal behaviour is a symbolic expression of unconsciousness. Mental conflicts can be traced to early childhood or infancy. The psychodynamic model was first formulated by Sigmund Freud at the end of the 19th century and since that time has had an enormous influence on the entire area of abnormal psychology. abnormality. The core assumption of this approach is that the roots of mental disorders are psychological. They lie in the unconscious mind and are the result the failure of defense mechanisms to protect the self (or ego) from anxiety. Many of these intrapsychic conflicts involve basic biological instincts, especially sexual ones. Many adult problems are reflections of these earlier conflicts, particularly those stemming from infancy and early childhood (such as the Oedipus conflict). Treatments based on the psychodynamic model focus on gaining access to the unconscious and exploring the conflicts with the patient so that they are able to confront them and resolve them in an adult way. The emphasis is on the patient gaining insight into the origins of their problems. This technique is known as psychoanalysis. b. The behaviourist approach dominated psychology in the first half of this century, especially in the USA. The goals of behaviourism were to move psychology toward a scientific model, which focused on the observation and measurement of behaviour. Its assumptions were that behaviour is primarily the result of the environment rather then genetics (or instincts) and so the behaviourists reject the view that abnormal behaviour has a biological basis. .Behaviourists have a deterministic view of mental disorders: they believe that our actions are largely determined by our experiences in life. However, unlike Freud, they see abnormal behaviour is a learned response (through conditioning) and not as the result of mysterious (and they would argue unknowable) unconscious processes. While much of our behaviour is adaptive, helping us to cope with a changing world, it is also possible to learn behaviours that are abnormal and undesirable. However, such maladaptive learning can be treated by changing the environment so that un-learning could take place. The 3 theories covered under this are classical, operant and modeling. c. The cognitive approach is both an outgrowth from, and a reaction to, the behaviourist approach. The basic assumption of the cognitive approach holds that mental events cause behaviour in that we interpret our environment before we react to it. In the case of abnormal behaviour, it is the interpretations and disordered cognitions that lead to the behaviour. Emotional problems can be attributed to distortions in our cognitions or thinking processes. These distortions are in the form of overgeneralizations', irrational beliefs, illogical errors or negative thoughts. The focus of treatment is on understanding the disordered thoughts and working with the patient to change these. 2. Explain the following behavioural disorders prevalent in children: a. b. Attention Deficit Hyperactive disorder Conduct Disorder c. Separation Anxiety Disorder. Achenbach identified 2 factors in diagnosing behavioual problems Externalising disorders: or undercontrolled problems, behaviours that are disruptive, aggressive and aversive to childs development. Internalising disorders: or overcontrolled problems, where a child experiences depression, anxiety and discomfort that might not be evident to others. There are certain disorders that are specific to children and if neglected can lead to serious consequences later in life. Children have less self-understanding and they have not yet developed a stable sense of identity nor do they have an adequate frame of reference regarding reality, possibility, and value. As a result, they are unable to cope with stressful events which might be reflected in behavioural and emotional problems.

The two main features of ADHD are inattention and hyperactivity impulsivity. Children who are inattentive find it difficult to sustain mental effort during work or play. They have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing or in following instructions. Common complaints are that the child does not listen, cannot concentrate, does not follow instructions, is disorganised, easily distracted, forgetful, does not finish assignments, and is quick to lose interest in boring activities. Children who are impulsive seem unable to control their immediate reactions or to think before they act. They find it difficult to wait or take turns, have difficulty resisting immediate temptations or delaying gratification. Minor mishaps such as knocking things over are common whereas more serious accidents and injuries can also occur. Hyperactivity also takes many forms. Children with ADHD are in constant motion. Sitting still through a lesson is impossible for them. The child may fidget, squirm, climb and run around the room aimlessly. Parents and teachers describe them as driven by a motor, always on the go, and talk incessantly.

Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Behaviour refer to age inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, societal norms, and the personal or property rights of others. The behaviours typical of conduct disorder include aggressive actions that cause or threaten harm to people or animals, non-aggressive conduct that causes property damage, major deceitfulness or theft, and serious rule violations. Children show many different types of aggressive behaviour, such as verbal aggression , physical aggression , hostile aggression and proactive aggression.

