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GUIA DIDCTICA PARA EL PROFESOR - INCLUYE TEXTO PARA EL ESTUDIANTE

Ingls

Medio

Lina Alvarado Jantus Teacher of English Instituto Profesional Chileno-Britnico

2010 Ediciones R&B Teen Club 1 Medio Original text

Lina Alvarado Jantus. Teacher of English Instituto Profesional Chileno-Britnico. Ediciones R&B Ediciones R&B Gloria Caro Opazo. Ly-Sen Lam Daz. Cristina Sepulveda Aravena. Cristina Sepulveda Aravena. Cristina Sepulveda Aravena. Thomas Connelly. Fernando Santander Tiozzo. Ediciones R&B. Rodrigo Gonzlez Daz. Archivos Ediciones R&B

Original illustrations Design Publisher Assistant Publisher Designed by Cover designed by Layout by Proofreading Illustrations Production Recording Producer Photos N de Inscripcin: 183.657 ISBN: 978-956-8694-07-4

All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

CONTENTS
PLAN OF THE BOOK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Student's Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Teacher's Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 TEENS CLUB METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Skills development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Communicative skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Language structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Cognates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 False cognates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Learner training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Classroom management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Large classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Pairwork and groupwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Self-assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Photocopiable evaluation instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Error alert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 SOME BASIC TEACHING REMINDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 THE INTERNET IN THE CLASSROOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Tips to develop safe Internet lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 CLASSROOM LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 UNIT 1: TEEN LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Extra tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Answers to extra test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 UNIT 2: BELIEVE IT OR NOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Extra tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Answers to extra test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 UNIT 3: TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS . . . . . . . . . . 70 Extra tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Answers to extra test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 UNIT 4: SONGS - MUSIC AND WORDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Extra tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Answers to extra test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 UNIT 5: HOW ABOUT WORKING? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Extra tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Answers to extra test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Applying Evaluation Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 PHOTOCOPIABLE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS . . . . 155 Evaluating listening comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Evaluating reading comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Writing rubric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Working with others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Oral presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Class participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Extended-response reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Inference from a text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

DESCRIPTION OF THE COURSE


Teens Club has been written for teenagers in their first year of secondary school. It aims to appeal to teens through imaginative and exciting topics, introduces up-to-date language and expressions, increases confidence through learner independence activities, provides regular opportunities for review and selfassessment, and deals with different learning styles. For the teacher, it offers materials and tools for successful lessons, with full support at every stage. The book takes into account that teenagers are going through a challenging period of their lives, with great physical, social, and psychological changes. The main objective of Teens Club is to appeal to teenagers by providing them with materials that reflect their own reality. Although the language is clear and progresses along the course, the aim is to enable students to read, listen to, and express what is relevant and of interest to them at their particular age, so that they enjoy the language learning process. It provides a broad range of materials to engage students in challenging, but achievable tasks. The different topics that have been included give the students the opportunity for cross-curricular and crosscultural work so that they can learn about life and the world at the same time as they learn English. Through guided questions and simple discussions, students are encouraged to express and hold their opinions on issues that concern their lives and the world around them. Cultural aspects are also highlighted at relevant points. Aspects of English-speaking countries, such as information related to school life and subjects, historical and geographical facts, cultural heritage and teenage styles are meant to raise students' awareness of the target culture, and at the same time develop a richer perspective of their own culture. As it is important for students to learn how to learn, Teens Club provides opportunities to experiment and revise learning styles. It also aims to develop language learning strategies which suit each of them. COURSE COMPONENTS Teens Club consists of a Student's Book, a Teacher's Book and a CD. The Student's Book is divided into 5 units, each one based on a different topic: Unit 1: Teen Life Unit 2: Challenges Unit 3: Technology and Inventions Unit 4: Music and Literature Unit 5: Teen Work Each unit has two reading and two listening lessons. In each lesson, there is a Reflection Spot to allow students to think about their achievements and weaknesses, and there is also a Let's check section, the purpose of which is to allow students to evaluate their progress on a particular aspect of the lesson and, at the same time, to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. At the end of each unit, there are three additional sections: Your English in Action provides additional activities that provide a good opportunity for students to consolidate topics and language structures of the lessons. Unit Check has a test format covering the four skills and the language studied in the unit. It helps students revise contents and evaluate their performance in the whole unit. Final Reflection offers students a summary of what they have learnt in the unit, allows them to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses, and guides them to make decisions concerning actions to take in order to improve. The units also include Real Life Spots, which aim to allow students to make connections between the topic of the lesson and real life, or bring a bit of humor to the class together with additional information that may be useful for them. Teachers should encourage students to take advantage of these spots and find further information or connections with the topics. Teens Club includes a Game Spot in many of the lessons. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging for the students, they provide an opportunity to use language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students' use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Games are used in the classroom not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read,

Students Book
At the beginning of the book there is a list of contents and an explanation of the symbols used. At the end, there is list of verbs and a bibliography for students.

INTRODUCTION

speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore better remembered.

CD
The CD includes all the material for the listening tasks in the lessons, the oral practice exercises, and the listening component of all the tests (Unit Check and Extra Tests). This is the icon used in the Student's Book to indicate that recorded material is used.
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A complete bibliography for the teacher. Classification of the activities in the lessons according to their level of difficulty, indicated with the following icons: + Low ++ Medium +++ High One activity for fast learners in each lesson (FL). Icons to indicate the language ability to be developed:

READING LISTENING SPEAKING WRITING

This is the icon used in the Teacher's Book to indicate that recorded material is used; it includes the corresponding track number.

Other icons used in the Students Book.


Key Word Spot

Teacher's Book
This component offers support to the teacher through several elements: An introduction with a description of the course, the methodology used, suggestions for classroom management, general methodological suggestions for the activities and to deal with big classes, description of the course components, etc. A suggested year planning that establishes the relationship between the contents and the expected learning outcomes, tentative time distribution, resources and types of evaluation. Step-by-step lesson notes and suggestions, including ideas to start each lesson, as well as follow-up activities and suggestions for homework. The cognitive abilities to develop in every activity of the lessons (L.A.). Background information related to the information content of the different texts, to help the teacher deal with students' questions. An Error Alert! section that helps the teacher with information about mistakes students can make together with additional exercises to practice these specific points. They are shown in the Teacher's Book as part of the guidelines for the activities in which they may occur. Photocopiable observation and evaluation sheets for the teacher and the students. The answers to all the activities in the Student's Book and in the tests. Full transcripts of the recorded material: listening texts, oral practice activities, listening tests. One extra test per unit.

Reflection Spot

LANGUAGE SPOT

REAL LIFE SPOT

GAME SPOT

LETS CHECK

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TEENS CLUB METHODOLOGY


Teens Club helps students develop language learning skills to carry out tasks related to the content. In every lesson, there are tasks which consolidate the linguistic and thematic content. The activities are designed to provide students with the language and skills they will need complete the tasks successfully. This approach helps students to see language as a necessary tool, and gives the grammatical and lexical content a clear purpose. Skills development The methodology adopts a three-phase approach with before, while and after listening and reading activities. The Before Reading / Listening activities provide a setting, motivation and linguistic preparation; they activate the previous knowledge about the topic of the lesson, motivate students to read or listen and encourage them to predict and anticipate information. The Reading / Listening activities focus students' attention and teach them to look for specific information, find clues and discriminate between essential and non-essential information. The After Reading / Listening activities connect the text with the students' own reality, give practice on specific grammar points and help develop writing and speaking skills. Communicative skills Most students evaluate their language ability by how well they can speak. Speaking activities are present in Teens Club right from the start and they are integrated with the other skills to encourage communication. Even in the first stages of learning, with only a limited knowledge of vocabulary and structures, students want and are able to communicate. The speaking tasks give students an additional opportunity to use new language in the context of a real life task, carried out in pairs or with a group of classmates, and following models provided. Writing activities are also an integral part of each lesson, with a variety of tasks the students must accomplish during the class or as homework, with varying degrees of support and guidance. Language structure In Teens Club, grammar is approached in a clearly structured yet meaningful way. The students are presented with an inductive task in a section called Language Spot in which they have to figure out how the structure works in English, discovering both use and form. Then they do controlled practice exercises where they apply the target structure in communicative situations. Vocabulary The key vocabulary in each lesson is presented in the Key Word Spot. There are vocabulary activities through which students develop effective strategies for learning and keeping vocabulary records. A systematic use of dictionaries is encouraged. Cognates Cognates are words in different languages related to the same root. The lessons in Teens Club provide students with exercises to help them notice and recognize them, helping them increase their self-confidence by discovering how much these words help them to understand a text. The teacher should encourage students to find the cognates whenever they face a new text. False Cognates Students might get confused because there are several words in Spanish that are similar in English, but have a different meaning. They are indicated in the Error Alert! Section of the Teachers Book. Here are a few examples of false cognates: Actually = really, not actualmente (at present, currently). Embarrassed = avergonzado/a, not embarazada (pregnant). Approve = aprobar = agree with something, not aprobar un examen (pass an exam). Lecture = conferencia = a talk about a topic, not lectura (reading). Politics = la poltica, not los polticos (politicians) Library = biblioteca, not librera (bookstore) Familiar = estar familiarizado con, not familiar (relative) Parents = padres, father and mother, not parientes (relatives). Learner Training Learner training is about developing students' awareness of how they learn and how they develop their learning strategies to become more effective and independent learners. Teachers should encourage students to analyze their learning process, making them think about the problems they have faced and how they could improve their performance. This is supported in Teens Club with a section called Reflection Spot.

INTRODUCTION

Classroom management In most cases the teacher is the only direct contact the students have with English. Therefore, it is important that the teacher tries to communicate with the students in English as much as possible. Teachers can also use gestures or mime to help understanding. Instructions for all the activities in Teens Club are given clearly and simply, and teachers should encourage students to read and interpret them on their own, and support them whenever necessary through demonstration and examples. Discipline Teenage students are going through a difficult period of development in their lives, so the teacher might face discipline problems, disruptive behavior, or unwillingness to do the tasks they are assigned. One of the reasons for bad discipline is usually the students' inability to cope with the tasks. To avoid these problems, two preventive strategies are suggested: Careful planning. Students realize there is a purpose which keeps their attention on the task. Clear instructions. Instructions must be given clearly and assertively, including time limits whenever possible, so that students know what to do and when they should finish the task. Large classes Large mixed-ability classes are a reality teachers have to face every day. Grouping is one technique that is used to reduce the negative effects of this situation. When the class is divided into smaller units, many learning activities can be undertaken. This implies a different role for the teacher; this does not mean that he / she will become less active in the classroom, but that he / she will not be the center of the activities. Teachers who monitor, encourage and participate in different classroom groups are even more active than traditional teachers. By re-organizing the classroom to allow more opportunities for communicative interactions and activities, students will be in a better position to practice and acquire the foreign language. Pairwork and groupwork One of the ways of giving students the time they require to practice a language in class is by forming groups or pairs. This helps teachers to individualize their learners, provides opportunities for sharing experiences and it may also help

teachers to accommodate learner differences by varying student roles. Teachers must bear in mind that this type of work encourages students to share their skills and knowledge, and to learn from each other. It also increases students' involvement and active participation, and develops positive attitudes. It is important to share with the students the importance of these activities that give them an opportunity to reinforce social and communicative skills required to work with other people. The teacher should take an active role in group and pair formation, and students should take different roles each time. Assessment Assessment is one of the most valuable sources of information about what is happening in the classroom. The involvement of the students in this process makes their attitudes towards their learning change significantly and they start to feel more responsible for their progress. In Teens Club, assessment is ongoing. The teacher assesses continuously, in every activity, in every lesson, to see how far a student is making progress in line with the objectives. He / she uses the information obtained to help students with specific problems. In each lesson there is one activity to evaluate one particular aspect of that lesson, in the section called Let's Check. There is also overall assessment, periodically, at the end of each unit, with test format, the Unit Check, which includes evaluation activities of all the skills and language studied in the unit. Teachers should encourage students to correct and mark their Unit Check themselves, either on their own or in small groups. Finally, at the very end of each unit there is a Final Reflection section, which guides students to analyze their performance in the whole unit. All these forms of assessment complement each other. Self-assessment In Teens Club, self-assessment takes place in each lesson, so that students have the opportunity to reflect on their progress and their main problems. This type of assessment helps students to become more efficient learners, as well as make them feel more responsible for their own learning. This is done lesson by lesson through the Reflection Spot, where students are asked to think about their abilities to perform the

tasks, how well they did and the difficulties they encountered. In the Let's Check and Unit Check sections, the students evaluate themselves to become aware of their progress and in the Final Reflection section they analyze their performance and make decisions concerning steps they can take to improve. Photocopiable Evaluation Instruments The Teacher's Book offers a selection of rubrics and evaluation sheets that the teacher can use in different situations, with different purposes and with different students. The labels and criteria can be adapted to the class situation, the topics covered, the number of students, etc. They can be used by the teacher to evaluate the students, or by the students to evaluate themselves and / or their peers. As with all evaluation instances, these must

be used to inform the teacher and the students of the progress made, the areas that need revision and the level of achievement of learning goals. The teacher may use the results of these evaluation instances as part of the final mark of the students; the students must be informed of the system applied. The teacher must give the students the instrument so that they can analyze it, draw conclusions and make decisions. Error Alert Teens Club provides the teacher with help in connection with common mistakes students might make, together with additional exercises to practice these specific points. They are shown in the Teacher's Book as part of the guidelines for the activities in which they may occur.

SOME BASIC TEACHING REMINDERS


Start every lesson in a way that focuses everyone's attention. This creates expectation and prepares students for what is to come. For example, with books closed, write the topic of the lesson on the board and ask some questions about it, show a poster / picture related to the lesson, ask who can remember what they did the previous class, etc. Students should not open their books until everyone is paying attention. End an activity before students get bored with it. Equally, do not hurry the students or end the activity too soon if they are obviously enjoying it. Ask students their opinion. Don't assume that if one student says they understand, everyone else does. Ask (elicit) rather than tell. Students get bored of listening to the teacher explaining. Someone in the class will probably know the answer. Don't ask students to explain difficult things, such as definitions of words, in English. Don't interrupt students during pair / group speaking activities to correct their English. It is better to note the main, common mistakes, put them on the board and correct them with the class at the end. Don't insist on 100% accuracy all the time. Mistakes are a normal part of the learning process, and a valuable source of information for the teacher. Give praise and encouragement, especially to the weaker students. Write positive comments on their work. Let them know what they are doing well, as well as what they need to improve. Remember that you are the main motivator in the classroom!

Some methodological suggestions for skill development


Developing listening skills Follow the organization of activities into before, while and after listening. Before listening: - Introduce and get students involved in the topic of the text. Elicit what they know about it and help them relate it to their own experiences. Make use of the illustrations provided and / or use your own. - Use this introduction of the topic to present key vocabulary and structures, and write them on the board.

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INTRODUCTION

- Invite students to predict the content and to formulate hypotheses of what will appear in the text. - Do these activities quickly and take advantage of the interest created to continue with the listening activities. Listening: - Play the recording once or twice for students to check their predictions and hypotheses. Accept other information they may have gathered, but do not go into details at this stage, just concentrate on the general idea. - Remind students of cognate words, which they can identify more easily when they listen, and which help comprehension and consequent task realization. - Read and clarify instructions with the class, and do the different listening activities one by one, concentrating on the task assigned and checking answers after each successive listening. Every time students listen to the text, they should have a clear purpose and task, provided in the instructions, which will help them focus their attention and identify the information required. - Help students recognize different supporting elements in the spoken texts: intonation, voice pitch, pauses, emphasis, background noise, etc. After listening: - Help students summarize the text orally and / or in writing using the models provided. - Encourage reinforcement of vocabulary and grammar that appeared in the text, always using the context and providing further examples or similar contexts. - Discuss the topic of the lesson, help students reflect on the contents and highlight the values presented, making them notice the connections with their own reality. - Make students evaluate their own performance in the lesson. a. Did their predictions help them understand the text? b. How did they do in the different listening activities? c. What new words, expressions or structures did they learn in this lesson? Can they use them in other situations? Developing reading skills Follow the organization of activities into before, while and after reading. Before reading: - Introduce and get students involved in the topic of the text. Elicit what they know about it and help them relate it to their own

experiences. Make use of the illustrations provided and / or use your own. - Use this introduction of the topic to present key vocabulary and structures, and write them on the board. - Invite students to predict the content and to formulate hypotheses of what will appear in the text. - Always ask students to give a quick look at the text and identify the cognate words and the words they already know. This will help them formulate more informed hypotheses and also help them feel less insecure when facing a new text. - Draw students' attention to the structure of the text: layout, punctuation, titles, subtitles, etc., to identify the type of text they will be reading, all of which will also provide clues that will help them understand the text. - Do these activities quickly and take advantage of the interest created to continue with the reading activities. Reading: - First, ask students to read the text quickly to check their predictions and hypotheses. Accept other information they may have gathered, but do not go into details at this stage, just concentrate on the general idea. - Remind students of cognates words, which they can identify easily, and which help comprehension and consequent task realization. Present false cognates if there are any in the text. - Read and clarify instructions with the class, and do the different reading activities one by one, concentrating on the task assigned and checking answers after each successive reading. Every time students read the text, they should have a clear purpose and task, provided in the instructions, which will help them focus their attention and identify the information required. - Help students recognize different supporting elements in the written texts: text organization, reference markers, letter types, graphic support, punctuation marks, illustrations, etc. - Remind students of some general characteristics of text organization: main ideas are usually at the beginning of each paragraph, connectors give important clues -and indicates addition, but, however indicate contradiction, because indicates a reason, or indicates alternatives, etc. After reading: - Help students summarize the text orally and / or in writing using the models provided.

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- Encourage reinforcement of vocabulary and grammar that appeared in the text, always using the context and providing further examples or similar contexts. - Discuss the topic of the lesson, help students reflect on the contents and highlight the values presented, making them notice the connections with their own reality. - Make use of the activities for fast learners (FL) or of Your English in Action in the Student's Book and of the Extra Tests in the Teacher's Book to provide further practice in a freer context, either for the whole class or for with faster, keener students. Invite them to make comments on the contents and share them with the rest of the class. - Encourage students to make use of the Reflections section to evaluate their own performance in the lesson. Developing oral expression At the beginning of the course, prepare a poster / posters with the class, showing the expressions they must use as part of the classroom interaction. You may use different colors to classify them into: a. Greetings: Good morning, good afternoon, hello, hi, good-bye, bye. How are you today? I'm (not) very well, thank you. And you? Teach them to address you as Mr. / Miss / Mrs. plus your surname. b. Asking for help or clarification: How do you say / spell / pronounce ...?, Can you help me, please? Can you repeat, please? Can you play the recording again, please? Can I / we use

the dictionary / the computer? Can I work with ...? Can you tell / give me ...? c. Expressing feelings: I'm sorry / happy / impressed / tired / ill / worried. I'd be happy to ... . I like ... . I don't like ... . I liked ... . I didn't like ... . Encourage students to use English to do the different speaking activities that show comprehension. Choose relevant parts of the listening texts, especially dialogues, for students to listen to, repeat, try to memorize and present in front of the class. Create a positive atmosphere in the classroom to facilitate students' participation in oral exchanges. Developing written expression Always provide a model for students to follow. Go from simple, very guided activities to more complex ones: just words that students use to fill in blanks, or exercises in which they put words in order to form sentences, short answers to simple questions, using a pattern given and substituting some elements, etc. Make students aware of punctuation marks and connectors to be used. Check written work while walking around the classroom, by collecting notebooks, or by providing the correct versions on the board or on a transparency.

THE INTERNET IN THE CLASSROOM


Nowadays, in the era of information revolution and the widespread use of the Internet in almost all spheres of life, this tool can serve as a teaching medium, a rich source of materials of any kind and also as a basis for lessons instead of texts from the course book only. Internet -assisted lessons may supplement teaching by adding an additional dimension to the classroom. Students can use it to gather information on different topics or search for additional exercises to practice a particular language item. The Internet gives great possibilities for students to work with materials they choose themselves and offers an attractive and interactive learning environment. This is achieved by the use of communication tools such as e-mail, chat or forum groups, which students can use to communicate with people from different parts of the world and therefore practice their English in a meaningful and motivating way. This icon indicates a digital resource used / suggested for an activity.

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Tips to develop safe Internet lessons Never start lessons by having students use search engines on their own. Ask students to find specific information, not just surf the web. Always tell students to write down the URLs of the sites they use for reports in bibliography format. Try to preview sites before students visit them.

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INTRODUCTION

LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING 11


What we have in common makes us human. Our differences make us individuals. In a classroom where there is very little or no differentiated teaching only the similarities among students seem to be the focus of attention. In a differentiated class the common areas are acknowledged and exploited, and the differences among students also become important elements in the teaching learning process.
Carol Ann Tomlinson 12

used in the day to day classroom work to establish the students position, their differences and their learning needs. Once this reflection and awareness task is done, it is possible to design a variety of teaching strategies to cater for the students needs. Learning progression and diversity Childrens learning as shown every day in the teaching process - shows progressive development as they move up from one level to the next. Older students generally know more about a subject and show more complex cognitive abilities than younger students; when comparing abilities and knowledge of a 4th Media student with those of a 1st Bsica student, it can easily be noticed that the former is much more competent than the latter in all the learning areas. Between these two students, who represent the extreme levels of achievement during the school cycle, it is possible to distinguish several intermediate stages. On the other hand, children in a particular level make use of different abilities to understand the same topic, and have different ways to explain what they understand. There is progression not only from one level to the next; it is normal that in the same class the students are at different levels and show different degrees of understanding and achievement of the required abilities. However, not all students progress in the expected direction. Inadequate attention to differences can produce delay in the students learning. This delay, in turn, has a cumulative effect, it tends to increase in the upper levels, and when this happens, its effects are more difficult to revert. Therefore, it is important to know the state of students learning very well. The Learning Progress Maps are a supporting instrument to diagnose achievement and differences among students to help them move on in their school work according to the expected outcomes promoted by the national curriculum; they offer common criteria and language to observe learning.

The Chilean Ministry of Education has presented the community with a new curricular tool, the Learning Progress Maps. It is possible that the teachers may have a lot of information about them, from different and probably more complete sources than those provided here 13. This brief and concise document does not intend to be exhaustive nor replace any of those sources. It only wishes to present the Maps in a particularly specific context, that of a very specific training in evaluation for learning, as in that area they can be very useful in the different steps of that training. This is a brief introduction to the Maps that considers the inclusion principle that guides them, the way in which they are presented, an example and some details to understand their pedagogical and evaluative usefulness. Rather than theoretical or conceptual details, special importance is given to the elements that facilitate their use by teachers. Introduction The Learning Progress Maps have been developed to show teachers, students and parents the way in which learning progresses along school life, and especially the expected direction for each of the areas of the curriculum. They are neither a new curriculum nor a curricular alternative, but are based on the existing Curricular Framework. Their objective is to describe the types of learning promoted by the Fundamental Objectives and the Obligatory Minimum Contents, and to indicate the characteristics of their development from 5th Year of Primary Education to 4th year of Secondary Education. The Maps can be

11 12

Document prepared by the Unidad de Currculum y Evaluacin, Ministry of Education, Chile, 2007. Tomlinson, Carol Ann, Estrategias para Trabajar con la Diversidad en el Aula, Editorial Paids, Madrid, 2005. 13 The full Maps are published in the web site of the Unidad de Currculum y Evaluacin, www.curriculum-mineduc.cl.

13

Evaluation for Learning in Practice It is important to distinguish Evaluation for Learning as a particular model that is different from the traditional interpretations of evaluation. Here is a summary of its main characteristics. In this conception, evaluation: Is considered an intrinsic part of teaching and learning. Requires that teachers share with their students the learning achievements expected from them. Helps students know and identify the standards they must reach. Involves students in their own evaluation. Provides feedback that tells students what they have to do, step by step, to improve their performance. Assumes that every student can improve his / her performance. Involves both teachers and students in the analysis and reflection on the data provided by the evaluation. This model contrasts with the type of evaluation that, in practice, means adding evaluation procedures or tests at the end of the programmed units of work. These procedures or tests are separable and independent from the teaching of the unit. The feedbackis to get a mark. Although, according to this model, evaluation is a teachers issue (the State, for example, does not get involved), it tends to have a summative rather than formative objective. However, the term formative can have several interpretations: very often it only means that evaluation is frequent in a period of time and has been planned together with the teaching. In this sense formative evaluation does not necessarily consider all the features identified as characteristic of Evaluation for Learning. Evaluation can be formative because it helps the teacher identify areas where more explanation or training are needed. But from the point of view of the students, their final mark and the comments written on the margins of their work, although they may signal their weak and strong points, they do not give them clues as to how to progress towards the achievement of more and better learning. The concept of learning underlying this model is another distinctive feature. Todays approach to learning suggests that, eventually, it is the students themselves who are responsible for their own learning (nobody can learn for them). Consequently,

Evaluation for Learning must necessarily involve the students in the evaluation process so as to provide information on their performance and guide their efforts to improve. An important part of this information is the feedback the teacher gives the students, but another part must be the result of the direct participation of the students in this process through selfevaluation. In the context of promoting life-time learning, it is more and more important to develop in the students the capacity to know how much they have learnt and the ability to guide and manage their own learning. So, what actually happens in the classroom when evaluation is used to improve learning? To begin with the more obvious aspects, the teachers are involved in the collection of information about their students learning and motivate them to revise their work critically and constructively. The methods to obtain information about the learning are well known and they are mainly: To observe the students and listen to them when they reason and describe their work. To ask students open questions, inviting them to explore their ideas and reasoning. To propose ideas that require students to use certain abilities or to apply ideas. To ask students to communicate their ideas not only in writing but also through drawings, artefacts, actions, dramatisations and concept maps. To discuss key words and analyse how they must be used. Of course, teachers can collect this information through the methods identified above, and then use it to improve learning. The use of this information requires that teachers and students make decisions and act: they must decide on the next steps in the learning process and help students get started. It is of the utmost importance to remember that it is the students who must do the walking; consequently, the students who are more involved in the process will better understand how to extend and improve their learning. A plan that involves the students in the judgement of their own work instead of being passive to face the judgements of teachers has higher probabilities of raising the learning and achievement standards.

14

INTRODUCTION

This is a different conception of feedback. The foodthe teacher offers is a portrait of the objective to reach, of the standard or goal towards which the student must aim and which, in this way, constitutes a point of comparison for his / her work. The role of the teacher and what constitutes the core of teaching is to provide the students with the skills and strategies required to take the steps they need to improve their own learning. Key Principles of Evaluation for Learning Evaluation is a process that allows the recollection of evidence on the learning achieved by the students at a given moment. The object of the evaluation is the work produced by the student, never the student. The key dimensions of learning from the point of view of the learning area and the learning level of the students constitute the criteria used for the evaluation of learning. What Learning Progress Maps are and what they are not.
What LPM are They are materials for each area of the curriculum that describe the usual road followed by students in their learning. They assume that progress is the result of maturity and exposure to learning opportunities in specific stages of school life. They express knowledge and abilities, that is to say, the competences that students typically reach at certain moments of their school life. They indicate what we value as learning goals and the sequence in which they are achieved; they provide a framework to monitor progress and communicate results. They are presented as concrete descriptions of learning and offer examples of possible achievements in each level. They provide a guiding framework for teaching: they let users elaborate evaluation tasks that will indicate the level of each student, and organise teaching strategies accordingly.

The criteria must be shared with the students so that they know and understand them, and for them to direct their work accordingly. Self-evaluation and peer-evaluation must be done using preestablished criteria. If this does not happen their validity will be questionable, because different individuals naturally evaluate according to their own personal criteria. It must be remembered that evaluation necessarily involves value judgements. This happens when a teacher assigns a numerical qualification to a students test, and also when concepts are used, for example pooror excellentto indicate a students level of achievement at a certain moment. The teacher must take responsibility for the evaluation instruments he / she develops and uses with the students; this means that he / she must make sure that they really let him / her collect information about the learning outcomes defined in the pre-established evaluation criteria.

What LPM are not They do not state that learning is lineal (a sum of specific learnings) nor do they propose an exact description of the learning progress that all students experience. They are not an expression of all the knowledge and abilities the students can achieve in a specific level. They are not a new curriculum and they do not assume that all the students in the same class should be in the same level of learning. They are not checklists for test correction. They are not an instrument to classify students and they do not support a specific teaching model to achieve learning.

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How many LPM have been prepared? Each area of the curriculum has sub-divisions that represent topics or abilities that must be developed during school life. A Map has been designed for each of them. English Our countrys active participation in different areas of the international sphere, together with the changes produced by globalisation, make the learning of English essential to successfully face the demands of society in the XXI century. Learning English is a challenging and attractive activity at any age, but particularly for young people who see it as a tool to access information and technology and as a means of communication with other realities and cultures. Learning English or any other foreign language, contributes to the understanding of the mother tongue, and at the same time it widens the opportunities to access information in other areas of study. Presentation of the Maps The Maps are organised in seven levels that cover students learning life from 1st year of Primary Education to 4th year of Secondary Education. Each level describes the expected learning outcome for two school years. For example, level 1 corresponds approximately to 1st and 2nd Bsico, level 2 to the next two years, and so on. The last level (7) describes a student whose outcome when finishing school is outstanding. All this information can be found in the web site of the Unidad de Currculum y Evaluacin, www.curriculum-mineduc.cl. Relevant aspects of the Reading Map In concordance with the curricular emphasis aimed at the development of the abilities and the use of language with the purpose of acquiring information and gainning access to other cultures and technological advances, grammar is not the focus of attention of the Reading Map. Its role as facilitator of understanding and communication is acknowledged, but the role of grammar will become more evident in the Writing Map. The Reading Map emphasises the importance of working with authentic texts as early as possible; their degree of complexity increases as students move from one level to the next. By the end

of their secondary school education students should be able to read authentic texts of intermediate complexity, which implies beginning their learning using simple authentic texts. The Reading Map does not reject the use of the mother tongue as a resource to monitor learning when the situation requires that the students show evidence of comprehension and interpretation rather than oral production. It is a well-known fact that students of a foreign language can understand much more than they can express orally or in writing. For this reason, the answers to the tasks presented as examples in the Map are in Spanish. This does not mean that the students are not allowed to express comprehension in English or that there is an intention to work these abilities separately. In the following pages you will find the Reading Progress Map. It begins with a synthetic presentation of all the level. Then, each level is presented in detail, beginning with its description, some examples of performance that illustrate how that level of learning can be recognised and one or two examples of work done by students of subsidised schools, with the teachers comments that justify what criteria is used to decide that the student is within the level. In an appendix, you can find the complete version of the tasks from which the students work was collected. In the case of English, there is a description of an initial level, before level 3, that describes a starting situation of knowledge of this language, which can be a useful point of reference to describe the learning of children who do not reach level 3 by the end of 6th Bsico. No examples of studentswork at this level are included. Reading Progress Map The aim of the English curriculum is to get students to use and apply the language in different tasks that imply they can understand oral and written texts, and solve simple communicative situations orally or in writing. From this point of view, four English Learning Maps have been designed, around the following linguistic abilities: Reading Listening Writing Oral Expression

16

INTRODUCTION

The Maps of English have been designed using the international standards of the Common European Framework (CEF) for teaching, learning and evaluating languages, and those of the Association of Language Testers of Europe (ALTE). CEF level A2 and ALTE 1 (Waystage User) are associated to level 4, which describes the expected learning achieved by the majority of the students by the end of 8th year Bsico; level B1 and ALTE 2 (Threshold user) are associated to level 6, which describes the expected learning achieved by the majority of students by the end of 4th Medio. To describe progress in reading comprehension, the Reading Map is organised around two dimensions: a. Text-types. In this dimension the progression is given by the complexity of the topics the students read about and the complexity of the language used in the texts. There is progression from concrete to abstract topics, and from English Progress Map

language expressed in simple sentences to language expressed in compound sentences of intermediate complexity. b. Reading abilities. This dimension includes the students capacity to extract specific information, to infer information and to show global comprehension of what they have read. The Map describes how these reading abilities become more complex from one level to the next, also in relationship with the increasing complexity of the texts read. In the light of these dimensions, the Map describes a students reading comprehension progress, from the ability to identify some highlighted information, to make simple inferences and state the main topic of a very short, simple text (in level 3), to end up being able to reach a higher level of inference and a deeper understanding of linguistically and conceptually more complex texts. (level 6).

Identifies explicit and implicit messages and incorporates knowledge of the topic and of the English language to build up the Level 7 Outstanding main meaning. Understands texts that include a variety of simple and medium complexity structural patterns and are related to personal interest topics. Level 6 Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from distractors. Infers ideas and identifies messages, points of view, attitudes to build up the main meaning of the text. Understands texts that include a variety of simple and medium complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics. Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from other similar information. Infers suggested messages or ideas and identifies main ideas, stating supporting data. Understands texts that include simple structural patterns and medium complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics. Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from secondary information. Makes simple inferences relating ideas or information, and identifies with some detail the main idea(s) explicitly stated, relating information found in different sections of the text. Understands brief texts that include simple structural patterns and are related to well-known concrete topics. Identifies explicit information that is highlighted. Infers information and identifies one main idea using information explicitly stated in the text. Understands very short texts that include plenty of visual support, use simple short sentences and are related to concrete topics of the students immediate environment.

Level 5

Level 4

Level 3

Initial level Identifies words and short sentences stated in very short texts that include plenty of visual support, use simple short sentences and are related to concrete topics of the students immediate environment. In our teaching proposal for 1st and 2nd year, evaluation is conceived from the following level: Level 5 Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from other similar information. Infers suggested messages or ideas and identifies main ideas, stating supporting data. Understands texts that include simple structural patterns and medium complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics.

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How can one recognise the level of learning? Examples of performance. When a student has reached this level, he / she can do the following activities: Select and classify information according to a given category. State details used for describing causes and consequences. Relate data and ideas to infer attitudes and moods. Extract the main idea(s) of the text and list the arguments that support it / them. Invent a title that represents the main idea of the text. Identify words and phrases that give cohesion to the text. For example: therefore, on the other hand. Identify in the texts the communicative function of compound structural patterns, such as the passive voice, conditional sentences, relative clauses. Identify in the text frequent phrasal verbs. For example: look after.

CLASSROOM LANGUAGE
Greetings: Good morning / Good afternoon / Hello / Hi. Good bye / See you tomorrow / See you later. Have a nice weekend / Enjoy your holiday.

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Moods and feelings: A: How are you today? B: Im fine / Im great / OK / Very well, thank you. Im not very well / I have a problem / Im feeling low / Im sad. Asking for clarification (STUDENTS) Can you repeat that, please? Can you say that again, please? Sorry? I didnt understand very well. Can you help me with this exercise, please? Encouragement (TEACHERS) Well done! Good! Excellent! Good work! Congratulations!

The date A: What day is it today? B: Its Monday / Its Tuesday / Its Wednesday / Its Thursday / Its Friday / Its Saturday / Its Sunday A: Whats the date today? B: Its (Monday) March 9th. The weather A: Whats the weather like today? B: Its sunny / Its cloudy / Its hot / Its cold / Its nice and warm / Its nice and cool. Its raining / Its snowing. The time A: Whats the time? / What time is it? B: Its one oclock. / Its two oclock. / Its three oclock. / Its ten oclock. / Its twelve oclock. A: Whats the time? / What time is it? B: Its quarter past nine. Its half past ten. Its five past eleven./ Its ten past twelve / Its twenty past one/ Its twenty five past two. A: Whats the time? / What time is it? B: Its a quarter to eight. Its twenty five to nine / Its twenty to ten/ Its ten to three/ Its five to four.

18

INTRODUCTION

Some Commands and Instructions (TEACHERS) Add more words. Answer the questions. Be quiet. Check your answers Check your predictions. Close the door. Come to the board. Compare your answers. Compare your answers in your group. Complete the paragraph. Complete the sentences. Complete the summary. Complete the table. Copy the instructions. Cross out the words you do not hear. Discuss the ideas in your group. Do exercise 1. Do not write in ink. Do not write in your book. Fill in the blanks. Find examples in the text. Find out who wrote this poem. Find the cognates in the text. Go to the board. Identify the best description. Listen to the recording. Listen. Look. Look at the pictures. Look up these words in the dictionary. Make a list. Make a list of topics. Make some notes.

Match the pictures. Name three activities. Open the window. Open your books. Pay attention, please. Put the pictures in order. Read the instructions. Read the sentences. Select the correct answer. Silence, please. Sit down. Stand up. Talk to your partner. Thats all for today, thank you. Work in groups of 4. Work in groups of three or four. Work with your partner. Write the sentences. Turn taking and permissions: (STUDENTS) Its your turn. Sorry, its my turn. Excuse me, can I say something? Excuse me; can I leave the room for a minute? Can I talk to you after the class? May I go to the bathroom? Encouragement: (TEACHERS) Do it more carefully / Say it again / Try to correct that, please. Not too bad / Youll do better next time / Keep trying! Well done / Congratulations / Excellent / Good work.

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SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING


TOPIC
TEEN LIFE Forum chats. Diversity of teenage cultures. Reading Identify cognates. Find general and specific information. Infer meanings from the context. Locate and match information. Listening Discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Identify correct sequence Reading Scan the text to validate predictions. Get meanings from cognates. Find general and specific information. Discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Reading Find general and specific information. Identify the sequence of events. Identify type of text. Listening Discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Relate speakers and speech. Reading Distinguish information. Discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Identify type of text. Listening Infer mood of speakers. Relate speakers and speech. Discriminate sounds. Reading Locate missing information in a text. Discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Distinguish facts and inferences. Listening Discriminate between correct and incorrect information.

CMO
Differentiate sounds. Find general and specific information. Identify collocations. Language Use the Simple Present and adverbs of frequency. Use adjectives of quantity. Use connectors. Use the Present Continuous for future plans. Listening Relate speakers and speech. Discriminate sounds and words. Identify specific information. Language Use the Simple Future tense to express predictions. Use the Present Continuous tense. Discriminate sounds and words. Identify sequence. Language Use the Simple Past tense. Use linking words. Use relative pronouns. Speaking Ask and answer questions about biographies. Language Use would and could. Use modal verbs must, have to, need to. Use the Passive Voice. Use the First and Second Conditional. Speaking Exchange personal information Exchange information about personal interests and preferences. Express quantities. Writing Write a personal introduction to a forum chat. Complete a personal profile. Use conjunctive connectors. Use the First Conditional. Speaking Ask and answer questions about fixed arrangements. Talk about virtual life. Writing Write a short report. Complete a paragraphs. Exchange opinions about inventions and technology. Writing Write a short summary of a biography. Complete a paragraph about a new invention.

TIME
Development Lesson 1 four hours. Lesson 2 four hours. Lesson 3 four hours. Lesson 4 four hours. Consolidation and evaluation activities three hours + home assignments.

UNIT 1

UNIT 2

BELIEVE IT OR NOT A city on the moon. Hopes for the future.

Development Lesson 1 four hours. Lesson 2 four hours. Lesson 3 four hours. Lesson 4 four hours. Consolidation and evaluation activities three hours + home assignments. Development Lesson 1 four hours. Lesson 2 four hours. Lesson 3 four hours. Lesson 4 four hours. Consolidation and evaluation activities three hours + home assignments. Development Lesson 1 four hours. Lesson 2 four hours. Lesson 3 four hours. Lesson 4 four hours. Consolidation and evaluation activities three hours + home assignments. Development Lesson 1 four hours. Lesson 2 four hours. Lesson 3 four hours. Lesson 4 four hours. Consolidation and evaluation activities three hours + home assignments.

UNIT 3

TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS New inventions. Technology.

UNIT 4

SONGS - MUSIC AND WORDS Famous young artists. Styles of music.

Speaking Ask people about imaginary situations. Request information using polite questions. Writing Write a book review. Write questions and answers in a chat room. Speaking Ask people about preferences. Participate in a telephone conversation. Writing Write a letter of application. Write a leaflet promoting an organization.

HOW ABOUT WORKING? Volunteer organization. The role of volunteer.

Relate speakers and speech. Extract specific information from a recording. Language Use Modal Verbs to express necessity and preferences. Use polite phrases in a telephone conversation.

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UNIT 5

RESOURCES ATTITUDES
Read posts to a Student Forum chat. Read a magazine article. Listen to an interview. Listen to two poems. Develop respect and acceptance of age, and social and cultural diversity. Assess the importance of English as an international tool of communication. Reflection Spot Metacognition Lets Check Listening Reading Language Your English in Action

EVALUATION
Unit Check Listening Reading Language Oral expression Final Reflection Extra tests Listening Reading Language Oral expression Unit Check Listening Reading Language Oral expression Final Reflection Extra tests Listening Reading Unit Check Listening Reading Language Oral expression Final Reflection Extra tests Listening Reading Unit Check Listening Reading Language Oral expression Final Reflection Extra tests Listening Reading Unit Check Listening Reading Language Oral expression Final Reflection Extra tests Listening Reading Evaluation Instruments Listening Reading Writing Working with others

LEARNING ABILITIES
To use pictures to formulate predictions. To localize specific information. To apply/ use a new language structure.

Read a web page. Read a scientific article. Listen to an interview. Listen to an advertisement.