Separation anxiety disorder is an internalising disorder unique to children. Its most prominent symptom is excessive anxiety or even panic experienced by children at being separated from their parents. Children with SAD may have difficulty being in a room by themselves, going to school alone, are fearful of entering new situations, and cling to and shadow their parents every move. To avoid separation, children with SAD may fuss, scream, throw severe tantrums, or make suicidal gestures. The ways in which children express and experience depression are related to their level of physical, emotional, and cognitive development. An infant may show sadness by being passive and unresponsive; a preschooler may appear withdrawn and inhibited; a school-age child may be argumentative and combative; and a teenager may express feelings of guilt and hopelessness.

5. a. b. c.

Differentiate between: Oppositional defiant disorder and Conduct disorder Substance abuse and Substance dependence Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia nervosa Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Behaviour refer to age inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, societal norms, and the personal or property rights of others. The behaviours typical of conduct disorder include aggressive actions that cause or threaten harm to people or animals, non-aggressive conduct that causes property damage, major deceitfulness or theft, and serious rule violations. Children show many different types of aggressive behaviour, such as verbal aggression , physical aggression , hostile aggression and proactive aggression. In conduct disorders there is always harm to animals and legal problems that the child gets into. Children might threaten suicide too.

Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) display age-inappropriate amounts of stubbornness, are irritable, defiant, disobedient, and behave in a hostile manner. This diagnosis involves a pattern of defiant, angry, antagonistic, hostile, irritable, or vindictive behavior. These children may blame others for their problems. The
disturbance in behavior must be causing significant problems in school, in relationships with family and friends, and in the workplace. ODD if left untreated can convery to a conduct disorder.

Substance abuse is the excessive use of a substance that continues despite negative consequences. For example, if you have too much to drink and get arrested for DUI, AND you continue to drink excessively, you're abusing alcohol. Recurrent use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligation at work, home or school . Recurrent use in physically hazardous situations. Recurrent substance related legal problems and Continued use despite persistent or recurrent social oar interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by substance. Substance dependence indicates that your body has become physically and psychologically addicted to a substance. You will experience both withdrawal symptoms and "tolerance," which means that it takes more and more of the substance to achieve the same effect. Using the substance virtually dominates your life, negatively effecting your home life and work. Tolerance (marked increase in amount; marked decrease in effect) .Characteristic withdrawal symptoms; substance taken to relieve withdrawal .Substance taken in larger amount and for longer period than intended.Persistent desire or repeated unsuccessful attempt to quit .Much time/activity to obtain, use, recover . Important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced Use continues despite knowledge of adverse consequences (e.g., failure to fulfill role obligation, use when physically hazardous) Anorexia nervosa, the individual has a distorted body image that leads her/him to see herself/himself as overweight. Often refusing to eat, exercising compulsively and developing unusual habits such as refusing to eat in front of others, the anorexic may lose large amounts of weight and even starve herself/himself to death. Onset is mid adolescence. 0.5 % women are diagnosed with it. The rate of binge eating is lesser

In bulimia nervosa, the individual may eat excessive amounts of food, then purge her/ his body of food by using medicines such as laxatives or diuretics or by vomiting. The person often feels disgusted and ashamed when s/he binges and is relieved of tension and negative emotions after purging. Late adolescence sees the onset with 1.3% affected by it. Binge eating is predominant.
The two eating disorders, bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa also differ in many ways. Although people with either eating disorder worry about the opinions of others, those with bulimia nervosa tend to be more concerned about pleasing others, being attractive to others, and having intimate relationships. They also tend to be more sexually experienced and active than people with anorexia nervosa. On the positive side, people with bulimia nervosa display fewer of the obsessive qualities that drive people with restricting-type anorexia nervosa, to control their caloric intake so rigidly. On the negative side, they are more likely to have long histories of mood swings, becoming easily frustrated or bored, and have trouble coping effectively or controlling their impulses. Individuals with bulimia nervosa also tend to be ruled by strong emotions and may change friends and relationships frequently. Also, more than one-third of bulimics display the characteristics of a personality disorder. Another key difference between these two eating disorders is the nature of the medical complications that accompany each. Only half of women with bulimia nervosa are amenorrhic or have very irregular menstrual periods, compared to almost all of those with anorexia nervosa. On the other hand, repeated vomiting bathes the teeth and gums in hydrochloric acid, leading some women with bulimia nervosa to experience serious dental problems, such as a breakdown of enamel and even the loss of teeth. Moreover, frequent vomiting or chronic diarrhea (from the use of laxatives) can cause dangerous potassium deficiencies, which may lead to weakness, intestinal disorders, kidney disease, or heart damage.