Reflect about the importance of technology development. Develop acceptance and respect for everyones opinions.

Reflection Spot Metacognition Lets Check Listening Reading Language Your English in Action Reflection Spot Metacognition Lets Check Listening Reading Language Your English in Action

Language Oral expression Evaluation Instruments Listening Reading Writing Working with others Language Oral expression Evaluation Instruments Listening Reading Writing Working with others

To relate topic to own experience. To infer the meaning of key words. To identify and extract supporting information.

Read a web page. Read a biography. Listen to a conversation. Listen to a radio program.

Assess and appreciate the role of technology in everyday life. Develop respect and acceptance of other peoples opinions.

To express opinions. To predict topic from the context. To relate speakers and speech.

Read a piece of chat. Read book reviews. Listen to a television program. Listen to a song.

Assess and appreciate the value of music and literature. Develop respect for the role of music and literature as a means of communication.

Reflection Spot Metacognition Lets Check Listening Reading Language Your English in Action

Language Oral expression Evaluation Instruments Listening Reading Writing Working with others Language Oral expression Evaluation Instruments Listening Reading Writing Working with others

To discriminate sounds. To predict content from cognates. To relate previous knowledge with the topic of the lesson.

Read a leaflet. Read a letter of application. Listen to an advertisement. Listen to telephone conversations.

Assess and appreciate the role of volunteer organizations around the world. Value the importance of voluntary work for people in need.

Reflection Spot Metacognition Lets Check Listening Reading Language Your English in Action

To relate topic to own reality. To develop study skills. To exchange information.

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UNIT
TEEN LIFE
use adjectives of quantity use connectors use the Present Continuous for future plans Speaking exchange personal information exchange information about personal interests and preferences express quantities Writing write a personal introduction to a forum chat complete a personal profile You will also: develop respect and acceptance of age, and social and cultural diversity assess the importance of English as an international tool of communication Development Lesson 1: four hours Lesson 2: four hours Lesson 3: four hours Indicators Students analyze and evaluate their performance in the speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities. Reading: Students find specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students find specific information, discriminate between correct and incorrect information and identify sequence of information. Language: Students use the Simple Present and the Present Progressive tense. Speaking: Students exchange information about routines. Writing: Students write and reply to e-mails. Students analyze their performance in the whole unit. Reading: Students find specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use the Simple Present and Present Progressive tense. Writing: Students write a short paragraph describing their best friend. Speaking: Students imitate an interview and exchange information about routines, interests and favorite activities.

In this unit you will: read posts to a Student Forum chat read a magazine article listen to an interview listen to two poems You will learn how to: Reading identify cognates find general and specific information infer meaning of words from the context locate and match information Listening discriminate between correct and incorrect information identify correct sequence differentiate sounds find general and specific information identify collocations Language use the Simple Present and adverbs of frequency Types of Evaluation Reflection spot Self - evaluation Unit Check Unit evaluation

Lesson 4: four hours Consolidation and evaluation activities: 3 hours + home assignments Didactic resources Complementary material such as articles magazines, Student Forum chats. Pictures of teenagers provided by the teacher and by the students to illustrate the diversity of teenage cultures. Supporting material such as lists of adjectives, dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed handouts, library material, etc. Methodological suggestions Teachers should prepare the lessons beforehand considering that thorough prior preparation allows them to think of and apply some useful ideas. It is their chance to make the class entertaining and to involve students in the learning process. Teachers are advised to use a variety of resources throughout the book.

Continuous/informal Students do reading and listening activities, take part in conversations, and produce written texts.

Final Reflection Extra Test

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UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

PAGE 8

2 +
Brainstorm aspects and activities that are typical of teenagers in Chile and all over the world. Invite students to write a list of them in their notebooks and then write some examples on the board. (L.A.: to relate topic with personal reality). Possible answers hang out with friends; listen to music; play video games; chat with friends; watch movies; play sports; wear the same kind of clothes; surf the Internet.

GETTING READY 1
Introduce the topic of the unit reading the name aloud. Then, invite some students to read what the young people on page 9 say about being a teenager and ask them if they agree or not.

2 Invite the students to work in groups talking


about being a teenager. Encourage them to make some notes and come to an agreement. Then, ask one member of each group to share their comments with the rest of the class.

3 ++
Ask students to choose the picture they think best represents a typical Chilean teenager. Ask them to support their ideas and then to come to an agreement. (L.A.: to relate pictures with personal experiences).

3 First, ask students to copy the chart into their


notebooks. Then, motivate them to interview six of their classmates about their interests and preferences in order to complete the chart. Elicit students ideas about graphs and then explain that they will have to present the results for each item in a graph. You may also give one example on the board.

4 +++
Explain to students that they are going to read two posts from a Students Forum chat. Invite them to make predictions about the two students way of life. (L.A.: to use general knowledge to formulate predictions).

PAGE 10
LESSON 1
READING

5 ++
TAKE TWO TEENS Tell students to look at the text and find all the cognates. Then, ask what information they can deduce from them. You can ask them to write the cognates on the board, but do not check what the students can deduce from them at this stage. (L.A.: to identify cognates through scanning). Answers forum, different, traditional, TV, music, computer, chat, cyber cafe, culture, kilometers, fan, Internet, rest, sports.

BEFORE READING
1

+
Draw students attention to the pictures and then ask them to answer the questions in pairs. Check their answers orally. (L.A.: to use pictures to formulate predictions).

a. b. c. d.

Answers Between 13 and 18 years old. They are from different parts of the world. They are: acting in a play, answering questions, chatting and doing sports. They are wearing costumes, sport and casual clothes.

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ERROR ALERT Cognates are words in different languages related to the same root, ex.: education (English) / educacin (Spanish) Anyway, students might get confused because there are also several words in Spanish that are similar in English, but have a different meaning. These words are called False Cognates. Exercise: Read the words in the list. Identify the false cognates in it. actual / embarrassed / familiar / introduce / lecture / notice / parents / realize

Answers Amish: member of an Anabaptist Christian denomination. newbie: slang term for a newcomer to online gaming or an Internet activity. link: a connection between two or more people or things. soaps: (also soap opera) a story which is broadcast everyday or several times a week on television or radio.

PAGE 12

READING
7 +
Ask the students to read the text quickly to check their predictions in Exercise 4. Explain to them that it is not necessary for them to understand every single word. They only have to get the general meaning of the text in order to check if their predictions were right. (L.A: to validate predictions). Answers The students do not have similar ways of life.

Answers: The false cognates are: Actual = real, not actual (present). Examples: The actual cost was higher than expected. Does anyone know her present address? Embarrassed = avergozado/a, not embarazada (pregnant). Examples: She's embarrassed about her height. My sister is pregnant with her first child. Familiar = conocido, familiarizado, not familiar (relative). Examples: His face looks familiar to me. We saw most of our relatives at the party. Lecture = charla, not lectura (reading). Examples: He gave a lecture on endangered species in Chile. You can understand everything from the first reading. Notice = aviso, anuncio, not noticia (news). Examples: Have you seen the notice on the board? The news of the earthquake arrived two days later. Parents = padres, not parientes (relatives). Her parents got married very young. Most of my relatives live in Santiago. Realize = darse cuenta, comprender, not realizar (carry out). Example: I realized who he was.
For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

8 ++
Now, invite your students to read the text again carefully, and then answer the questions (a. e.) in their notebooks. Check their answers orally or ask some students to write the answers on the board. (L.A.: to localize specific information). a. b. c. d. e. Answers No, they are not typical teenagers because they live in very different ways. Josh 95 is American and Pink Sunshine is Australian. Yes, he does, because he can go to a cyber cafe and be in contact with the rest of the world. She has e-lessons. She studies through the Internet. Yes, it is. Because it is the way they can be in contact with people from all around the world.

6 ++
Invite students to read the words in the Key Word Spot and then find their definitions in an English-English dictionary. (L.A.: to develop study skills).

24

UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

9 ++
Make the students copy the chart into their notebooks and then complete it with information from the text. Invite some of them to write and complete the chart on the board to check their answers. (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers Name Always Often Hardly ever Never Likes / Loves Josh 95 Wear traditional clothes Go shopping in the city Use a computer Watch TV or listen to music Chat with other people Pink Sunshine Watch soaps or movies Read Meet friends Go to school Chat with other people

information that is true for them. Then, ask them to answer questions a. and b. Invite some of the students to share their answers with their classmates. (L.A.: to relate topic to personal experiences). Answers will vary

LANGUAGE SPOT
Habitual activities and frequency adverbs This section is designed to help students revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. The activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not enunciate them the answers. 1. Ask the students to read and analyze the sentences from the text. 2. Now, the students answer questions a. c. Help them to identify what kind of actions the sentences express, the tense that was used and the words that help to identify the frequency in which the action was performed. Answers: a. - iii.; b. iii.; c. always, every, never 3. Invite the students to copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. Answers: We use the Simple Present tense to talk about activities that are habitual. We use words such as always, never, every, to express the frequency of the activity. 4. Encourage students to revise the text again and find other examples of this structure. Invite them to write the examples in their notebooks and underline the frequency adverb. You may organize a class competition and offer a prize to the student who identifies all the examples. Answers: I never watch TV or listen to music. I always watch soaps or movies. I hardly ever meet friends or go to parties. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

10 +++
Ask the students to read the text once more before completing the sentences in their notebooks. Check their answers orally. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Possible answers a. Josh95 and Pink Sunshines lives are similar because they both live in a very different way others teenagers do but they both like to know about people from all over the world. They both live on a farm and they use the Internet to communicate with other teens. b. Josh95 and Pink Sunshines lives are different because Josh is Amish and never watches TV or listens to music, but he goes to school. Pink Sunshine never goes to school but she always watches TV or listens to music.

PAGE 13

AFTER READING
11 ++
Tell the students to add a column to the chart in Exercise 9, and to complete it with

25

12 +
Refer the students to the LANGUAGE SPOT to write sentences about their and their partners habitual activities. Invite some of the students to write the sentences on the board to check the answers. (L.A.: to apply/ use a new language structure). Answers Will vary

Reflection Spot

Assign enough time of your class to allow students to reflect on their achievements and weaknesses. They read the statements and reflect about: their ability to exchange personal information their ability to write about themselves For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

PAGE 14

16 +++
1

13 ++

In pairs, the students listen and then repeat the conversation. (L.A.: to imitate intonation/pronunciation patterns).

Motivate the students to read the two posts and answer them in their notebooks. Invite them to compare their answers in their groups. (L.A.: to give personal information in writing). Answers Will vary

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE Diana: Steve: Diana: Steve: Diana: Steve: Diana:

Hi, my name's Diana. What's your name? Hi, I'm Steve. Nice to meet you. How old are you, Steve. And, where do you come from? I'm 14, and I come from Canada. What do you like doing in your free time? I always do sports or visit my friends. And you? I often do sports too, and I always chat on the Internet with people from all over the world.

PAGE 15

17

+++

FL

14 +++
Motivate students to replace the parts underlined with information that is true for them and then role-play the conversation in front of their classmates. (L.A.: to ask for and give personal information).

Invite fast learners to read the posts again and then answer the questions. Motivate them to support their answers and encourage them to share their conclusions with the rest of their classmates. You can organize a debate and then ask the students to come to an agreement. (L.A.: to relate topic to personal reality / to consolidate content of the lesson). Answers Will vary

15 ++
Encourage the students to complete the post to introduce themselves to a Forum Chat. Motivate them to be creative and write as if they were chatting. You can assign this activity as homework and check it orally the next class (L.A.: to express personal information).

LETS CHECK
18 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them

26

UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign a mark according to the scale. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers Will vary. Accept any coherent ideas. For example: I always swim in the swimming pool in summer. I hardly ever eat hamburgers or junk food. I never sleep on my stomach. I sometimes talk to my friends on my cell phone. I usually play computer games in the evening.

REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students to make connections between the topic of the lesson and real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

Answers COMPUTERS / FASHION / FRIENDS / MUSIC / PARTIES / SPORTS / VIDEOGAMES + + + + + + + + N + + + + S + + + + + + + + + O S + + E + + S E M A G O E D I V P I + + + + + + + + + + + H + T O + + + + + + + + + + + S R + + R + + + + + S + + + + A + + + + T + + + + + R + + P F + + + + + S + + + + + E + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + T + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + U + + + + + + + F R I E N D S M P + + + + + + + + + + + + + U + M + + + + + + + + + + + + S + + O + + + + + + + + + + + I + + + C + + + + + + + + + + C + + + + + + +

2 ++
Now, in pairs, the students make a list of other words related to teenagers. Check orally. (L.A: to relate previous knowledge to the topic). Answers Will vary

PAGE 16
LESSON 2
LISTENING

3 +++
Draw students attention to the photo and ask them to answer the questions in their groups. Invite one member of each group to share their answers with the rest of their classmates. (L.A.: to infer information from pictures). Answers Will vary according to students ideas.

TEENAGE TALK

BEFORE LISTENING
1

+
Brainstorm students ideas about things or activities that are related to teen culture. Motivate them to find seven words related to this topic in the Word Search puzzle. You can divide the class into groups or pairs and organize a competition, setting a time limit. (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to understand new vocabulary).

4 +++
Have students read the words in the Key Word Spot and then identify their meaning in the list. Allow them to use bilingual or monolingual dictionaries if necessary. (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). Answers a. fed up; b. look forward to; c. wool

27

PAGE 17

LISTENING
5 +
2

Answers look for a girlfriend (1); play the drums (3); talk about music (2); wear a nice jacket (4)

8 +++

Tell students that they are going to listen to an interview to the boy in the photo. Explain to them that this first time they dont need to pay attention to details. They must only get the general content to check their predictions in Exercise 3. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers a. Yes, he does. b. Hes from Chicago, in the USA. c. He likes skateboarding, playing the guitar and listening to music. d. He cares about the environment.

Play the recording again. This time, the students must listen and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. If necessary, play the recording again for them to correct the false statements. Alternatively, you can ask the keener students to do this and then to share their answers with the rest of the class. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information). Answers a. False (he lives in a suburb of Chicago). b. False (he goes skateboarding). c. False (he goes to the movies once or twice a month). d. False (he is reading a book about birds). e. True (and he also likes Spanish and computer sciences). f. False (he is not looking for a girlfriend). g. True.

6 ++

The students listen to the interview once more and identify the correct alternative for each sentence. (L.A: to identify correct words). Answers a. friends; b. The Amazing Life of Birds; c. older; d. homework; e. one week.
Reflection Spot

TRANSCRIPT - TEENAGE TALK

Make sure you assign enough time of your class to allow students to reflect on their achievements and weaknesses. They read the statements and assess: their ability to use visuals to make predictions their ability to distinguish sounds For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

7 ++

Play the recording again. Ask students to listen and match the lists A and B. Then, encourage them to find the correct picture for each collocation. (L.A.: to identify collocations / to relate text and pictures).

Presenter: Danny Evans is 16, and lives in a suburb of Chicago. Danny, what do you usually do on weekends? Danny: I always go skateboarding and I play the drums. I also often listen to music with my friends. And we go to clubs every Saturday night. Presenter: How often do you go to the movies? Danny: Once or twice a month. Presenter: What are you reading right now? Danny: A great book called The Amazing Life of Birds, by Gary Paulsen. Presenter: What are your favorite subjects at school? Danny: History, Spanish and computer science. Presenter: What do you and your friends talk about? Danny: Girls, sports and music. Presenter: Do you have a girlfriend? Danny: No; all the girls like older boys, because they have cars, and jobs and money. Anyway, Im not looking for a girlfriend. Presenter: What are you wearing today? Danny: Im wearing a fleece jacket, jeans and sneakers.

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TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

Presenter: Danny: Presenter: Danny:

How are you feeling? Im fed up with homework. What are you doing on your next vacation? Im spending a week with my cousins in the country. I cant wait! Presenter: What kind of things do you really care about? Danny: I think the environment is really important. We must stop the destruction of our planet!
PAGE 18

9 +
Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT to copy and complete the dialogues using the Simple Present or the Present Progressive of the verbs in brackets. Then, ask them to relate each dialogue with a picture. (L.A.: to apply a language structure). Answers a. does, do, He / She plays. (3) b. is, doing, is organizing. (2) c. do, eat, drink (1) ERROR ALERT Present Progressive: Im wearing a uniform / He is reading a book (NOT: I wearing a uniform / He reading a book) Exercise: Use the prompts to write sentences in the Present Progressive tense. a. Anna / cook / the meal. b. Bill / play / chess / his friends. c. Diana / sleep / her best friends house. d. Nick and Jill / swim / the pool. e. Bob / read / a novel. f. Jim and Sheila / have / dinner. g. My parents / watch / a movie. h. Ann / help / her mother. i. The plane / take off. j. Tina and Margaret / travel / around the world. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

AFTER LISTENING
LANGUAGE SPOT
The Present Progressive for future plans This section is designed to help students revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. The activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not enunciate them the answers. 1. The students read the questions and answers from the interview carefully. 2. Help them identify which exchange talks about an event that is happening now and which exchange talks about future plans. Answers: a.- a.; b. b.; c. ii. 3. Now students copy and complete the general rule in their notebook. Answers: We use the Present Progressive to talk about temporary events and about what is happening now. We can also use the Present Progressive to talk about future plans and arrangements. 4. Invite your students to speculate about two more plans that Danny may have and then write sentences in their notebooks. Check their answers orally. Answers: Will vary. Accept any coherent ideas, such as: Danny is visiting his family on Saturday; Danny is riding a horse tomorrow morning; Danny is doing sports on the weekend, etc. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

29

PAGE 19

GAME SPOT
3

10 ++

In groups, the students complete the extract of the interview in their notebooks. Then, play the recording and ask them to compare their answers. (L.A.: to ask and give information). Answers See transcript.

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE Presenter: Leo: Presenter: Leo: Presenter: Leo: Presenter: Leo: Presenter: Leo:

How often do you go to the movies? Once or twice a month. What are you reading right now? A great book called The Golden Compass. What are your favorite subjects at school? Drama, Spanish and computer science. What do you and your friends talk about? Sports and music. What are you doing next weekend? We are playing football and going to a birthday party.

PLAY THE DONT ANSWER BACK GAME This game guarantees confusion and lots of laughter in the classroom (perfect for teenagers!). a. Ask students to write down questions like those in the interview and in Exercise 10. b. Form groups of six students and sit them in a circle. c.d.e. Write a question on the board. Example: Whats your name? Explain that the aim for each student is to give the answer to the question asked to the student before. To help explain this, get a student to ask you a question (ex: Have you got a sister?), dont answer this question but tell your name (answering the question written on the board). f.g. Start the game. Each player has 3 lives. If he/she doesnt answer the correct question, or he/she hesitates for too long, he /she loses a life. The winner is / are the player/s with most lives at the end of the time limit. For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

11 +++
Ask students to ask and answer the questions in the interview with their partners. Then, encourage them to practice and act it in front of their classmates. Motivate them to participate actively in this kind of activities, which are in most cases the only opportunity they have to use English. (L.A.: to ask for and give information).

PAGE 20

LETS CHECK
13 The purpose of this section is to allow students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign a mark according to the scale. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.

12 +
With the information from the interview, the students complete the description of their partners in their notebooks. Choose some of them to read the descriptions aloud to provide a model for their classmates. You can also assign this activity for homework. (L.A.: to consolidate content of the lesson).

30

UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

Answers The questions should be the same, but the answers will vary, according to students' ideas. Make sure they are coherent and use the correct language form. a. What are you doing on Saturday morning? I'm / We are ing . b. What are you and your friends doing on your next vacations? We are ing . c. What clothes are you wearing for the birthday party? I'm wearing ____.

REAL LIFE SPOT


The objective of this section is to provide a bit of humor to the class. Anyway, all the jokes and cartoons are related to the topic of the lesson. Give some minutes to allow students to read and then invite them to share their comments to make sure they understood the joke. At this point, you may allow the use of Spanish to check comprehension. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

14 ++ FL
Motivate keener students to unscramble the words related to clothes and then match them to the correct picture. Invite them to share their answer with the rest of the class. (L.A.: to consolidate vocabulary / to relate words and pictures). Answers a. jacket (3); b. jeans (5); c. sneakers (8); d. top (6); e. boots (1); f. t-shirt (7); g. shirt (2); h. skirt (4)

PAGE 22
LESSON 3
READING

THE MYSTERY OF TEEN FASHION

BEFORE READING
1

PAGE 21

+
You can introduce the topic of the lesson starting a conversation about teen fashion. Elicit students ideas about this issue and make notes on the board. Then, ask the students to look at the pictures and describe the clothes the teens are wearing. Finally, ask their opinion about the style they like most. (L.A.: to express opinions / to relate topic with own reality).

15 +++
In pairs, the students take turns to describe the pictures, saying what the people are doing. Select some students to describe the pictures aloud in order to check the answers. (L.A.: to describe pictures / to use a language structure). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Answers The girl is reading a magazine. The boy is watching TV. The boy is playing basketball. The girls are talking about boyfriends / fashion / music, etc. The girl is wearing smart clothes. The boy is playing video games.

2 ++
Motivate students to find out if they are fashion victims. Tell them to answer the questions honestly, calculate their scores and then compare the results with their partners or in their groups. Take advantage of the activity to start a general conversation about the relation between fashion trends and teenagers. (L.A.: to relate topic to personal experiences). Answers Will vary.

31

3 +++
Tell students to read statements a. d. and then choose the ones they think are true. Do not check answers at this point. (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to formulate predictions).

PAGE 24

READING
6 +
The students read the text quickly and confirm or correct their choices in Exercise 3. Remind them that this first reading is only to validate their predictions; it is not necessary to understand every single word. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers All the statements are true.

PAGE 23

4 +
Ask the students to take a look at the text and identify all the cognates they can find. Check orally or asking some students to write the list of cognates on the board. Remind them that this first reading must be very quick, only to find key words that may help them to understand the text. (L.A.: to identify cognates through scanning). Answers fascinating, neon, colored, common, bands, accessories, dictates, companies, specialize, hours, television, different, style, influence, pop culture, shows, music, celebrities, impact, millions, dollars, identify. ERROR ALERT False cognates Notice = see, observe, pay attention (NOT: noticia) For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

7 ++
Now, the students must read the article carefully and answer the questions in their notebooks. You can ask some students to read their answers aloud to check the exercise. (L.A.: to identify specific information). a. b. c. d. Answers Neon-colored hair; pierced tongues; bare stomachs. They travel all over the world and watch thousands of hours of movies and television. Pop culture. They spend millions of dollars.

8 +++
The students read the text again to insert sentences a. d. back in it. Guide them to find the textual clues that may help them, for example: if it is a question, if it is a reason, an additional idea, etc. (L.A.: to localize missing information). Answers (1) d.; (2) c.; (3) a.; (4) b.

5 ++
Draw students attention to the words in the Key Word Spot and tell them to find their definitions in column A. Then, ask them to identify their synonyms in column B. (L.A.: to infer meaning of key words). Answers bare: not covered by any clothes; naked household: connected with the house; domestic track down: to find something; detect trend: a general style; tendency

9 ++
Ask the students to read the article again if necessary, and form collocations with the words in columns A and B. Then, make them relate three of the collocations with a picture below. (L.A.: to infer meaning of words from the context ; to relate words and visuals).

32

UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

Answers a. v. (3); b. iii. (1); c. i. (2); d. iv.; e. ii.; f. vi.

LANGUAGE SPOT
Expressing quantity Remember that this section is designed to help students revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. The activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. Ask the students to read the sentences from the text, paying special attention to the words in bold. 2. Guide them to identify what the words in bold express in each sentence. Answers: b. 3. Now, the students copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. Draw students attention to the Note in the Language Spot, and make sure they know the difference between Countable and Uncountable Nouns. Answers: We use words such as a lot of, a few, some, many, to express a quantity. 4. Now students go back to the text and identify all the sentences that express quantity. Ask them to copy the sentences in their notebooks and underline the words used to express quantity. Answers: Companies trend spotters watch a lot of hours of movies and television. A lot of TV shows, music, movies, magazines and celebrities have a huge impact on teen style. Clothing companies spend a lot of money trying to identify the next hot trend. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

10 ++
Tell the students to copy the chart into their notebooks, and then complete it with information from the text. You can copy the chart on the board and then ask some students to complete it to allow the class to check their answers. You can also assign this exercise as homework. (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers Parts of the body Entertainment Household items tongue stomachs hair ankle TV shows movies music magazines safety pins rubber bands

PAGE 25

11 +++
Invite your students to read the text once more and find words in it that correspond to descriptions a. e. Read the descriptions aloud and analyze them carefully. Draw students attention to the kind (or category) of word that they should look for in each case. (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). Answers a. (adjective) cool; b. (noun) trend spotter; c. (noun) accessories; d. (noun) influence; e. (adverb) steadily.

AFTER READING
12 +
Ask the class to form groups of four or five students to talk about clothes and accessories they wear. Explain that they can use the questions provided to guide the conversation. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality).

33

ERROR ALERT Countable Nouns Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. Countable nouns can be singular or plural. Uncountable Nouns Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts, etc. that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot count them. We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. Countable Uncountable dollar money song music suitcase luggage table furniture battery electricity bottle wine report information tip advice journey travel job work view scenery Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and uncountable, often with a change of meaning. Examples: Countable There are two hairs in my coffee! There are two lights in our bedroom. Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise. Have you got a paper to read? Our house has seven rooms. Noun Hair Light Noise Uncountable I dont have much hair. Theres too much light! Its difficult to work when there is too much noise. I want to draw a picture. Have you got some paper? Is there room for me to sit here?

PAGE 26

13 +
Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT to complete what the two teenagers say. Invite some of them to write the correct sentences on the board to allow the rest to check their answers. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answers Anne: much, a lot of, a lot of, much. Malcom: a lot of, a few, a few, some, some, much, a few.
Reflection Spot

The purpose of this activity is to help students reflect on their learning process and to raise students awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more effective learners. They should work on their own but you may help and guide the work when necessary. The students read the statements and assess: their ability to exchange personal information. their ability to express quantities. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

14 ++
Play the recording and ask the students to listen and read at the same time. (L.A.: to imitate intonation patterns).

Paper

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

Room

Additional exercise: Decide whether you have to use much or many. a. _______ cars f. _______ numbers b. _______ music g. _______ money c. _______ pictures h. _______ tea d. _______ flowers i. _______ girls e. _______ milk j. _______ pencils
For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

A: Can you describe what you are wearing? B: I'm wearing a long black skirt, a black T-shirt and black boots. I'm also wearing black eyeliner, black nail varnish and black lipstick. A: What do you call your style? B: I am a Goth. A: What about the accessories? B: I wear only a few accessories, like hair pins, and I have some piercings. A: Do you spend a lot of money on clothes? B: No; I don't have many clothes and I usually get them from a second hand shop.

34

UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

15 +++
Now, ask the students to work in pairs replacing the parts underlined in the dialogue with facts that are true for them. Then, ask the students to practice the dialogue imitating the recording. You can play it again, if necessary. Encourage some pairs to act it in front of the class to provide a model for their classmates. (L.A.: to express and give information / to relate topic to own reality).

18 ++ FL
Motivate fast learners to invent three more questions to add to the quiz in Exercise 2. Then, invite them to ask the questions to their partners. (L.A.: to consolidate content of the lesson).

REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students to make connections between the topic of the lesson and the real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

LETS CHECK
16 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers a. some; b. a few; c. many; d. a lot of, some, a few; e. much, a few.

PAGE 28
LESSON 4
LISTENING

TYPICAL TEENAGERS

BEFORE LISTENING
1

+
Start the lesson by drawing students attention to the pictures and tell them to find the relationship with the comments (a. d.) You can also ask the students if they can identify themselves in any of the situations. (L.A.: to relate visuals and written text).

PAGE 27

17 +++
Motivate students to copy and complete the paragraph in their notebooks, using the information they collected in Exercise 14. You can also assign this exercise as homework and invite some students to read their work aloud the next class. (L.A.: to consolidate content of the lesson). Answers Will vary.

Answers 1 a.; 2 b.; 3 d.; 4 c.

2 ++
Ask the students to revise the comments in Exercise 1 and identify the topics that represent a source of conflict with their parents. Then, invite them to form groups and compare their answers with their partners. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers Will vary.

35

PAGE 29

3 ++
Explain to your students that they are going to listen to two poems related to the name of the lesson. Ask them to read it and choose the alternative they think is correct. (L.A.: to use titles to formulate predictions). Do not check answers at this point.

ERROR ALERT Draw students attention to the difference between the /&i:/ sound, as in leave, and the /I/ sound, as in live. Exercise: Listen to the following word pairs. Repeat them, being careful to make the distinction between the two sounds. pit / Pete; bitch / beach; living / leaving; gin / Jean; bid / bead; pick / peak; mid / mead; lick / leak; grin / green Tongue twister: Does Jim still steal Jills jeans? For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

4 +++
Draw students attention to the words in the Key Word Spot. Tell them to look them up in a dictionary and then copy them in their notebooks. Check orally. (L.A.: to apply study skills). folks: fume: mean: swear: unfair: utterly: Answers members of your family, especially your parents. to be very angry about something. angry. to use rude or offensive language. unjust. totally, very.

7 ++

Tell the students to read the sentences. Play the recording of the second poem and ask them to number the phrases in the order they hear them. Then, they listen to the poem once more to check their answers. (L.A.: to identify the sequence of information). Answers c.; e.; b.; d.; a.

LISTENING
5 +
5

8 +++

Play the recording. Ask the students to listen and check their predictions in Exercise 3. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers b.

6 ++

Play the recording of the first poem again. Tell the students to choose the alternative they think is correct. Check on the board. (L.A.: to identify the words said and relate them to their written form). Answers sleepy; on end; leave; think; swear; reeling; be; living.

Ask the students to read the comments in Exercise 1 again. Then, play the recording again and tell them to identify the topics that are mentioned. You can encourage advanced learners to also identify how the topics are mentioned in the poem. For example: That music is too loud / their music cracks the ceiling; You sleep too much / sleepy; You spend too much on the phone / They talk for hours on end; Your room is a mess / Theyll leave their room a mess (L.A.: to identify general information). Answers All of them are mentioned in the poem.

36

UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

TRANSCRIPT - COMPLAINTS

PAGE 30

Happy, sad, sleepy, mean, Feelings often change, A common act of a typical teen, I find it rather strange. Talking to a friend, or sending them a text, They talk for hours on end, whatll they think of next Theyll leave their room a mess And give cleaning it a miss, But yes, I must confess To also doing this They think their folks are ancient, And utterly unfair, the result is to ignore them Before they start to swear. Their music cracks the ceiling, And makes their parents fume, Emotions always reeling And more time in their room. Being a teen may be pretty bad, But from experience I can tell, Its much worse for mum and dad, For them its living hell! Getting Older When you cannot find your pencil And your purse has gone astray. When youre feeling rather tired For it has been a hectic day. When the morning comes too quickly And you just cant cope with rush; When everyone is shouting And youd rather have some hush. Perhaps youre getting older, For this happens we are told, But no, this isnt how it is Youre only thirteen years old!

AFTER LISTENING
9 +++
Tell students to work in pairs to complete the dialogue with facts that are true for them. Let them know that several possibilities are correct. The students can also practice the dialogue as homework and act it the next class. (L.A.: to express facts / opinions / information). Possible Answers A: Do you recognize yourself in the poem? B: Yes, because my feelings often change, I talk to friends for hours, and my room is a mess. What about you? A: Well, I dont recognize myself because my room is always tidy, I dont think my parents are ancient and my music is never too loud.

37

LANGUAGE SPOT
Addition, alternative and contrast This section is designed to help students revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. The activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students revise the examples from the poem, paying special attention to the words in bold. 2. The students identify: a. the word that introduces an additional idea b. the word that introduces an alternative idea c. what concept the word but introduces Answers: a. and; b. or; c. a contrast 3. Now, the students copy and complete the general rules in their notebooks. Answers: We use but when we want to express a contrast between two ideas. We use and when we want to express additional ideas. We use or when we want to express alternative ideas. 4. Provide transcripts of the poems to your students. You can photocopy them or you can write them on the board. Then, ask the students to copy all the sentences that include the words in the Language Spot, and to identify what they express. Answers: Poem 1: Theyll leave their room a mess and give cleaning it a miss, (addition) They think their folks are ancient, and utterly unfair (addition) Poem 2: When you cannot find your pencil and your purse has gone astray. (addition) When the morning comes too quickly and you just cant cope with rush; (addition) When everyone is shouting and youd rather have some hush. (addition) For this happens we are told, but no, this isnt how it is. (contrast) For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

PAGE 31

10 +
Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT to combine the pairs of sentences. Invite some students to write their sentences on the board to check the exercise. (L.A.: to use / apply a new language structure). a. b. c. d. Answers Teenagers sleep a lot but they are always sleepy, anyway. Teenagers dont talk with their parents but they talk a lot with their friends. Teenagers like music and sports. Teenagers like to be with friends or to spend a lot of time in their rooms.
6

11 +++

Provide the transcripts of the poems or write them on the board. Play the recording several times. In pairs, students choose the part of the poem they like most. Then, motivate them to memorize and say it in front of the class. (L.A.: to imitate intonation pattern).

GAME SPOT
Encourage students to read the clues and try to solve the crossword with words from the first poem they listened to. Allow use of dictionaries if necessary. Answers: Across: 2. hell, 6. confess, 8. unfair, 9. mess Down: 1. ceiling, 3. folks, 4. ancient, 5. teen, 7. friend For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

38

UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

PAGE 32

PAGE 33

LETS CHECK
12 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers a. or; b. and; c. but; d. but; e. and.

14 +++
Now, tell students to think about feelings, ideas or actions related with teenagers. Then, ask them to copy and complete the poem in their notebooks and then share their work in their groups. You can ask the class to choose the best poems and display them in a visible place of the classroom. If you want, you can provide the original poem, for students to compare with their versions. (L.A.: to consolidate topic of the lesson). Answers I AM James Born I am love in the face of hate, I am kindness in the face of ridicule, I am strength in the face of adversity, I am patience in the face of the mule. I will not run away from fear, I will not run and hide. I am bravery, I am pride, I will make a difference in this world, big or small. That is my promise to me, my promise to all.

13 ++
Read the words in the box with the class and check that students understand their meaning. Ask them to use the words to complete the verses of the poem in their notebooks. afraid = feeling fear / temeroso/a; ashamed = feeling shame or embarrassment / avergonzado/a; blunt = very direct / muy franco/a; bold = brave and confident / audaz; brave = courageous / valiente; loud = making a lot of noise / bullicioso/a; quiet = tending not to talk very much / callado/a; shy = nervous or embarrassed about meeting and speaking to other people / tmido/a. (L.A.: to use vocabulary related to the topic). Answers TURN UP THE VOLUME Liz Boyatt I need to be bold, I need to be loud, I need to be blunt, I need to be brave. I can't be shy, I can't keep quiet, I can't be ashamed, I can't be afraid, I can't be anyone but myself.

15 ++
Motivate students to read the first poem again and find phrases or sentences to describe each picture. (L.A.: to relate text and visuals). Possible Answers Picture 1: Talking to a friend / They talk for hours on end. Picture 2: Sending them a text, Picture 3: Their music cracks the ceiling Picture 4: They'll leave their room a mess, And give cleaning it a miss Picture 5: Happy, sad, sleepy, mean / And more time in their room. Picture 6: Talking to a friend / They talk for hours on end.

39

16 +++ FL
Encourage fast learners to find three sentences in the poems they have seen in this lesson that describe a typical teenager. Ask them to write them on a nice piece of paper and add illustrations. Display their work in the classroom. (L.A.: to express opinions and connect topic to own reality).

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

PAGE 34
YOUR ENGLISH IN ACTION

Answers What do you generally do on Friday evenings? I usually go to the movies. How are you feeling right now? Im tired. I have so much homework. What are your favorite subjects at school? I like Spanish and Math. What are you doing next weekend? I am doing sports and going to a disco with my friends. What are you wearing today? Im wearing jeans, sneakers and a fleece jacket. What do you like to do with your friends? I like to go skating, going to parties and doing sports.

3 The students must read the interview about


This section provides additional exercises that represent a good opportunity for students to consolidate topics and language structures of the lessons. You can assign these activities at the end of each lesson, or as homework and give them an extra mark. this very extreme new fashion, and then complete the paragraph. Answers Sonias favorite clothes and accessories are pink mini skirts, pink tops, platform boots, false eyelashes, glitter and pink lipstick. She likes them because she thinks she looks really cool, but her mother doesnt like the way she looks or dresses. To get money to buy her clothes and accessories she has a weekend job at a supermarket.

Tell the students to search for information about someone that has a very unusual life, and to write a personal introduction about him / her to a Student Chat Forum, like the ones in Lesson 1. Answers

Will vary.

PAGE 35

2 Explain to the students that they must refer


to the interview in Lesson 2 to write a complete interview using the prompts given. You can also ask them to do this task in pairs and then to role-play the interview in front of the class.

4 Motivate students to find out if they can be


considered typical teenagers. Tell them to answer the quiz and calculate the scores. Then, ask them to compare their results with their classmates, and elicit their comments. Answers Will vary according to students scores.

@@ CLICK ON
If possible, motivate students to visit the web site and find more about the extreme fashion described in the interview. Next class, ask them to share their findings with their classmates. For more information on CLICK ON, see page 12 of the Introduction.

40

UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

PAGE 36
UNIT CHECK

PAGE 38

6 1 d. ; 2 a. ; 3 c. ; 4 b. ; 5 e. TRANSCRIPT: DIAMOND LAMOURS LIFE


7

Explain to the students that the purpose of this section is to help them revise contents and evaluate their performance in the whole unit. Read the instructions and make sure all the students understand what they are expected to do in each activity. Encourage them to give honest answers in order to detect their strengths and weaknesses. Check students results and revise any points that the majority of them had problems with. For more information on UNIT CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers READING - TWO CULTURES

Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond:

a. The girl lives in Shanghai, in China. The boy lives in Seattle, in the USA. b. She goes to her sports club to do judo or play baseball and tennis. He plays video games. c. She takes the subway. d. He gets up at 7:00 in the morning. e. Snoop Dogg is his favorite singer.

Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond: Interviewer: Diamond:

2 a. True; b. False; c. True; d. False; e. False. 3 a. Kenny; b. Bao-Yu; c. Kenny; d. Bao-Yu; e. Bao-Yu
LISTENING - DIAMOND LAMOUR'S LIFE
7

4 a. False; b. False; c. False; d. False; e. True. 5 a. fifteen; b. meets; c. Jake; d. excited; e. politicians.

Hi, Diamond. Can I ask you a few questions? Sure. How old are you? Im fourteen. Where do you live? In Lansing, Michigan. What do you usually do on weekends? I meet my friends downtown, we go window shopping and have a soda or an ice cream. And I often go to parties on Saturday night, not to discos, but to friends houses. How often do you go to the movies? About once a month. What are you reading right now? Nothing right now because Im studying for several tests. What are your favorite school subjects? Spanish, history and art. What do you and your friends talk about? Clothes, TV, and boys. Do you have a boyfriend? Yes. Hes called Jake and hes 16. What are you wearing today? A blue top, a denim skirt, and boots. How are you feeling? Excited, because Im 15 tomorrow. What are you doing next Saturday night? I have my birthday party! What do you care about? Politics. I want to change the world! What do you worry about? I get really nervous about exams. What are your plans for next week? Im studying for all my exams.

41

LANGUAGE

PAGE 39
FINAL REFLECTION

7 A: What do you do on weekends?


B: I go out with friends. A: What do you do with your friends? B: We talk about sports and music. A: Are you reading a book at the moment? B: Yes. I am reading Harry Potter. A: What are you doing on Friday night? B: I am watching a movie on TV.

8 Will vary. Accept any coherent answer.


SPEAKING

The purpose of this section is to allow students to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses. Make sure all the students understand what they are expected to do and give enough time to answer the questions. Encourage students to give honest answers and show interest in their results. For more information on FINAL REFLECTION, see page 6 of the Introduction.

9 In pairs, the students use the questions in


Exercises 1 and 7 to exchange personal information. Make sure that they change roles. You can assign a mark according to these criteria: 5 points: student can introduce him / her self and ask and answer basic questions about personal information, with a minimum of hesitation and grammar mistakes. 4 3 points: student can exchange personal information, but hesitates and makes some grammar mistakes. 2 1 points: student cant exchange personal information, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. WRITING

10 The students read and reply to Bao-Yu or


Kennys posts, giving information that is true for them. You can assign a mark according to these criteria: 5 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, without spelling or grammar mistakes. 3 4 points: student can write a short paragraph in a coherent way, but makes some spelling and / or grammar mistakes. 1 2 points: student cant write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, and makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.

42

UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

EXTRA TEST UNIT 1

READING - THE STUDENTS MAIL

Dear friends: Hi! Im Dora. Im 14 and I study at Liceo Superior in Necochea, Argentina. I like to chat with students all around the world to learn more about their culture and way of life. I like listening to music and reading. At this moment, Im reading a very interesting novel, Worl d Without End. Please write to me! I can write in English and, of course, in Spanish!

in Brazil. Im interested Hello! Im Ariel. Im 15 and Im from Porto Alegre, es and computers. I in all sports, especially soccer, and I love video gam of the world, so I would like to have cyber friends from different parts hope someone writes to me.

at a secondary school in Hello friends! My name is Enzo and Im a student in the afternoon. I Quito, Ecuador. Im 13. I go to school five days a week I want to have friends start lessons at 1 p.m. and return home at 6 p.m. from other countries. to the movies and I have many hobbies, I like playing sports, going the drums in my play I c musi having fun with my friends. I also love school band and sometimes I sing!

Hi! Im Rachel, Its good to meet you. Im from Denv er, Colorado, in the USA. Im 16 years old and I like to play tennis and basketball. I also like to write poems and listen to music. I would like to get cyber friends from abroad. Please write to me, I am waiting for your mails!

Take a look at the texts. What are the students doing?. a. b. c. d. Asking for advice. Introducing themselves. Talking about their families. Telling a story.

1 pt.

2 Read the texts again and answer these questions.


a. b. c. d. e. Why do the students write the posts? Do they have similar interests and lives? Who is the oldest? Who is the youngest? Which continents are they from?
5 pts.

3 Read the texts once more and complete this chart.


Name Country Interests

4 pts.

43

LISTENING - TEENAGERS IN THE STREET

Listen to the recording. What is the person who asks the questions doing? a. Doing a survey. b. Interviewing people. c. Reading a piece of news.

1 pt.

5
a. b. c. d. e.

Listen to the recording again. Are these statements true or false? The teens are students at an Elementary School. They usually study on weekends. The boy likes to go to the cinema. The girl is reading a novel. The boy is looking for a girlfriend. Listen to the recording again and choose the best alternative. a. b. c. d. On Saturdays, I usually go shopping / do the shopping. I play basketball / baseball. I'm on the school team. I prefer to rent DVDs / CDs and stay at home. Many / most girls like older boys.

5 pts.

4 pts.

LANGUAGE

7 Choose the right form for each sentence.


a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Gregory cant talk to you now; he has / is having a shower. I wash / am washing my clothes every Thursday. They are playing / play tennis on Wednesdays. Dont talk to me! I watch / am watching this movie. Astronauts do / are doing experiments every morning. She is taking / takes the dog for a walk every afternoon. I dont like / am not liking Leonardo DiCaprio. We are having / have lunch at 1.00 on Sundays. My mother bakes / is baking a cake for my fathers birthday. I listen / am listening to my favorite singers latest album.

5 pts.

SPEAKING

8 In pairs, role-play an interview like that in the recording. Exchange information about
routines, interests and favorite activities. WRITING

5 pts.

9 Use the information from exercise 8 to write a short paragraph describing your best
friends interests and favorite activities.

5 pts.

35 pts. TOTAL 0 - 12 Keep trying! 13 - 21 Good! 22 - 29 Very good! 30 - 35 Excellent!

44

UNIT 1

TEEN TEEN LIFE LIFE

ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 1

Interviewer: Girl: Interviewer: Girl:

READING - STUDENTS' MAILS

1 b. 2 a. Because they want to have friends from


b. c. d. e. all over the world. Yes, they do. Rachel is the oldest. Enzo is the youngest. Theyre from North / South America.

What are you reading right now? Im reading the latest Harry Potter novel. What do you and your friends talk about? We talk about clothes and music, TV programs, and boys, of course! Boy: We always talk about sports, sports and sports. Interviewer: Would you like to have a girlfriend? Boy: Id like to, but most girls like older boys. Well have to wait! Interviewer: Thank you very much. Here, have a copy of the first issue of our magazine
LANGUAGE

3
Name Dora Ariel Enzo Rachel Country Argentina Brazil Ecuador USA Interests Listening to music; reading Sports; video games; computers Sports; movies; music Sports, writing; music
8

7 a. is having; b. wash; c. play; d. am


watching; e. do; f. takes; g. dont like; h. have; i. is baking; j. am listening SPEAKING

8 In pairs, the students role-play a survey and


exchange personal information. You can assign a mark according to these criteria: 5 points: student can introduce him / herself and ask and answer basic questions about personal information, with a minimum of hesitation and grammar mistakes. 3 4 points: student can exchange personal information, but hesitates and makes some grammar mistakes. 1 2 points: student cant exchange personal information, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. WRITING

LISTENING - TEENAGERS IN THE STREET

4 a. 5 a. False. b. False. c. False. d. True. e. False. 6 a. go. b. baseball. c. DVDs. d. Most TRANSCRIPT - TEENAGERS IN THE STREET
8

Interviewer: Excuse me. Can I ask you a few questions? Im doing a survey for a new teens magazine Teenagers: Sure! Interviewer: Are you students? Boy: Yes, at Brentwood High School. Interviewer: What do you usually do on weekends? Girl: On Saturdays, I usually go shopping and then I like to visit friends or go to parties. Boy: I play baseball. Im on the school team. On Saturday nights, I meet my friends and we usually go to parties. Interviewer: How often do you go to the cinema? Girl: Very often; about two or three times a month. Interviewer: What about you? Boy: I never go to the cinema. I prefer to rent DVDs and stay at home.

9 The students use the information from


Exercise 8 to write a paragraph about their partners interests and favorite activities. You can assign a mark according to these criteria: 5 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, without spelling or grammar mistakes. 3 4 point: student can write a short paragraph in a coherent way, but makes some spelling and / or grammar mistakes. 1 2: student cant write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, and makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.

45

UNIT
BELIEVE IT OR NOT
fixed arrangements use conjunctive connectors use the First Conditional Speaking ask and answer questions about fixed arrangements talk about virtual life Writing write a short report complete a paragraph about life in the future You will also: reflect about the importance of technology development develop acceptance and respect for everyones opinions Development Lesson 1: four hours Lesson 2: four hours Lesson 3: four hours Lesson 4: four hours Indicators

In this unit you will: read a web page read a scientific article listen to an interview listen to an advertisement You will learn how to: Reading scan the text to validate predictions use cognates to get the general meaning find general and specific information discriminate between correct and incorrect information Listening relate speakers and speech discriminate sounds and words identify specific information Language use the Simple Future tense to express predictions use the Present Continuous tense to talk about Types of Evaluation

Consolidation and evaluation activities: 3 hours + home assignments Didactic resources Complementary material such as articles magazines, Student Forum chats. Pictures of teenagers provided by the teacher and by the students to illustrate the diversity of teenager cultures. Support material such as lists of adjectives, dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed handouts, library material, etc. Methodological suggestions Teachers should prepare the lessons beforehand considering that thorough prior preparation allows them to think of and apply some useful ideas. It is their chance to make the class entertaining and to involve students in the learning process. Teachers are advised to use a variety of resources throughout the book.

Continuous/informal Students do reading and listening activities, take part in conversations, and produce written texts. Reflection spot Self - evaluation Unit Check Unit evaluation Students analyze their performance in the speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities. Reading: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify the correct sequence of events and discriminate sounds. Language: Students use the Future Tense and connectors although and besides. Speaking: Students exchange information about future fixed arrangements. Writing: Students write a short paragraph about a city on the moon. Students analyze their performance in the whole unit. Reading: Students identify type of text, find specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use the Present Perfect tense to complete a paragraph. Writing: Students write a short paragraph about their plans and hopes for the future. Speaking: Students exchange information about their past experiences.

Final Reflection Extra Test

46

UNIT 2

BELIEVE IT OR NOT

PAGE 40

2 ++
Motivate the students to write a list of things that they would like to have in a virtual world. Encourage some of them to share their lists with their classmates and elicit their comments. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers Will vary.

GETTING READY 1
Introduce the unit telling the students to look at the pictures and decide which ones show real life and which ones show virtual life. Answers There are only two pictures that show real life, the first one (on the left) and the fourth (second line, on the right).

2 Ask your students to think if it is possible to


live a virtual life, and how. Possible Answers Yes, it is possible to have a virtual life through Internet.

3 ++
Tell the students to have a look at the text they are going to read and decide what type of text it is. Do not check the answers at this stage. (L.A.: to identify type of text from visuals).

3 Invite the students to think about what they


think life will be like in 50 years time, and then choose the predictions they think will come true. Ask some of them to share their comments with their classmates. Answers Will vary, according to students predictions.

4 +++
In their notebooks, the students make a list of cognates they expect to find in a text related to a virtual world. Do not check their answers at this point. (L.A.: to predict content from previous knowledge). Answers Will vary according to students predictions.

PAGE 42
LESSON 1
READING

5 +++
Ask the students to study the words in the Key Word Spot. Tell them to match them with their meaning (a. c). (L.A.: to infer the meaning of key words). Answers encourage: c.; gathering: a.; skyscraper: b.

A VIRTUAL WORLD FOR TEENS

BEFORE READING
1

+
Tell the students to look at the pictures. Explain to them that they all show virtual life. Ask them to choose the virtual world activities they would like to do. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers

Will vary according to students choices.

47

PAGE 43

PAGE 44

READING

6 +
Ask the students to read the text quickly and check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers 2. b. 3. globe, virtual, created, ideas, imagination, international, create, digital, 3D, socializing, video, program, adventure, company, founded, technology, residents, unique, global, community, separate, version, adults, interact, occasionally, special, educational, projects, type, events, modest, entire, region, park, computer, basic, level, islands, simple, tutorial, appears, guide, controls, problems, experienced, visit, page.

@@ CLICK ON
Recommend the students to find more interesting information about the text visiting the web site mentioned. At this point you may need to share some additional information about Internet safety rules with the students. For more information on CLICK ON, see page 12 of the Introduction. Background information Teenagers nowadays are extremely technical and generally ahead of their parents in this area. They know how to access all the information they need online. Possibly they own their own personal computer, or have access to an unmonitored computer at school or a friends house. Parental monitoring and restrictions can be resented. Comment with your students about Internet rules firmly and convince them that it is out of concern for their safety. Tell them that the news often reports incidents of innocent youngsters who have been led into danger through misuse of the Internet, with sometimes horrific results. Let your students be aware of the dangers. Suggest them that if they know about a friend who is in touch with a stranger, and arranging secret meetings, they should tell someone in authority without feeling like they are telling tales. Tell them to be careful what they say. Finally, its worth mentioning that everyone, including children, must be extra cautious with what they write in emails. What may have been meant as a harmless joke or amusing remark can be misunderstood or misused by a third person who can forward it to a number of people causing misunderstanding and embarrassment. And this is true of all internet communication, not just email. For more information on Background information see page 7 of the Introduction.

7 ++
Now, tell the students to read the text carefully. Ask them to give each paragraph (I. V.) a title (a. e.). Check their answers orally. (L.A.: to identify general information). Answers I. c.; II. e.; III. d.; IV. b.; V: - a.

8 ++
Ask the students to read the text again and find the required information a. d. (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers a. learn, play, create a digital self, make their ideas come true. b. fly through a 3D landscape, build skyscrapers and virtual vehicles, have virtual land. c. chat, socialize, exchange ideas, make friends. d. skyscrapers, virtual vehicles.

9 +++
Now the students read the text again and decide if the statements a. e. are true or false. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information).

48

UNIT 2

BELIEVE IT OR NOT

Answers a. true; b. false; c. true; d. true; e. false.

PAGE 45

LANGUAGE SPOT
Connectors besides, although This section is designed to help students revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. The activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not enunciate them the answers. 1. The students find the sentences a. and b. in the text. Draw their attention to the words in bold. 2. The students read the other examples, again paying special attention to the words in bold. 3. Help them identify which of the words in bold expresses a concessive idea. Answers: a. although 4. Now, help them identify what the other word expresses. Answers: b. besides expresses an additional idea. 5. The students copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. We can use words such as although and besides to join two sentences together. We use besides when we want to express an additional idea. We use although when we want to introduce a concession. 6. The students read the text again to find more examples. Encourage them to identify the addition or the concession. You can write this example on the board: ( + ) addition ( / ) concession Besides flying through a changing landscape, chatting and socializing with other teens, ( + ) they can build anything from skyscrapers to virtual vehicles. ( / ) Although it provides the technology , the residents are the ones who really help shape the world. Answers Teen Second Life is an international gathering place for teens between the ages of 13 - 17 to make friends and exchange ideas. Besides this ( + ), they can learn, play and create. Only teens between the ages of 13 and 17 are allowed ( / ) (although there is a separate version of Second Life for adults). For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

10 +++
Invite the students to correct the false sentences in Exercise 9 in their notebooks. (L.A.: to identify and extract supporting information). Answers b. Its not a computer game. Its a place where teens can meet and make friends, exchange ideas and create. e. You dont have to pay if you sign up for basic level. The basic level accounts are free.

AFTER READING
11 +++
In pairs, the students think about the characteristics they would like to create for their own avatar. Encourage them to write their ideas in their notebooks using the pattern in the book, and then compare with other students. (L.A.: to relate topic to their own reality). Answers Will vary.
Reflection Spot

The purpose of this activity is to help students reflect on their learning process and to raise students awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more effective learners. They should work on their own but you may help and guide the work when necessary. The students read the statements and assess: their ability to connect the topic of the lesson to their own reality. their ability to talk about a topic and explain the reasons of their choices. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

49

ERROR ALERT Draw students attention to the note of the LANGUAGE SPOT. Remind them not to mistake the connector besides for the preposition beside. Additional exercise Complete these sentences with beside or besides, as it corresponds. a. Hes too busy to go to Japan; _______ he doesnt speak Japanese. b. Come and sit _______ me. c. Have you seen my pen? I left it on the table _______ the window. d. I dont like to go out to; _______ its very cold today. e. I cant help you with your homework. _______ its too late. Encourage students to find more examples in the text and then copy them in their notebooks, identifying each case. Answers: Besides (making friends and exchanging ideas), they can play, learn and create. (addition) Having land in Second Life allows you to build, display and store your virtual creations; besides, you can also host events and businesses. (addition) For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

A: Do you know what you do in Second Life? Can you explain it to me? B: Sure! First of all, you have to create an avatar. A: An avatar? What is that? B: It is a digital self, a sort of virtual personality. With this, you can chat and socialize with other teens from all over the world. A: Really? It sounds amazing! Tell me more! B: Besides socializing with other teens, you can also build things like skyscrapers and even virtual vehicles! A: Are you sure that the other players are all teenagers? B: This game is for people between 13 and 17, although adults have their own version. A: Mm. Im not sure; I think I prefer the real world! 14 ++
Encourage the students to practice the dialogue in Exercise 13 in pairs, imitating the recording. Then, invite them to role-play it in front of the class. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation).

15 +++
You can assign this exercise as homework for next class. Explain to the students that, in pairs, they have to think about a game they like to play. Then, in their notebooks, they write a dialogue like the one in Exercise 13, exchanging information about the game. (L.A: to consolidate vocabulary and language). Answers Will vary.

12 ++
Ask the students to copy and complete the paragraph in their notebooks using besides or although. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers besides, although, besides, although.

PAGE 46

13 +++

In their notebooks, the students copy and complete the dialogue using information from the text. Then, play the recording to allow them to check their answers. (L.A.: to use vocabulary related to the topic). Answers See transcript.

LETS CHECK
16 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then,

50

UNIT 2

BELIEVE IT OR NOT

check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign a mark according to the scale. In pairs, the students role-play the dialogue they wrote. Ask the students to evaluate their classmates performance using the guidelines on page 46. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.

PAGE 48
LESSON 2
LISTENING

WHY NOT THE MOON?

BEFORE LISTENING
1

PAGE 47

+
Start the lesson asking the students to identify the pictures. If you find that they have difficulties with the words, help with prompts or give them the words in random order for them to match them with the pictures. Then tell them to find the words in the Word Search Puzzle 1. PLANET 2. ASTRONAUT. 3. ROBOT 4. SUN 5. MOON 6. MARS 7. SPACECRAFT 8. STAR (L.A.: to activate vocabulary related to the topic of the lesson). Answers T + + U ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ MO ++ ++ ++ + L P + ++ ++ + + A + + + + O + + A + + + + + + + N + + + N + N T O B O R + + + + O + + + E + + + S + + + + + + + R + T + + + R + + + + + + + + + T + + + A + + + + + + + + + + + S + M + + + + + + + + + + + + + A + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + T F A R C E C A P S + + + + + + + + + R + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + A + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + T N U S + + + + + + + + + + + + S + + + + + + +

17 ++
Motivate the students to think about what their own avatar would be like. Ask them to write about the virtual personality they would like to have. Instruct them to use their ideas in Exercises 1 and 2, information from the text and also their imagination. Next class, invite some students to share their work with their classmates (L.A.: to write a paragraph about virtual life). Answers Will vary.

18 + FL
Motivate fast learners to make a drawing in their notebooks to illustrate their virtual personalities. You can also make them draw on a piece of cardboard and display the drawings in the classroom. (L.A.: to relate text and pictures). Answers Will vary.

REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students make connections between the topic of the lesson and real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

2 ++
The students answer the questions in pairs. Check their answers orally. (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge). Answers Will vary, according to students opinions.

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5 ++
Ask the students to look up the meaning of the words in the Key Word Spot in a dictionary. (L.A.: to develop study skills). Answers crew: all the people working on a ship, plane, etc. launch: to send something such as a spacecraft into space. mild: not severe or harsh / not extreme. sunlit: receiving light from the sun. supplies: the things such as food, medicines, fuel, etc. that are needed by a group of people.

3 ++
Ask the students to name one positive and one negative thing about living in space. Invite some of them to write their answers on the board. (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge). Answers Will vary.

4 ++
Explain to the students that they are going to listen to an interview with three experts about NASA plans to build a city on the Moon. Ask them to choose three alternatives to guess who they are. Do not check their answers at this point. (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to make predictions). You may need some background information about this topic to share with the students. Background information NASA announced plans to establish a base on the Moon and make it into a permanent city by 2024. Crews of four astronauts are expected to work on the base, a week at a time, beginning around 2020. To cover the costs, NASA is planning to keep its current budget of $17 billion and use the money saved by scrapping the space shuttle program. The space agency plans to coordinate commercial and international assistance with the program. It consulted 13 space agencies from different countries while formulating the initial plan. One of the main goals of the project is to establish a stepping-off point for human exploration and colonization of Mars. For more information on Background information see page 7 of the Introduction.
http://news.cnet.com/2300-11397_3-6140867-1.html

LISTENING
6 +
10

Ask the students to listen to the recording and check their predictions in Exercise 4. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers A lunar scientist, a professor, an astronaut.

7 ++

10

Play the first part of the recording. Tell the students to listen and identify the profession of the people. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Answers a. Paul Spudis, lunar scientist; b. Stella Mc Curdy, professor; c. Michael Clifford, astronaut.

8 ++

10

Play the second part of the recording. Ask the students to listen and choose the best answer for each question. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Answers a. iii.; b. ii.; c. i.; d. ii.

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9 ++

10

Play the final part of the recording again. Tell the students to listen and identify the year each country is planning to put a man on the Moon. You can read the years aloud first, to help the students recognize them when they listen: 2014: two thousand and fourteen or twenty fourteen. 2020: two thousand and twenty or twenty twenty. 2124: twenty one twenty four. 2030: two thousand and thirty or twenty thirty. 2034: two thousand and thirty four or twenty thirty four. 2040: two thousand and forty or twenty forty. (L.A.: to extract specific information) Answers China 2024; Japan 2030; Russia - 2020

Mr. Clifford: The U.S. space agency is going to construct spacecrafts that will take people and supplies to the Moon. Interviewer: Mr. Clifford, how long will people be able to stay on the Moon? Mr. Clifford: About six months. Mr. Spudis: Besides, crews of four astronauts will work on the base, a week at a time. Interviewer: Ms. McCurdy, are there any more countries interested in living on the Moon? Ms. McCurdy: Russia wants to put a base on the moon by 2020 and China plans to put a man on the Moon by 2024, followed by Japan in 2030. Interviewer: Mr. Spudis, are you planning to take holidays on the Moon? Mr. Spudis: Well, that would be really nice!
Adapted from: http://www.onpointradio.org/shows/2006/12/20061211_a_main.asp

10 +++

AFTER LISTENING
10

Tell the students to identify who said statements a. c. Then, play the recording once more to allow them to check their answers. (L.A.: to identify speakers in a conversation). Answers a. Mrs. Mc. Curdy; b. Mr. Clifford; c. Mr. Spudis

GAME SPOT
Remember that games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging for the students. They employ language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Remember that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. Encourage your students to find out how many words related to space they can remember. Explain to them that they must look at the pictures and write the words using the letters in the sun just once. Invite some students to write the words on the board to check this exercise. For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

TRANSCRIPT - WHY NOT THE MOON?

10

Interviewer: NASA announced this week that it is establishing a base on the Moon and will make it into a permanent city by 2024. Today we will talk about this with lunar scientist Paul Spudis, with professor Stella McCurdy, and with NASA astronaut Michael R. Clifford. Mr. Spudis, the obvious first question: Why the moon? Mr. Spudis: Why not? Its only three days from the earth. Interviewer: Ms. McCurdy, where are you going to build the base? Ms. McCurdy: I think the South Pole is the best option because its weather is mild and almost permanently sunlit. Interviewer: Mr. Clifford, are astronauts prepared to live on the Moon?

53

Answers 1. SUNLIT; 2. SUPPLIES; 3. NASA; 4. CREW; 5. LAUNCH; 6. MILD

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LANGUAGE SPOT
The future This section is designed to help students revise or discover a particular grammar structure or any interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. The activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students revise the examples from the text. 2. The students identify which of the sentences gives information about a. future events and predictions b. plans and intentions c. fixed future arrangements Answers: a. c.; b. a.; c. c. 3. The students copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. a. We use the Simple Future to give information about future events and predictions. b. We use the Present Continuous to give information about plans and intentions and fixed future arrangements. 4. The students now identify what the future tense expresses in sentences a. g. Answers: a. future arrangement; prediction; b. future event; c. future plan; d. future event; e. prediction; f. future event. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

ERROR ALERT The Present Continuous Tense is also used to express actions and events that are happening at the moment. (Example: Im reading a book) Additional exercise Read the following sentences. Identify which of them refer to events that are happening now, and which of them refer to future fixed arrangements. Write N (now) or F (future). a. Lauren cant talk to you now. Shes having lunch. b. I cant help you. Im studying for the test. c. My mother is arriving on the next bus from Santiago. d. Susan is baking a cake for tea. e. My brother is playing football on Saturday. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

11 ++
Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT. Ask them to choose the correct alternative for each sentence. Check the answers orally. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers a. Im playing basketball at 5:30. b. Do you think it will snow tomorrow? c. I think Ill buy a new cap. d. I am not working tomorrow. We can go shopping if you like. e. Yes, were visiting my grandmother. f. Im helping Marcy with her homework after school today. g. My sister is getting married next month. We will have a party at home.

12 +++
In their groups, the students write a short report about the city on the Moon. Instruct them to include information from the interview and any other facts that they find interesting to add. Encourage your students to collect supporting materials such as: illustrations, photos, more information, etc. and present their report to their classmates. Organize a class competition and give a prize to the best performance. (L.A.: to organize ideas to write a report).

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Answers Will vary.


Reflection Spot

LETS CHECK
14 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign a mark according to the scale. The students copy and complete the sentences with the words in the box. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers a. robot; b. agency; c. operate; d. equipment; e. trip; f. spacecrafts; g. colonization; h. objective; i. location; j. astronaut

The purpose of this activity is to help students reflect on their learning process and to raise students awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more effective learners. They should work on their own but you may help and guide the work when necessary. The students read the statements and assess: their ability to write a short report about the topic of an interview. their ability to express and support their opinions. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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13 +++

11

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In pairs, the students put the dialogue between Susan and Simon in order and copy it in their notebooks. Then, play the recording and ask them to listen and check. Play the recording with pauses for students to practice the dialogue. Invite some pairs to role-play the dialogue in front of their classmates. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers See transcript.

15 ++ FL
Motivate fast learners to try the quiz and see how much they know about the solar system. Ask them to check the answers with their classmates. (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). Answers a. iii.; b. - i.; c. - ii.; d. - i.; e. i.; f. ii.

TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE

11

You may need some additional information on this topic.


Background information The solar system is our Sun and everything that travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in shape. The Sun is in the center of the solar system. Our solar system is always in motion. Eight known planets and their moons, along with comets, asteroids, and other space objects orbit the Sun. The Sun is the biggest object in our solar system. It contains more than 99% of the solar systems mass. Astronomers think the solar system is more than 4 billion years old.

Susan: What are you doing tomorrow, Simon? Simon: Tomorrow morning I am meeting my best friend. Im having lunch with her, and then in the afternoon were going to the cinema. How about you? Susan: I dont know exactly. Perhaps Ill visit my grandmother in the morning and then Ill study for the math test. Simon: When are we having the math test? Susan: Next Monday, after the first break. Simon: Well, in that case, Ill call my friend immediately. Im studying with you tomorrow. I think Ill get better results!

55

Astronomers are now finding new objects far, far from the Sun which they call dwarf planets. Pluto, which was once called a planet, is now called a dwarf planet. The Sun is our closest star. It is a member of the Milky Way galaxy. The Sun is a yellow dwarf star, which means it is a medium size star. It is believed to be over 4 billion years old. The Sun spins slowly on its axis as it revolves around the galaxy. The center, or core, of the Sun is very hot. A process called nuclear fusion takes place there. Nuclear fusion produces a lot of energy. Some of this energy travels out into space as heat and light. Some of it arrives at Earth. Streams of gas particles known as the solar wind also flow out from the Sun. A planet is a large space object which revolves around a star. It also reflects that stars light. Eight planets have been discovered in our solar system. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the planets closest to the Sun. They are called the inner planets. The inner planets are made up mostly of rock. The outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are large balls of gases with rings around them. All eight planets travel around the Sun in a different orbit. In its orbit, there are not many other objects like the planet. Dwarf planets like Pluto, are objects that are similar to planets except that they orbit the Sun in areas where there are many similar objects. Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system. Mercury is about the same size as our Moon. It is very close to the Sun. Mercury travels around the Sun faster than any other planet. It was named after Mercury, the swift messenger of the gods in ancient Roman mythology. Mercury can only be seen from Earth just before sunrise or just after sunset, but not in the middle of the night. That is because Mercury always appears near the Sun when viewed from Earth. Mercury has a very thin atmosphere. Humans would not be able to live there. The surface of Mercury has holes in it where objects such as meteorites and asteroids crashed into it. Venus and Earth are almost the same size. Venus is the closest planet to Earth, but it does not have oceans or human life like Earth. Venus gets so hot during the day that it could melt a lead cannonball. The temperature rises to 484 degrees Celsius on the side facing the Sun. Venus has very thick, rapidly spinning clouds which cover its surface. These

clouds hold heat in. That is why Venus gets so hot. These clouds also reflect sunlight. That is why Venus appears so bright to us here on Earth. There are constant thunderstorms in these clouds. Venus has several large inactive volcanoes. Much of the surface is covered by old lava flows from these volcanoes. Venus is unusual because it rotates in a direction opposite that of all of the other planets. Venus spins very slowly as it orbits the Sun. Earth is the third closest planet to the Sun. It has an atmosphere made up of many different gases, but mainly it is nitrogen and oxygen. The atmosphere gives us air to breathe. The Earth orbits around the Sun. It takes one year to go around the Sun one complete time. The Earth also rotates, or spins, on its axis. It takes one day to spin around one complete time. The Earths axis is not straight up and down, but tilted a little bit. This tilt is responsible for us having seasons. Otherwise, the temperature would be pretty much the same all year long. The temperature on Mars can be very, very cold. On its warmest day, Mars can still be a very cold place. At the top and bottom of the planet are poles just like on Earth. During the Martian winter, ice caps can be seen at the poles. Mars has many craters which were formed by meteorites or asteroids hitting it. Mars also has some of the tallest volcanoes and some of the deepest valleys in our solar system. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which have unusual shapes. Scientists think these potatoshaped moons were once asteroids captured by Mars gravitational pull. Jupiter is a large gas planet whose clouds change colors daily. This planet is made mostly of hydrogen and helium gases. Jupiter gives off two times more heat than it gets from the Sun. It shines very brightly in the night sky for nine months of the year when it is closest to Earth. Pictures taken by space probes have shown thin rings around Jupiter. Jupiter has forty-nine named moons (and may have as many as 63!). One of Jupiters moons, Io, has active volcanoes on it. Areas on Io that are near the volcanoes are very, very hot. Saturn is a very large gas planet which spins very rapidly on its axis. It spins so fast that it flattens out the top and the bottom of the planet. Saturns atmosphere has winds which can blow at over 1,800 kilometers per hour. The white spots on Saturn are believed to be powerful storms. Saturn is surrounded

56

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by over 1,000 rings made of ice and dust. Some of the rings are very thin and some are very thick. Scientists believe that the particles came from the destruction of moons circling the planet. Saturn has at least 52 moons. Some of these moons orbit the planet within the rings, creating gaps in the rings. Uranus tilts over so far on its axis that it rotates on its side. Because of this, its poles are sometimes pointed almost directly at the Sun. Uranus atmosphere is made up of hydrogen, helium, and methane. The temperature in the upper atmosphere is very cold. The cold methane gas is what gives Uranus its blue-green color. The rapid rotation of Uranus causes winds up to 600 kilometers per hour to blow in its atmosphere. Uranus has 27 named moons. Some of these moons are less than 100 kilometers wide and black as coal. Neptune and Uranus are very much alike. They are both large gas planets that look like big blue-green balls in the sky. Neptune has winds in its atmosphere which blow at over 2,000 kilometers per hour. This planet has large, dark circles on its surface which astronomers believe to be storms. Neptune has two thick and two thin rings which surround it. Neptune also has thirteen known moons. Four of these moons orbit the planet within the rings. One of Neptunes moons, Triton, orbits the planet in a direction opposite to Neptunes other moons. Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction.
http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/solar_system_le vel1/neptune.html

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LESSON 3
READING

VIRTUAL ME?

BEFORE READING
1

+
Introduce the topic of the lesson with a general conversation among the students. Ask them if they think it is possible to predict the future, and elicit their comments. Then, motivate them to read the famous predictions (a. g.) in pairs, and match them with the person who made them (i. vi.). Check the answers orally. (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge). Answers

a. v.; b. i-; c. iv.; d. vi.; e. ii.; f. iii.; g. vii.

2 ++
Tell the students to find the words in the Key Word Spot in the text and then choose the correct meaning for them. (L.A.: to infer the meaning of key words from the context). Answers a. i.; b. ii.; c. ii.; d. ii.;

PAGE 55

REAL LIFE SPOT


The objective of this section is to provide a bit of humor to the class. All the jokes and cartoons are related to the topic of the lesson. Give some minutes to allow students to read and then invite them to share their comments to make sure they understood the joke. At this point, you may allow the use of Spanish to check comprehension. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

3 +++
Invite the students to read the text quickly and identify all the cognates. Tell them to predict what the text is about. Do not check their answers at this point. (L.A.: to formulate predictions from cognates).

4 +
Ask the students to have a look at the text and identify where it was taken from. (L.A.: to identify the origin of a text).

57

READING
5 +
The students read the text quickly and check their predictions in exercises 3 and 4. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers 3. a. Cognates: cyber, robots, optional, accent, computer, engineer, family, artificial, intelligence, planned, voice, use, creation, company, different, personalities, producing, educational, animated, interacts, details, conversation, related, courses, university, technology, quarter, regularly, class, students, prefer, moving, install, project, clients, multimedia, systems, science, million, expansion, article, estimates, billion, virtual, services, grammar, logical, inference, verbs, adjectives. 4. c.

8 +++
The students read the text once more to find the answer to questions a. e. (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers a. Because they have artificial intelligence. b. No, they have more than 20 different personalities and appearances. c. They were created for educational purposes. d. They can talk about class times and rooms, and also about class topics. e. He is a computer engineer who is the creator of these virtual robots.

PAGE 57

AFTER READING
9 ++
Ask the students to write a list of activities or areas in which they think robots can be very useful. Invite them to share their comments with their classmates. (L.A.: to relate topic with own reality). Answers Will vary.

6 ++
Ask the students to read the text again carefully. Tell them to put the sentences (a. e.) back into blanks (1) (5). (L.A.: to locate missing information). Answers a. (5); b. (1); c. (4); d. (3); e. (2)

7 ++
Ask the students to read the text again and decide if the statements a. f. are true or false. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information). Answers a. False (Shahin Magsoudi is the computer engineer who created Robot Hosting). b. True. c. False (The robots remember personal details and course related information). d. True. e. True. f. True.

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LANGUAGE SPOT
The First Conditional This section is designed to help students revise or discover a particular grammar structure or any interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. The activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not enunciate them the answers. 1. The students revise the sentences from the text and other examples. 2. They answer the questions. Answers: a. two; b. the ones that refer to a condition begin with if; the others refer to a consequence; c. if; d. no. 3. The students read the general rule and choose the correct alternative. We use the First Conditional to talk about future events that are probable to happen. The if clause expresses a condition, and the future clause expresses the consequence or result. Note: The future clause can also contain other modal verbs such as can and must. 4. The students use the information in the text to complete the conditional sentences. Answers: a. they log on to the Robot Hosting site; b. you want to buy one. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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11 ++

12

Ask the students to copy and complete the dialogue with words and phrases from the box. Then, play the recording to allow them to check their answers. (L.A.: to use vocabulary related to the topic). Answers See transcript.

TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE

12

A: Do you think that, in the future, people will have robots at home? B: Sure! I believe that robots will be as common as personal computers. They will even operate them! A: Amazing! What other things will personal robots do? B: Well, to begin with, they will be part of home entertainment centers.They will sing and dance. A: Will they tell jokes too? B: Yes, but, just like humans, they wont always be funny! A: Sounds great! What problems do you think there will be? B: I think some people will lose their jobs and bad people will create criminal robots! 12 ++
Ask the students to look at the pictures. Then, in their notebooks, tell them to write complete sentences to answer the questions. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Possible Answers a. b. d. e. We will be very happy. Ill be late for school / Ill run all the way. We will get wet / Ill stay at home. Ill enjoy it very much.

10 +
Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT. Tell them to copy and complete the sentences in their notebooks using the First Conditional. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers a. b. c. d. e. If you dont hurry, we will be late! Mark will be very happy if he passes his exam. If Henry fails his exam, he will not be very happy. If you stay up all night, you will be very tired. If Rick drives too fast, he will have an accident.

59

13 +++ FL
Invite the students to ask some of their classmates the questions in Exercise 12 and add three more questions. Explain to them that they must copy and complete the chart in their notebooks and take notes of their answers. Encourage some students to report the results of this mini-survey to their classmates. (L.A.: to ask and answer questions / to do a survey). Answers Will vary, according to students answers.

REAL LIFE SPOT


Remember that this section is intended to allow students make connections between the topic of the lesson and the real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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LESSON 4
LISTENING

PAGE 59

LETS CHECK
14 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign a mark according to the scale. The students copy and complete the sentences in their notebooks, using the First Conditional. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers a. b. c. d. e. go, will buy. goes, will lose. dont wear, will catch. take, will feel. doesnt rain, will go.

IT WONT BE CHEAP!

+
Introduce the topic of the lesson telling the students to imagine what their life will be like in 50 years time. Ask them to copy and complete the chart in their notebooks and then ask their partners. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers

Will vary.

2 ++
Invite the students to look at the picture in pairs and identify the things that belong to a city of the future. You can organize a class competition, offering a prize to the fastest pair. When the time is up, check the answers orally. (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge). Answers a. b. c. d. e. f. A robot is sweeping the streets. There are surveillance cameras. People are wearing strange clothes. Buses are flying. A boy is talking by cell phone. A tourism agency is offering holidays on the Moon.

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PAGE 61

3 ++
Tell the students to read the list of predictions for the year 2050 and choose the predictions that they think are most likely to come true. Ask some students to share their answers with their classmates. (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). Answers Will vary, according to students opinions.

4 +++
Explain to the students that they are going to listen to a recording about one of the predictions in Exercise 3. Invite them to predict which one they think it is related to. Do not check their answers yet. (L.A.: to predict content from the context).

5 +++
Ask the students to study the words in the Key Word Spot and match them with their meaning. Tell some students to write the answers on the board. (L.A.: to infer meaning of key words). Answers Accommodation: a place to work, live or stay. Book (verb): to make a reservation. Flight: a journey made by air. Hang on: wait. Luxurious: very comfortable, containing expensive things.

ERROR ALERT Hang on = wait (NOT= colgar en) Alert your students on more cases of prepositional verbs with the verb hang, such as: Hang about, hang around, hang back, hang in, hang on, hang out, hang up, hang together, hang out. Additional exercise Choose the correct definition for each phrasal verb. 1. Hang with means... a. To do the same activity for a very long time b. Spend time with c. Make electrical connections 2. Hang about means a. Make something increase b. Spend time somewhere not doing much c. Waste time 3. Hang around means... a. Assume control of a company or organization b. Stay in a place c. Go away 4. Hang back means... a. Harmonize or be compatible b. Result from a process c. Not move forwards to avoid doing something 5. Hang together means... a. Work together when things are difficult b. Accept something you dont really want to get something you do want c. Become controlled Answers: 1. b; 2. b; 3. b; 4. c.; 5. a. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

6 +++
Ask the students to predict the kind of text they think they are going to listen to. Tell them to choose an alternative from the list, but do not check their answers at this point. (L.A.: to formulate predictions from the context).

61

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LISTENING
7 +
13

Play the recording. Ask the students to listen and check their predictions in Exercises 4 and 6. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers 4. People will take vacations in space.; 6. d.

Tourists can choose to take off from the Mojave Desert near Los Angeles, or from our spaceport in New Mexico. What about people who cant afford this vacation now? Dont worry. The cost of space flight will come down, so perhaps their grandchildren can think about spending their vacation on the Moon or even have their honeymoon in a hotel orbiting Venus! Meanwhile, they can deposit U$S 20,000 and book a spaceship flight online at www.virgingalactic.com . If it sounds too exotic for you, you can take our tours to Florida and visit the Kennedy Space Center, instead. We are departing tomorrow at 9:45 a.m.

8 ++

13

Ask the students to listen again and choose the correct alternative for each sentence a. d. (L.A.: to discriminate words). Answers a. are; b. three; c. will; d. honeymoon.

AFTER LISTENING
LANGUAGE SPOT
The Future Revision This section is designed to help students revise or discover a particular grammar structure or any interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. The activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students read the sentences from the text and other examples. 2. The students identify what the sentences refer to, and choose an alternative. Answers: b. 3. Invite the students to copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. We use the Present Continuous Tense to refer to fixed arrangements for the future. 4. The students analyze the sentence from the text and identify the difference from the examples provided in Point 1. Answers: It describes an event that is happening right now, in this period of time. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

9 +++

13

Tell the students to copy the sentences into their notebooks. Then, play the recording again and ask them to listen and complete each sentence with one word. (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers a. space; b. passenger; c. passengers; d. worry; e. exotic

TRANSCRIPT IT WONT BE CHEAP!

13

You might think you've heard everything about tourism. Now imagine taking your vacation in space! Believe it or not, we are counting down to the first space tourist flight. The Virgin Galactic Spaceship is taking off soon! If you plan to make a reservation, hang on, it wont be cheap! Each passenger will pay U$S 200,000, which means over a thousand dollars a minute! Passengers will fly at three times the speed of sound. All passengers will enjoy spectacular views and luxurious seats with large windows. On board, theyll find hospitality while enjoying the ultimate in passenger amenities. The trip will include preflight training and three days luxury accommodation at the Virgin Galactic space camp.

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PAGE 63

LETS CHECK
10 +++
The purpose of this section is to allow students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. In pairs, the students ask and answer the questions, using the Present Progressive tense. Instruct them to refer to Jerry and Beths diaries as in the example, and make sure they change roles to ask and answer. Then, tell them to write the questions and answers in their notebooks. Do not check the answers yet. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.

What time is Jerry seeing the dentist on Thursday? He is seeing her at four oclock. What is Beth doing on Wednesday at 5:30? She is going to the gym . What are Jerry and Beth studying on Friday? They are studying math. 12 +++
In their group, the students answer questions a. and b. and exchange opinions about being a space tourist and their reasons. Invite some groups to share their conclusions with the rest of the class. Remember not to interrupt the students to correct mistakes while they are in a speaking activity. It is better to take notes on the most important errors and correct them at the end of the class.

11 ++

14

PAGE 64

Tell the students that you will play the recording for them to check their questions and answers in Exercise 10. Once they have done this, play the recording again, with pauses, for them to repeat and practice the short dialogues. Invite some pairs to role-play the different dialogues in front of their classmates. (L.A: to relate written and spoken versions of a text; to discriminate between correct and incorrect information; to imitate a model of spoken language). Answers See transcript.

13 +++
Tell the students to examine the boarding passes. Then, motivate them to exchange information in pairs about Mr. and Mrs. Freemans fixed arrangements, as in the example. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Possible Answers: a. When is Mrs. Freeman going to San Francisco? She is going to San Francisco on June, 11th. b. Where is Mrs. Freeman going? Shes going to San Francisco. c. Where is she taking the plane? Shes taking the plane in New York. d. Who is going to San Francisco in seat 15D? Mr. Freeman is going to San Francisco in seat 15D. e. At what time is Mr. Freeman taking the plane? Hes taking the plane at 7pm.

TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE

14

What is Jerry doing on Wednesday? He is going to the theater with Bob. What is Jerry doing on Monday? He is playing tennis with Linda. What is Beth doing on Thursday? She is having her first driving lesson. What are Jerry and Beth doing on Tuesday? They are meeting Cristina.

63

Reflection Spot

@@ CLICK ON
Motivate the students to find out more information related to this topic visiting the web site on page 65. Encourage them to take notes on any interesting information they find and next class share their comments with their classmates. For more information on CLICK ON, see page 12 of the Introduction.

Make sure you assign enough time of your class to allow students reflect on their achievements and weaknesses. They read the statements and assess: their ability to extract information from visuals. their ability to exchange information about fixed arrangements. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

PAGE 66
YOUR ENGLISH IN ACTION

14 ++ FL
Encourage fast learners to read the list of phrasal verbs related to the topic of the text. Motivate them to match them with the pictures. (L.A.: to relate meaning and pictures). Answers a. 2; b. 3; c. 1; d. 4;

This section provides additional exercises that represent a good opportunity for students to consolidate topics and language structures of the lessons. You can assign these activities at the end of each lesson, or as homework and give them an extra mark. Answers 1. Answers will vary, but motivate students to imitate the messages on page 47. 2. Will vary 3. + + + E E + + + + + + + + T C + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + R E B Y C + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + C N E G I L L E T N I + + + + + + + + + + + + T A + + + N + + + + + + + + R M + + + + G + + + + + + T V U + + + + + I + + + + I + Z L + + + + + + N + + F + + L T + + + + + + R E I C + + A I + + + + + O + C E A + + U M + + + + B + I + + R + + T E + + + O + A + + + + + + R D + + + + L + + + + + + + I I + + + O M P U T E R + + V A + + +

PAGE 65

15 +++
You can assign this activity as homework with an extra mark. Ask the students to think about their fixed arrangements for next week, and then write a short paragraph about them. Next class, invite some students to share their work with the rest of the class. (L.A.: to write a paragraph about future fixed arrangements).

REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students make connections between the topic of the lesson and the real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

PAGE 67

4
a. Where are they departing from? (They are departing) from their hotel. b. At what time are they starting the tour? (They are starting the tour) at 9:00 am or 3 pm.

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UNIT 2

BELIEVE IT OR NOT

c. At what time are they returning to the hotel? (They are returning) at 12:30 pm or 6:30 pm. d. What places are they visiting? (They are visiting) the Civic Center, the Moneda Palace, the Cathedral, the Museum of National History and the Central Post Office, Santa Luca Hill, Parque Forestal and the Fine Arts Museum. e. Where is the tour finishing? (The tour is finishing) at the Los Graneros del Alba village.

PAGE 69

2 a. False; b. False; c. False; d. False;


e. True.

3 a. 10; b. rockets; c. glass; d. pills; e. Mars,


Mercury, Pluto. LISTENING - SPACE TOURISM
15

4 a. expensive; b. safer; c. colonizing;


d. will; e. dream

PAGE 68
UNIT CHECK

5 a. space; b. robots; c. temperature;


d. Moon; e. Humans

6 e.; d.; b.; c; a.


Explain to the students that the purpose of this section is to help them revise contents and evaluate their performance in the whole unit. Read the instructions and make sure all the students understand what they are expected to do in each activity. Encourage them to give honest answers in order to detect their strengths and weaknesses. Check students results and revise any points that the majority of them had problems with. For more information on UNIT CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers READING - LIVING IN SPACE

TRANSCRIPT - SPACE TOURISM

15

a. They will work and live in settlements that will allow people to lead a normal life. b. They will stay for six months. c. By the end of the century there will be permanent settlements on the Moon. d. They will take water from a large ice lake on the Moon. e. Life is going to be easier than living on a space station.

Interviewer: Dr. Graham, what can you tell us about this crazy idea of vacations in space? Dr. Graham: Well, tourist agencies are offering a new kind of adventure vacation visit a space-station, check into a space hotel and even take a spacewalk! That is a very expensive kind of vacation, but when space tourism becomes cheaper, ordinary people will be able to afford them. Interviewer: How many people will want to risk their lives when there is a chance of not coming back? Dr. Graham: But its just the beginning! Flights will definitely become safer. Interviewer: What do you think about colonizing Mars? Dr. Graham: The European Space Agency has started a new project that will send robots to explore the Red Planet but it will be a long time before there is a colony on Mars, or even on the Moon. Interviewer: Will it be easy to live in space? Dr. Graham: Definitely not. On the Moon, the temperature rises to more than 100C and falls to less than -100C, and its not much better on Mars. Interviewer: Dr. Graham, do you think we will live on the Moon one day? Dr. Graham: Believe it or not, humans will definitely live on other planets one day. It may sound strange, but we have to remember that air travel once seemed to be an impossible dream.

65

PAGE 70 LANGUAGE

WRITING

10 The students write a paragraph (120-150


words) about how they imagine a city on the moon. You can assign a mark according to these criteria: 5 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, without grammar or spelling mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph, but he / she makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.

7 a. will live; b. is sending; c. are going;


d. are visiting; e. wont wear.

8 a. I dont want to see that movie. Besides,


its too late. b. Although Iris hates studying math, she always gets good marks. c. Although Jim studied a lot, he failed the exam. d. Although my sister is eighteen, she cant drive our fathers car. e. Walking the dog is lots of fun. Besides, its good for your health. SPEAKING

PAGE 71
FINAL REFLECTION

9 In pairs, the students exchange information


about their fixed arrangements for next week. Make sure they use the Present Continuous tense and that they change roles to ask and answer. You can assign a mark according to these criteria: 5 points: student can introduce him / herself and ask and answer basic questions about personal information, with a minimum of hesitation and grammar mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can exchange personal information, but he / she hesitates and makes some grammar mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't exchange personal information; he / she hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes.

The purpose of this section is to allow students reflect on their strengths and weaknesses. Make sure all the students understand what they are expected to do and give enough time to answer the questions. Encourage students to give honest answers and show interest in their results. For more information on FINAL REFLECTION, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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UNIT 2

BELIEVE IT OR NOT

EXTRA TEST UNIT 2

READING - GOODNIGHT NURSE

http://idealog.co.nz/magazine/november-december-2007/now/goodnight-nurse By Lauren Bartlett - Originally published in Idealog #12, page 26

FINALLY, A NURSE WHO DOESNT COMPLAIN: A ROBOT


The engineers are merging new computer software with a robot from Samsung to create a robot nurse capable of carrying out simple tasks such as reading a bar-coded medication list and giving it to a patient. The robot can recognize faces, speak multiple languages, and talk with other robots through airwaves, and it doesnt complain about the job. Its an interesting combination of electrical and computer science, together with psychology, says Dr Santokh Singh, the research manager for the project at the University of Auckland. The university hopes the robot will alleviate nurses. By using a wireless network to connect groups of robots to a central server cluster, nursebots could be cheaper tooaround $1,000 each. The robots are intended only as an aid to the nursing industry, but while the robot will be able to respond sympathetically to patients, its no substitute for Florence Nightingale. Their brains can make decisions, such as calling for help in emergencies or answering questions. These special nurses can recognize patients, doctors and visitors. Their arms and hands are able to check a patients pulse rate and pick up medicines. Robots can also communicate with patients and know what is best for them. They are able to communicate with doctors, nurses and patients in eight different languages. Human nurses have no need to fear for their jobs yet, says Shahin Maghsoudi of RobotHosting. The robots are just designed to make their job easier.

Have a look at the text and choose the best answer. What type of text is it? a. An encyclopedia article. b. An advertisement. c. A scientific article.

1 pt.

2 Read the text again and answer these questions.


a. b. c. d. e. Who wrote the article? Who are collaborating to make the nursebots? Who is Santokh Singh? How much could the nursebots cost? How many languages can the robots speak?

5 pts.

3 Read the text once more. Find the following information:


a. b. c. d. City in which the project is being carried out: ___________________________ Decisions that robots can make: _____________, ______________________ People that robots can recognize: ___________, ___________, ___________ Actions that robots can do with their arms: ____________, _______________

4 pts.

67

LISTENING

4
a. b. c. d.

Listen to the recording. What type of text is it? An interview. An advertisement. A dialogue. A lecture. Listen to the recording again. Are these statements true or false? Technology will create smart homes. You will turn off the lights by remote control. The refrigerator will check your food. You will need special keys to open the front door. The smart home will choose your favorite music.

1 pt.

5
a. b. c. d. e.

5 pts.

Listen to the recording once more and complete these sentences. a. The repairman says it was the ________ who called. b. The ________ lights in your house will create the perfect atmosphere. c. The ________ will deliver to your ________ .

4 pts.

LANGUAGE

7 Write five sentences about your arrangements for next week.


a. b. c. d. e. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

5 pts.

SPEAKING

8 Mr. and Mrs. Newman


are from Scotland. They are visiting San Pedro de Atacama next week. Look at the brochure of their visit and, in pairs, exchange questions and answers about the information that it contains. WRITING

Duration: 4 days / 3 nights Date: December 31, 2008 2 nights in San Pedro de Atacama; one night in Calama, visiting Chuquicamata.

Itinerary: Day 1: Reception and transfer to San Pedro de Ataca ma from Calama airport. Day 2: Breakfast in hotel. 08.00: departure from hotel Visit to the town of Toconao and Bell Tower of Saint . Lucas. From there we will continue our journey to the Atacama Salt Flats and the Flamingos National Reser ve. Time of arrival in San Pedro: 19.00. Day 3: 04.00: departure from hotel. 07.00: arriva at the Geysers of El Tatio. We then continue to Caspalna, the Pukar of Lasana, the petroglyphs in the Valley of the Loa River, and the church and village of Chiu-Chiu. Time of arrival in Calama: 16.00. Day 4: Free morning. 14:00 hrs. Transfer to the world s largest open-pit mine (Chuquicamata). During the visit it will be possible observe the extraction of copper and its production process. Transfer to the airport. End of our services.

5 pts.

5 pts. 35 pts. TOTAL

9 With the information in Exercise 8, write a short paragraph (100-150 words) about Mr.
and Mrs. Newmans planned trip.
0 - 12 Keep trying! 13 - 21 Good! 22 - 29 Very good!

30 - 35 Excellent!

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UNIT 2

BELIEVE IT OR NOT

ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 2

READING - GOODNIGHT NURSE

c.

A "smart home" like this will lock the doors, close the windows, turn the lights on and off, turn on your favorite music, and open the front door to you - all automatically. Call us and you'll receive all the information about the Smart Home! Order your Smart home and let our technology enter your life!
LANGUAGE

2 a. Lauren Bartlett.
b. The University of Auckland and Robot Hosting Company. c. Hes the Research Manager for the project. d. Around U$S 1,000. e. They can speak eight languages.

7 Answers will vary. Accept any coherent


answer. Make sure the students use the Present Continuous tense for future arrangements. SPEAKING

3 a. Auckland.
b. Call for help, answer questions. c. Patients, doctors and visitors. d. Check a patients pulse rate, pick up medicines. LISTENING
16

8 In pairs, the students study the information in


the brochure and exchange information about Mr. and Mrs. Newmans arrangements for next week. Make sure they use the Present Continuous Tense and that they change roles to ask and answer. You can assign points according to these criteria: 5 points: student can introduce him / herself and ask and answer basic questions about personal information, with a minimum of hesitation and grammar mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can exchange personal information, but he / she hesitates and makes some grammar mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't exchange personal information; he / she hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. WRITING

4 b. 5 a. True; b. True; c. True; d. False; e. True. 6 a. washing machine; b. 3,000; c. store, house. TRANSCRIPT - MOVING TO A NEW HOME
16

Speaker: A repairman arrives at your home to fix the washing machine. You say that you didn't call for a repair. The repairman says it was the washing machine who called! Technology will soon make the dream of a Smart Home come true. You'll turn off the bedroom lights using your remote control connection when you're away from home. If you want the right atmosphere for the evening or for a dinner party, this is great! You'll push a button and the 3,000 lights in your house will create the perfect atmosphere. If you don't like going to the supermarket, a special kind of refrigerator will check your milk and order some more when you run out. The store will deliver to your house and you won't have to go out to the shops after a long day at work. If you get home with a huge shopping bag, you won't need to look for your keys. The front door will recognize your face and voice and open automatically.

9 With the information in Exercise 8, the


students write a paragraph (120-150 words) about Mr. and Mrs. Newmans next visit to San Pedro de Atacama. You can assign points according to these criteria: 5 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, without grammar or spelling mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph, but he / she makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't write a coherent short paragraph with personal information, and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.

69

UNIT
TECHNOLOGY AND INVENTIONS
Speaking ask and answer questions about biographical information exchange opinions about inventions and technology Writing write a short summary of a biography complete a paragraph about a new invention You will also: assess and appreciate the role of technology in everyday life develop respect and acceptance of other peoples opinions Development Lesson 1: four hours Lesson 2: four hours Lesson 3: four hours Lesson 4: four hours Consolidation and evaluation activities: 3 hours + home assignments Indicators

In this unit you will: read a web page read a biography listen to a conversation listen to a radio program You will learn how to: Reading find general and specific information identify the sequence of events identify type of text Listening discriminate between correct and incorrect information relate speakers and speech discriminate sounds and words identify sequence Language use the Simple Past Tense use linking words use relative pronouns Types of Evaluation

Didactic resources Complementary material such as articles magazines, Student Forum chats. Pictures of teenagers provided by the teacher and by the students to illustrate the diversity of teenage cultures. Support material such as lists of adjectives, dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed handouts, library material, etc. Methodological suggestions Teachers should prepare the lessons beforehand considering that thorough prior preparation allows them to think of and apply some useful ideas. It is their chance to make the class entertaining and to involve students in the learning process. Teachers are advised to use a variety of resources throughout the book.

Continuous/informal Students do reading and listening activities, take part in conversations, and produce written texts. Reflection spot Self - evaluation Unit Check Unit evaluation Students analyze and evaluate their performance in the speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities. Reading: Students identify and extract specific information. Listening: Students identify specific information and the correct sequence and discriminate sounds. Language: Students use the Simple Past Tense and relative pronouns. Speaking: Students exchange information about an imaginary invention. Writing: Students write a short description of a gadget. Students analyze their performance in the whole unit. Reading: Students find specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use the Simple Present and Present Progressive tense. Writing: Students write a short paragraph describing their best friend. Speaking: Students imitate an interview and exchange information about routines, interests and favorite activities.

Final Reflection Extra Test

70

UNIT 3

TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY AND AND INVENTIONS INVENTIONS

PAGE 72

PAGE 74
LESSON 1
READING

GETTING READY 1
The object of this activity is to set the context for the topic of the unit. Ask the students to look at the pictures and then identify the name of the inventions in the box. Check that they all identify and know the names of the gadgets in English, so that they can easily find the words. Answers CD or DVD player / remote control; bycicles; cellular phone; microwave oven; jet plane; personal computer; digital camera; credit card; calculator.

POPULAR TEENAGE INVENTIONS

BEFORE READING
Start a general conversation about the role and development of technology in recent years, and how it has changed or affected our everyday life. At this stage, you may accept Spanish, as the objective of the activity is to involve the students in the topic of the lesson.

++
Ask the students to choose, in pairs, a few recent inventions that they feel have changed their lives and then to tell their classmates about them. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality).

2 In their notebook, the students copy and


complete the chart writing the name of the invention in the correct column. Warn them that there are inventions that fit the two columns. You can check the exercise asking a student to copy and complete the chart on the board, or telling them to say their answers aloud. Answers Work / Study calculator cellular phone computer camera jet plane microwave oven Leisure (Free time) cellular phone computer credit card DVD bicycle camera jet plane

2 ++
Ask the students to look at the pictures and then answer which of the inventions they think was invented or conceived of by teens. Elicit their answers, also telling them to speculate about the reasons and circumstances in which the inventors created each object. (L.A.: to relate topic and students previous knowledge). Possible answers The three inventions were invented by teenagers. Background Information The inventors mentioned in the introduction of the article are: Chester Greenwood (18581937), who, tired of cold ears while ice skating, invented earmuffs at age 15; Philo T. Farnsworth (1906-1971), who invented a prototype for a working television at age 14 and later built one; and Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who was 19 when he began work on what became the Pascaline, the first business machine and second mechanical calculator.

3 Ask the students to work in pairs and add


two inventions to each column. Then, tell them to share their work with their classmates.

71

If it is possible, you may also recommend your students to search the Internet and find additional information at: For more information on Background information see page 7 of the Introduction.
http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/earmuff.htm http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/television.htm http://www.xnumber.com/xnumber/mechanical3.htm

Optional activity Ask the students to give examples to illustrate each word in the Key Word Spot, mime them if they are actions, or write sentences using them, in order to check they have understood their meaning correctly.

5 +++
Tell the students to identify the cognates in the text and then choose the alternatives they think are correct. Again, reinforce the idea that cognates are very useful to help set the context for the reading comprehension tasks. You may also ask the students to anticipate a list of cognates they think they will find according to the topic of the lesson, and then check their predictions skimming the text. (L.A.: to use cognates to predict content). Cognates: I.: invent, electronic, music, ideas, company, manufactures, inventions, prototype, model, final, product, patent, invention. II.: animal, memorize, programming, problem, site, final, product, memorization, enter, data, vocabulary, history, science, information, generates, test, program, inventors, invent.

3 +++
Explain to your students that they are going to read about two young inventors whose creativity is making life a little easier for others. Ask them to have a look at the pictures and then choose the correct name for each invention. You can guide the exercise asking the students to describe what they see in the pictures and what they think the object is useful for. Once they have identified the inventions, they can choose a name for each from the list. Do not check their answers at this stage. (L.A.: to infer meaning from visuals).

4 ++
Tell the students to study the words in the Key Word Spot and then look them up in a dictionary. Remind them that this is a very important activity before they face any reading task, even in Spanish. Make sure you devote enough time to allow students to understand the meaning of the words. It may also be a good idea to make the students complete a glossary in their notebooks, including the Spanish translation for each word an example and a drawing, when applicable. (L.A.: to develop study skills). Answers to hit your open hands together several times to show that you approve of or have enjoyed something. (aplaudir) Skill: a particular ability or type of ability. (habilidad, capacidad) Tool: an instrument that you hold in your hand and use for making or repairing things. (herramienta) Launch: to start an activity, especially an organized one. (lanzar, comenzar) Clap:

PAGE 76

READING
6 +
Students read the text quickly and check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 5. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers 3., 1. d. Quizlet, 2. b. Hands on hand-clap game, 5. c.; d.

7 ++
The students read the text again, this time more carefully, and choose the best alternative to complete the sentences. Ask them to note the words in the text that help them decide on their answers and check the exercise orally. (L.A.: to identify specific information).

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UNIT 3

TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY AND AND INVENTIONS INVENTIONS

Answers a. - ii.; b. i.; c. iii.; d. ii.; e. ii.

8 ++
Now the students read the text again to identify the correct sequence of events for each invention. It may be a good idea to read the sentences aloud and tell the students to decide the logical order of the events. They can write the sequences on the board and then check reading the text. (L.A.: to identify the sequence of events). Answers a.: iv.; i.; ii.; v.; iii.; b.: v.; iii.; ii.; i. Optional activity Ask the students to identify and extract the sentences in the text that illustrate the sequence of events described in the exercise.

Background information: An acronym is a word formed from the first initials of several words. Newsgroups, chat rooms, and e-mail have spawned a rich set of acronyms and abbreviations for common phrases. An acronym is pronounced as if it were a word rather than just a series of individual letters. Additional exercises 1. Identify the words that formed these acronyms. a. ASAP, b. BTW, c. FWIW, d. FYI, e. IMO, f. LOL, g. TIA Answers: a. As Soon As Possible; b. By The Way; c. For What Its Worth; d. For Your Information; e. In My Opinion; f. Laughing Out Loud; g. Thanks In Advance 2. Write a list of acronyms that are familiar and used in everyday life. Possible answers: UNICEF, ANFP, UNESCO, CD, DVD, MP3, laser, sonar, PSU, etc. For more information on Background information see page 7 of the Introduction.

PAGE 77

AFTER READING
10 +++
Motivate the students to reflect about the text they have read, talking about the motives and circumstances in which both inventors created their objects. Then, invite them to share their comments with their classmates. Encourage the students to express and listen to everybodys opinions with respect. (L.A.: to express opinions). Answers Will vary.

9 +++
Tell the students to read the text once more and then answer the questions in their notebooks. Ask some students to read their answers aloud and make sure all the class get the correct answers. (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers a. It stands for By Kids for Kids. Its an acronym. b. It is a model of the final product. c. You can enter vocabulary words, history dates, science facts. d. To look at everyday life and invent something to improve it. ERROR ALERT Stand for = mean, represent; express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol; denote or connote. (NOT: the act of standing) For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

11 +++

17

Encourage the students to work in pairs and use the information from Exercise 10 to complete the dialogue with their own ideas. Invite the students to listen to the recording and check their answers. Explain to them that they have to check the general meaning, as there is not one single correct answer. (L.A.: to express opinions). Answers See transcript.

73

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

17

Reflection Spot

A: Which of the two inventions do you like the most? B: I like the clap game. A: Why? B: Because I think its very useful for children who dont have friends to play with. Do you agree? A: No. I think the other one is better. B: Why do you say that? A: Well, because, in my opinion, it really helps you to study and revise for tests. 12 +++
Ask the students to form groups of four and choose an inventor. Explain to them that they can use the library, encyclopedias, etc. or they can visit the web site www.invent.org., and choose one of the inventors listed there.(In that case, they must go to the Hall of Fame link, far left, and search by inventor or invention.) Tell the students they must write a short paragraph and prepare a brief presentation about the inventor or the invention they chose. Encourage them to include information about the origin of the idea and to list the steps the inventor took to go from idea to reality. Motivate the groups to add visual material to illustrate the presentations. Do not interrupt students presentations to correct the information or their English. Take notes of the most important mistakes and, at the end of the session, start a general conversation reflecting on the points that the students should reinforce / practice more to improve in the future. You may also ask each group to assess their classmates performances and assign an extra mark, according to their self and peer evaluation. (L.A.: to give an oral presentation).

Make sure you assign enough time of your class to allow students to reflect on their achievements and weaknesses. They read the statements and assess: their ability to search for information in order to prepare a presentation. their ability to give an oral presentation. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

13 +++
The objective of this activity is to allow students to relate the topic of the lesson to their own reality, and at the same time practice their oral skills applying the new structures they have learned, in a funny and relaxed atmosphere. Ask the students to think of an invention that would make life easier, name and describe it to their partners. Then, invite them to change roles. (L.A.: to describe a device/gadget).

14 ++
Motivate the students to make a drawing of the inventions they/their partners described in Exercise 13. Encourage them to show their drawings to their classmates and then display them in a visible place in the classroom. (L.A.: to relate text and visuals).

74

UNIT 3

TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY AND AND INVENTIONS INVENTIONS

PAGE 78

Answers a. The children cant go to the beach because its too cold. / Because its too cold, the children cant go to the beach. b. Pauls car didnt start because the battery was dead. / Because the battery was dead, Pauls car didnt start. c. My sister got up very early because she wanted to revise for a test. / Because she wanted to revise for a test, my sister got up very early. d. Debbie is learning Italian because she is traveling to Rome next year. / Because she is traveling to Rome next year, Debbie is learning Italian.

LANGUAGE SPOT
Because Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students revise the sentences from the text and other examples paying special attention to the word in bold. Tell them to compare the sentences and find the similarities among them. 2. Now, the students analyze each sentence and answer the questions. If necessary, analyze each alternative aloud and make sure they understand the differences clearly. Answers: a. Two; b. ii. 3. Invite the students to copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks, Answers: We can use the word because to join two ideas that express a reason and a cause. We use because to introduce the sentence that expresses the reason. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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16 +++ FL
Faster students complete the five sentences in their notebooks using the connector they learned in the LANGUAGE SPOT following the example. Encourage them to be creative and invite some students to write their sentences on the board; make sure all of them can check their answers. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers Will vary.

LETS CHECK
17
The purpose of this section is to allow students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.

15 ++
Using the information from the LANGUAGE SPOT, the students join the sentences. Ask them to write each sentence twice, changing the order of the clauses, as in the example. Draw students attention to the use of the comma in each case, according to the location of the connector. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure).

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Answers a. Because Jim was tired, he sat under a tree in the garden. /Jim sat under a tree in the garden because he was tired. b. Because she was very thirsty, my mother drank some tea. / My mother drank some tea because she was very thirsty. c. Susan hurried up because she was late for school. / Because she was late for school, Susan hurried up. d. Because the weather is cold, my father is wearing a heavy coat. / My father is wearing a heavy coat because the weather is cold. e. Dan cant reach the top shelf because he isnt very tall. / Because he isnt very tall, Dan cant reach the top shelf. f. Children can easily identify Italy on a map because it has the shape of a boot. / Because it has the shape of a boot, children can easily identify Italy on a map. g. My sister has a sore throat because she shouted loudly at the game. / Because she shouted loudly at the game, my sister has a sore throat. h. Helen is putting on her nicest dress because she is going to a party. / Because she is going to a party, Helen is putting on her nicest dress.

and at the same time recall their previous knowledge about it. They may not know the word gadget, so it may be a good idea to write it on the word and brainstorm students ideas about its meaning. A gadget is a small tool or device that does something useful (aparato, artilugio). (L.A.: to infer information from the context). Answers Will vary

2 ++
Explain to the students that they are going to listen to a recording about inventions. Ask them to predict the topic of the recording you will play. Do not provide the correct answer at this stage. (L.A.: to predict topic from the context).

3 ++
Before playing the recording, it is very important that the students know the meaning of the new words they will hear. Ask them to read the words in the Key Word Spot and then match them with their pictures. Allow the use of dictionaries if necessary. (L.A.: to infer meaning from visuals). Answers Octopus 4 pulpo Screw 5 tornillo Sketch 1 dibujo en borrador Switch 3 interruptor Tire 2 neumtico

REAL LIFE SPOT


The objective of this section is to provide a bit of humor to the class. All the jokes and cartoons are related to the topic of the lesson. Give some minutes to allow students to read and then invite them to share their comments to make sure they understood the joke. At this point, you may allow the use of Spanish to check comprehension. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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LESSON 2
LISTENING

MY BEST INVENTION

BEFORE LISTENING
1

Optional activity Once they understand the meaning of each word in the Key Word Spot, you can ask your students to predict why the words will appear in the recording. You may also tell them to relate the name of the lesson and the key words to predict the content of the recording.

+
The objective of this activity is to get students involved in the topic of the lesson,

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Answers a. ceilings; b. cups; c. posted; d. 4000; e. finding; f. hide // and /A/ sounds // as in cap is pronounced with lips stretched to the sides. /A/ as in cup is pronounced with lips in a neutral position, slightly separated. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction. Additional exercise Repeat each pair of words, paying special attention to the different pronunciation of the vowel sound. bad = bud drag = drug ran = run damp = dump tab = tub began = begun track = truck stand = stunned bag = bug raffle = ruffle ban = bun rat = rut back = buck jazz = just drank = drunk ERROR ALERT

LISTENING
4 +
18

Ask the students to listen to the recording and check their predictions in Exercise 2. Remind the students that this first time they only have to focus their attention on the general content of the recording. They may not concentrate on details or on specific information. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers b.

5 ++

18

Now, the students listen to the recording again and focus their attention on the content. Another alternative to this exercise would be to ask the students to choose the correct alternative first, and then check while listening to the recording. (L.A.: to recognize general information). Answers c.

8 ++

18

6 ++

18

Before playing the recording again, read the list of names aloud. Tell the students they now have to identify what kind of inventions the kids are talking about. Play the recording and ask the students to match each speaker with the invention. (L.A.: to relate speakers and speech). Answers Brian f.; Jen d.

Invite your students to copy the sentences into their notebooks. Then, play the recording once more to allow them to match each speaker with what they say. (L.A.: to relate speakers and speech). Answers a. ii.; v.; iii.; iv.; vi.; i.; b. i. Brian; ii. Jen.; iii. Brian; iv. Jen; v. Jen; vi. The teacher.

TRANSCRIPT - MY BEST INVENTION

18

7 +++

18

The students listen to the recording again. Ask them to focus their attention on the alternatives and choose the correct one for each sentence. Before playing the recording, read the sentences aloud, drawing the students attention to the different pronunciation of the alternatives. (L.A.: to discriminate sounds and words).

Teacher: Silence, please. Lets share ideas. Brian, what can you tell us? Brian: I invented Suction Tires to ride up walls and ceilings because I wanted to take bike riding to new heights. Teacher: Where did you get the idea? Brian: In our science class we learned that an octopus has eight arms with a bunch of suction cups that can stick to almost anything and then I got the idea to attach suction cups to my bike tires to ride on walls. After a lot of different designs, I managed to keep the suction cups attached to the tires with glue and screws.

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Teacher: What are you going to do with your creation? Brian: I made the final sketch and I posted my idea at InventNow.org. I hope that, soon enough, we can ride up walls! Teacher: What about you, Jen? Jen: I invented Hide-N-Seek 4000 because I needed a challenge. Teacher: Tell us about it. Jen: I always thought that a robot with eyes could be really good at finding things, so I designed a robot to play Hide-N-Seek. Teacher: Very interesting; how does it do that? Jen: My robot can use its arms to push back curtains and branches of trees. It also needs to hide, so I added a switch that changes it from a seeker to a hider. Teacher: What materials did you use? Jen: I used a computer, an old camera and a filing cabinet to design Hide-N- Seek 4000 and I also posted my idea at InventNow.org.
Reflection Spot

invent things, you can ask them to share their experience with the rest of the class. (L.A.: to express opinions). Answers Will vary, according to students own ideas and opinions.

LANGUAGE SPOT
The Simple Past Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. Invite the students to revise the sentences from the text. 2. Tell them to read carefully and then answer the questions. Answers: a. - i. ; b. the Simple Past tense. 3. The student must copy and complete the rule in their notebooks. Invite one student to copy the rule on the board to allow the rest to check it. We use the Simple Past tense to talk about events that happened in the past and are finished now. 4. Invite the students to revise the exercises from the listening section and identify all the sentences in the Simple Past Tense they can find. Then, ask them to copy the sentences in their notebooks. Check orally. Answers: Exercise 7: a. I invented Suction Tires to ride up walls and ceilings. b. That gave me the idea to attach suction cups. c. I posted my idea at InventNow.org. e. I thought that a robot could be good at finding things. Exercise 8: b. I added a switch. c. I made a final sketch. d. I needed a new challenge. e. I used a computer. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

Once they have evaluated their classmates, make sure you assign enough time of your class to allow students reflect on their own achievements and weaknesses. They read the statements and assess: their ability to discriminate sounds and words in a recording. their ability to relate speakers and their speech in a recording. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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AFTER LISTENING
9 +++
Form groups of four students and tell them to talk about the recording. Ask them to answer the questions and take notes in their notebooks. Then, tell the groups to appoint one member to read their comments aloud and organize a general conversation about the topic. If there are students who like to

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Background information We can often identify the Simple Past tense by the use of signal words such as: yesterday, a month ago, last summer, in (month, year), etc. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction. ERROR ALERT To make the past tense form of most regular verbs we simply add -ed at the end. Examples: walked, danced, arrived, etc. Irregular verbs are not that simple. We sometimes need a dictionary to help us write the different forms of irregular verbs. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction. Additional exercise Change the verb in each sentence to its past tense form and write it in the blank. You may refer to a dictionary or to a list of verbs. 1. I _________ all my homework at school.(do) 2. She _________ of a better way to do it.(think) 3. Sam _________ us to lock the doors.(remind) 4. They _________ their names on the list.(put ) 5. Who _________ my new jacket?(see) 6. We never _________ his real name.(know)

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11 +++
Tell the students to look at the pictures on page 83, and write complete sentences about what these people did yesterday using the verbs in the box. Invite some students to write the sentences on the board and make sure they all check their answers. If necessary, help them identify the irregular verbs and provide their Past Tense forms. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers

10 ++
The students must read the paragraph and complete it with the Simple Past tense of the verbs in brackets. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answers In 1824, when he was 15, Louis Braille invented a way for blind people to read. His personal experience was very important. He became blind at the age of 3; when he was 12, he went to a school for the blind in Paris. When a soldier called Charles Barbier visited the school, he told Louis about something called night-writing. During the next three years, Louis simplified the system and finally developed the Braille system of reading.

Yesterday 1. Anna danced all night. 2. Ben went to France. 3. Bob swam in the ocean. 4. Charles cooked lunch. 5. Emily and Eddie saw Titanic on TV. 6. Gina talked to her friend. 7. Jill and Nick had a picnic. 8. Kim wrote a letter. 9. Maggie played the piano. 10. Nick sang at the theater. 11. Philip drove his car. 12. Sheila rode her pony. 13. Sue and Tom bought some new clothes. 14. Terry caught rabbits. 15. Vincent went to London.

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12 ++

19

The students work in pairs and fill in the blanks in the dialogue. Let them know how important it is that they read the whole text first, then sentence by sentence, so that they can make use of all the textual clues that can give them information on the missing word(s). It is also important to remind them to make use of everything they have done in this lesson so far. (L.A.: to make use of textual clues and previous knowledge; to relate written and oral version of a text). Answers See transcript.

79

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

19

Teacher: What can you tell us about your invention? Molly: I invented the Karate Glove, to chop through anything from cement blocks to a minibus! Teacher: Where did you get the idea? Molly: I saw people chopping through blocks in movies and I wondered how I could do that. After karate class one day, I saw some workers tearing up the street with a super-powerful jackhammer. It was tough enough for concrete, so that gave me the idea! Teacher: What did you do next? Molly: I added a power switch and I made the final sketch. Teacher: What are you planning to do with your creation? Molly: Submit my idea to the Gallery at InventNow.org. 13 +++
19

Answers Krysta Morlan was 16 when she invented the waterbike. She got the idea when she was doing exercises in the pool. Krysta had spent a lot of time in hospital and needed to recover her strength. She loved bicycles, but hadnt ridden for a long time, so the new waterbike helped her to workout; besides, she invited her friends and they had a lot of fun in the pool.

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15 +++ FL
It may also be a good idea to assign this activity as homework or as a mini-project, with an extra mark for the whole class. Form groups of four students and ask them to think about tell past learners to do this activity on their own or in pairs funny invention they would like to create. Encourage them to draw a sketch and write a short description of it, like the one in the recording. Devote the next class to the presentations. You may also prepare copies of the peer-evaluation sheet and ask the students to evaluate their classmates work. (L.A.: to relate topic to students own reality).
Reflection Spot

The students listen to the recording again and practice the dialogue in pairs to roleplay it in front of their classmates. You can organize a class competition and ask the students to choose the best performance of the dialogue. (L.A.: to imitate a pattern of intonation and pronunciation).

LETS CHECK
14 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. The students must copy and complete the paragraph with the Simple Past tense of the verbs in the box. Again, remind them that it is very important to identify the kind of verb (regular / irregular) to decide which form they are going to use in each case. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.

Once they have evaluated their classmates, make sure you assign enough time of your class to allow students to reflect on their own achievements and weaknesses. They read the statements and assess: their ability to draw a sketch and to describe an invention. their ability to write a description of an invention. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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GAME SPOT
Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging for the students. They employ language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Remember that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. Explain to the students that the list a. i. includes some of the inventions that have been submitted to the Gallery at InventNow.org. Tell them to look at the pictures and find a name for them in the list. Motivate them to find clues that help them to identify the name of the invention. If it is possible, encourage the students to visit the web site and find other funny inventions that have been submitted. For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

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LESSON 3
READING

THE WIZARD OF MENLO PARK

BEFORE READING
Before starting the lesson and while the students still have their books closed, brainstorm the most important inventions in history. Ask the students the name of the inventions they considered changed peoples life and also the name of the inventors. Write them on the board.

+
Form groups of four students and ask them to write a list of the most famous inventions that changed peoples life. Then, invite the groups to share their lists with the rest of the class and finally, organize a general conversation so that the students can reach an agreement to appoint the most important invention in history. (L.A.: to relate previous knowledge with the topic of the lesson). Answers

Answers 1. Super Heat Dress; 2. Camera Glasses; 3. Electric-Heat Shirt; 4. Mouse Thermometer; 5. Space Center; 6. Gaming Tree House

Will vary.

2 ++
Invite the students to look at the pictures and identify the names in the list (a. f.) Then, encourage them to find the name of the inventors in the box. (L.A.: to relate text and visuals). Answers a. 4 Blaise Pascal; b. 1 Wilbur and Orville Wright; c. 5 James Watt; d. 2 Thomas A. Edison; e. 3 Johannes Guttenberg; f. 6 Filo T. Farnsworth Background information Filo T. Farnsworth was fifteen years old, and a high-school student, when he read of the research being carried out in the Soviet Union by Boris Rosing on transmitting moving images by electricity. He quickly designed a schematic drawing of the required system. Farnsworth entered Brigham Young University the next year

16 FL
Encourage fast learners to read the descriptions and then find the name of each invention in the list in the GAME SPOT. This activity represents a more advanced step in which fast students must relate a description with a name, without the help of a visual clue. Again, tell the students to pay special attention to the words that may represent clues. Ask them to share their answer with the rest of the class. (L.A.: to infer meaning from titles). Answers a. Space Center; b. Sklurfboard; c. Super Heat Dress; d. The Book Sorter; e. Electric Heat Shirt.

81

and remained there for two years until the death of his father. A San Francisco banker named William H. Crocker built a laboratory for Farnsworth so that he could continue his research into the practical development of his television system. Wright Brothers: In 1899, after Wilbur Wright had written a letter of request to the Smithsonian Institution for information about flight experiments, the Wright Brothers designed their first aircraft: a small, biplane glider flown as a kite to test their solution for controlling the craft by wing warping. Wing warping is a method of arching the wingtips slightly to control the aircrafts rolling motion and balance. Over the next three years, Wilbur and his brother Orville designed a series of gliders which would be flown in both unmanned (as kites) and piloted flights. They recognized that control of the flying aircraft would be the most crucial and hardest problem to solve. In 1900, the Wrights successfully tested their new 50-pound biplane glider with its 17-foot wingspan and wing-warping mechanism at Kitty Hawk, in both unmanned and piloted flights. In fact, it was the first piloted glider. Based upon the results, the Wright Brothers planned to refine the controls and landing gear, and build a bigger glider. Blaise Pascal: At the age of 14 Blaise Pascal started to accompany his father. Soon, by the time he was 16, Pascal presented a single piece of paper which contained a number of projective geometry theorems, including Pascals mystic hexagon. Blaise had his first work, Essay on Conic Sections published in February 1640. He invented the first digital calculator to help his father with his work collecting taxes. He worked on it for three years, between 1642 and 1645. The device, called the Pascaline, resembled a mechanical calculator of the 1940s. This, almost certainly, makes Pascal the second person to invent a mechanical calculator, for Schickard had manufactured one in 1624. Johannes Gutenberg was a German goldsmith and printer who is credited with being the first European to use movable type printing, in around 1439, and the global inventor of the mechanical printing press. His major work, the Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line

Bible), has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality. James Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution both in Britain and in the world. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki

3 ++
Tell the students that they are going to read about one of the most famous inventors in history. Invite them to guess his / her name, according to their choice in Exercise 1. Do not correct answers at this stage. (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to predict topic).
Reflection Spot

The purpose of this activity is to help students reflect on their learning process and to raise students awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more effective learners. They should work on their own but you may help and guide the work when necessary. The students read the statements and assess: their ability to relate the topic of the lesson with their previous knowledge. their ability to use their previous knowledge to make predictions. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

4 +++
Again, remind the students that this activity is very important to face any reading text. The cognates they can identify will be very helpful to prepare for the reading tasks and to get the general meaning of text. Invite the students to read the text quickly and find the cognates in it. Then, ask them to identify their relationship with the topic of the text. Check the list of cognates inviting a student to read his / her list aloud, but do not check their predictions at this stage (L.A.: to use cognates to make predictions).

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Cognates: February, adult, fruits, vegetables, devoured, dictionary, science, practical, obtained, telegraph, operators, civil, finally, authentic, invention, automatic repeater, transmitted, signals, stations, patented, initial, version, idea, hours, projects, received, patent, constructed, electric, voice, disaster, quadruple, transmitter, progress, laboratory, moved, phonograph, invented, incandescent, firm, general, corporation, responsible, creating.

7 ++
The students read the text again, this time more carefully, to identify the kind of text it is. Before doing the exercise, brainstorm students ideas (it may be in Spanish) about the characteristics and differences of the different kinds of texts enumerated, to help them find the correct answer. (L.A.: to identify kind of text). Answers c.

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5 +++
The students read the words in the Key Word Spot and find them in the text. They must choose the correct meaning for each word. For this activity, it is very important that the students understand clearly the context in which each word has been used, and then decide the most logical meaning. An easy way to demonstrate this is to replace the word for each meaning and check if it fits. (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). Answers a. - ii.; b. i.; c. i.; d. ii.; e. ii.

READING
6 +
Invite the students to read the text on page 88 quickly and check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. Reinforce the idea that this first time is only to validate / correct what they had predicted before reading the text. It is not necessary for them to understand every single word. (L.A.: to validate predictions through skimming). Answers 3. Thomas A. Edison, 4. b.