6. Describe Schizophrenia. Give a detailed account of the negative and psychomotor symptoms. Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder with predominant symptom being hallucination and delusions. Schizophrenia is defined by a group of characteristic positive and negative symptoms deterioration in social, occupational, or interpersonal relationships as a result of disturbed thought processes, strange perceptions, unusual emotional states and motor abnormalities. Schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception, and affects that are inappropriate or blunted. Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time. There must continuous signs of the disturbance for at least 6 months.

The negative symptoms are represented by cognitive disorders, having its origin probably in the disorders of associations of thoughts, combined with emotional blunting and small or missing production of hallucinations and delusions. They are pathological deficits including poverty of speech or alogia or reduction in speech or speech content, blunted or flat effect or expression of affect being reduced,Loss of volition or apathy to start or complete a certain course of action and Social withdrawal or focus on their own thoughts and fantasies .The psychomotor symptoms are represented by less spontaneous movements or making of odd grimaces and gestures. extreme form of this symptom is known as catatonia which can be further categorised into 3- 1)catatonic stupor-people remain motionless and silent for long stretches of time. 2)catatonic rigidity-maintaining a rigid, upright posture for hours. 3)catatonic posturing-assuming awkward, bizarre positions for long periods of time.
7. a. b. c. Differentiate between: Hypochondriasis and conversion disorder Oppositional defiant disorder and Separation anxiety disorder Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa

Conversion is a presence of a motor or sensory symptom that cannot be medically explained in fact sometimes is anatomically impossible. The symptoms are not intentionally feigned and often the cause is presumed to be a traumatic event. Refers to reported loss of part or all of the basic body functions. The symptoms follow a stressful situation and are quite sudden. Paralysis, blindness, deafness are most often reported as symptoms. Conversion refers to unconscious conflicts being converted into physical symptoms

Hypochondriasis is a preoccupation with fears about a real physical problem where the severity of the illness is misconceived. The preoccupation will persist even with disconfirming evidence. Is diagnosed if a person has persistent belief that one has a serious illness, despite medical

reassurance, lack of physical findings and failure to develop the disease. They have an obsessive concern and preoccupation with the disease and continually worry about their health.
Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) display age-inappropriate amounts of stubbornness, are irritable, defiant, disobedient, and behave in a hostile manner. This diagnosis involves a pattern of defiant, angry, antagonistic, hostile, irritable, or vindictive behavior. These children may blame others for their problems. The disturbance in behavior must be causing significant problems in school, in relationships with family and friends, and in the workplace. ODD if left untreated can convery to a conduct disorder.

Separation anxiety disorder is an internalising disorder unique to children. Its most prominent symptom is excessive anxiety or even panic experienced by children at being separated from their parents. Children with SAD may have difficulty being in a room by themselves, going to school alone, are fearful of entering new situations, and cling to and shadow their parents every move. To avoid separation, children with SAD may fuss, scream, throw severe tantrums, or make suicidal gestures. The ways in which children express and experience depression are related to their level of physical, emotional, and cognitive development. An infant may show sadness by being passive and unresponsive; a preschooler may appear withdrawn and inhibited; a school-age child may be argumentative and combative; and a teenager may express feelings of guilt and hopelessness 8.

State major types of anxiety disorders. Explain obsessive-compulsive disorders

With examples.
Anxiety disorder is a neurotic disorder which is usually defined as a diffuse, vague, very unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension. The anxious individual also shows combinations of the following symptoms: rapid heart rate, shortness of breathe, diarrhea, loss of appetite, fainting, dizziness, sweating, sleeplessness, frequent urination and tremors. Some of the types of anxiety disorders are: Generalized anxiety disorder-which consists of prolonged, vague, unexplained and intense fears that are not attached to any particular object. The symptoms include worry and apprehensive feelings about the future. Panic disorder: Consists of recurrent anxiety attacks in which the person experiences intense terror. A panic attack denotes an abrupt surge of intense anxiety rising to a peak when thoughts of particular stimuli are present. Phobias: persistent fear of an object or situation in which the sufferer commits to great lengths in avoiding, typically disproportional to the actual danger posed, often being recognized as irrational. Specific phobias: fear of a single specific panic trigger such as spiders, snakes, dogs, water, heights, flying, catching a specific illness, etc. People with the phobias specifically avoid the entity they fear. Obsessive-compulsive disorder-unable to control preoccupation with specific ideas or are unable to prevent themselves from repeatedly carrying out a particular act or series of acts that affect their ability to carry out normal activities. Symptoms of the disorder include excessive washing or cleaning; repeated checking; extreme hoarding; preoccupation with sexual, violent or religious thoughts; aversion to particular numbers; and nervous rituals, such as opening and closing a door a certain number of times before entering or leaving a room. These symptoms can be alienating and time-consuming, and often cause severe emotional and financial distress. The acts of those who have OCD may appear paranoid and potentially psychotic. However, OCD sufferers generally recognize their obsessions and compulsions as irrational, and may become further distressed by this realization. Obsessions- repetitive unwanted ideas that the person