Background information A short story is a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, usually in narrative format. A biography (from the Greek words bos meaning life, and grphein meaning to write) is a description of someones life, usually published in the form of a book or essay, or in some other form, such as a film. An autobiography (auto, meaning self, giving self-biography) is a biography by the same person it is about. A biography is more than a list of impersonal facts (education, work, relationships and death), it also portrays the subjects experience of those events. Unlike a profile or curriculum vitae (resume), a biography presents the subjects story, highlighting various aspects of his her life, including intimate details of experiences, and may include an analysis of the subjects personality. A work is biographical if it covers all of a persons life. As such, biographical works are usually nonfiction. Together, all biographical works form the genre known as biography, in literature, film, and other forms of media. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction.
http://en.wikipedia.org

83

8 ++
Invite the students to read the text once more and then decide if the statements are true or false. Once the students have decided which statements are false, ask them to write the correct sentences in their notebooks. Invite some students to read their answers aloud to check the exercise. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information). Answers a. True; b. True; c. False (Edison never patented the initial version of this idea) d. True; e. True f. False (He didnt die alone, his wife Mina was by his side).

Motivate them to write a coherent piece of writing, and to connect their ideas with sequencing words such as: before, after, then, etc. and to use other textual references like who; where; which, etc. You may assign this activity as homework, giving an extra mark for it. The following class, ask the students to read their work aloud. It would also be a good idea to prepare copies of the Writing Rubric (page ___ of this book) and ask the students to evaluate themselves or to evaluate their classmates. (L.A.: to write a biography). Possible Answers Thomas A. Edison was born on February 11th, 1847, in Ohio, USA. In 1859 he started his own business selling fruits and vegetables. In 1862, he obtained a job replacing a telegraph operator. In 1863, he invented the automatic repeater which was a disaster. In 1874, Thomas Edison opened his first laboratory in Newark, and he then moved to Menlo Park. In 1877 he invented the first phonograph and a year later he invented the incandescent light bulb. By 1892, his company had become a great firm, which was the General Electric Corporation. In 1900, Edison began to slow down. He obtained his last patent in 1930, when he was 83, and he died on October 18th, 193.

9 +++
Tell the students to copy and complete the time line of Thomas Edisons life in their notebooks. (L.A.: to identify the sequence of events). 1847: 1859: 1862: 1863: 1874: 1876: 1877: 1879: 1892: 1900: 1930: Answers He was born on February 11, in Ohio, USA. He started his own business selling fruits and vegetables. He obtained a job replacing a telegraph operator. He invented the automatic repeater. He opened his first laboratory in Newark, New Jersey. He moved his laboratory to Menlo Park. He invented the first phonograph. He invented the first incandescent light bulb. His company became the General Electric Corporation. He began to slow down. He obtained his 1093rd (last) patent when he

was 83. 1931: He died on October 18th, in New Jersey.

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AFTER READING
10 +++
Ask the students to work in pairs to prepare a summary of Edisons biography using the information in the time line in Exercise 9.

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LANGUAGE SPOT
Relative pronouns Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students revise the sentences from the text. Draw their attention to the words in bold in each sentence. 2. Help the students to identify what the words in bold introduce to the sentences in Point 1, and what kind of information they are related to. Answers: a. i.; b. who person, which object; when time; where place. 3. Ask the students to copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. Answers: a. We use who when we want to add information about a person. b. We use which when we want to add information about an object. c. We use where when we want to add information about a place. d. We use when when we want to add information about time. 4. Once they have finished Activity 3, the students go back to the reading text and find three sentences that contain a relative pronoun. Ask them also to identify what the relative pronouns refer to. Answers: 1. At 16, he finally came up with his first authentic invention, an automatic repeater which transmitted telegraph signals between stations. (object: the automatic repeater) 2. Shortly before passing away, he awoke and whispered to his wife Mina who was by his side:It is very beautiful over there. (person: Edisons wife, Mina) For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

11 ++
Tell the students to join the sentences in A and B using the correct relative pronoun. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answers a. Thomas Alva Edison was an important inventor who invented the incandescent light bulb. b. Edison invented the automatic repeater which transmitted telegraph signals between stations. c. Edison got his first patent for an electric voice recording machine which was a disaster.

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12 +++
The students must use their own ideas to complete the sentences using the correct relative pronoun. Invite some students to write their sentences on the board and make sure that the rest check their answers. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers Will vary according to students' ideas, but check that they use the correct relative pronoun: a. who. b. where / which. c. when. d. where. e. who.

13 +++

20

In pairs, the students complete the dialogue on Edisons biography and then they check with the recording. Draw students attention to what kind of information they are expected to supply in each blank. For example, in the first one the question begins with who, so they must complete it with the name of a person. They can copy and complete the dialogue in their notebook. Play the recording again, with pauses. Ask the students to listen to it and practice the dialogue with their partners. Invite some pairs to role-play it in front of their classmates. Remember not to interrupt the students while they are doing speaking activities to correct them. It is better to take notes of the most important mistakes and devote some time at the end of the class to correct them in general. (L.A.: to exchange biographical information). Answers See transcript

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TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE

20

A: Who was Thomas Alva Edison? B: He was an American inventor who developed many devices that changed modern life. A: And what important inventions did he develop? B: He invented the phonograph and the electric bulb, among other things. A: Do you know how many inventions he patented? B: Over a thousand inventions, I think. A: In what area were his main contributions? B: His main contributions were in the area of telecommunications. 14 +++ FL
You can assign this consolidation activity to fast learners or as homework with an extra mark for the whole class. The students must work in pairs and find information about a famous inventor. Then, with the information they collect, they must write and role-play a dialogue like the one in Exercise 13. Encourage them to be creative and look for interesting information to share. (L.A: to consolidate topic and language structures). Answers Will vary according to students information.

required in each blank (a verb, a noun, a proper noun, an adjective, etc.) (L.A.: to use vocabulary related to the topic of the lesson). For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers THE INVENTION OF THE BARBIE DOLL Perhaps one of the most famous toys in American history is the Barbie doll. Along with co-founding the company Mattel, woman inventor Ruth Handler also designed the doll that became an American cultural icon. She had always seen her daughter playing with paper dolls, so she invented a grown-up, three-dimensional doll that girls could use to act out their dreams. Mrs. Handler named her new invention after the nickname of her daughter Barbara. After the Toy Fair in 1959, Barbie became an instant sensation. To this day, the Barbie doll invention remains one of Mattels best-selling products.

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REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students to make connections between the topic of the lesson and real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read, and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

LETS CHECK
15 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. The students must complete the paragraph with words from the box. Again, before starting the exercise, invite the students to analyze the kind of information that is

@@ CLICK ON
If possible, encourage your students to visit the web site, and take notes about some interesting information they find. Next class, you may ask some of them to read their notes and share the information. You may also visit the site yourself, and take notes of any funny or strange facts. For more information on CLICK ON, see page 12 of the Introduction.
http://www.pocketgadget.org/2008/01/14/serendipity10-accidental-inventions

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LESSON 4
LISTENING

LISTENING
5 +
21

TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

BEFORE LISTENING
1

+
Invite the students to work in groups thinking about possible inventions that do not exist yet but they think they need and will exist in the future. (L.A.: to relate the topic to students own reality).

Play the recording to allow the students to check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. Give clear instructions to your students to concentrate on the general information that will give them the clues to identify the name and function of each gadget. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers 3. a. C - pen - picture 5; b. TIVO - picture 2; c. Thought control remote - picture 4. 4. a. TiVo; b. Thought control remote; c. C-pen; d. Thought control remote

2 ++
Invite the groups to appoint a member to share their comments with their classmates, giving reasons for their choices. Take notes on the board and ask the students to reach an agreement on the best and most useful idea for the future. (L.A.: to exchange opinions). Answers Will vary.

6 ++

21

The students listen to the recording again and number the gadgets as they are mentioned. (L.A.: to identify the sequence of information). Answers a. 2; b. 3; c. 1

7 +++

21

3 ++
Invite the students to look at the pictures of three new gadgets and then match them with their names. Do not check at this stage. (L.A.: to infer meaning from visuals).

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The students listen to the recording again to decide which of the statements are true and which are false. This time, they have to concentrate on details to identify the incorrect information that each sentence may contain. An alternative exercise would be to ask the students to predict the answers and then check with the recording. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information). Answers a. False; b. True; c. False; d. False; e. True; f. True Optional exercise Additionally, you can ask the students to correct the false sentences in Exercise 7. Answers: a. With TiVo, you can see action as it happens in slow motion. c. The C-pen looks like a highlighter pen, but it is a small portable scanner. d. The C-pen can store up to 3,000 pages of text.

4 +++
Once they have chosen the names, brainstorm the uses the students would give to each gadget. You can make a chart on the board and take notes of the students ideas. Then, ask them to copy sentences a. d. into their notebooks and then complete them with the name of the corresponding gadget according to the function they think they have. Do not check at this stage. (L.A.: to infer meaning from visuals).

87

8 +++

21

TRANSCRIPT - TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

21

Tell the students to copy the sentences in their notebooks. Then, they listen to the recording again and write the name of the corresponding gadget. Again, you can transform this exercise and ask the students to write the name they think is correct and then check with the recording. In this case, ask them to give reasons for their choices. Example: a. Tivo is paradise for sports lovers because people who watch sports events on TV like to replay or see things in slow motion. b. Thought Control Remote understands what you think; it can understand people's thoughts. c. C-pen can always be with you because it is portable. d. C-pen can store a lot of information; it can store up to 3,000 pages of text. e. TiVo allows you to replay all the actions; replay is something you do with movies or recordings. f. Thought Control Remote shows your commands through the cursor; Thought Control Remote sends your commands to the computer and the cursor obeys. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Answers a. TiVo; b. Thought Control Remote; c. C-pen; d. C-pen; e. TiVo; f. Thought Control Remote

Presenter: And now, Jim Mc Bride, in our section Technology update. What do you have for us today, Jim? Jim: I have three gadgets that will surprise you. The first is Tivo. Tivo is a remote control system that allows you to interact with live TV. Presenter: Interact with TV? Explain that, please. Jim: When watching TV, you can pause, replay or see all the action, as it happens, in slow motion. When you go back to normal viewing, the TV will continue from the point where you left off. Presenter: It sounds like paradise for sports lovers! What else do you have? Jim: The second gadget today is the C-pen pocket scanner. With it, you will never have to search the streets for a photocopy store again. Presenter: Do you mean it is like a portable photocopier machine? Jim: Exactly. Although it looks like a highlighter pen, it is a small portable scanner that can read and memorize a text line-by-line and then transfer it directly to your PC. Besides, it can store up to 3,000 pages of text. Presenter: Wow! And what is the last gadget for today? Jim: How would you like a computer that understands your thoughts and acts upon them? Presenter: I cant even imagine that although I know it is possible. Jim: Believe it or not, it is. With this device, you dont need a mouse or a keyboard; you just think of the command that you want to give the computer and the cursor moves where you want it to. Presenter: This is the ideal gadget for people who are physically disadvantaged. For example, (fade)

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PAGE 94

AFTER LISTENING
LANGUAGE SPOT
Linking words Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students read the sentences. Draw their attention to the words in bold. 2. Tell the students to identify what the words in bold express and choose an alternative from the list. To do this task, it is very important that they can first identify the two parts in each sentence and then decide what they express. Answers: a. contrast 3. Once they have checked the answer, the students copy and complete the rule in their notebooks. Linking words like although, however, while and though indicate a relationship of contrast between ideas. Although and though are generally placed at the beginning of a supporting idea. However goes at the beginning of the second sentence and is followed by a comma. While is placed either at the beginning or in the middle of two main clauses expressing contrasting ideas. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

Additional exercise Relate these two sentences using although / though, while, and however. They all indicate contrast. They are different types of words. Answers a. Although / though they all indicate contrast, they are different types of words. b. They are different types of words, while they all indicate contrast. c. They are all different types of words. However, they all indicate contrast.

9 ++
Refer the students to the LANGUAGE SPOT to complete the sentences in their notebooks. Invite some of them to write their sentences on the board to check their answers. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answers a. Although / though, b. However, c. while, e. Although / though

Reflection Spot

ERROR ALERT Linking words are extremely important since they indicate the relationship between ideas. Connectors can be grouped according to meaning. For example, while, however, and although all indicate contrast or qualification. However, they are different types of words, and require different punctuation. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

The purpose of this activity is to help students reflect on their learning process and to raise students awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more effective learners. They should work on their own but you can help and guide the work when necessary. The students read the statements and assess: their ability to use linking words to combine ideas. their ability to identify what linking words express. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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10 +++

22

The objective of this activity is to allow students to apply vocabulary and language structures from the lesson to a real context. Tell the students to copy and complete the description of a new invention in their notebooks and to make a drawing to illustrate it. Then, invite them to form groups and compare their descriptions and drawings. Finally, play the recording to allow the students to check their work. (L.A.: to consolidate language and vocabulary). Answers See transcript.

illustrate it. Explain that they can use the information in Exercise 10 to help them. Next class, the students must read their descriptions in their groups. The other students must make a drawing as they listen to the description and then compare their drawings to find the most similar to the original one. (L.A.: to consolidate language and vocabulary). Answers Will vary.

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GAME SPOT
Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging for the students. They employ language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Remember that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. Students must choose an everyday object, make notes and then describe it to their partners without naming the object. The partner must guess what the object is. They can describe the objects in the pictures, or they can choose others. For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE

22

Speaker: This gadget is called CyberBug. It allows you to listen to people's conversations. It has a microphone and an amplifier, and a small headphone. Besides, it is very cheap and portable. You can put it in your bag and take it to work or even to the gym! With it, you can hear conversations between people although they are up to 50 meters away! 11 +++
Group competition! Play the recording and make the students practice saying the description. Then, ask them to repeat it in their groups and choose the best imitator of the recording. (L.A.: to imitate a pattern of intonation and pronunciation). Optional exercise Organize a further competition among the winners of each group, to select the best imitator of the class.

LETS CHECK
13 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand

12 +++ FL
You can assign this activity to fast learners or as homework for the whole class. Ask the students to write a description of a new gadget on a piece of cardboard and a drawing to

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what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. The students must choose a gadget from the box and write a short description of it (100 120 words). Make sure they include all the necessary information, such as: the use of the gadget, the components it has, if it is affordable or not, its advantages and disadvantages, the people who may find it useful, etc. You can prepare copies of the Writing Rubric to allow students to evaluate themselves, or their peers. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.

The students must look for information about the inventions in the box and then complete the fact file in their notebooks.

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REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students to make connections between the topic of the lesson and real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Ask the students to try to solve the crossword puzzle and find out how many words from the lesson they can identify. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers Across: 1. gadget; 4. remote control; 5. PC; 7. scanner; 8. keyboard Down: 2. television; 3. screen; 6. mouse

PAGE 98
YOUR ENGLISH IN ACTION

Possible Answers Name of invention: Bycicle. Name of inventor: Kirkpatrick MacMillan. Place: Scotland. Year: 1939 Additional information: Name of invention: Bikini. Name of inventor: Louis Reard Place: France Year: 1949. Additional information: It took its name from the Bikini islands. Name of invention: Glasses. Name of inventor: Galileo. Place: Italy. Year: 1609. Additional information: Galileo used them first to observe the universe, and that was the beginning of Astronomy. Name of invention: Kites. Name of inventor: Unknown. Place: China. Year: 2800 BC. Additional information: After its appearance in Chila, the kite migrated to Japan, Korea, Thailand, Burma (Myanmar), India, Arabia and North Africa. Name of invention: Telescope. Name of inventor: Hans Lippershey. Place: Netherlands. Year: 1608. Additional information: Niccolo Zucchi is credited with constructing the first reflecting telescope in 1616. In 1668, Isaac Newton designed and improved the reflecting telescope that bears his name, the Newtonian reflector. Name of invention: Umbrella. Name of inventor: Unknown. Place: Ancient Egypt. Year: Unknown. Additional information: In Egypt, the parasol is found in various shapes. In some instances, it is depicted as a faellum, a fan of palm leaves or colored feathers fixed on a long handle, resembling those now carried behind the Pope in processions.

This section provides additional exercises that represent a good opportunity for students to consolidate topics and language structures of the lessons. You can assign these activities at the end of each lesson, or as homework and give them an extra mark.

2 Read the instructions aloud and make sure


all the students understand what they are expected to do. Once they have completed the task, invite them to share their work with their classmates and make them choose the best invention. Display the sketches in a visible place in the classroom.

91

Answers Will vary.

2 a. They require pieces of trash and drugstore supplies.


b. He has designed bunkers, tree houses, robots and caffeinated cereal. c. He thinks it is a constructive activity. d. By playing video games.

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3 To do this task, the students have to look for


information in books, encyclopedias, the Internet, etc. and then complete the timeline of the most important XX century inventions. Draw the timeline on the board for students to correct their work. Answers 1900 - automobile; 1901 - vacuum cleaner; 1902 - electric typewriter; 1903 - airplane; 1911 - refrigerator; 1920 - credit card; 1927 - television; 1940 - Velcro; 1956 - liquid paper; 1973 - Internet; 1980 - CD; 1983 - cell phone; 1986 - MP3; 1995 - DVD; 2005 - You Tube; 2005 - Facebook

3 a. His garage.
b. The glove. c. Six hours every weekend. d. An electric boat powered by solar panels.

4 a. ii, b. ii, c. ii., d. ii, e. i.


LISTENING THE GARBAGE EATER AND THE HUMAN ROBOT 23

5 a. 6 a. 2,000; b. five; c. work; d. made 7


can cant The garbage eater The human robot change garbage into drugs or alcohol change garbage into human or animal clean the house help with homework

4 The students must choose one of the


inventions from the time line in Exercise 3 and look for information about its inventor to write his / her biography like the one of Thomas Alva Edison. Ask them to prepare an oral presentation to share their work with their classmates.

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UNIT CHECK

PAGE 102
Explain to the students that the purpose of this section is to help them revise contents and evaluate their performance in the whole unit. Read the instructions and make sure all the students understand what they are expected to do in each activity. Encourage them to give honest answers in order to detect their strengths and weaknesses. Check students results and revise any points that the majority of them had problems with. For more information on UNIT CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers READING THE LIFE OF A TEEN INVENTOR

8 b. e. a. d. f. c. TRANSCRIPT - THE GARBAGE EATER AND 23 THE HUMAN ROBOT Teacher: Michael: Teacher: Michael: So, Michael, what can you tell us about your sketch? The Garbage Eater-2000 is an easier way to recycle. How does it work? First you decide how many pieces you need the eater to suck up. Then you type in what you want the garbage to turn into. Next, hammers inside the machine pound the garbage 2,000 times in five minutes and two rods melt the garbage at a temperature of 2,000 degrees. Now the machine reshapes the garbage into the shape you wanted, and it also spray paints it and forms the texture on the outside. Finally the object wanted is produced.

c.

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Teacher: Any special rules for the Garbage Eater-2000? Michael: The Garbage-Eater 2000 can't change garbage into human or animal, and it can't change garbage into drugs or alcohol. You can't type in any swear words, or foul language, or suck in any item that is not garbage; it may cause the machine to break down. Teacher: Thanks, Michael. Lydia, tell us about your work. Lydia: This is a robot that looks just like a real human being. I made one that looks just like me. Teacher: Why do you think it's a useful device? Lydia: Think of all the possible actions that this human sized robot can do! It can help you with your homework, do your chores, and even clean your house for you. Besides, it looks very real. It is coated with paint, and made out of old parts of toys, cars, and more!
LANGUAGE

pronunciation but hesitates and makes grammar mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't exchange information about the topic, pronunciation interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. WRITING

12 The students must write a description (120


150 words) of a gadget or device they find useful for everyday life. They must include information about its function and the reason it is useful for them. It is important that they combine their ideas with linking words they have seen in the unit, such as: however, although, while. You can assign points according to these criteria: 7 - 8 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph about the topic, using correct textual references and without grammar or spelling mistakes. 5 - 6 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph about the topic, using a few textual references and with a minimum of grammar or spelling mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent short paragraph about the topic, but he / she makes no use of textual references and makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't write a coherent short paragraph about the topic and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.

9 a. invented; b. thought; c. developed; d. worked;


e. had to

10 a. Carla visited Argentina where she bought a lovely


leather bag. b. This is the museum where there is an Egyptian mummy. c. We visited the castle where Ann Boleyn was executed. d. Those are the students who got the highest marks. e. I didnt like the film which you recommended. SPEAKING

11 In pairs, the students exchange information


about an imaginary invention. Make sure they exchange information about its name, where they got the idea, the materials they used and why it is useful for life. You can assign points according to these criteria: 7 - 8 points:student can ask and answer complete questions about the topic, with correct pronunciation, no hesitations and without grammar mistakes. 5 - 6: student can ask and answer complete questions about the topic, with correct pronunciation, and a minimum of hesitations and grammar mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can exchange information about the topic with acceptable

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FINAL REFLECTION

The purpose of this section is to allow students to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses. Make sure all the students understand what they are expected to do and give enough time to answer the questions. Encourage students to give honest answers and show interest in their results. For more information on FINAL REFLECTION, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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EXTRA TEST UNIT 3


READING - A NEW HYBRID ENGINE

A NEW HYBRID ENGINE


Next week at the Inventors Showcase in San Diego, Santana High School senior Josh Wesolowski plans to unveil an invention he hopes will hold an answer to the energy riddle. Constructed from an old lawn-mower engine, the hybrid engine runs on four different types of fuel: gasoline, propane, methanol and hydrogen. I built this engine to simply prove that its not difficult to run any engine on many different fuels, the inventor said. The machine is simplistic in appearance but performs a unique function alternating between four very different fuel sources with the flip of a switch, all while the motor is running. Gas is used first because methanol, an alcoholic substance similar to ethanol, lacks the punch needed to heat the engine for full ignition. Wesolowski will demonstrate that process to the judges at the Inventors Showcase. The project started more than a year ago as part of an effort by Santana High School to find methods of producing hydrogen fuel. Jacob Bagnell, an automotive teacher who also taught Wesolowskis father and older brother, donated the lawn-mower motor for the machine. He assisted Wesolowski in bringing his idea to life and said the young inventor worked hard

to apply complicated scientific principles to his project. Wesolowski, 17, got the idea for hydrogen energy while he was in the sixth grade, when he learned that magnesium could combust water. Wesolowski said hydrogen fuel may provide U.S. motorists a means of alternative energy for their vehicles without having to eliminate the cars they love. The public can start viewing the new invention at 9 a.m., next Thursday. The Awards ceremony starts at 6 p.m., and admission is free. By Declan Desmond / UNION-TRIBUNE

Read the text and answer these questions. a. When and where does Josh Wesolowski plan to show his new invention? b. What did he use to make his machine? c. Why did he create his invention? d. What does the machine do? e. Who donated the material for the invention?

5 pt.

2 Read the text again. Choose the best alternative to finish each sentence.
a. Josh Wesolowski is i. one of the youngest students in his school. ii. one of the oldest students in his school. iii. an university student. b. The hybrid engine uses different types of fuel: i. gasoline, propane, methanol and hydrogen. ii. gasoline, methanol and hydrogen. iii. gasoline, propane, and hydrogen. c. Methanol is very similar to i. gasoline. ii. ethanol. iii. propane. d. The project started because the inventor i. was bored. ii. found an old lawn mower. iii. participated in a school project. e. The public who want to see the new invention i. have to pay a fee to enter the exhibition. ii. dont need to pay to enter the exhibition. iii. have to wait for the awards ceremony to see the invention.

10 pts., 2 pts. each

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LISTENING - TWO NEW GAMES

3
a. b. c. d. e.

Listen to the recording. Who said these sentences, Speaker 1 or Speaker 2? _______: A player catches the ball. _______: All you need is a ball. _______: The referee can also call timeouts. _______: They have one more game. _______: The teams rush to the ball. Listen again and choose the correct alternative. You start out with four / two people on the middle line. There are three / thirteen privates, four / fourteen Snipers. The game starts with two / four players in each team. The quarters are ten / fifteen minutes long. You have two / four timeouts in the game.

5 pts.

4
a. b. c. d. e.

10 pts., 2 pts. each

LANGUAGE

5 Fill in the blanks in these sentences with the Simple Past form of the verb in brackets.
a. Beth ________ (arrive) just before the film ________ (start) b. Geoff ________ (not find) his parents at the airport, so he ________ (get) very nervous. c. The jazz singer ________ (sing) an old blues song and ________ (play) a beautiful melody. d. Sophie ________ (get) a new job as a receptionist; she ________ (not like) to work as a teacher. e We ________ (go) down to the beach as soon as the rain ________ (stop). SPEAKING

10 pts.

6 Choose an everyday object and describe it to your partner but dont name it. Tell
him/her about its shape, its functions, its components, etc., so that your partner guesses what the object is. Then change roles. WRITING

8 pts.

7 Write a short description of an imaginary invention. Include information about its


name, where you got the idea, the materials you used to make it and why it is useful for everyday life.

8 pts.

56 pts. TOTAL 0 - 13 Keep trying! 14 - 28 Good! 29 - 43 Very good! 44 - 56 Excellent!

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LANGUAGE

ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 3

5 a. arrived, started b. didnt find, got c. sang,


played d. got, didnt like e. went, stopped. SPEAKING

READING - A NEW HYBRID ENGINE

a. Next week at the Inventors Showcase in San Diego. b. He used an old lawn-mower engine. c. To prove that its not difficult to run any engine on many different fuels. d. It performs a unique function alternating between four very different fuel sources. e. Jacob Bagnell donated the lawn-mower motor for the machine.

6 In pairs, the students exchange information about


an everyday object. Make sure they exchange all the necessary information to guess what object it is.You can assign points according to these criteria: 7 - 8 points: student can ask and answer complete questions about the topic, with correct pronunciation, no hesitations and without grammar mistakes. 5 - 6: student can ask and answer complete questions about the topic, with correct pronunciation, and a minimum of hesitations and grammar mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can exchange information about the topic with acceptable pronunciation but hesitates and makes grammar mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't exchange information about the topic, pronunciation interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. WRITING

2 a. ii.; b. i.; c. ii.; d. iii.; e. ii.


LISTENING - TWO NEW GAMES
24

3 Speaker 1: a.; d., Speaker 2: b.; c.; e. 4 a. two; b. three, four; c. four; d. ten; e. four
TRANSCRIPT - TWO NEW GAMES
24

Speaker 1: War Ball is a game that combines football with war. You start out with two people on the middle line, and then a player catches the ball and starts running. There is a base instead of a touchdown zone, so when a player gets a touchdown they are actually winning a war. All the other players hide behind objects on the field. The positions are General, Soldiers, Snipers and Privates. There are three Privates, four Snipers, five Soldiers and one General. The player who gets to 40 points in one hour or who has the most points wins! If there is a tie, then they have one more game. And all the darts are foam so they won't hurt if you get hit. Speaker 2: This sport is a mix of two very popular sports: football and soccer. All you need is a ball. The objective of the game is to kick the ball into the goal. There are ten people in a team. The game starts with four players in each team on each side, with the round ball in the center of the field. The game starts and the teams rush to the ball. The aim is to get the most goals by the end of the 4th quarter. The quarters are ten minutes long. You have four timeouts in the game. The timeouts are one and a half minutes long. The referee can also call timeouts.

The students must write a description (120 - 150 words) of an imaginary gadget or device. They must include information about its name, its function and the reason it's useful for them. It is important that they combine their ideas with linking words they have seen in the unit, such as however, although, while. You can assign points according to these criteria: 7 - 8 points:student can write a coherent description providing the required information, using correct textual references and linking words, and without grammar or spelling mistakes. 5 - 6 points: student can write a coherent description providing the required information, using a few textual references and linking words, and with a minimum of grammar or spelling mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent description providing some of the required information, but he / she makes no use of textual references and linking words, and makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't write a coherent description and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.

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UNIT
SONGS - MUSIC AND WORDS
use the First and Second Conditional Speaking ask people about imaginary situations request information using polite questions Writing write a book review write questions and answers in a chat room You will also: assess and appreciate the value of music and literature develop respect for the role of music and literature as a means of communication Development Lesson 1: four hours Lesson 2: four hours Lesson 3: four hours Lesson 4: four hours Consolidation and evaluation activities: 3 hours + home assignments Indicators

In this unit you will: read a piece of chat read book reviews listen to a television program listen to a song You will learn how to: Reading distinguish general and specific information discriminate between correct and incorrect information identify type of text Listening infer mood of speakers relate speakers and speech discriminate sounds Language use would and could use modal verbs must, have to, need to use the Passive Voice Types of Evaluation

Didactic resources Complementary material such as articles magazines, Student Forum chats. Pictures of teenagers provided by the teacher and by the students to illustrate the diversity of teenage cultures. Support material such as lists of adjectives, dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed handouts, library material, etc. Methodological suggestions Teachers should prepare the lessons beforehand considering that thorough prior preparation allows them to think of and apply some useful ideas. It is their chance to make the class entertaining and to involve students in the learning process. Teachers are advised to use a variety of resources throughout the book.

Continuous/informal Students do reading and listening activities, take part in conversations, and produce written texts. Reflection spot Self - evaluation Unit Check Unit evaluation Students analyze and evaluate their performance in the speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities. Reading: Students identify and extract specific information. Listening: Students identify the correct sequence of information and discriminate sounds. Language: Students use the Second Conditional Structure and the Present Passive Voice. Speaking: Students imitate an interview between a famous artist and a fan. Writing: Students write a book review. Students analyze their performance in the whole unit. Reading: Students find specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use the Passive Voice and the Second Conditional. Writing: Students write a short paragraph describing their best friend. Speaking: Students imitate an interview and exchange information about routines, interests and favorite activities.

Final Reflection Extra Test

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2 ++
Tell the students to work in pairs and copy and complete the chart in their notebooks. Invite some students to write the chart on the board to check the activity. (L.A.: to relate topic and students previous knowledge). Answers
Name Country Year of birth Discipline Mahani Teave Chile 1983 Classical music - piano Kudai Chile 2004 (band) Pop music - band Ma. Jos Quintanilla Chile 1990 Mexican music Singer Miley Cirus USA 1992 Pop music Singer Jonas Brothers USA 2005 (band) Pop music band Gareth Johnson USA 1985 Classical music - violin Rihanna Barbados 1988 Pop music Singer Aria Tesolin Canada 1994 Opera

GETTING READY 1
In their groups, the students write a list of all the words related to music and literature they know in English. Ask them to copy and complete the chart onto a piece of paper. Possible Answers Music music, song, melody, lyrics, instruments, singer, orchestra, concert, CD, DVD, MP3, musician, chorus Literature book, novel, writer, story, chapter, character, protagonist, title, plays, drama, plot, setting

2 Invite the groups to display their charts on


the board to compare their list with other groups and to share new words. Then, tell them to look up the meanings of the words they do not know in an English-English dictionary and write a glossary related to the topic of the unit in their notebooks. Background information Rihanna Robyn Rihanna Fenty (born February 20, 1988), known as Rihanna, is a Barbadian singer, model and fashion designer. She also serves as the cultural ambassador for the island of Barbados.She is the first Barbadian artist to officially win a Grammy Award. Rihanna is currently signed to the Def Jam Recordings label. Five of her singles have been on the Billboard tops. Rihanna broke into the industry in 2005 with the release of her debut album Music of the Sun, which features her hit single Pon de Replay. Less than a year later, Rihanna released A Girl Like Me and earned her first number-one single, SOS. In 2007, Rihanna released her third studio album, Good Girl Gone Bad. The album has yielded six hit singles, including three worldwide number one singles: Umbrella, Dont Stop the Music, and Take a Bow. Since the release of her debut album, Rihanna has amassed twelve top 40 hit singles in the U.S. Kudai is a Latin Grammy Award-Nominated Chilean pop rock group founded in Santiago, Chile. Its original members were Toms Caas Manzi, Pablo Holman Concha, Nicole Natalino and Brbara Seplveda Labra. In 2006 Nicole Natalino left the group citing personal reasons, and was replaced by Ecuadorian Gabriela Villalba. The bands name comes from the

3 Invite the students to imagine they are lost


on an island in the middle of the ocean. Tell them to choose a book and a music album they would like to have. In their groups, the students share their comments giving reasons for their choices.

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LESSON 1
READING

CHATTING WITH A YOUNG WINNER

BEFORE READING
1

Ask the students to look at the pictures on page 106 and identify what the people have in common. (L.A.: to relate previous knowledge with the topic of the lesson). Answers They are all singers and teenagers.

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Mapudungun word kdaw, meaning work. They released three albums in Latin America Vuelo in 2004, Sobrevive in 2006 and Nadha in 2008, this is the first album of the band released in the United States. The group is hugely popular mostly among teenagers in South America, the Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico, and has sold around 1 million records worldwide. They are well-known for hit songs, such as Sin Despertar, Ya Nada Queda, Escapar, Djame Gritar, Llvame, Tal Vez, and most recently, Lejos De Aqu. Miley Ray Cyrus (born Destiny Hope Cyrus on November 23, 1992) is an American actress and Golden Globe-nominated singer-songwriter. Cyrus is better known for starring as Miley Stewart / Hannah Montana in the television series Hannah Montana on the Disney Channel. Cyrus became a sensation after Hannah Montana debuted in March 2006. Following the success of the show, in October 2006, a soundtrack CD was released in which she sang eight songs from the show. As of December 2007, she worked on a movie spin-off of Hannah Montana, titled Hannah Montana: The Movie which was released in April, 2009. Cyruss solo music career began with the release of her debut album, Meet Miley Cyrus on June 23, 2007. Her second album, Breakout was released on July 22, 2008. Breakout is Cyruss first album that does not involve the Hannah Montana franchise. Both albums debuted at #1 on the Billboard 200. In 2008, Cyrus was listed among artists and entertainers as one of Time magazines 100 Most Influential People in The World. The Jonas Brothers are an AMA-winning, Grammy-nominated American boy band. The band gained their popularity from the childrens television network, Disney Channel. Hailing from Wyckoff, New Jersey, the band consists of three brothers: Kevin Jonas, Joe Jonas, and Nick Jonas. They starred in a spin off of High School Musical called Camp Rock. They have released three albums: Its About Time (2006), Jonas Brothers (2007), and A Little Bit Longer (2008). Mahani Teave is unique for being the only classical musician from her native Easter Island (Chile). Ms. Teave is a winner of numerous international piano competitions and is one of

the most sought after pianists in Chile. She studied at the Cleveland Institute of Music, under the tutelage of Sergei Babayan. Mara Jose Quintanilla Sandoval was born on February, 17th, 1990 in Santiago, Chile. She lived with her family in Maip. She began singing when she was a little girl, and she admires Mexican music. Gareth Johnson: Having heard the famed Itzhak Perlman, Johnson at the age of ten declared, I can play that instrument! His passion and persistence to master the violin has allowed him to become one of the most talented African American violinists of his time. As a winner of the Sphinx Competition, a competition designed to reveal the talents of African and Hispanic Americans, he has helped students throughout America understand that with hard work, commitment and focus, they too can achieve their dreams. During his presentations most students are astonished at the fact that in addition to his talents as a classical violinist, he is a devoted composer, arranger and performer of New Age styles of music. Aria Tesolin: She was born in Canada, in 1994. At age 3, inspired by the music in Disney and other childrens movies and later at 4, by the movie musical Evita, Aria began singing complex melodies untypical for her age. At age 6 she discovered a love for opera music from hearing tenor Andrea Bocelli. Attending her first live opera Carmen at 7, she announced that she would some day sing the role of Carmen. One day she suddenly burst into an energetic La Donna e Mobile. She named one of her rabbits Puccini after her favorite composer. Aria began studying opera at 7 with Gofreddo Ricci, from Rome, Italy, coach trainer for opera singers from the Canadian Opera Company & Mississauga Opera Company. After his death in 2003 she began studying with Professor Marat Maxutov, an exceptional vocal trainer from Russia, who has excellent knowledge of voice physiology for young people. Aria is of Northern Italian descent, fluent in French and English, sings in 5 languages and lives in Canada. The young artist released her debut album Baby Soprano at age 12, with a challenging and solid 14-track opera repertoire and was probably the youngest opera singer in the world at the time.

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To date she has sung popular opera arias in several concerts featured with Canadas 3 Tenors - Andrea Garofalo, Peter Marino, Mitch Seekins & Charles DiRaimondo, arranged by Mr. Rino Ianone. Aria opened Canada Day celebrations for the City of Toronto in both 2003 & 2005 singing for up to 20,000 people and in 2007 for 44,000 at the Toronto Blue Jays Baseball game. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction.

READING
Please note that this text is from a British website. For this reason some words use the British instead of the American spelling. American English British English organize organise practice practice (noun) (verb and noun) practise (verb)

6 + 3 +++
Ask students to have a look at the name of this lesson and at the picture of the girl in the text on page 108 of their book. Elicit their ideas about why they think the girl is a young winner. Tell them to choose an alternative, but do not check their predictions at this stage. (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to make predictions). The students read the text quickly and check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers 3. c; 4. music, idol, inspiration, project, musician, favorite

7 ++
Ask the students to read Sarahs answers again and find the correct location for each question (a. g.). (L.A.: to locate missing information). Answers a. I; b. IV; c. II; d. VII; e. V; f. III; g. VI

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4 Explain to the students that award winning


Sarah Bennett answers questions from the public on an Internet web site. Ask them to select the cognates they expect to find in the text from the words in the boxes. (L.A.: to predict content from cognates). Optional exercise Once the students have selected the cognates they expect to find in the text, ask them to give examples of sentences using the cognates.

8 +++
Invite the students to read the text again and decide if the statements a. e. are true or false. As an additional exercise, you can ask the students to identify the incorrect information in the false statements and then correct them in their notebooks. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information). Answers a. True; b. False (She says its difficult); c. False. (Songwriting is the only thing in her life she can organise); d. True; e. True.

5 Before reading the text, tell the students to


read the words in the Key Word Spot and look up their meanings in a dictionary. (L.A.: to develop study skills). Answers chords: lyric: vessel: two or more notes played together. the words of a song. a tube that carries blood through the body. venue: a place where people meet for an organized event. jigsaw puzzle: a picture printed on cardboard or wood, that has been cut up into a lot of small pieces that you have to fit together again.

9 +++
The students read the text once more and then answer questions a. d. in their notebooks. Motivate them to write complete sentences and check orally. (L.A.: to extract specific information).

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a. b. c. d.

Possible answers 6,500 people went to see Sarah at Exeter. They are free events where people can sing. Sarah would like to play at the Albert Hall one day. In the future, Sarah would like to work in a project like Live Aid.

Answers: Indirect questions are more polite, longer forms of normal questions. Indirect questions are formed of two parts: a polite expression, like Could you tell me, What do you think, and a question which has no subject / verb inversion or does not use an auxiliary, like a direct question.
4. Once they have completed the rule, the students go back to the text and copy all the questions in their notebooks. Then, they turn the direct questions into indirect ones, and the indirect questions into direct ones. Answers: a. How hard is it to write a song? b. Could you tell me what you think of first the music or the lyrics? c. What should I do? d. Can you tell me what your dream project is? e. Could you tell me where you get the inspiration for your lyrics? f. Who are your music idols? g. Can you tell me who your favorite musician is? For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

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AFTER READING
10 ++
In their groups, the students talk about the text they read. Tell them to think of three more questions to ask Sarah in the chat and invite some students to share their questions with their classmates. As an optional activity, you can ask the students to take notes of the questions. If possible, as homework, encourage students to visit the web-site: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blast/music/people/sarah_ bennett.shtml and find the answers.

LANGUAGE SPOT
Indirect questions Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or any interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students read the questions from the text. 2. They analyze and compare questions a. c. with questions d. - g. Guide them to identify the answers to questions i. v. Answers: i. a., b., c..g.; ii. d., e., f.; iii. indirect questions are more polite; iv. they are shorter than indirect questions; v. they are longer than direct questions. 3. The students copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks.

ERROR ALERT Indirect questions do not use the auxiliary verb do in the main question. For example: - When does the next train arrive? - Direct question - Do you know when the next train arrives? - Indirect question - Do you know when does the next train arrive? - Incorrect For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction. Additional exercise Transform these direct questions into indirect questions, using a polite expression. a. What is your name? b. Why do you want this job? c. How much do you earn? d. How soon can you start? e. When did you see the advertisement? f. Where do you live? g. Which newspaper did you see the advertisement in? h. Who gave you my name?

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a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

Answers Could you tell me what your name is? Can you tell me why you want this job? Would you mind telling me how much you earn? Can you tell me how soon you can start? Could you tell me when you saw the advertisement? Can I ask you where you live? Can I ask you which newspaper you saw the advertisement in? Could you tell me who gave you my name?
25

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13 ++
The students use their questions from Exercise 10 and transform them into polite questions. Ask them to write the sentences in their notebooks. Invite some students to write them on the board to allow the rest to check the activity. (L.A.: to use a new language structure).
Reflection Spot

11 ++

Refer students to the LANGUAGE SPOT and tell them to put the words in order to make polite questions. Then, ask them to write also the corresponding direct questions. Play the recording to allow students to check their answers (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answers See transcript

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

25

a. I wonder if you could give me some information. Could you give me some information? b. What time is it? Could you tell me what time it is? c. Do you know where I can buy a map? Where can I buy a map? d. Id like to know where I can change some money. Where can I change some money? e. Can you tell me where I can find a pharmacy? Where can I find a pharmacy? 12 +++
25

The purpose of this activity is to help students reflect on their learning process and to raise students awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more effective learners. They should work on their own but you may help and guide the work when necessary. The students read the statements and assess: their ability to make polite questions. their ability to use polite questions in a conversation. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

14 +++
In pairs, the students use the polite expressions in the bubbles to write a short interview using indirect questions. (L.A.: to apply a language structure to a communicative situation). Answers Will vary.

The students listen to the recording again and practice saying the questions. Then, in pairs, they take turns to say a direct question and the corresponding indirect question. (L.A.: to imitate a model of pronunciation).

15

+++
Encourage the students to role-play the interview they wrote. You can supply copies of the Oral Presentation Rubric (page - of this bak) and ask the rest to evaluate their classmates performance. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation).

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LETS CHECK
16 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. The students must use the polite expressions in the box to transform questions a. e. into indirect questions. Answers Any of the expressions + a. when the next train arrives? b. what time the museum closes? c. how hard it is to be an artist? d. when you wrote your first story? e. if we can hear your latest song?

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REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students to make connections between the topic of the lesson and real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

@@ CLICK ON
Motivate students to visit the web-site indicated at the bottom of page 111 to find more information on the topic of the REAL LIFE SPOT. For more information on CLICK ON, see page 12 of the Introduction.

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LESSON 2
LISTENING

17

+++ FL
You can assign this activity to fast learners as homework for whole class. Invite your students to think about a famous young artist they would like to chat with. In their notebooks, ask them to write a short piece of chat like the one in the text, with the questions they would like to ask and the artists answers. (L.A.: to exchange information in a chat room). Answers

NEW STARS

BEFORE LISTENING
Draw the students attention to the pictures. Elicit students ideas about what they see in them.

+
Explain to the students that these are all names of radio or TV programs (according to their location in one of the pictures) and they are all related to music. Students work in pairs and write a list of radio and TV programs related to music that they know.The share it with other pairs. Invite some students to write their lists on the board. (L.A.: to relate previous knowledge to the topic of the lesson).

Will vary.

18 +
If you assigned Exercise 17 as homework, next class encourage the students to show their work to their classmates. Organize a general conversation about the importance of being capable to exchange information on the Internet, and the usefulness of English as a general means of communication. (L.A.: to relate content to students own reality).

Answers Will vary, according to students own lists.

103

2 ++
Read the name of the lesson aloud and brainstorm students ideas about what they think it is. Write the ideas on the board but do not correct at this stage. (L.A.: to predict content from titles).

5 ++

26

Tell the students to listen and identify where the text was taken from. (L.A.: to identify the origin of a text). Answers c.

3 +++
Ask the students to read the words in the Key Word Spot and then identify their meanings in the list (a. e.). You may also tell the students to predict or guess the meanings and then check their answers with a dictionary. (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). Answers audience: c.; coach: b.; contestant: a.; fit: e.; pretend: d.
Reflection Spot

6 ++

26

The students listen to the recording again, this time with the objective of identifying each speakers job in the academy. Draw students attention to the personal introduction of each speaker. (L.A.: to relate speakers and speech). Answers a. iii.; b. i.; c. ii.

7 ++

26

The purpose of this activity is to help students reflect on their learning process and to raise students awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more effective learners. They should work on their own but you can help and guide the work when necessary. The students read the statements and assess: their ability to apply study skills. their ability to infer the meaning of new words. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

Ask the students to listen to the recording again and choose the correct alternative. (L.A.: to discriminate sounds and words). Answers a. sing; b. leave; c. great; d. cool; e. feeling ERROR ALERT Pay special attention to the different pronunciation of these sounds: th / o / and s /s/ For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction. Additional exercise a. Read and repeat these pairs of words. thick - sick think - sink mouth - mouse path - pass b. Think of more examples and complete the chart.

PAGE 113

LISTENING
4 +
26

Ask the students to listen to the recording and check their predictions in Exercise 2. Remind your students that they dont need to understand every single word. This first time they should concentrate on general meaning, just to check or correct their predictions. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers a.

/ o/ thick think mouth path

/s/ sick sink mouse pass

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Possible Answers

TRANSCRIPT - NEW STARS


/s/ say set sing so some sum

26

/ o/ thunder thief thanks thought thin through

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8 +++

26

Tell the students to copy the sentences into their notebooks. As they listen, they must write the name of the speaker in the provided spaces. An optional exercise would be to invite the students to read each sentence carefully, predict the speakers and then check with the recording. You may guide the students to predict correctly, according to the content of each sentence. (Example: the director is the person who is in charge of talking about the rules and general information; the voice coach talks about singing; the songwriting coach talks about lyrics and composing) (L.A.: to relate speakers and speech). Answers a. Adam; b. Spencer; c. Adam; d. Savannah; e. Spencer; f. Savannah.

Spencer: Hello, everybody. Im Spencer, the Director. Id like to welcome you and wish you success. You will spend three months with us, at the New Stars music academy. Here, you will learn to sing and compose, and each week you will perform one of your own songs on a TV show. The audience will vote for them by phone. If you get the lowest number of votes you will leave the program. You must obey our rules and attend all your classes. Our coaches are great and they will teach you to develop your talents. Any questions for them? Girl: Can you tell me how you will make stars of us? Savannah: Im Savannah, your voice coach. You have to know that everyone here can sing, but not everyone can sing like a star. My job here is to help you to find your special voice, but you need to work hard. If you do that, you will stay with us till the end. Boy: Id like to know how you get the music to fit the lyrics. Adam: Hi, my names Adam and Im your songwriting coach. Songwriting is cool, but not everyone has to be a composer. You dont need to be a poet; the important thing is to fit the words to the music. Most of our contestants do it, and they say that performing their own songs is a great feeling. Director: Any more questions? Anyone?

AFTER LISTENING
10 ++
In their groups, the students answer the questions and then share answers with another group. Encourage the use of English as much as possible, as for the majority of the students these are the only occasions in which they can practice. Remember not to interrupt to correct them while they are speaking. Its better to talk about the most important general mistakes at the end of the activity or the class. Invite some groups to report their answers to the rest of the class. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality).

9 +++

26

Ask the students to listen to the recording once more to match the answers (i. iv.) and the questions (a. d.). Again, you can change the order of the activity, encouraging the students to predict their answers and then check with the recording. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Answers a. iii.; b. i.; c. iv.; d. ii.

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LANGUAGE SPOT
Need to, dont need to, must Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. Ask the students to read the sentences from the text. 2. Help them discover what the sentences express and ask them to relate this to the verbs used. Answers: a. obligation; b. obligation; c. necessity; d. no necessity 3. The students copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. We use must to express an obligation, and need to / dont need to to express a necessity / no necessity. 4. Motivate the students to recall the conversation they listened to. Ask them to write three more sentences using the verbs in the LANGUAGE SPOT. Possible answers: The audience must vote by phone. You dont need to know how to sing and compose. If you get the lowest number of votes you must leave the program. You dont need to sing like a star. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

Additional exercise Use must, have to, mustnt or not have to in the following sentences. a. Jack __________ (go) home early today. He has got homework. b. Children __________ (play) with cleaning liquids. c. We __________ (go) now. Its already midnight! d. Peter __________ (arrive) to work at 8:00 every day. e. You __________ (do) the cleaning today. Ive already done it. f. We __________ (hurry). Were on time.

11 +++
Encourage your students to write sentences in their notebooks using the verbs in the LANGUAGE SPOT and the clues in the box as shown in the example. Invite some of them to write their sentences on the board to allow the rest to check the exercise. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answers Will vary. Accept all coherent sentences.

LETS CHECK
12 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign a mark according to the scale. Ask the students to complete the sentences with facts that are true for them. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.

ERROR ALERT As stated in the NOTE of the Language Spot: have to = must dont have to = dont need to. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

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a. b. c. d. e.

Possible Answers Ive got to go now. I must arrive home early. You have got a lot of games. You dont need to buy more. He is a very rich man. He doesnt need to work. My mother doesnt feel well. She needs to rest. / She must call the doctor. Ive got a message for you. You must call Susan.

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GAME SPOT
Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging for the students. They employ language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Remember that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. Read the instructions aloud and motivate the students to apply the Truth Questionnaire to two of their classmates. For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

PAGE 116

13 ++

27

In pairs, the students complete the dialogue using the clues in the boxes. Then, play the recording and ask them to check their answers. (L.A.: to exchange information). Answers See transcript.

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

27

A: Hi! Can I ask you a few questions? Im new here, you see. B: Sure! What do you need to know? A: Well, Id like to know how long were going to stay here. B: Well stay here for six weeks, and then well learn to sing and compose. A: How about the rules? B: We must obey their rules and attend all the classes. A: Tell me about our coaches. B: They are great! They help us to develop our talents, but we need to work hard. 14 +++
27

Answers Will vary.

15 +++ FL
You can assign this activity to fast learners or for homework for the whole class. With the information they collected when applying the questionnaire, the students must write two short paragraphs about their classmates answers. Invite the students to read the paragraphs they wrote to a classmate. You may also supply copies of the Writing Rubric and ask the students to assess their partners work. (L.A.: to write a short report)

The students listen to the recording again. Then, they practice and role-play the dialogue with a partner in front of the class. (L.A.: to imitate a model of pronunciation and intonation).

REAL LIFE SPOT


The objective of this section is to provide a bit of humor to the class. Anyway, all the jokes and cartoons are related to the topic of the lesson. Give some minutes to allow students read and then invite them to share their comments to make sure they understood the joke. At this point, you may allow the use of Spanish to check comprehension. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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LESSON 3
READING

WE WANT YOU TO READ!

BEFORE READING
1

+
Draw students attention to the people in the pictures. Elicit their ideas about what these people have in common. Make them relate the title of the lesson to the pictures and ask them to predict the general topic of the lesson. (L.A.: to use previous knowledge to predict topic).

Answers The people in the pictures are all famous writers. The general topic of the lesson is literature. Background information Isabel Allende: Chilean writer; she was born on August 2nd, 1942. She worked as a journalist in Chile from 1964 to 1974, and in Venezuela from 1975 to 1984. As an author she has published articles in newspapers and magazines in America and Europe, has made lecture tours in America and Europe colleges and taught literature at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville , Montclair College, New Jersey and University of California, Berkeley. Her most important novels are: - The House of the Spirits, (novel) Spain 1982. - Of Love and Shadows, (novel) Spain 1984. - Eva Luna, (novel) Spain 1985. - Stories of Eva Luna, (short stories) Spain 1989. - The Infinite Plan, (novel) Spain 1991. - Paula, (novel) Spain 1994. - Aphrodite (recipes, stories and other aphrodisiacs) Spain 1997. - Daughter of Fortune, (novel) Spain 1999. - Portrait in Sepia, (novel) Spain 2000. - The City of the Beasts (young adult novel) Spain 2002. - My Invented Country, (novel) Spain 2003.

- Kingdom of the Golden Dragon, (young adult novel) Spain 2003. - Forest of the Pygmies, (young adult novel) 2005. - Zorro, (novel) Spain 2005. - Ins of My Soul, (novel) Spain 2006. - The Sum of Our Days, (novel) Spain 2007. Alberto Fuguet: Alberto Fuguet was born in Santiago, Chile, but he lived in Encino, California until he was 13. He is a graduate of the Universidad de Chiles School of Journalism. In 1999 Time called Fuguet one of the 50 most important Latin Americans for the next millennium. In 2003, he was featured on the cover of the international edition of Newsweek magazine to represent a new generation of Latino writers. Fuguet currently heads the program in Contemporary Audiovisual Culture at the Universidad Alberto Hurtados School of Journalism in Santiago. He also writes for the newspaper El Mercurio and is at work on two new projects: the film Perdidos and the book Missing. Fuguets work is characterized by a United States / Chilean hybridity, with constant crossreferences to the popular cultures of the two nations. In 1996 he co-edited (with Sergio Gmez) the anthology McOndo, whose title combined McDonalds with Macondo, the fictional town created by Gabriel Garca Mrquez. McOndo represented popular culture while largely rejecting the use of magical realism in contemporary Latin American fiction. Fuguets other books are the short story collections Sobredosis and Cortos; the novels Mala onda, Por favor, Rebobinar, Tinta roja and Las pelculas de mi vida; and the nonfiction collection Primera parte. Mala onda, which narrates a week in the life of a Santiago teenager in 1980, has received wide acclaim. Tinta roja has been made into a film. Las pelculas de mi vida is a semi-autobiographical novel about a Chilean seismologist who grew up in California and later returned to Chile. Its protagonist recounts his life with references to movies he has watched. Some of Fuguets work, including Mala onda and Las pelculas de mi vida, have been translated into English and published in the United States.

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2007 saw the release of Road Story, a graphic novel illustrated by Gonzalo Martnez based on one of the stories in Cortos. Gabriel Garca Mrquez was born on March 6, 1927 in the town of Aracataca, Colombia. In January 1929, his parents moved to Baranquilla while Garca Marquez stayed in Aracataca. He was raised by his maternal grandparents. When he was eight, his grandfather died, and he moved to his parents home in Barranquilla where his father owned a pharmacy. Since Garca Mrquezs parents were more or less strangers to him for the first few years of his life, his grandparents influenced his early development very strongly. His grandfather was an excellent storyteller. He taught Garca Mrquez lessons from the dictionary, took him to the circus each year, and was the first to introduce his grandson to icea miracle found at the United Fruit Company store. Garca Mrquezs political and ideological views were shaped by his grandfathers stories. Garca Mrquezs grandmother played an equally influential role in his upbringing. The house was filled with stories of ghosts and premonitions, omens and portents, all of which were studiously ignored by her husband. According to Garca Mrquez she was the source of the magical, superstitious and supernatural view of reality. It was a style that, some thirty years later, heavily influenced her grandsons most popular novel, One Hundred Years of Solitude. In 1940, Garca Mrquez left his family, which had moved a year earlier to Sucre, in order to begin his secondary school education at the Jesuit boarding school of San Jos in Barranquilla. At San Jos, he first published his words in the school magazine Juventud. After graduation in 1947, he started law school at the National University of Colombia in Bogot. Although his passion was now writing, he continued in law school to please his father. By 1950, he gave up the idea of becoming a lawyer to focus on journalism. He moved back to Barranquilla to write for the newspaper, El Heraldo. Although Garca Mrquez never finished university, Columbia University in New York awarded him an honorary doctorate of letters in 1971.

Marcela Paz (February 28, 1902 - June 12, 1985) was the pen name of Esther Huneeus Salas de Claro, a Chilean writer. She also used the pen names of Paula de la Sierra, Lukim Retse, P. Neka and Juanita Godoy. Paz was born in Santiago, Chile, the second child of a wealthy family. She studied at home. In 1926 she traveled to Paris to study arts and returned to Chile at the age of 24, when she started her literary work. She wrote for magazines like El Peneca, Ecran, Zig-Zag, Eva and Margarita, and newspapers like La Nacin, El Mercurio and La Tercera. In 1933 she published her first book, Tiempo, papel y lpiz. The same year she married Jos Luis Claro. In 1947 Paz created her most famous character, Papelucho. Between 1964 y 1967, she directed the Asociacin Internacional del Libro Juvenil (IBBY). In 1968 she received the Hans Christian Andersen Award. In 1979 she received the gold medal from the Instituto Cultural de Providencia. In 1982, she received the Premio Nacional de Literatura de Chile. Joanne Rowling: (born 31 July 1965), who writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling, is a British author, best known as the creator of the Harry Potter fantasy series, the idea for which was conceived whilst on a train trip from Manchester to London in 1990. The Potter books have gained worldwide attention, won multiple awards, and sold more than 400 million copies. She has become a notable philanthropist, supporting such charities as Comic Relief, One Parent Families and the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Great Britain. J.R.R.Tolkien: John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892, in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State (now Free State Province, part of South Africa). As a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider (a type of tarantula) in the garden, an event which would have later echoes in his stories. When he was three, Tolkien went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, however, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them. His mother tutored her two sons, and Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil. She taught him a

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great deal of botany, and awakened in her son the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favorite lessons were those concerning languages, and his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin very early. He could read by the age of four, and could write fluently soon afterwards. His mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper, and thought Alices Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was amusing but disturbing. Tolkien attended King Edwards School, Birmingham and St. Philips School. He lived in the shadow of Perrotts Folly and the Victorian tower of Edgbaston Waterworks, which may have influenced the images of the dark towers within his works. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction.

Genre Name Comic Detective History Horror Manual Play Romance Science Fiction Thriller Other You may need some background information to help your students identify the characteristics of each genre. Background information Detective Detective fiction has become almost synonymous with mystery. These stories relate the solving of a crime, usually one or more murders, by a protagonist who may or may not be a professional investigator. This large, popular genre has many subgenres, reflecting differences in tone, character, and it always contains criminal and detective settings. Horror Horror fiction aims to evoke some combination of fear, fascination, and revulsion in its readers. This genre, like others, continues to develop, recently moving away from stories with a religious or supernatural basis to ones making use of medical or psychological ideologies. Science fiction Science fiction is defined more by setting details than by other story elements. Science fiction by definition includes extrapolated or theoretical future science and technology as a major component, and is often set on other planets, in outer space, or on a future version of Earth. Within these setting details, however, the conventions of almost any other genre may be used, including comedy, action-adventure and mystery. A sub-genre of science fiction is alternate history where, for some specific reason, the history of the novel deviates from the history of our world. Both alternate history and science fiction are often referred to alongside fantasy fiction, magical realism and some horror fiction under the umbrella term speculative fiction.

2 ++
Ask the students to look at the pictures of the book covers and then match them with their names. (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). a. b. c. d. e. f. Answers A Hundred Years of Solitude (1) Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (4) Kingdom of the Golden Dragon ( 2) Papelucho and the Alien (6) The Lord of the Rings (3) The Movies of my Life (5)

3 ++
In pairs, the students make a list of the most interesting books they have ever read. Tell them to say the genre of the books. Optionally, you can ask the students to draw and complete a chart in their notebooks with the name of a book they can remember for each category. (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge).

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Romance Romance is currently the largest and bestselling fiction genre in North America. It has produced a wide array of subgenres, the majority of which feature the mutual attraction and love of a man and a woman as the main plot, and have a happy ending. This genre, much like fantasy fiction, is broad enough in definition that it is easily and commonly seen combined with other genres, such as comedy, fantasy fiction, realistic fiction, or action-adventure. Play A story meant to be performed in a theater before an audience. Most plays are written in dialogue form and are divided into several acts. Many include stage directions and instructions for sets and costumes. Comedy: A lighthearted play characterized by humor and a happy ending. Farce: A form of high-energy comedy that plays on confusions and deceptions between characters and features a convoluted and fastpaced plot. Farce often incorporates buffoonery, slapstick, and stock characters to provoke uproarious laughter. Molire was a master of farce with such plays as The Imaginary Invalid. Miracle play: A play from the Middle Ages featuring saints or miraculous appearances by the Virgin Mary. Morality play: A play written in the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries that presents an allegory of the Christian struggle for salvation. Mystery play: A short play based on a biblical story. Mystery plays, popular in the Middle Ages, often were presented in cycles, in which dozens of plays were performed at different locations throughout a city and collectively presented the most significant moments in the Bible. Noh drama: A ritualized form of Japanese drama that evolved in the 1300s involving masks and slow, stylized movement. Problem play: A play that confronts a contemporary social problem with the intent of changing public opinion on the matter. Henrik Ibsen popularized this form in plays such as Hedda Gabler. Tragedy: A serious play that ends unhappily for the protagonist. Sophocles Antigone is one of the best-known Greek tragedies.

Tragicomedy: A play such as Shakespeares A Winters Tale that mixes elements of tragedy and comedy. One-act play: A play consisting of a single act, without intermission and running usually less than an hour. Edward Albees Zoo Story is a well-known example. Thriller The genre Action Thriller is, on its surface, a mixture of action and thriller content. To understand what this genres name actually means, however, we must analyze its components. It features a down-to-earth plot, and it frequently plays into peoples fears (e.g. the film Alien is a thriller.). However, thriller has a greater tendency toward digression than action. History It is the study of the past, with special attention to the written record of the activities of human beings over time. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyze the sequence of events, and it often attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events. Other narrative forms Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of works which originate in digital environments. Films, videos and broadcast soap operas have carved out a niche which often parallels the functionality of prose fiction. Graphic novels and comic books present stories told in a combination of sequential artwork, dialogue and text. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction.

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4 ++
Invite the students to have a quick look at the texts and guess what kind of text they are. Write students ideas on the board but do not correct at this stage. (L.A.: to identify of text).

111

5 +++
Tell the students to write a list of cognates they expect to find in a text related to books. Brainstorm students ideas, write a tentative list on the board, but do not correct yet. (L.A.: to use cognates to predict content).

8 ++
Now, the students read the texts again to find the answer to questions a. f. Encourage them to write the questions and the answers in their notebooks and check orally. (L.A.: to extract specific information). a. b. c. d. e. f. Answers Charmains father is a baker. Charmain discovers that she is not a very nice person. Marley is a Labrador (dog). Marleys masters is called John Grogan. Johnny Trott works at a hotel in London. Kaspars owner is Countess Kandinsky.

6 +++
Invite the students to read the words in the KEY WORD SPOT and find them in the text. Then, tell them to choose the correct meaning according to the context in which they are used. (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). Answers a. i.; b. ii.; c. i.; d. ii.; e. i.
Reflection Spot

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9 +++
Tell the students to copy the sentences into their notebooks. Then, ask them to read the texts carefully again and write the name of the book that corresponds. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Answers a. Kaspar, Prince of Cats; b. Marley: A Dog Like No Other; c. Kaspar; d. Kaspar; e. House of Many Ways.

Make sure you assign enough time of your class to allow students to reflect on their achievements and weaknesses. They read the statements and assess: their ability to use their previous knowledge to understand the topic of the lesson. their ability to relate their own experience to the topic. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

10 +++
If necessary, the students read the texts again to find the name of the review section for each definition. Before doing this activity, you may recall students knowledge of literature to make sure they understand the concepts. (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). Answers a. character; b. highlights; c. protagonist; d. author; e. plot.

READING
7 +
Tell the students to read the texts quickly to check their predictions in Exercises 4 and 5. To check students' predictions in Exercise 5 refer to the words written on the board. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers 4. a. 5.: author, characters, role, family, magic, discovers, person, idea, Labrador, story, based, specially, adapted, original, connect, really, interesting, adventures, magnificent, events, protagonist, illustrations.

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11 ++
Invite your students to copy and complete the fact file into their notebooks with information from the reviews. Copy the chart on the board and ask some students to complete it, to allow the rest to check. (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers Name of Book House of Many Ways Marley: A Dog Like No Other Kaspar, Prince of Cats Author Diana Wynne Jones John Grogan Michael Morpurgo Characters Chairman Marley, John, Jenny Johnny Trott, Countess Kandinsky, LizzieBeth

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LANGUAGE SPOT
Passive Voice Present Tense Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students revise the sentences from the text. 2. Tell the students to answer questions a. c. Answers: a. a. a story; b. a dog; c. a name. b. at the beginning of the sentences. c. that the subject does not perform the action. It receives the effect of it. 3. In their notebooks, the students copy and complete the general rule. Answers: We use the Passive Voice when we want to draw the attention to the person/thing that received the effect of the action, more than to the person who executed the action. The Present Simple Passive is formed with the present tense of the verb to be + the participle of a main verb. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

AFTER READING
12 +++
In groups, the students compare their lists from Exercise 3 and exchange information about their preferences in literature. Choose some students to report their answers to their classmates. You can also organize a short survey to discover your students favorite book, genre and author (to relate content of the text on their own reality).

13 +++
The first part of this activity can be assigned as homework. Ask the students to think of a book they have recently read and write a review for it like those in the reading texts. Next class, organize a group game. Tell the student to read the reviews in their groups without saying the name of the books, and see if their classmates can guess the names. (L.A.: to write a short review).

ERROR ALERT The Passive Voice is generally used when the subject of the sentence is indefinite, general, or unimportant. In the sentence: They mine coal in Pennsylvania, the subject is so indefinite that it is not clear what is meant by they. It might mean the miners, the people, or the companies. These sentences are improved by putting the verb in the Passive Voice (Coal is mined in Pennsylvania). The Passive Voice is also used when what is done is more important than the doer of the action. The Passive Voice is generally used when you want to emphasize the receiver rather than the doer. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

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Additional exercise Write these sentences in the Passive Voice. Add by where necessary. a. Children open the door all the time. b. We set the table every night. c. People pay a lot of money in taxes. d. People wear white shoes in summer. e. They dont help you. f. They open the book at the beginning of the class. g. You do not write the letter. h. They build houses for poor people. i. Does the police officer catch thieves?

pairs to say the quotations aloud, to provide a model to their classmates. (L.A.: to imitate a model of intonation and pronunciation).

TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE

28

a. A kind word is never wasted. b. Everyday is a gift, that's why it is called the present. c. God's laughter is heard when birds sing. d. Opportunity is always dressed in "work clothes". e. People are known by the company they keep. 17 +++ FL
Tell fast learners analyze the sayings in Exercise 15 and answer the questions. Additionally, you can ask the students to find similar expressions in Spanish, and write both of them on the board and in their notebooks. (L.A.: to exchange opinions). a. b. c. d. Answers They are all expressed in the Passive Voice. Will vary. Will vary. Dime con quin andas y te dir quin eres.

14 ++
Refer the students to the LANGUAGE SPOT. Tell them to order the words to form sentences in the Passive Voice. Additionally, you may ask your students to write three more examples of the structure in their notebooks and then invite some students to read them aloud. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answers a. This title is designed to advertise the new website. b. Those books are printed on recycled paper. c. Our website is visited by thousands of people.

15 ++

28

Motivate the students to match the first part of the sentences (a. - e.) with the second part (i. - v.) to form famous sayings. Then, play the recording and ask the students to check their answers. If necessary, invite some students to write the sayings on the board to be sure they all check their answers. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers a. v.; b. i.; c. iii.; d. ii.; e. iv.

LETS CHECK
18 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. The students complete the sentences with the Simple Present Passive of the verbs in brackets. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers a. are written; b. are drawn; c. is used; d. are sold; e. are bought

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16 +++

28

Play the recording again. Tell the students to listen and imitate the way the sayings are delivered. Then, ask the students to work in pairs taking turns to say the beginnings and the endings of each saying. Invite some

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REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students to make connections between the topic of the lesson and real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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LESSON 4
LISTENING

WOULD YOU KNOW MY NAME?

BEFORE LISTENING
1

++

Motivate the students to work in pairs, solve the crossword and find out how much they know about music. When they have finished, elicit their ideas about the relationship between the name of the lesson and the topic. (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). Answers Across: 2. (rhythm), 3. (music), 6. (solo) Down: 1. (lyrics), 3. (musician), 4. (chorus), 5. (song)

Background information Eric Patrick Clapton (born 30 March 1945) is an English blues-rock guitarist, singer, songwriter and composer. He is probably most famous for his mastery of the Stratocaster guitar. Clapton has entered the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of The Yardbirds, of Cream, and as a solo performer. Often viewed by critics and fans alike as one of the greatest guitarists of all time, Clapton was ranked fourth in Rolling Stone magazines list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time and #53 on their list of the Immortals: 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Although Clapton has varied his musical style throughout his career, it has always remained grounded in the Blues. Yet, in spite of this focus, he is credited as an innovator in a wide variety of genres. These include blues-rock (with John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers and The Yardbirds) and psychedelic rock (with Cream). Additionally, Claptons chart success was not limited to the Blues, with chart-toppers in Delta blues (Me and Mr. Johnson), pop (Change the World) and reggae (Bob Marleys I Shot the Sheriff). One of his most successful recordings was the hit love song Layla, which he played with the band Derek and the Dominos. For more information on Background information see page 7 of the Introduction.

4 ++
Explain to the students that they are going to listen to a recording related to this singer. Motivate them to predict what kind of text it is. Do not correct at this stage. (L.A.: to make predictions from the context).

2 +
Ask the students to copy and complete the chart in their notebooks with the names of bands and singers they know according to the kind of music they interpret. Then, invite them to compare their work with other groups. (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). Answers Will vary.

5 ++
Before listening, ask the students to look up the words in the Key Word Spot in a dictionary. (L.A.: to develop study skills). Answers beg: to ask for something, especially in an anxious way. belong: to be in the right or suitable place. bend: to move an arm or a leg, so that it is no longer straight. heaven: the place believed to be the home of God where good people go when they die. knee: the joint between the top and bottom parts of the leg.

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3 +++
Draw students attention to the man in the photo. Ask them to answer the questions in pairs. (L.A.: to infer information from visuals).

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LISTENING
6 +
29

TRANSCRIPT - WOULD YOU KNOW MY 29 NAME? (ERIC CLAPTON, SUNG BY RODRIGO GONZLEZ) Would you know my name if I saw you in heaven? Would it be the same if I saw you in heaven? I must be strong and carry on Cause I know I dont belong here in heaven. Would you hold my hand if I saw you in heaven? Would you help me stand if I saw you in heaven? Ill find my way through night and day Cause I know I just cant stay here in heaven. Time can bring you down, time can bend your knees; Time can break your heart, have you begging, please, Begging, please. Beyond the door theres peace, for sure, And I know therell be no more tears in heaven. Would you know my name if I saw you in heaven? Would it be the same if I saw you in heaven? I must be strong and carry on Cause I know I dont belong here in heaven.

Ask the students to listen to the recording and check their prediction in Exercise 4. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers a.

7 ++

29

Ask the students to listen again and choose the best answer for each question. Explain to them that more than paying attention to specific words or sounds, they should concentrate on the general atmosphere of the song, so that they can identify its mood and objective. (L.A.: to infer mood of speaker). Answers a. iii; b. ii.

8 ++

29

AFTER LISTENING
10 +++
The students form groups of four, answer questions a. c. and talk about the song they have listened to. Invite them to share their answers with the rest of their classmates. (L.A.: to exchange opinions). Answers a. The situation that the song describes is a father asking a question to his son who is dead and in heaven. b. It is an imaginary situation: the father and the son together in heaven. c. A father is singing to his son. Background information Tears in Heaven is a ballad written by Eric Clapton and Will Jennings about the pain Clapton felt following the 1991 death of his four-year-old son, Conor, who fell from a 53rd-story window in his mothers friends New York City condominium. By all accounts, the death was simply a tragic accident, and Clapton was distraught for months afterwards. This song is one of Claptons most successful, reaching #2 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart in the U.S. The song also spent three weeks at #1 on the American adult contemporary chart in 1992. Clapton wrote the song with Will Jennings, who

Read the words in the boxes aloud with the students. Tell them that for this activity they have to listen carefully to identify which of the words are mentioned. Play the recording once or twice. (L.A.: to discriminate sounds and words). Answers day, hand, heart, know, name, stay, strong, time, tears, way

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9 +++

29

Tell the students to copy the sentences into their notebooks. Then, play the recording again and ask them to complete them. (L.A. to extract specific information). Answers a. know, heaven; b. help, heaven; c. find, d. time, heart; e. know, tears.

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was reluctant at first to help him with such a personal song. Clapton stopped playing it in 2004, as well as the song My Fathers Eyes. I didnt feel the loss anymore, which is so much a part of performing those songs. I really have to connect with the feelings that were there when I wrote them. Theyre kind of gone and I really dont want them to come back, particularly. My life is different now. They probably just need a rest and maybe Ill introduce them for a much more detached point of view. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction.

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11 ++
Ask the students to read each situation carefully, and then use the Second Conditional to express them as in the given example. Help them to recognize which is the condition and which is the result in each situation, so that they can apply the structure correctly. Explain to them that the order of the clauses is not important. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers a. Tom would go to the concert if he had money for the ticket. b. If I understood Math, I would help my sister. c. If we spoke Chinese, we would talk to the new student. d. If she didnt live abroad, my grandmother would visit us. ERROR ALERT The Second Conditional (also called Conditional type 2) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the present or in the future. The Second Conditional is used to talk about things which are unreal (not true or not possible) in the present or the future things which dont or wont happen: Additional exercise Match the beginnings and endings of the sentences. Identify which of them are hypothetical situations and why. a. If I was less busy i. Ill give him your phone number. b. If I stay late at work ii. Id meet you for lunch. c. I will get bored iii. Ill take a taxi. d. Well be home by six iv. Ill finish the project. e. If I see Jack v. I could buy a nice jacket. f. If I were you vi. if the trains on time. g. If I saved $5,000 vii. if I go to that party. a month h. If its raining in the viii. Id get a new job. morning Answers: a. ii.; b. iv.; c. vii.; d. vi.; e. i.; f. viii.; g. v.; h. iii. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

LANGUAGE SPOT
Hypothetical situations Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or any interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students read the sentences from the song and other examples. 2. Help them find the answers to questions a. and b. Answers: a. two ; b. iii. 3. Ask the students to copy and complete the rule in their notebooks. When we talk about situations that are only hypothetical, and their results, we use a verb tense called the Second Conditional. It consists of If + Simple Past tense in the condition+ would + base form of a verb in the result. We use if to introduce the condition and would with the result. 4. The students go back to Unit 2, Lesson 3, page 57, and compare the First and the Second Conditional. Answers: a. They both contain two clauses in a sentence; In both, If is used to introduce the condition. b. The First Conditional refers to possible future situations. The Second Conditional refers to hypothetical situations, which are not very likely to happen. Both structures use different tenses in their clauses. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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12 ++

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Motivate the students to copy and complete the dialogue in their notebooks. Read all the questions aloud and guide them to discover what kind of situations they are (they are all hypothetical). Then, play the recording and tell the students to compare their answers. (L.A.: to use a language structure in a communicative situation). Answers See transcript.

15 +++ FL
With the information from the chart, tell keener students to write a paragraph about one of the interviews they did. Explain to them that they can follow the pattern provided.You can assign this activity in class or assign it for homework for the whole class. (L.A.: to write a short report). Answers Will vary.

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE Andy: Beth: Andy: Beth: Andy: Beth: Andy:

30

16 ++
Invite the students to share their reports in their groups (L.A.: to give an oral report).

If you could choose a place, where would you be now? I would be on a tropical island. If you could go to that island, how would you get there? I would travel by plane. If you could go with someone, who would you invite? I would invite my best friend to go with me. If you could take only one thing with you, what would you take? Beth: I would take my favorite book. Andy: If you could decide, how long would you stay there? Beth: I would stay at least a month! 13 +++
30

GAME SPOT
Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging for the students. They employ language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Remember that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. Ask the students to form groups of four or five and then ask and answer questions about the imaginary situations in the pictures. Invite a group to play in front of the class to provide a model for their classmates. For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

Play the recording again. The students listen and practice the dialogue answering with their own ideas. Encourage them to role-play the conversation in front of the class. You can assign a prize or an extra mark to the best presentations. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation).

14 +++
Motivate the students to use the structure they have learnt in an everyday situation. Tell them to copy the chart on page 127 into their notebooks. Then, ask them to interview three students using the questions in Exercise 12 and complete the chart with the information they collect. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers Will vary.

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Reflection Spot

@@ CLICK ON
If possible, encourage your students to visit the web site suggested at the bottom of page 129 and play the game about the lives and relationships of four teenagers. For more information on CLICK ON, see page 12 of the Introduction.

Make sure you assign enough time of your class to allow students to reflect on their achievements and weaknesses. They read the statements and assess: their ability to apply a new structure to an everyday situation. their ability to play games with their classmates. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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YOUR ENGLISH IN ACTION

LETS CHECK
17 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. The students read the sentences and choose the correct alternative. Remind them to pay special attention to the verb tenses, so that they can recognize the hypothetical situations. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers a. will; b. were; c. isnt: d. will; e. were; f. will; g. knew; h. refuses; i. wouldnt; j. can.

This section provides additional exercises that represent a good opportunity for students to consolidate topics and language structures of the lessons. You can assign these activities at the end of each lesson, or as homework and give them an extra mark.

In pairs, the students agree on a very famous singer / composer they would like to chat with and write a set of questions. Then, they collect information from magazines and newspapers to find the answers to their questions. As a final stage, they practice and act out the interview in front of their classmates. Answers

Will vary.

2 Tell the students that they must imagine


they are participating at the New Stars TV show. From there, they have to write an email to a friend or to their parents describing their experiences at the academy. Explain to them that they must include information about duties, activities, the coaches and any other interesting points they may want to write about. Answers Will vary.

PAGE 129

REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students to make connections between the topic of the lesson and the real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

119

PAGE 131

PAGE 132
UNIT CHECK

3 The students must copy and complete the


chart about famous books in their notebooks. Answers Name Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Sandokan, the Tiger of Malaysia Romeo and Juliet Author J.K. Rowling Characters Harry Potter, Hermione, Prof. Dumbledore Sandokan Romeo and Juliet Captain Nemo Lebolas, Papelucho Jo, Beth, May, Laurie Lion, wizard Achilles, Hector Sinbad Buck, John Thornton Oliver Charles Baskerville, Dr. Mortimer Huck Finn, Tom

Emilio Salgari William Shakespeare J. Verne

20,000 Leagues under the Sea The Lord of J.R.R. Tolkien the Rings Papelucho Marcela Paz Little Women Louise May Alcott Narnia Chronicles The Iliad Sinbad the sailor The Call of the Wild Oliver Twist The Hound of the Baskervilles Adventures of Huckleberry Finn C.S. Lewis Homero unknown Jack London Charles Dickens A.C. Doyle

Explain to the students that the purpose of this section is to help them revise contents and evaluate their performance in the whole unit. Read the instructions and make sure all the students understand what they are expected to do in each activity. Encourage them to give honest answers in order to detect their strengths and weaknesses. Check students results and revise any points that the majority of them had problems with. For more information on UNIT CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.

PAGE 133
Answers READING - SPOT LIGHT ON BEVERLEY KNIGHT

Mark Twain

a. She is a singer and a composer. b. She started singing when she was a teenager. c. She takes her inspiration from events that happen to her. d. No, she doesnt. e. She thinks Alicia Keys is a great artist.

4 The students make a word map for music in


their notebooks. Encourage them to use not only words from this unit but to add as many words as they know about the topic. You can also ask the students to draw their word maps on a piece of cardboard, add some illustrations and display them in a visible place in the classroom. Possible Answers Professions: musician, violinist, pianist, guitarist, composer, singer, orchestra director. Instruments: piano, violin, guitar, flute, triangle, saxophone, oboe, tuba, drums, trumpet, cello trombone, bass. Styles: pop, classic, opera, rock and roll, heavy metal, blues, jazz, mariachi, folk, grunge, twist, disco, electronic, rap, reggaeton, reggae, salsa, cumbia, mambo, tango. Famous songs: will vary. People: will vary.

2 a. British; b. two very important awards;


c. once a day.

3 a. the church; b. best artist, best album; c. birthday


party for a local radio station; d. Nirvana, Coldplay; e. drama club, dance classes. LISTENING - CHANGE
31

4 a. die; b. change; c. fall; d. get; e. losses 5 d.; c.; b.; a.; e. 6 a. face / heart, b. love

120

UNIT 4

SONGS SONGS - MUSIC MUSIC AND AND WORDS WORDS

TRANSCRIPT - CHANGE (TRACY CHAPMAN SUNG BY MINERVA CARRIZO) If you knew that you would die today, Saw the face of God and love, Would you change? Would you change? If you knew that love can break your heart When youre down so low you cannot fall Would you change? Would you change? How bad, how good does it need to get? How many losses? How much regret? What chain reaction would cause an effect? Makes you turn around, Makes you try to explain, Makes you forgive and forget, Makes you change? Makes you change? If you knew that you would be alone, Knowing right, being wrong, Would you change? Would you change?
PAGE 134 LANGUAGE

31

3 - 4 points: student can exchange information about the topic with acceptable pronunciation but hesitates and makes grammar mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't exchange information about the topic, pronunciation interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. WRITING

10 The students choose a book they have


recently read and write a review of it. Explain to them they must include information about the author, the main characters, the plot and any other important information they consider of interast. You can assign points according to these criteria: 7 - 8 points: student can write a coherent review, including the required information, using correct textual references and without grammar or spelling mistakes. 5 - 6 points: student can write a coherent review, including most of the required information, using a few textual references and with a minimum of grammar or spelling mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent review, including some of the required information, but he / she makes no use of textual references and makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't write a coherent review, does not include the required information, and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.

7 a. ii.; b. i.; c. v.; d. iii.; e. vi. 8 a. The Eiffel Tower is situated in France.
b. The Harry Potter series is written by J.K. Rowling. c. 32 pieces are used in a game of chess. d. Cold milk is served with tea in England. SPEAKING

9 In pairs, the students role-play and interview


between a fan and a famous artist. Make sure they use direct and indirect questions as well as the First and Second Conditional. You can assign points according to these criteria: 8 - 10 points: student can ask and answer complete questions about the topic, with correct pronunciation, no hesitations and without grammar mistakes. 5 - 7: student can ask and answer complete questions about the topic, with correct pronunciation, and a minimum of hesitations and grammar mistakes.