recognizes are irrational but is unable to stop. These thoughts are often shameful and unpleasant. Compulsions- repetitive, often ritualized behavior whose behavior serves to diminish anxiety caused by obsessions. It could include checking, counting, touching and washing. 9.

State the different types of somatoform disorders. Discuss conversion disorders with Examples. Somatoform disorders are Bodily symptoms that suggest a physical defect or dysfunction but no physiological basis can be found. The individual has psychological difficulties and complains of physical symptoms. It includes pain disorder, somatization, hypochodriasis and conversion disorder. Pain disorder: Predominant complaint is pain either without any identifiable biological cause or in excess of what might be expected to accompany biological symptoms. Hypochondriasis : A person interprets insignificant symptoms as signs of a serious illness despite repeated medical evaluation that point to no pathology/disease. Somatisation : A person exhibits vague and recurring physical/bodily symptoms such as pain, acidity, etc., without any organic cause. Conversion : The person suffers from a loss or impairment of motor or sensory function (e.g., paralysis, blindness, etc.) that has no physical cause but may be a response to stress and psychological problems. Conversion is a presence of a motor or sensory symptom that cannot be medically explained in fact sometimes is anatomically impossible. The symptoms are not intentionally feigned and often the cause is presumed to be a traumatic event. Refers to reported loss of part or all of the basic body functions. The symptoms follow a stressful situation and are quite sudden. Paralysis, blindness, deafness are most often reported as symptoms. Conversion refers to unconscious conflicts being converted into physical symptoms These disorders are neurotic disorders with treatment can be treated successfully. What is depression and what are the symptoms and causes for the same. Mood disorders are characterised by disturbances in mood or prolonged emotional state. The most common mood disorder is depression, which covers a variety of negative moods and behavioural changes. Depression can refer to a symptom or a disorder. Major depressive disorder is defined as a period of depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in most activities, together with other symptoms which may include change in body weight, constant sleep problems, tiredness, inability to think clearly, agitation, greatly slowed behaviour, and thoughts of death and suicide. Other symptoms include excessive guilt or feelings of worthlessness. Factors Predisposing towards Depression : Genetic make-up, or heredity is an important risk factor for major depression and bipolar disorders. Age is also a risk factor. For instance, women are particularly at risk during young adulthood, while for men the risk is highest in early middle age. Similarly gender also plays a great role in this differential risk addition. For example, women in comparison to men are more likely to report a depressive disorder. Other risk factors are experiencing negative life events and lack of social support. Treatment includes medication and therapy . Depression is a psychotic disorder which might have the presence of hallucination and delusions. It can be diagnosed under unipolar depression bipolar disorder or part of other psychotic disorders.

10.

11. Explain mental retardation and give the characteristics of individuals with different levels of mental retardation. Or State the characteristics of people suffering from mild , moderate and profound retardation. There are children who show enormous difficulty in learning very simple skills. Those children who show intellectual deficiency are known as mentally challenged or mentally retarded. Individuals who are categorized as having mental retardation show significant variation in their abilities, ranging from those who can be taught to work and those who need institutional care throughout their lives. The different levels of retardation are: Mild retardation(IQ 55-69)- Although the development of people with mild retardation is typically slower than their peers, they can function quite independently, hold jobs and families. As the level of retardation increases, the difficulties are strongly marked. Moderate retardation(IQ 40-54)- people with moderate retardation lag behind their peers in language and motor skills. They can be trained in self-care skills, and simple social and communication skills. They need to have a moderate degree of supervision in everyday tasks. Severe retardation(IQ 25-39)- Such people do not learn to talk or to practice basic hygiene until after age 6. Although they cannot learn vocational skills , simple tasks can be carried out with supervision. Profound retardation(IQ below 25)- constant care is needed all throughout their lives. People under this group have a diagnosed neurological disorder.