PAGE 135
FINAL REFLECTION

The purpose of this section is to allow students to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses. Make sure all the students understand what they are expected to do and give enough time to answer the questions. Encourage students to give honest answers and show interest in their results. For more information on FINAL REFLECTION, see page 6 of the Introduction.

121

EXTRA TEST UNIT 4

READING - A BOOK REVIEW

THE FAMOUS FIVES SURVIVAL GUIDE


Author Its written by the Famous Five - who were created by famous author Enid Blyton, back in the 1940s! Publication date Out now Characters The Famous Five are back! This time we catch up with a mystery back in 1959, with a lost treasure - the Royal Dragon of Siam. Theres Julian, whos very sensible, Dick, who likes gadgets and huge bits of chocolate cake, Anne, who prefers preparing picnics to getting dirty and George, short for Georgina, whos always getting into scrapes. And of course, dont forget Timmy the dog, whos got a brilliant knack for helping the kids find vital clues. Plot Time for another adventure with lots of ginger beer and plenty of fantastic scrapes! A mysterious reporter turns up at Uncle Quentins house asking about a shipwreck that happened years ago - and in which a precious jewel had been lost. Of course, this sparks a huge adventure for the Famous Five - with secret rooms, spooky towers, a train drama and dangerous camping. Great guides This book is written through diary extracts from the four kids, plus their drawings, photos and graphics of clues that they find on their exciting adventure. And as well as the story, the book includes useful advice on topics such as code breaking, using a compass, building an escape raft, first aid, camping, and much more.

And its left for you to actually solve the mystery yourself by following the clues included in the book. Highlights Using the decoder to reveal the real message in a long-lost letter is really cool, plus Georges escape from capture is VERY dramatic. And, as the book is written in the style of the Famous Five, its quite funny! Any weak bits? Sometimes you cant decide whether to skip to the next bit of the story to find out what is happening or read the guides - but this is a good thing really! This is a great book for boys and girls. If you read the story, the adventure advice will be something you can dip into again and again.

Read the text and complete the fact file. Name Author Date of publication Time setting Characters

5 pt.

2 Read the text again. Are these statements true or false?


a. b. c. d. e. The plot is about finding a treasure. George is a boy who is always getting into trouble. The Famous Five are five kids. The story gives the reader clues to solve the mystery. The book includes two different kinds of texts.

5 pts.

3 Read the text once more. Answer these questions.


a. b. c. d. e. Whats the name of the lost treasure? How was the treasure lost? Why is the dog important? What is the most dramatic moment of the story? Who is the story written for?

5 pts.

122

UNIT 4

SONGS SONGS - MUSIC MUSIC AND AND WORDS WORDS

LISTENING - DISCUSSING THE RULES

4
a. b. c. d. e.

Listen to the recording. Choose the correct alternative for each sentence. I wouldnt / couldnt get to the meeting. Well stay here for three months / weeks. Each week we will perform one of our own songs on a radio / TV show. If you get the highest / lowest number of votes Performing my own songs will be a great feeling / filling.

5 pts.

Listen to the recording again. Number the questions in the order you hear them. a. Are there any rules? d. What else would you like to know? b. Can I ask you a few questions? e. What happens if we can't sing like stars? c. Can you explain that, please? f. What would you like to know? Listen to the recording once more. Complete each sentence with one word. a. Im _______________ here. c. Our _______________ are great! b. We must obey all the rules and d. Everyone here can ____________. attend all the ____________.

6 pts.

4 pts.

LANGUAGE

7 Transform these direct questions into indirect questions. Use different openings.
a. Where do you live? b. Where can I find a pharmacy? c. What time does the bus arrive? d. Who is your favorite artist?

4 pts.

8 Write these sentences in the Passive Voice.


a. b. c. d. Meteorologists make the weather forecast every day. Many people use Facebook as a tool of communication. People buy a lot of things through the Internet nowadays. We print our books on recycled paper.

4 pts.

9 Complete these sentences using the Second Conditional.


a. b. c. d. People __________ (buy) our books if they ____________ (be)cheaper. If the computer ___________ (crash) again, we ___________ (call) an engineer. If I ___________ (not like) my teacher, I __________ (leave) this course. If paper _____________ (be) cheaper, we __________ (print) more catalogues.

8 pts.

SPEAKING

10 With your partner, take turns to exchange information about what you would do in two
imaginary situations. You can choose from these suggestions or use four own ideas. see a ghost meet your favorite music star travel to space WRITING

10 pts.

11 Imagine you are a famous music / TV star and you are chatting with a fan. Write the
answers to these questions. a. When and where did you start singing / acting? b. How difficult is it to write a song / act in a play, movie, etc.? c. Who are your idols? d. What is your dream project? 0 - 20 21 - 37
Keep trying! Good!

10 pts.

66 pts. TOTAL 38 - 54 Very good! 55 - 66 Excellent!

123

ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 4

TRANSCRIPT - DISUSSING THE RULES

32

READING - A BOOK REVIEW

1
Name The Famous Fives Survival Guide Author Enid Blyton Date of publication Out now Time setting 1959 Characters Julian, Dick, Ann, Georgina, Timmy

2 a. True; b. False; c. False; d. True; e. True 3 a. The Royal Dragon of Siam; b. In a


shipwreck; c. Because it helps the kids to find vital clues; d. Georges escape from capture; e. Its written for boys and girls. LISTENING - DISCUSSING THE RULES 32

4 a. couldnt; b. months; c. TV;


d. lowest; e. feeling.

5 b.; f; c.; a.; e.; d. 6 a. new; b. classes; c. coaches; d. sing.

A: Hi! Can I ask you a few questions? Im new here, and I couldnt get to the meeting with the Director on time, you see. B: What would you like to know? A: Id like to know how long were going to stay here. B: Well stay here for three months, more or less, if you dont have to leave earlier. A: Can you explain that, please? B: Well, you know we are here to learn to sing and compose and each week we will perform one of our own songs on a TV show. The audience will vote for them by phone. If you get the lowest number of votes you will leave the program. A: Are there any rules? B: We must obey all the rules and attend all the classes. A: I wonder how they will make music stars of us. B: Let me tell you, our coaches are great! They will help us to develop our talents, but we need to work hard. They promised we will work together. We have to do that to stay till the end. A: What happens if we cant sing like stars? B: I think everyone here can sing, and their job is just to help us find our special voice. A: For me, the most difficult thing is to get the music to fit the lyrics. B: Eddie, our songwriting coach, said that we dont need to be poets. The important thing is to fit the words to the music, and that most of the participants can do that. What else would you like to know? A: Oh, thats all, thanks! Im sure that even if I stay here for only a week, performing my own songs will be a great feeling.

124

UNIT 4

SONGS SONGS - MUSIC MUSIC AND AND WORDS WORDS

LANGUAGE

WRITING

7 Possible answers:
a. Can you tell me where you live? b. Can you tell me where I can find a pharmacy? c. Do you know what time the bus arrives? d. Would you mind telling me who your favorite artist is?

11

8 a. Weather forecasts are made by


meteorologists every day. b. Facebook is used as a tool of communication. c. Nowadays, a lot of things are bought through the Internet. d. Our books are printed on recycled paper.

9 a. would buy, were; b. crashed, would call;


c. didnt like, would leave; d. were, would print. SPEAKING

10

In pairs, the students exchange information about two imaginary situations. Make sure they take turns to ask and answer questions and that they use the Second Conditional correctly. You can assign points according to these criteria: 8 - 10 points: student can ask and answer questions about the situation, with correct pronunciation, no hesitations and without grammar mistakes. 5 - 7: student can ask and answer questions about the situation, with correct pronunciation, and a minimum of hesitations and grammar mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can ask and answer some questions about the situation with acceptable pronunciation but hesitates and makes grammar mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't ask and answer questions about the situation, pronunciation interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes.

The students imagine they are famous artists chatting with fans on their website, answering their questions. Encourage them to provide complete answers to the fans' questions. You can assign points according to these criteria. 9 - 10 points: student can write coherent answers, including the required information, using correct textual references and without grammar or spelling mistakes. 6 - 8 points: student can write coherent answers, including most of the required information, using a few textual references and with a minimum of grammar or spelling mistakes. 3 - 5 points: student can write coherent answers, including some of the required information, but he / she makes no use of textual references and makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't write coherent answers, does not include the required information, and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.

125

UNIT
HOW ABOUT WORKING?
In this unit you will: read a leaflet read a letter of application listen to an advertisement listen to telephone conversations You will learn how to: Reading locate missing information in a text discriminate between correct and incorrect information distinguish facts and inferences Listening discriminate between correct and incorrect information relate speakers and speech extract specific information from a recording Language use Modal Verbs to express necessity use Modal Verbs to express preferences use polite phrases in a telephone conversation Types of evaluation
Reflection spot Self - evaluation Unit Check Unit evaluation

Speaking ask people about preferences participate in a telephone conversation Writing write a letter of application write a leaflet promoting an organization You will also: assess and appreciate the role of volunteer organizations around the world value the importance of voluntary work for people in need Development Lesson 1: four hours Lesson 2: four hours Lesson 3: four hours Lesson 4: four hours Consolidation and evaluation activities: 3 hours + home assignments Indicators

Didactic resources Complementary material such as articles magazines, Student Forum chats. Pictures of teenagers provided by the teacher and by the students to illustrate the diversity of teenage cultures. Support material such as lists of adjectives, dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed handouts, library material, etc. Methodological suggestions Teachers should prepare the lessons beforehand considering that thorough prior preparation allows them to think of and apply some useful ideas. It is their chance to make the class entertaining and to involve students in the learning process. Teachers are advised to use a variety of resources throughout the book.

Continuous / informal Students do reading and listening activities, take part in conversations, and produce written texts. Students analyze and evaluate their performance in the speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities. Reading: Students identify general information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify specific information, relate speakers to their speeches and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use modal verbs to give advice and recommendations. Speaking: Students imitate a telephone conversation to apply for a job. Writing: Students write a letter applying for a volunteer organization. Students analyze their performance in the whole unit. Reading: Students identify specific information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information and between facts and inferences. Listening: students identify the correct sequence of information and discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use Modal verbs to refer to future situations and to express necessity, obligation and impossibility. Writing: Students write a leaflet promoting a volunteer organization. Speaking: Students role-play a telephone conversation.

Final Reflection Extra Test

126

UNIT 5

HOW HOW ABOUT ABOUT WORKING? WORKING?

PAGE 136

GETTING READY 1
Invite the students to look at the pictures and then answer the questions. Encourage them to speculate what information they can extract from the visuals. Answers a. Young people working. b. They are all young. c. They are working as volunteers for international organizations.

2 Ask the students to choose the phrases in


the box that they think can be related to voluntary work. Organize a general conversation about the fields to which each phrase can be applied. Elicit examples and write some on the board. Answers another perspective; a helping hand; community support; great opportunity; rewarding experience; understanding local cultures; working teams.

PAGE 137

3 In pairs, the students complete the chart


with information on volunteer organizations in Chile. Invite some of students to complete the chart on the board. Answers Will vary.

Background information United Planet It builds houses for Chiles poorest families; teaches English to students; provides daycare for homeless children and becomes role model; supports the sick in a local hospital. All Languages Abroad It offers the chance to volunteer in selected locations around the world helping the local community. These volunteer programs are not just fun and interesting but very rewarding and meaningful for the local people. Mondo Challenge Volunteer Teaching It works mainly in three rural schools, welcoming pupils aged from 4 to 14 in the villages of Monte Grande, Paihuano and Pisco Elqui. Volunteers help raise the level of English in the comuna, as well as teaching sports to the children. Voluntarios de la Esperanza (VE) Volunteer work in Chile to pursue the mission of combating poverty and child abuse. Volunteers in Santiago work daily in orphanages, community centers and schools, organizing larger scale projects in education, sports, and fundraising throughout Santiago. Former volunteers continue their service through a global network currently functioning in North America, South America, and Europe. WorldTeach It offers opportunities for volunteers to make a meaningful contribution to education by living and teaching in developing countries. Cultural Embrace It provides an outstanding opportunity to volunteer in Latin America by choosing to join one of its volunteer projects. It offers projects in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. Projects include working at orphanages, wildlife conservation, construction work, and many more. Global Vision International After a comprehensive training period, activities include exploration and trekking on the Ice Caps of the Argentinean Andes, lake traversing by kayak, surveying the Andean Condor, recording mammal species and assisting local rangers and scientists in the field. For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction.

127

PAGE 138
LESSON 1
READING

5 ++
Once they have written the list of cognates, invite the students to read the words in the Key Word Spot and match them with their synonyms. Allow the use of dictionaries if necessary. Additionally, you can ask the students to give you examples in which these words are used in a text about jobs. (L.A.: to develop study skills). Answers abroad - a.; support - b.; insurance - c.; developing - d.; placement - e.

BREAKING FRONTIERS

BEFORE READING
1

+
The students answer the questions in groups. Encourage them to start a conversation about the pros / cons of working during vacations. Listen attentively to their answers and ask them to reach a general agreement. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers

READING
6 +
The students read the text quickly and check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers 3. a. 4. unique, international, organization, volunteers, organize, programs, particular, emphasis, education, community, opportunity, important, local, Latin America, included, experience, cultures, different, gain, cost, family, medical, constant, period, information, interests.

Will vary.

2 ++
In pairs, the students make a list of characteristics they think a teen job has. Brainstorm ideas and get different students to write them on the board. (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). Possible Answers temporary; part time; not qualified; not very well paid; flexible.

7 ++
Tell the students to read the text again. Ask them to fill the blanks with a word from the boxes. (L.A.: to locate missing information). Answers a. support; b. opportunity; c. contribution; d. locations; e. projects; f. communities; g. fundraise; h. host; i. airfare; j. pocket; k. application; l. volunteer

3 ++
Ask the students to have a look at the text they are going to read and say what kind of text it is. Do not check answers at this stage. (L.A.: to predict kind of text from visuals).

4 +++
In their notebooks, the students write a list of cognates they expect to find in a text about jobs. Make sure the students do not read the text yet. (L.A.: to predict content from cognates).

PAGE 140

8 +++
Ask the students to read the text carefully again and decide if the statements are true or false. Then ask your students to correct the false statements in their notebooks. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information).

128

UNIT 5

HOW HOW ABOUT ABOUT WORKING? WORKING?

Answers a. False (It works with volunteers).; b. True; c. False (It offers two kinds of programs: short term and long term); d. True; e. False (They must be between 17 and 24); f. False (Volunteers need to speak English); g. True; h. True; i. False (Volunteers must send letters and forms); j. False (Volunteers must apply at least six months in advance).

LANGUAGE SPOT
Obligation and necessity Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students read the sentences from the text. Draw their attention to the words in bold. 2. With information they can infer from the sentences, the students answer the questions. Answers: a. a.; b.; d.; e., b. c., c. must, have to, need to 3. In their notebooks, the students copy and complete the general rule. We can express obligation and necessity by using certain verbs. We use need to to express necessity. We can use must or have to to express obligation. 4. Once they have completed the rule, the students go back to the reading text and rewrite the instructions in the How to apply section using the verbs they have studied in the LANGUAGE SPOT. Answers: You must fill out an application form. You have to write an accompanying letter. You need to give information about your skills, abilities, and interests. You need to say why you think you would be a successful volunteer. You have to apply at least six months in advance of the date you want to volunteer. You must mail your letter and completed form to... For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

AFTER READING
9 +++
In their groups, the students talk about the text they have just read. Invite them to answer the questions and then share their reflections with another group. Invite some groups to report their answers to their classmates. (L.A.: to relate topic and own reality). Answers Will vary, according to students opinions.

Reflection Spot

The purpose of this activity is to help students reflect on their learning process and to raise students awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more effective learners. They should work on their own but you can help and guide the work when necessary. The students read the statements and assess: their ability to relate the topic to their own reality. their ability to give and support their opinions. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

129

PAGE 141

10 ++
Tell the students they must choose one of the verbs in the LANGUAGE SPOT to complete the sentences in their notebooks. Then, they must identify what each sentence expresses. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answers a. need to (necessity); b. must (obligation; its a law); c. need to (necessity); d. need to (necessity); e. must (obligation, its a law)

A: B: A: B:

Do I need to speak English? Yes, its absolutely necessary. Oh! How exciting! I think Im going to work this summer. Im sorry, you cant. You should apply at least three months before the date you want to start.

PAGE 142

13 +++

33

11 ++
Ask the students to match the sentences in column A with the replies in column B, and then write the complete exchanges in their notebooks. Invite some students to write them on the board. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers a. vi.; b. v.; c. i.; d. ii.; e. iv.; f. iii.

Play the recording again. Ask the students to listen and practice the dialogue with their partners. Encourage them to role-play it in front of their classmates. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation).

14 ++
Explain to your students that the form on page 142 is the Amigos de las Americas application form. Ask them to copy it into their notebooks and then fill it in with their personal information. Check answers orally, asking different students to read what they wrote in each section. (L.A: to complete an application form). Answers Will vary, according to students personal information.

12 +++

33

In pairs, the students complete the dialogue with the phrases in the box. Then, play the recording to allow them to check their answers. (L.A.: to exchange information). Answers See transcript.

15 +++
Once they have completed the application form, tell the students to imagine they want to join Amigos de las Americas during their vacation. Tell them to write an accompanying letter for the application form. Remind them to include all the information that is required in the instructive brochure. (L.A.: to write a letter of application).

TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE A: B: A: B:

33

What are you planning to do this summer? Im going to do some voluntary work. How interesting! Id like to do the same. Then, you have to fill in an application form and write an accompanying letter. A: A letter? What must I say in it? B: You must explain what kind of work you would like and where you would like to go. You must also include information about your skills, abilities and interests, and the reasons why you want to be a volunteer.

16 ++
Motivate the students to form collocations related to the topic of the lesson matching the verbs in box A with the phrases in box B. (L.A.: to identify collocations related to the topic).

130

UNIT 5

HOW HOW ABOUT ABOUT WORKING? WORKING?

Answers be young and single; complete an application form; give constant support; make an important contribution; organize international projects; pay for your food; speak English; stay with a local family; work in teams; write a letter.

REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students to make connections between the topic of the lesson and real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

PAGE 143

17

+++
Encourage the students to choose five collocations from Exercise 16 and write five sentences with them using the verbs in the LANGUAGE SPOT. (L.A.: to consolidate language and vocabulary of the lesson). Answers

PAGE 144
LESSON 2
LISTENING

PEOPLE WHO CARE

Will vary.

LETS CHECK
18 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. Ask the students to choose must / (have to) / need to to complete the sentences. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers a. need to; b. need to; c. have to; d. must; e. have to; f. must; g. need to; h. must; i. must; j. have to

BEFORE LISTENING
1

+
The students work in groups and answer the questions. Ask them to take notes and then compare answers with other groups. Invite some groups to report their answers to the rest of the class. (L.A.: to relate topic and own reality). Answers

Will vary.

2 ++
Ask the students to copy and complete the chart in their notebooks. (L.A.: to relate topic and previous knowledge). Possible Answers Positive aspects of doing voluntary work Socially rewarding Can make a contribution Can help people Knowing other cultures Negative aspects of doing voluntary work Dont receive salary Sometimes they are far from home Not very good conditions Living with another family

131

3 Copy the chart on the board and brainstorm


students ideas to complete it. Invite the students to share their lists in their groups. Encourage them to exchange opinions, supporting their choices. (L.A.: to exchange opinions related to the topic).

8 ++

34

Ask the students to listen to the recording again and number the sentences (a. e.) in the order they hear them. (L.A.: to identify the sequence of information). Answers e.; d.; a.; b.; c.

PAGE 145

4 +
Explain to the students that they are going to listen to a recording about voluntary work. Ask them to predict what kind of text they are going to listen to. Do not check their answers at this stage. (L.A.: to make predictions from the context).

34

5 ++
Ask the students to read the words in the Key Word Spot and match them with their Spanish equivalent. (L.A.: to infer meaning from the context). Answers helping hand- b.; non-profit making - c.; worth achieving - a.

If necessary, play the recording again. The students listen and decide if the statements are true or false. Optionally, you can ask your students to decide if the sentences are true or false and then play the recording to check their answers. (L.A.: to discriminate between correct and incorrect information). Answers a. True; b. False; c. False; d. False; e. False; f. False; g. True.

10

34

Ask students to try and correct the false statements. Then play the recording again for them to complete their corrections. Answers b. It has 2,500 volunteers; c. Volunteers receive nothing in return; d. There are also options near some of the worlds largest urban centers; e. VW welcomes volunteers of all educational backgrounds; f. VW sends out hundreds of volunteers every week.

LISTENING
6 +
34

Ask the students to listen to the recording and check their prediction in Exercise 4. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers c.

PAGE 146

7 ++

34

11 +++

34

The students listen and check if the positive and negative aspects in their lists from Exercise 2 are mentioned in the recording. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Answers Will vary, according to students predictions

Ask the students to identify the name of the activities in the pictures. Then, play the recording once more. Tell the students to listen and identify which of the activities are mentioned in the recording. (L.A.: to relate text and visuals; to identify specific information).

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Answers Picture 1: Teach people (); Picture 2: Visit a web site (X); Picture 3: Lend a helping hand () Picture 4: Make a profit (X); Picture 5: Distribute medication (); Picture 6: Build houses (X).

AFTER LISTENING
LANGUAGE SPOT
Expressing possibility Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or any interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students read the sentences from the recording. Tell them to pay special attention to the words in bold. 2. Help them to identify what the sentences express. Ask them to choose an alternative. Answers: b. 3. In their notebooks, the students copy and complete the general rule. May and might are synonyms and are commonly used to express probable events in the future. Note: We use may when something is likely to happen and might when something is rather less probable to happen. 4. Ask the students to work in pairs. Play the recording once more and invite them to write two sentences about things that are likely to happen if they join VW. Possible answers: You may help people. You may clean up after a natural disaster. You may distribute food and medication. You may teach children and adults to read and write. You may find helping people more rewarding than any salary. You may work near an urban center. You may feel tired. You may learn new things. You may make a difference. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

TRANSCRIPT - PEOPLE WHO CARE

34

VW is a non-profit-making organization dedicated to making the world a better place for all. We rely on the dedication of our 2500 volunteers that lend a helping hand wherever people may need - it may be cleaning up after natural disasters, distributing food and medication or teaching children and adults to read and write. So why shouldnt you be interested in joining us? 1. Work and not get paid! You must be joking! No, were not. The truth is that you will work long, hard hours and receive nothing in return. But perhaps you may find helping people more rewarding than any salary. 2. Spend a year away from civilization. There are options for those who feel adventurous enough but we also have vacancies in other locations near some of the worlds largest urban centers. 3. Its too much effort. Its true that its not the easiest thing in the world to do. But most things in life that are worth achieving require a little effort. 4. So you only want graduates. That is simply not true. We welcome volunteers of all educational backgrounds and provide training in specialist areas for anyone showing interest. You may have the chance to acquire skills you never dreamed of. 5. You cant tell me that one person is going to make a difference. That might be true, but with the hundreds of other volunteers we send out weekly, you can be sure it makes a big difference. Convinced it isnt for you? Well, give us a ring on 222-0987 and well try harder. Vw, for people who care!

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PAGE 147

14 +++

35

12 ++
Encourage the students to rewrite sentences a. g. using may or might, as in the example. Guide them to find the difference in using may / might referring them to the note in the LANGUAGE SPOT. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers a. I might see you tomorrow. b. Ann might forget to book the tickets. c. It may snow today. d. David may work till late today. e. Mary may not be at home tomorrow. f. They might go away for the weekend. g. You might be right.

Ask the students to listen and practice the dialogues in Exercise 12 with a partner. Then, invite them to choose two and roleplay them in front of their classmates. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation).

15 +++
In their groups, the students reflect on the recording they have heard and answer the questions. Then, motivate them to compare their answers with other groups. (L.A.: to exchange opinions).

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13 ++

LETS CHECK
16 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. Ask the students to complete these sentences with a suitable verb from the box. They must also use may /may not or might/mightnt according to the probability that the event will happen. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers a. may shine., b. may bite., c. might meet., d. may buy., e. might erupt., f. may win., g. may be., h. might catch., i. may feel., j. might see.

35

The students work in pairs and complete the dialogues using may / might and the words in the box. Then, they listen to the recording and check their answers. (L.A.: to use a new language structure). Answers See transcript

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE A: Where are you going on vacation? B: Im not sure. I may go to the south.

35

A: What are you doing on the weekend? B: I dont know. I might go camping, but the weather forecast is not good. A: When will you see Ann again? B: Im not sure. I might see her next week; its unlikely. A: How are you getting home after the theater? B: I dont know. I may call a taxi. A: What are you doing with the money you won? B: I havent decided yet. I might get a new car, but the one I like is very expensive.

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17 +++
Ask the students to form groups of four. Motivate them to prepare an advertisement like the one in the recording, giving Five Good Reasons why People Should Consider Voluntary Work. Explain to them that they can use the ideas from the recording and also from their lists in Exercise 2. Ask them to get ready to read their advertisement to the class. You can assign this activity as homework or as a mini-project with an extra mark.
Reflection Spot

PAGE 149

GAME SPOT
Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging for the students. They employ language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Remember that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. Explain to the students what they must do and then read the instructions carefully. Make sure they all understand before they start playing. For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

The purpose of this activity is to help students reflect on their learning process and to raise students awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more effective learners. They should work on their own but you can help and guide the work when necessary. The students read the statements and assess: their ability to give reasons and support their opinions about voluntary work. their ability to write a text advertising voluntary work. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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LESSON 3
READING

18 +++
Encourage the students to write their advertisement on a nice piece of paper, add some art work and display it in the classroom. Next class, organize a class competition and ask the students to assess their classmates works. Assign a reward to the group that wins. (L.A.: to make a graphic advertisement).

MAKING A DIFFERENCE

BEFORE READING
1

+
Ask the students to work in pairs and answer the questions. Tell them to take notes in their notebooks and then compare answers with other pairs. Invite some pairs to share their comments with the rest of the class. (L.A.: to relate topic to own reality). Answers

Will vary.

135

2 ++
Tell the students to form groups of four. In their groups, they make a list of the type of information they would include in a letter of application. Ask them to write the list in their notebooks and then compare with other groups. (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge).

Answers 3. a. No; b. No; c. No 4. contribution, cost, difference, exercise, information, member, motivation, multicultural, native, opportunity, organization, politics, program, project, term, volunteer.

7 ++
Invite the students to read the first letter again. Ask them to match the labels (a. j.) with the corresponding sections of the letter (i. x.). (L.A.: to identify general information). Answers a. - ii.; b. - x.; c. - ix.; d. - iv.; e. - vi.; f. - vii.; g. - v.; h. - viii; i. - iii.; j. - i.

3 ++
Explain to the students that they are going to read two letters of applications for the Amigos de las Americas programs. Ask them to read sentences a. c. and guess if the information is true or false. Do not check at this stage. (L.A.: to make predictions from the context).

4 +++
Ask the students to choose the cognates they think they will find in a letter of application for a job. Make sure they dont read the text to do this exercise. (L.A.: to use cognates to predict content).

8 +++
Tell the students to read the second letter again. Ask them to identify items a. j. from Exercise 7 that are included in the letter. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Answers All of them are mentioned.

5 ++
Tell the students to read the words in the Key Word Spot and find them in the text. Then, they must look up their meanings in a dictionary, before starting to read the text. (L.A.: to develop study skills). Answers airfare: the money you pay to travel by plane. get along with: to have a friendly relationship with somebody. raise: to increase the amount or level of something. settlement: a place where people have come to live and make their homes. strengthen: to become stronger.

9 ++
The students now read the two letters again and use the information in them to complete the chart in their notebooks. You can copy the chart on the board and invite some students to complete it. (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers Topic Name Age Nationality Address Applicant 1 Sandra Duran 17 Chilean Manuel Rodriguez 815, Osorno, Chile Occupation High school student Languages Spanish, English Places Puerto Madryn, to travel Rio Negro, Argentina Interests Ocean animals, scuba diving Applicant 2 Thomas Carlyle 16 American 53 Mill Lane, Cincinatti, Ohio, USA High school student English, Spanish Latin America History, Pre-Spanish cultures

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READING
6 +
The students read the letters quickly to check their predictions in Exercises 3 and 4. (L.A.: to validate predictions).

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10 +++
If necessary, the students read the two letters once more and then decide if the sentences either in case, are facts or inferences. Optionally, you can ask the students to decide first and then check while reading. Make sure they all understand clearly the difference between a fact and an inference. (See Background information). Once they have answered, elicit their answers and ask them to explain the reasons for their choices. (L.A.: to distinguish facts and inferences). a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Answers F: what I like most is to be in contact with nature I: the information can be derived from I enjoy working as a volunteer at our local organization I: it derives from: Ive always wanted to visit Patagonia I: it derives from: Im confident I will be able to raise the money I: it derives from: first, Id rather work as a volunteer for a time F: I would like to be a politician one day I: it derives from: The possibility to visit some Maya or Inca ruins is very motivating F: Ive already raised the money.

Answers: a. fact; b. inference; c. fact; d. inference For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction.

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AFTER READING
LANGUAGE SPOT
Expressing preferences Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. Ask the students to read the sentences from the text, paying special attention to the words in bold. 2. Help them to choose the correct alternative to replace the words in bold in sentences a. c. Answers: b. 3. In their notebooks, they copy and complete the general rule. Answers: When expressing a preference, we can use would rather as an alternative to would prefer to followed by an infinitive. Would rather is very common in spoken English and is often abbreviated to d rather. 4. The students go back to the letters and find all the sentences that express a preference. They rewrite them using would rather. Answers: Id rather be in contact with nature. Id rather apply for a short-term program. Id rather apply for a long-term program. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

Background Information The term fact refers to something that actually exists or can be verified. Inference is the process of deriving a conclusion not only based on facts but also based on human perceptions, logic, statistical methods etc.

Additional exercise Read the paragraph. Mark whether each statement is an inference or a fact. You probably know that humans have red blood. So do other mammals. But other kinds of creatures have different color of blood. Insects have yellow blood, and the blood of the lobster is blue. Fact Inference a) Humans have red blood. b) Frogs do not have red blood. c) Lobsters have blue blood. d) Bees have yellow blood.

11 ++

36

The students answer the questions using d rather / d prefer to. Ask them to write the questions and the answers in their notebooks. Then, play the recording to allow the students to compare with their answers. (L.A.: to use a new language structure).

137

Answers See transcript.

GAME SPOT
36

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

A: What kind of program would you join? B: Id prefer to join the short-term program. A: What kind of work would you do? B: Id rather work teaching people to read and write. A: What country would you apply for? B: Id prefer to apply for a place in a Latin American country. A: Would you prefer to stay away from civilization? B: Id rather stay near a city. A: Would you prefer to visit Patagonia or an Inca settlement? B: Id prefer to visit Patagonia.
PAGE 154

Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging for the students. They employ language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Remember that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. In groups, the students complete the web with words related to voluntary work. Explain to them that they can use the vocabulary from the lesson or words they already know. Set a time limit. The group which has completed more words is the winner. For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

LETS CHECK
12 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. Tell the students to imagine that they want to do some voluntary work this summer. They must read the advertisements and write a letter of application to one of the organizations. Before starting the letter, remind the students their letters must include all the sections as in the reading texts and also contain all the required information. You may use the Writing Rubric to assign a mark, or you can supply copies of it and ask the students to evaluate their classmates work. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.

Answers Will vary.

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14 Motivate the students to imagine they are


the directors of a volunteer organization. Encourage them to write a letter accepting or refusing the application they wrote in Exercise 12, giving reasons for their decision. You can assign this activity as homework. Next class, you can invite some students to read their letters to the rest of the class and listen to their comments. (L.A.: to consolidate language and vocabulary).

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REAL LIFE SPOT


This section is intended to allow students to make connections between the topic of the lesson and real life, and at the same time provide additional information that may be useful for them. Make sure you give enough time for them to read and then elicit their comments. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

@@ CLICK ON
If possible, motivate your students to visit the web site suggested at the bottom of page 155, and find more information related to the topic of the lesson. Next class, invite those who have visited the site to share their comments with their classmates. For more information on CLICK ON, see page 12 of the Introduction.

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LESSON 4
LISTENING

Possible Answers Answering the phone: Hello? (informal), Thank you for calling XXX XX speaking How may I help you?, How can I help you? Introducing yourself to the caller: Hi, its XXX (informal) Hello, this is XXX calling Hi, this is XXX from the accountants office Hi, this is XXX speaking. Asking to speak with someone: Is XXX in? (informal) Is Mrs XXXX there, please? Can I talk to Mrs XXX, please? May I speak with Mr XXX, please? Id like to speak to Mrs XXX, please Would Dr XXX be available? Is XXX around? (informal). Connecting someone: Just a sec, Ill go and get her (informal) Ill just get him (informal) Hang on a second (informal) Please hold the line Ill put you through to her office One moment, please Im sorry but her line is engaged at the moment Would you like to call back later? Bear with me, please All of our operators are busy at this moment Please hold the line Im sorry, but shes not available at the moment. Taking a message for someone: Would you like to leave a message? Whos calling, please? Ill let her know you called Ill make sure she gets the message May I take a message? Can I take a message? Would you like to leave a message?

IS IT GOOD NEWS?

2 ++
Ask the students to open their books and match the phrases in column A with their function in column B. (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge). Answers a. iii.; b. ii.; c. i.; d. vii.; e. v.; f. iv.; g. vi.

BEFORE LISTENING
1

+
You can do this activity while the students still have their books closed. In order to prepare them for the listening activities, ask the students to work in pairs and write a list of useful phrases they need when talking on the phone. You may ask them to write two different lists: one for expressions for an informal conversation, and the other with more formal or business expressions. If necessary, allow them to give examples in Spanish and then find the translation. Elicit their answers and write some examples on the board. (L.A.: to relate topic to previous knowledge).

3 ++
Explain to your students that they are going to listen to two telephone conversations. Ask them to guess the phrases in Exercises 1 and 2 that they think will hear. Do not check at this stage. (L.A.: to make predictions from the context).

139

4 +++
Tell the students to read the words in the Key Word Spot and choose their Spanish equivalent from the list. (L.A.: to infer meaning of key words). Answers actually = realmente application = postulacin apply = postular form = formulario ERROR ALERT There are literally thousands of words that are the same or similar in appearance in English and Spanish, and have the same meaning in both languages (cognates). There are also, however, many instances where appearances are deceiving and words that look alike are quite different in meaning (false cognates). False cognates are pairs of words in the same or different languages that are similar in form but have different meaning. That is, they appear to be or are sometimes considered cognates when in fact they are not. Additional exercise The following list includes some of the most common false cognates, also known as false friends. Look up their real meaning in a dictionary and write the list into your notebook. actual, assist, college, disgrace, disgust, embarrassed, exit, firm, grocery, idiom, introduce, large, lecture, library, molest, sane, sensible, sympathetic, success, For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

6 ++

37

Tell the students to copy the sentences in their notebooks. Ask them to listen again and write the name of the speaker, Janet, Steve or Carol, next to each sentence. Check the exercise orally. (L.A.: to identify speakers). Answers a. Steve; b. Janet; c. Steve; d. Janet; e. Carol; f. Carol

7 ++

37

Ask the students to listen to the recording again and number the sentences in the order they hear them. (L.A.: to identify the sequence of events). Answers c.; f.; a.; e.; d.; b.

8 +++

37

Tell the students to copy the extracts from the conversations in their notebooks. Then, play the recording once more and ask them to complete the dialogues. (L.A.: to extract specific information). Answers a. Steve: Hello? Janet: Hi, can I speak with Steve, please? b. Janet: So, youll be 17 by the time you travel. Steve: Well, actually no-Ill be 16. c. Carol: Hello? Carol Saunders speaking. Janet: Hi, Carol. This is Janet Clark. d. Janet: You didnt complete the back of the form with your medical details, Carol. Carol: Oh! Im terribly sorry!

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LISTENING
5 +
37

9 +++

37

Ask the students to listen and check their predictions in Exercise 3. (L.A.: to validate predictions). Answers b.; c.; d.; e.; f.

If necessary, the students listen to the conversations once more and then answer the questions. Invite two students to share their answers with their classmates to allow the rest to check the exercise. (L.A.: to identify specific information). Answers a. Steve is not 17; Carol didnt send her medical details. b. Steve will apply next year again; Carol will send her medical details as soon as possible.

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TRANSCRIPT IS IT GOOD NEWS?

37

PAGE 158

I. Steve Hello? Janet: Hi, can I speak with Steve, please? This is Janet, from Breaking Frontiers, and Im calling about his application. Steve: Oh, hello, this is Steve speaking. Is it good news? Janet: Im afraid we cant say yet. There are one or two points I want to check with you. Can we do it now? Steve: Yes, of course. Is something not clear? Janet: You say that youve done similar work before. Can you tell me when and where? Steve: Sure! I went to the north with a group from my school last summer, to help people build and repair their houses. Janet: Right. And one more thing: the form says youre 16 whens your birthday? Steve: In January. Janet: So, youll be 17 by the time you travel. Steve: Wellactually no Ill be 16. Janet: Oh, dear. Im so sorry, Steve. Im afraid you have to be 17 to join us, so youd better apply again next year. Steve: Yes, I will. Thank you. Bye! II. Carol: Hello, Carol Saunders speaking. Janet: Hi, Carol. This is Janet Clark and Im ringing from Breaking Frontiers. Carol: Oh, hello, Janet. Janet: Many thanks for your application I think its a very strong one. I just need to check one thing with you. Carol: Yes, of course. Janet: You see, you didnt complete the back of the form with your medical details, Carol. Carol: Oh! Im terribly sorry! I never even looked at the back of the form. Is it too late to do it now? Janet: No, but our doctors have to check your medical details to see if its OK for you to join us, and we cant give you a place before they say yes. So, let us have your medical details immediately, and well get back to you one or two days after we receive them. Carol: Thank you ever so much. Ill send them to you right away!

AFTER LISTENING
LANGUAGE SPOT
Obligation, necessity, impossibility Remind students that this section is designed to help them revise or discover a particular grammar structure or an interesting item of vocabulary related to the text. Always keep in mind that the activities are meant to promote independent learning, so help, guide and check, but do not tell them the answers. 1. The students read the sentences from the recording. Draw their attention to the words in bold. 2. Guide them to discover which of these sentences expresses a. A prohibition: a.; d., b. A need: b., c. An obligation: c.; e. 3. Tell the students to copy and complete the general rule in their notebooks. Answers: We use cant, need to and have to to express impossibility, necessity and obligation. We use need to to say that it is necessary to do something and have to when it is obligatory to do something. We use cant to express that we are not capable of doing something, or that something is prohibited. 4. In groups, the students collect information about the conversations they listened to and they write two more sentences using the verbs in the LANGUAGE SPOT. Answers: will vary. Accept any coherent sentence related to the recording. For more information on the LANGUAGE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

141

ERROR ALERT Do not have to vs. Must not Do not have to = Do not need to. It means that someone is not required to do something. Must not means that you are prohibited from doing something. For more information on ERROR ALERT, see page 7 of the Introduction. Additional exercise Complete the sentences with have to or do not have to. a. You ______ hurry up. You cant be late on your first day. b. You ______ give back the book yet. I havent finished mine yet. c. She is overweight. She ______ do some exercise. d. He ______ study so hard. The test is not very difficult. e. She ______ run. The class begins at 6:00 and its only 5:30.

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

38

Martha: Hello? David: Hi, can I speak with Martha, please? Im ringing from Young Volunteers about her application. Martha: Oh, this is Martha speaking. Is it good news? David: Im afraid I cant say yet. Theres one point I want to check with you over the phone. Is that all right? Martha: Yes, of course. Is something not clear? David: You didnt complete the back of the form with details about your education. Martha: Oh! Im terribly sorry! David: You have to send us this information immediately and well get back to you quickly. Martha: Thank you so much. Ill do it right now! 12 +++
38

The students listen to the recording and practice the conversation with their partners. Encourage them to role-play it in front of the class. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situtuation).

10 ++
Using the verbs in the LANGUAGE FOCUS, the students complete the sentences in their notebooks. Invite some students to write the sentences on the board to allow the rest to check their answers. (L.A.: to apply a new language structure). Answers a. have to; b. have to; c. need to; d. have to; e. cant; f. cant; g. cant; h. needs to

13 +++
As homework, ask the students to work in pairs and write a similar dialogue with their own ideas. Next class, motivate them to role-play it in front of their classmates. You can assign an extra mark to this activity. (L.A.: to consolidate language and vocabulary). Answers Will vary.

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11 ++

38

Ask the students to complete the telephone conversation in pairs. Then, play the recording and tell them to compare their answers. (L.A.: to use language and vocabulary related to the topic). Answers See transcript.

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Reflection Spot

PAGE 160

The purpose of this activity is to help students reflect on their learning process and to raise students awareness of how they develop their own learning strategies to become more effective learners. They should work on their own but you can help and guide the work when necessary. The students read the statements and assess: their ability to use polite phrases in a telephone conversation. their ability to role-play a telephone conversation. For more information on the Reflection Spot, see page 6 of the Introduction.

15 ++
Tell the students to copy the chart into their notebooks and then to complete it classifying the expressions under the corresponding labels. Copy the chart on the board and invite some students to complete it to allow the rest to check their answers. (L.A.: to consolidate vocabulary). Answers
Introducing Asking who Asking to Connecting Informing Offering yourself is calling speak to someone is to take a someone not available message This is Can I ask May I Can you Im afraid Could I take Sylvia. who is calling, speak to hold a he is not a message? please? Alan, please? moment? available at the moment. This is Excuse me, Can I speak Can you Mrs. Davies Would you George who is this? to Benjamin, hold the is out at the like to leave speaking. please? line? moment. a message? Is Jake in? Ill put you Mr. Jackson through. isnt in right now.

LETS CHECK
14 The purpose of this section is to allow
students to check their progress and to provide information to the teacher about any points that the majority of the students have problems with. Make sure they understand what they are expected to do and give them enough time to answer individually. Then, check on the board to allow students to correct their work and assign themselves a mark according to the scale. The students must choose the correct alternative to complete the sentences with need to, have to or cant. For more information on LET'S CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction. Answers a. have to; b. need to; c. have to; d. cant; e. cant; f. cant; g. need to; h. has to; i. cant; j. needs to.

16 ++ FL
Encourage fast learners to add one more phrase to each category in the chart. (L.A.: to consolidate vocabulary). Answers Will vary.

17 +++
As homework, ask the students to work in pairs and write short conversations for situations a. c. Tell them to practice the conversations at home and get ready to role-play one of the conversations in front of their classmates. (L.A.: to role-play a communicative situation).

143

PAGE 161

GAME SPOT
Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging for the students. They employ language in real contexts and they also encourage and increase cooperation. They create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities, bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students use of English in a flexible, communicative way. Remember that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons. Thus, the meaning of the language the students listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. Ask the students to form groups of six or eight members. Read the instructions aloud and make sure they understand clearly what the game consists on. If necessary, explain the rules in Spanish. Finally, tell the students to reflect on the last question and ask each group to share their comments with their classmates. For more information on the GAME SPOT, see page 7 of the Introduction.

Background information In the game variously known as Chinese whispers, Telephone Gossip, Arab Phone (from the French Le tlphone arabe), Russian Scandal, and Stille Post (Silent Post), the first player whispers a phrase or sentence to the next player. Each player successively whispers what that player believes he or she heard to the next. The last player announces the statement to the entire group. Errors typically accumulate in the retellings, so the statement announced by the last player differs significantly, and often amusingly, from the one uttered by the first. The game is often played by children as a party game or in the playground. It is often invoked as a metaphor for cumulative error, especially the inaccuracies as rumors or gossip spread, or, more generally, for the unreliability of human recollection.

In the United States, Telephone is the most common name for the game. The name Chinese whispers reflects the former stereotype in Europe of the Chinese language as being incomprehensible. It is little-used in the United States and may be considered offensive. It remains the common British name for the game. The game has no winner: the entertainment comes from comparing the original and final messages. Intermediate messages may also be compared; some messages will be unrecognizable after only a few steps. As well as providing amusement, the game can have educational value. It shows how easily information can become corrupted by indirect communication. The game has been used in schools to simulate the spread of gossip and supposed harmful effects. It can also be used for older or adult learners of a foreign language, where the challenge of speaking comprehensibly, and understanding, is more difficult because of the low volume, and hence a greater mastery of the fine points of pronunciation is required. An apocryphal example from World War I of a message being sent down the trench line is Send reinforcements, were going to advance which became Send three and fourpence, were going to a dance (three and fourpence is three shillings and four pence in old British money). For more information on Background information, see page 7 of the Introduction.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_whispers

REAL LIFE SPOT


The objective of this section is to provide a bit of humor to the class. All the jokes and cartoons are related to the topic of the lesson. Give some minutes to allow students to read and then invite them to share their comments to make sure they understood the joke. At this point, you may allow the use of Spanish to check comprehension. For more information on the REAL LIFE SPOT, see page 6 of the Introduction.

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HOW HOW ABOUT ABOUT WORKING? WORKING?

PAGE 162
YOUR ENGLISH IN ACTION

3 Explain to the students that they are going


to play Fortune Teller. They work in pairs, choose five pictures and their partners will tell them what they mean, as in the example. Make sure the students change roles and take turns to ask and answer questions. Monitor the activity, but do not take part or interrupt correcting mistakes. It is better to take notes and talk about them at the end of the class.

This section provides additional exercises that represent a good opportunity for students to consolidate topics and language structures of the lessons. You can assign these activities at the end of each lesson, or as homework and give them an extra mark.

Explain to the students that this is a real application form to an international volunteer organization. They must complete it as if they were really applying to a program. You can copy the form on the board or prepare a transparency, and then invite a student to complete it.

PAGE 164
UNIT CHECK

Answers Will vary according to students personal information.

PAGE 163

2 In pairs, the students must prepare a


leaflet. Read the instructions aloud and make sure they understand what they have to do. a. The students must find information about three volunteer organizations that offer work for teens. b. They must write a short text like the one in Lesson 1 to explain the objectives of each organization. c. They must choose one of them and prepare a leaflet promoting the organization. Ideally, they should add pictures or some visual material. d. Display students works in a visible place in the classroom.

Explain to the students that the purpose of this section is to help them revise contents and evaluate their performance in the whole unit. Read the instructions and make sure all the students understand what they are expected to do in each activity. Encourage them to give honest answers in order to detect their strengths and weaknesses. Check students results and revise any points that the majority of them had problems with. For more information on UNIT CHECK, see page 6 of the Introduction.

PAGE 165
Answers READING - TEEN JOBS OFFERED

b.

2 a. III; b. IV; c. I; d. II; e. V 3 a. True; b. False; c. False; d. True; e. False


LISTENING - TWO PHONE CALLS
39

4 5

c. a. Stella; b. Chris; c. Stella; d. Chris; e. Jennifer; f. Chris

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a. False; b. False; c. False; d. False


39

TRANSCRIPT TWO PHONE CALLS I. Stella: Chris: Stella: Chris: Stella:

Jennifer: Well, actually Ill be 16. Stella: Oh, Im so sorry. You have to be 17 to join, and the program starts in November. We hope that youll apply again next year. Jennifer: Sure, I will. Thank you.

Chris: Stella: Chris: Stella: Chris: Stella:

Chris:

Stella:

Hello. Can I speak to Chris, please? This is Chris speaking. This is Stella Rawlings. Im ringing from Children Aid about your application to join one of our programs. Oh, hi, Stella. Many thanks for your application, Chris. Its a very good one, but there are a couple of points Id like to check with you. Can we do it now? Sure. You say youve been on a similar program before. Thats right. I went with a group from my school to help people repair their houses. So you are an experienced builder I cant say that, but I learned some skills. The other thing. You said on the form that you werent free until July 20th. You know the program you want to join starts on July 12th, dont you? Yes, and Ive already spoken to my teachers and they say I can miss a week of school. They think these kinds of programs are great opportunities, so I can leave on the date the program starts. Are there any places left? Yes, fortunately there are two and one of them is for you now. Congratulations! Now you need to start your money raising.

LANGUAGE

7
arrive ask chew go have leave look at thank wear write a. If you want to find a job, you have to read the newspaper ads. b. You cant arrive late for an interview. c. You need to write a good CV. d. You cant wear jeans when you go to a job interview. e. You have to thank the interviewer at the end of the interview. SPEAKING

8 In pairs, the students role-play a telephone


conversation about an application for a job. Make sure they use not only the correct expressions according to each stage, but the vocabulary related to the topic. You can assign points according to these criteria: 7 - 8 points: student can ask and answer complete questions about the topic, with correct pronunciation, no hesitations and without grammar mistakes. 5 6: student can ask and answer complete questions about the topic, with correct pronunciation, and a minimum of hesitations and grammar mistakes. 3 4 points: student can exchange information about the topic with acceptable pronunciation but hesitates and makes grammar mistakes. 1 2 points: student cant exchange information about the topic, pronunciation interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes.

II. Jennifer: Stella: Jennifer: Stella:

Hello? Hello, can I speak to Jennifer, please? Speaking. This is Stella Rawlings, from Children Aid. Im ringing about your application. Jennifer: Is it good news? Stella: There is one point I need to check. On your form, it says that youre 16. When is your birthday, Jennifer? Jennifer: In December. Stella: So youll be 17 then.

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WRITING

9 The students read the personal information


in Catalina Lopezs file and then write her letter of application to an international organization. You can assign points according to these criteria: 7 - 8 points: student can write a coherent letter of application, including the required information, using correct textual references and without grammar or spelling mistakes. 5 6 points: student can write a coherent letter of application, including most of the required information, using a few textual references and with a minimum of grammar or spelling mistakes. 3 4 points: student can write a coherent letter of application, including some of the required information, but he / she makes no use of textual references and makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 2 points: student cant write a coherent letter of application, does not include the required information, and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.

PAGE 167
FINAL REFLECTION

The purpose of this section is to allow students to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses. Make sure all the students understand what they are expected to do and give enough time to answer the questions. Encourage students to give honest answers and show interest in their results. For more information on FINAL REFLECTION, see page 6 of the Introduction.

147

EXTRA TEST UNIT 5


READING - SHARING EXPERIENCES

ding things I Working at the local restaurant was one of the most rewar and all of my any ment imple to e have ever done in my life. I had full licens d up a starte We ess. ideas in order to market and publicize the busin y tourist nearb in e delivery service, put up fliers and spoke directly to peopl short the in ) more spots, etc. The profits increased by about 200% (if not that all volunteers amount of time of my stay. This is due to the attention ue. paid during this time. Hopefully the hard work will contin a Lizzie Lee, Short-Term Quest Volunteer, Guatemal

a. b. c. d.

I volunteered in Cusco, Peru for six weeks during the summer of 2008 and it was the kind of experience that I could not possibly obtain any other way. I worked at a rehabilitation center for young people with drug and alcohol addictions. Working with the psychologist, I had the opportunity to be a part of the rehabilitation process, helping conduct interviews, psychological assessments, and group meetings. Logan Nealis, Short-Term Quest Volunteer, Peru

My quest in Chile was an amazing one ! Although you definitely need flexibility due to the demands of each classroom environment and resources, I was able to visit and spe ak in several different classrooms (grade 4 through university level) and at various different schools. My host family was wonderful! This was wha t I was most worried about, as I had never stayed with a host family befo re. We will, for sure be, friends forever. I will continue to participate in humanitarian work here in the USA until I am able to set out on ano ther project with United Planet. Cynthia Castaldo, Short-Term Que st Volunteer, Chile

Read the text and answer these questions. a. Who worked as a psychologist assistant? b. Who could balance work and fun? c. Who is going to continue working as a volunteer? d. Who could put into practice all of his / her ideas?

for This experience was definitely a great new experience me! Not only did I get to work to help beautify the environment, I also experienced the real culture of Costa Rica by living with a host family. I even went to the beach the in my spare time and swam in the ocean! This trip was perfect balance between hard work and fun!! Erica Hsu, Short-Term Quest Volunteer, Costa Rica

4 pts.

2 Read the text again. Are these statements true or false?


Profits didnt increase very much during Lizzies stay in Guatemala. Logan Nealis worked with young people in risk situations. It was Cynthia Castaldos first experience with a host family. Erica Hsu didnt like her experience.

4 pts.

3 Read the text once more. Which of these sentences are facts (F) and which are
inferences (I)? a. Lizzie Lee will continue working hard. b. Logan Nealis experience could not be repeated. c. Cynthia Castaldo didnt visit pre-school students. d. Erica Hsu worked in an environmental project. LISTENING - VOLUNTEER JOBS FOR STUDENTS AND TEENS

4 pts.

4
a. b. c. d.

Listen to the recording. Number the sentences in the order you hear them. All volunteers play an integral role. Habitat offers basic shared accommodation. Volunteering can also help you to gain new skills. An associate will contact you.

5 pts.

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UNIT 5

HOW HOW ABOUT ABOUT WORKING? WORKING?

Listen again. Match the beginnings in column A (a. - c.) with the endings in column B (i. - v.). A a. Habitat for Humanity b. All volunteer applications c. If you are interested in becoming a volunteer d. For any further questions B i. are carefully screened. ii. needs short term volunteers. iii. please download an application form. iv. please contact the Volunteer Program Manager

5 pts.

6
a. b. c. d. e.

Listen to the recording once more. Are these statements true or false? Habitat for Humanity needs volunteers below 16. Habitat for Humanity accepts only local volunteers. Foreign volunteers need a special visa. If you want to join a program, you must send a letter. You can contact the Program Manager by e-mail or by phone.

5 pts.

LANGUAGE

7 Use one of the modal verbs in brackets to fill each gap.


a. b. c. d. They (can / might) ______________ be away for the weekend but Im not sure. It is probable he (might / may) ______________ go to Sheffield. Probably, tomorrow (might / may) ______________ be a cooler day. You (may / might) ______________ be right but it is not very probable.

4 pts.

8 Complete these sentences expressing preferences and using expressions from the box.
walk home / send an e-mail / stay at home / travel before / drink water a. Would you like to go out for dinner tonight? No, ___________________ b. Do you want some orange juice? I ___________________ c. Will you phone me? I ___________________

3 pts.

9 Write three sentences expressing a. a necessity, b. an obligation and c. an impossibility.


SPEAKING

3 pts.

10 In pairs, choose one of these situations and role-play a telephone conversation.


a. You want to invite your friend to the cinema. b. You want to apply for a temporary job. WRITING

10 pts.

11 Write a short leaflet promoting a volunteer organization that offers works for teens.
Explain the objectives, the kinds of programs, the way the applicants can apply and any other useful information.

10 pts.

57 pts. TOTAL 0 - 15 Keep trying! 16 - 30 Good! 31 - 45 Very good! 46 - 57 Excellent!

149

ANSWERS TO EXTRA TEST UNIT 5

READING - SHARING EXPERIENCES

1 a. Logan Nealis; b. Erica Hsu; c. Cynthia


Castaldo; d. Lizzie Lee.

Speaker 1: All volunteer applications are carefully screened to see if your skills match the project opportunities you specify and for all open volunteer opportunities. If your skills match an opportunity, an associate will contact you to conduct an initial phone interview to find out more about your suitability, and to discuss where you would be best suited in the organization. Speaker 2: International volunteers coming to Habitat Headquarters from outside of the United States need a B1 business visa. Speaker 3: If you are interested in becoming a volunteer at Habitat Headquarters, please download an application form and return it to: Habitat for Humanity International Attn: Volunteer Program Manager 121 Habitat St Americus, Georgia 31709 Speaker 1: If you have any further questions regarding the Volunteer program at Habitat for Humanity International, please contact the Volunteer Program Manager at: volunteer@habitat.org or phone (800) 422 - 4828.
LANGUAGE

2 a. False; b. True; c. True; d. False. 3 a. fact; b. inference; c. inference; d. inference.


LISTENING - VOLUNTEER JOBS FOR STUDENTS AND TEENS

40

4 c.; a.; b.; e.; e. 5 a. iv; b. ii.; c. i.; d. iii.; e. v. 6 a. false; b. false; c. true; d. false; e. true. TRANSCRIPT VOLUNTEER JOBS FOR STUDENTS AND TEENS
40

Speaker 1: Sometimes, theres something more important in a job than money. Volunteering can also help you gain new skills, improve your resume, and most importantly help you decide what you really want to do when you graduate. Speaker 2: Habitat for Humanity needs short term volunteers, aged 16 and up, to assist with various projects at the International Headquarters located in Americus, Georgia. Volunteering at Habitat is a unique experience that will enable you to develop your skills in different areas. All volunteers play an integral role in every aspect of the project, from administration to construction. Speaker 3: Volunteers who are not from the local area may qualify for shared housing and a small meal allowance. Habitat offers basic shared accommodation in various houses located near the headquarters for volunteers working in Americus, Georgia.

7 a. might, b. may, c. may, d. may. 8 a. Id rather stay at home.


b. Id rather drink water. c. Id rather send an e-mail. d. Id rather walk home. e. Id rather travel before.

9 Will vary. Accept any coherent answer.

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UNIT 5

HOW HOW ABOUT ABOUT WORKING? WORKING?

SPEAKING

10 You can assign points according to these


criteria: 8 - 10 points: student can participate in a telephone conversation about the topic, with correct pronunciation, no hesitations and without grammar mistakes. 5 6: student can participate in a telephone conversation about the topic, with correct pronunciation, and a minimum of hesitations and grammar mistakes. 3 4 points: student can participate in a telephone conversation about the topic with acceptable pronunciation but hesitates and makes grammar mistakes. 1 2 points: student cant participate in a telephone conversation about the topic; pronunciation interferes with comprehension, hesitates a lot and makes a lot of grammar mistakes. WRITING

11 You can assign points according to these


criteria: 8 - 10 points: student can write a coherent leaflet, including the required information, using correct textual references and without grammar or spelling mistakes. 5 7 points: student can write a coherent leaflet, including most of the required information, using a few textual references and with a minimum of grammar or spelling mistakes. 3 - 4 points: student can write a coherent leaflet, including some of the required information, but he / she makes no use of textual references and makes some grammar and spelling mistakes. 1 - 2 points: student can't write a coherent leaflet, does not include the required information, and he / she makes a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes.

151

EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS
These are assessment tools you can use to measure students work. They are scoring guides to evaluate a students performance based on the sum of a full range of criteria rather than a single numerical score. The evaluation instruments provided here include: Rubrics. Questionnaires. Observation sheets. These instruments differ from traditional methods of assessment in that they examine students in the process of learning, clearly showing them how their work is being evaluated. They communicate detailed explanations of what excellence is throughout a task and provide clear teaching directives. The instrumentsstrength is their specificity, which means that individual students can fall between levels, attaining some but not all standards in a higher level. While scores can be translated into final grades, we must remind students that not every score counts. These instruments are meant, to inform and improve teachers instruction while giving students the feedback they need to learn and grow. These instruments can also be used in peer assessment and then used to provide feedback. Prior to assessment, the evaluation instruments can be used to communicate expectations to students. During the assessment phase, they are used to easily score a subjective matter. After an instrument is scored, it should be given back to students to communicate them their grade and their strengths and weaknesses. Students can use them to see the correlation between effort and achievement. Sharing the instruments with students is vital as the feedback empowers students to evaluate their own work. Advantages of using a variety of instruments: Teachers can improve their direct instruction by providing focus, emphasis, and attention to details as a model for students. Students get explicit guidelines of teacher expectations. Students can use the instruments to develop their abilities. Teachers can reuse these instruments for various activities. Complex products or behaviours can be examined efficiently. They are criterion referenced, rather than norm referenced: (Did the student meet the criteria for level 4?rather than How well did this student do compared to other students?). Ratings can be done by students to assess their own work, or by others (peers, teachers, instructors, U.T.P. people, etc.).

Applying Evaluation Instruments


The evaluation instruments provided can be used for the following purposes: Self- assessment Give copies to students and ask them to assess their own progress on a task. This should not count toward a grade. The point is to help students learn more and produce better final products. Always give them time to revise their work after assessing themselves. Peer assessment This takes some getting used to. Emphasise the fact that peerassessment, is also intended to help everyone do better work. You can then see how accurate their feedback is, and you can ask for evidence that supports their opinions when their assessments dont match yours. Giving time for revision after peer-assessment is crucial. Teacher assessment When you assess student work, use the same instruments that were used for self- and peer-assessment. When you hand the marked instrument back with the studentswork, they will know what they did well and what they need to improve. To use the evaluation instruments provided in this section: Identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign a number to the studentsperformance. The gradations increase/decrease in 1 point. The last column shows the actual score assigned to this particular student, based on his / her performance. The overall total score is assigned by adding together the scores. Once you have worked out studentsscores, you can express them in gradations. Gradations are the descriptive levels of quality starting with the worst quality up to the best quality. Always keep in mind that, however you use them, the idea is to support and to evaluate student learning. Here is a description of each of the evaluation instruments: Evaluating Listening Comprehension Use this instrument two or three times in a semester to assess where the students rank within the four categories and to determine where the strengths and weaknesses of the class lie. After applying the instrument, ask the students to get in groups and analyse their results. As a class, discuss important points that may help improve listening skills.

152

EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS

To work out the score of each student identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign a number to the studentsperformance according to this scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you can apply this chart to express his/her results: 1= Unsatisfactory 2 = Fair 3 = Very Good 4 = Excellent Evaluating Reading Comprehension The goal of this reading assessment instrument is to determine if the students have improved their reading comprehension skills. Use this instrument once a month. Once you have applied this instrument, make the students identify their strengths and weaknesses and brainstorm ideas that could help them improve their performance in the future. This instrument also gives the teacher the opportunity to focus diagnostic attention on students whose performance is as below standard. You can reach this conclusion after calculating students scores and grades and correlating them with the levels stated in the Progress Map (Page 15 of the Introduction). You must take into account that the maximum score corresponds to the highest expected results conceived by this teaching proposal for this level. To work out the score of each student identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign a number to the studentsperformance according to this scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you can apply this chart to express his/her results: 1= Unsatisfactory 2 = Fair 3 = Very Good 4 = Excellent Project Use this instrument every time students do a project. Each student is evaluated along three dimensions, each having to do with the students contribution to the work, the final product and other aspects the teacher considers important to assess: how effectively the student accomplished his / her responsibilities as a member of the team or the quality of his / her interactions with the other team members. These dimensions are assigned a score of 1 through 7; these values represent increasing degrees of achievement in each dimension. The last column is the actual score assigned the student, based on his / her performance, along the three dimensions. The overall total score is assigned by adding together the scores corresponding to the three dimensions. Writing Rubric You can use it two or three times in a year. This instrument is a simplified way to grade a writing assignment. It is important to

show students the instrument beforehand so that they get better quality work; they know what they are supposed to produce and it saves problems afterwards as they can see where they can have points taken off. This instrument should also be used after the task is complete, to evaluate the product, and to engage students in reflection on the work they have produced. To work out the score of each student identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign a number to the studentsperformance according to this scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you can apply this chart to express his/her results: 1= Unsatisfactory 2 = Fair 3 = Very Good 4 = Excellent Working with others You can use this instrument when you assign a project or in isolation. It is designed to be applied as peer assessment. It offers feedback about studentsattitude towards their classmates. It can be a useful source of information for the teacher about individual contribution to a final product. To work out the score, students identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign a number to their partnersperformance. After you have worked out the score of each student, you can apply this chart to express his/her results: 1= Unsatisfactory 2 = Fair 3 = Very Good 4 = Excellent Homework When applying this instrument it, to provide clear expectations to your students. After reading the rubric, students are clear on what an acceptable homework assignment looks like. The system can improve studentshomework skills because the teacher gives each student attention about their homework; students can see the opportunities to improve their work; the teacher has the data required to give a purehomework grade for homework completion. You can also include a reward component: students who average a grade of 3 or 4 for the month, can earn an extra mark on the next period. To work out the score of each student identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign a number to the studentsperformance according to this scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you can apply this chart to express his/her results: 1= Unsatisfactory 2 = Fair 3 = Very Good 4 = Excellent

153

Oral Presentation Use this instrument two or three times per student during the year. The students will be evaluated in: Non-verbal skills, Vocal Skills and Content areas. The teacher can give each student a copy of the instrument and then read it with them. The students will improve their performance if they know what they are expected to produce and the areas they have to focus their attention on. To work out the score of each student identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign a number to the studentsperformance according to this scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you can apply this chart to express his/her results: 1= Unsatisfactory 2 = Fair 3 = Very Good 4 = Excellent Class participation Use this instrument, at the end of each semester. It is a useful tool for teachers to evaluate the way in which students take part in the different activities and their level of engagement in class. It also provides useful information to share with parents. The teacher can combine the results of this rubric and those of the Behaviour rubric to get a global additional mark at the end of a period. To work out the score of each student identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign a number to the studentsperformance according to this scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you can apply this chart to express his/her results: 1= Unsatisfactory 2 = Fair 3 = Very Good 4 = Excellent Behaviour Use this instrument when you detect behaviour problems. This rubric is meant to offer information on studentsattitude and behaviour in relation to their classmates and can be a useful source of information for course council. It can be applied by teachers or used for peer assessment. After applying this instrument, make students identify the areas in which they got higher scores, and also the areas that need improvement. To work out the score of each student identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality and assign a number to the studentsperformance according to this scale. Once you have worked out the score of each student, you can apply this chart to express his/her results: 1= Unsatisfactory 2 = Fair 3 = Very Good 4 = Excellent Extended-response reading Use this instrument in any lesson that invites students to

demonstrate comprehension by responding to open-ended questions. Its aim is to give information to the teacher on students placement in the Reading Skills English Progress Map. Use the checklist to assess reading tasks, to provide feedback to students and as a basis for feedback for each student. To work out the score of each student, identify his / her level of performance, according to the scale provided by this instrument. Inference from a text Use this instrument two or three times in a semester. It provides information on studentscapacity to make inferences from a reading or listening text in order to generate strategies that may improve their comprehension process. To work out the score of each student, identify the level of his /her performance, according to the scale provided by this instrument. Questionnaire: Tasks' Development The teacher can apply this instrument to know how students deal with English in general and can also be applied for peer assessment. This questionnaire provides criteria for scoring students' performance in the five dimensions that are evaluated. It allows teachers and students to identify strengths and weaknesses and set clear performance goals. Before applying it, read it with the students and listen to their comments. After applying it, talk about the results and get feedback on students' strengths and weaknesses. To work out the score of each student apply the scale and calculate the gradation. Feedback Here are some phrases that are useful for giving feedback and make comments to your students: You are developing a better attitude toward your classmates. You can be very helpful and dependable in the classroom. You have strengthened your skills in ___. You are learning to be a better listener. You are learning to be careful, cooperative, and fair. You are very enthusiastic about participating. Your work habits are improving. You have been consistently progressing. You are willing to take part in all classroom activities. Your attitude toward school is excellent. You are maintaining grade-level achievements. You work well in groups, planning and carrying out activities. Your work in the area(s) of ____ has been extremely good. You can do better in areas of ____. You would improve if you developed a greater interest in ___.

154

EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS

PHOTOCOPIABLE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS EVALUATING LISTENING COMPREHENSION

Name: _______________________________ Skills 1 Understanding key events or facts.

Lesson: ________________________ Date: _______ Criteria 2 Understands some of the events or key facts. Gets some important details. Sometimes. 3 Understands many events or key facts, mainly in sequence. Gets many important details. Most of the time. Answers questions with literal interpretation. Provides adequate response to teacher 2 or 3 questions and prompts. Summarise the beginning, middle, and end of the story. 4 Understands most events in sequence or understands most key facts. Gets most important details and key language. Nearly always. Points

Understands 1 or 2 events or key facts.

Understanding details.

Gets few or no important details. Nearly never.

Responding appropriately to features such as: laughter, silence, etc., and / or accentuation, intonation and rhythm. Answering questions.

Answers questions with incorrect information. Provides limited or no response and requires many questions or prompts. Answer factual questions on general information.

Answers questions with some misinterpretation. Provides some response to teacher and requires 4 or 5 questions and prompts. Answer factual questions on general and specific information.

Answers questions with interpretation showing higher level thinking. Provides insightful response to teacher 1 or no questions or prompts. Reveal the sequence of events, providing details on dialogue, and motivation of characters. Total points

Doing tasks.

At the end of the session, the listener is able to:

155

PHOTOCOPIABLE

EVALUATING READING COMPREHENSION

Name: _______________________________ Skills 1 Understanding key events or facts.

Lesson: ________________________ Date: _______ Criteria 2 Understands some of the events or key facts. Gets some important details. Identifies 1 or 2 characters or topics by generic name (boy, girl, dog). Answers questions with some misinterpretation. Provides some response to teacher 4 or 5 questions and prompts. 3 Understands many events or key facts, mainly in sequence. Gets many important details. Identifies many topics or characters by name in text (Ben, Giant). Answers questions with literal interpretation. Provides adequate response to teacher 2 or 3 questions and prompts. 4 Understands most events in sequence or understands most key facts. Gets most important details and key language. Identifies all characters or topics by specific name (Old Ben Bailey). Answers questions with interpretation showing higher level thinking. Provides insightful response to teacher 1 or no questions or prompts. Total points Points

Understands 1 or 2 events or key facts.

Understanding details.

Gets few or no important details. Identifies 1 or 2 characters or topics using pronouns (he, she, it, they). Answers questions with incorrect information. Provides limited or no response and requires many questions or prompts.

Identifying characters or topics.

Answering questions.

Doing tasks.

Taken and adapted from: http://www.storyarts.org/classroom/usestories/listenrubric.html

PHOTOCOPIABLE

156

EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS

PROJECT
Name(s): Process 1. Has clear vision of final product. 2. Properly organised to complete project. 3. Managed time wisely. 4. Acquired needed knowledge base. 5. Communicated efforts with teacher. Product (Project) 1. Format. 2. Mechanics of speaking / writing. 3. Organisation and structure. 4. Creativity. 5. Demonstrates knowledge. Other: 1. _____________________________ 2. _____________________________ 3. _____________________________ 4. ____________________________ 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 Total: Teacher comments: Poor 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3 Poor 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3 1,2,3 Satisfactory 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 Satisfactory 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,5 Date: Excellent 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 Excellent 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 6,7 Points Points

Source: http://www.sdst.org/shs/library/resrub.html

157

PHOTOCOPIABLE

WRITING RUBRIC
Name: Title of work: Criteria 1 Main Idea Sentence Unclear and incorrectly placed; it is not restated in the closing sentence. Paragraph(s) have no supporting detail sentences that relate back to the main idea. Each supporting sentence has no detail sentence. Writing is not legible. Six or more punctuation, capitalisation, and spelling errors. 2 Unclear and incorrectly placed; it is restated in the closing sentence. Paragraph(s) has / have one supporting detail sentence that relate(s) back to the main idea. Each supporting sentence has one detail sentence. Writing is not legible in places. Three to five punctuation, capitalisation, and spelling errors. 3 Either unclear or incorrectly placed; it is restated in the closing sentence. Paragraph(s) has / have two supporting detail sentences that relate back to the main idea. Each supporting sentence has at least two detail sentences. Marginally legible handwriting, typing, or printing. One or two punctuation, capitalisation, and spelling errors. 4 Clear, correctly placed, and is restated in the closing sentence. Paragraph(s) has / have three or more supporting detail sentences that relate back to the main idea. Each supporting sentence has three or more detail sentences. Legible handwriting, typing, or printing. No errors in punctuation, capitalisation, and spelling. Total: Teacher comments: Date submitted: Points

Supporting Sentence(s)

Detail Sentence(s)

Legibility

Mechanics & Grammar

PHOTOCOPIABLE

Taken and adapted from: http://712educators.about.com/od/rubrics/Rubrics_Writing_and_Grading_Rubrics.htm

158

EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS

WORKING WITH OTHERS


Name: _______________________________ Date: _________ Skills Working with others Help 1 Never offers assistance to others. 2 Teacher: _______________________

Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Criteria 3 4 Points

Some of the time Most of the time All of the time offers assistance to offers assistance to offers assistance to each other. each other. each other. Most of the time works from each other's ideas. Most of the time contributes to the project. All of the time works from each other's ideas. All of the time contributes to the project. All of the time exchanges, defends and rethinks ideas All of the time interacts, discusses and poses questions to all member of the class. All of the time encourages and supports the ideas and efforts of others. All of the time offers ideas and reports findings to each other. Total points

Listen

Never works from Some of the time each other's ideas. works from each other's ideas. Never contributes to the project. Never exchanges, defends and rethinks ideas. Never interacts, discusses and poses questions to all member of the class. Never encourages and supports the ideas and efforts of others. Never offers ideas and reports findings to each other. Some of the time contributes to the project.

Participate

Persuade

Some of the time Most of the time exchanges, defends exchanges, and rethinks ideas. defends and rethinks ideas. Some of the time interacts, discusses and poses questions to all member of the class. Some of the time encourages and supports the ideas and efforts of others. Some of the time offers ideas and reports findings to each other. Most of the time interacts, discusses and poses questions to all member of the class. Most of the time encourages and supports the ideas and efforts of others. Most of the time offers ideas and reports findings to each other.

Question

Respect

Share

Taken and adapted from: http://rubistar.4teachers.org

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PHOTOCOPIABLE

Teacher comments:

HOMEWORK
Name: _______________________________ Date: _________ Skills 1 Assignment Completeness Accuracy 2 Teacher: _______________________

Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Criteria 3 9/10 of items attempted. 9/10 of items are correct. Shows substantial understanding of the problem, ideas, and processes. Meets the requirements of the problem. 4 All items attempted. All items are correct. Shows complete understanding of the questions, ideas, and processes. Goes beyond the requirements of the problem. Points

Less than 1/2 of all At least 1/2 of the items attempted. items attempted. Less than 1/2 of all Between 1/2 and items are correct. 9/10 of items are correct. Response shows a complete lack of understanding of the problem. Response shows some understanding of the problem.

Demonstrated Knowledge

Requirements

Does not attempt Does not meet the to meet the requirements of requirements of the the problem. problem. Writing is not legible. Writing is not legible in places.

Legibility

Marginally legible Legible handwriting, handwriting, typing, or printing. typing, or printing. Total points

Teacher comments:

PHOTOCOPIABLE

Taken and adapted from: www.teach-nology.com

160

EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS

ORAL PRESENTATION
Name: _______________________________ Date: _________ Teacher: _______________________

Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Criteria 1 2 3 4 Points

Skills & Content Non-verbal skills Eye Contact

No attempt to look Attention to one at audience, reads particular part of notes all the time. the class; does not scan audience. Shows a conflicting Occasionally displays expression during conflicting entire presentation. expression during presentation. Shows absolutely Shows some no interest in topic negativity toward presented. topic presented. Vocal Skills

Occasionally looks Constantly looks at at someone or someone or some some groups during groups. presentation. Occasionally demonstrates conflicting expression during presentation. Gives clues about content of speech; appropriate expression.

Facial Expression

Enthusiasm

Occasionally shows Strong positive positive feelings feelings on topic during entire about topic. presentation.

Vocalised Pauses (uh, ) Content Topic Announced

10 or more are noticed.

6-9 are noticed.

1-5 are noticed.

No vocalised pauses.

Audience has no idea what the report is about.

Vaguely tells audience what report is about.

Gives some Clearly explains explanation of what what the report is report is covering. covering. Less/ More than required time but tries to solve it. Thoughts articulated clearly, but not engaging. Within required time frame. Enhance presentation, thoughts articulated; keep interest.

Time frame

Less than minimum More than time. maximum time. Poor, distract audience, hard to read / see. Add nothing to presentation.

Visual Aids

Total points
Taken and adapted from: http://www.tcet.unt.edu/START/instruct/general/oral.htm

161

PHOTOCOPIABLE

Completeness of Content

One or more points Majority of points left out. glossed over.

Most points All points covered in depth, thoroughly some glossed over. explained.

CLASS PARTICIPATION
Name: _______________________________ Date: _________ Skills 1 Attendance / Promptness Student is late to class more than once a week and/or has poor attendance of classes. Student never contributes to class by offering ideas and asking questions. Student never listens when others talk, both in groups and in class. Student almost always displays disruptive behaviour during class. Student is almost never prepared for class with assignments and required class materials. 2 Student is late to class more than once a week and/or has poor attendance of classes. Student rarely contributes to class by offering ideas and asking questions. Student rarely listens when others talk, both in groups and in class. Student often displays disruptive behaviour during class. Student is rarely prepared for class with assignments and required class materials. Teacher: _______________________

Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Criteria 3 Student is late to class once every two weeks and regularly attends classes. Student proactively contributes to class by offering ideas and asking questions once per class. Student sometimes listens when others talk, both in groups and in class. Student rarely displays disruptive behaviour during class. Student is usually prepared for class with assignments and required class materials. 4 Student is always prompt and regularly attends classes. Points

Level Of Engagement In Class

Student always contributes to class by offering ideas and asking questions more than once per class. Student almost always listens when others talk, both in groups and in class. Student almost never displays disruptive behaviour during class. Student is almost always prepared for class with assignments and required class materials. Total points

Listening Skills

Behaviour

Preparation

Teacher comments:

PHOTOCOPIABLE

Taken and adapted from: www.teach-nology.com

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EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS

BEHAVIOUR
Name: _______________________________ Date: _________ Skills 1 Distraction Distracts instruction several times during a class period. Never displays leadership Does not participate at all in class activities. Never listens, shares and supports the efforts of others. Often is publicly critical of the work of other members of the group. Repeatedly has a negative attitude about the task(s). 2 Distracts instruction 2-3 times during a class period. Rarely displays leadership Participates in some class activities. Rarely listens, shares and supports the efforts of others. Occasionally is publicly critical of the work of other members of the group. Rarely has a positive attitude about the task(s). Teacher: _______________________

Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Criteria 3 Distracts instruction once during a class period. Generally displays leadership Participates in most class activities. Generally listens, shares and supports the efforts of others. Rarely is publicly critical of the project or the work of others. Generally has a positive attitude about the task(s). 4 Does not distract instruction during a class period. Displays leadership and is positive Participates in all class activities. Always listens, shares, and supports the efforts of others. Never is publicly critical of the project or the work of others. Always has a positive attitude about the task(s). Total points Points

Leadership Participation

Cooperation

Attitude to group work

Attitude about the task(s)

Teacher comments:

Taken and adapted from: http://rubistar.4teachers.org

163

PHOTOCOPIABLE

EXTENDED-RESPONSE READING
Name: _______________________________ Date: _________ Teacher: _______________________

Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Indicator Level 5 4 3 Initial level Yes/No

Student uses information from the text to interpret significant concepts or make connections to other situations or contexts logically through analysis, evaluation, inference, or comparison/contrast. Student partially integrates interpretation of the text with text-based support, also uses relevant and accurate references; some are specific; some may be general and not fully supported. Student uses information from the text to make simplistic interpretations and demonstrates an accurate but limited understanding of the text. Student does not address the task, makes little or no interpretation of the text and demonstrates brief or no understanding of the written work.
Taken and adapted from: http://www.isbe.net/assessment/pdfs/reading_extended_rubric.pdf

The aim of this Reading Progress Map is to place students in one of these levels according to their reading skills to generate future improvements. See English Progress Map on page 15 of the Introduction.

INFERENCE FROM A TEXT


Name: _______________________________ Date: _________ Teacher: _______________________

Class: ________________________ Lesson: ________________ Indicator Level 5 4 3 Initial level Yes/No

Includes a connection between the text and the reader's background knowledge. Includes details, predictions, or conclusions based on text information. Attempts to make a prediction or draw a conclusion about the text, includes details that are not explicitly stated. No evidence of inference (making a prediction, interpreting information or drawing a conclusion) about the text, conveys a minimum amount of information about the written work.

PHOTOCOPIABLE

Adapted from: the Hill Middle School Staff, Long Beach Unified School District, 1/2000

The aim of this Inference Reading Progress Map is to place students in one of these levels according to their reading skills to generate future improvements. See English Progress Map on page 15 of the Introduction. EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS

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QUESTIONNAIRE
Development of Tasks Student's Name: _______________________________ Questions 1. Can the student share ideas in response to the class discussion? 2. Can the student participate actively in spontaneous conversations? 3. Can the student practise asking and answering question? 4. Can the student improve vocabulary by keeping a notebook with definitions and examples? 5. Is the student able to learn about good online resources to improve English vocabulary? Total Total Poor 5 - 10 Teacher comments: Fair 11 - 15 Good 16 - 20 Excellent 21 - 25 Always 5 5 5 Date: _______________________ Occasionally 3 3 3 Hardly ever 2 2 2 Never 1 1 1

Frequently 4 4 4

Taken and adapted from: http://faculty.deanza.edu/

165

PHOTOCOPIABLE

BIBLIOGRAPHY
The following web pages and books have been selected as support and extra activities for teachers: Listening comprehension: http://www.elyrics.net http://www.isabelperez.com/songs.htm http://www.musicalenglishlessons.org/popsongs/ index.htm http://www.saberingles.com.ar/songs/57.html Book, Interchange Third Edition Class Audio, by Jack C. Richards (author), Cambridge University Press, 2004. Book, Edutainment: How to Teach Language With Fun & Games (Paperback) by I. E. Hewitt (author), Delta Systems Co Inc; Bk & CD edition (December 1998) Book, Classroom Teacher's ESL Survival Kit No 1, by Elizabeth Claire and Judie Haynes (authors), paperback, Pearson ESL, 1994. Book, Simple Listening Activities, Jill & Charles Hadfield (authors), Oxford Basics series, Oxford University Press, 2002. Students learn better by listening to songs, videos or audio recordings. So, it is advisable to work in pairs or small groups and do not forget the three stages (before, while and after listening). As a consolidation activity and if the text is appropriate, ask them to sing together. Reading comprehension: http://www.abcteach.com/directory/ reading_comprehension/grades_24/informational/ http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=152 http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/ 0805/080506-cyclone.html Book, Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers (3rd Edition), by Suzanne F. Peregoy (Author), Owen F. Boyle (Author).Allyn & Bacon, Pearson, 2005. Book, In the Middle: New Understanding about Writing, Reading, and Learning (Workshop Series) by Nancie Atwell, Heinemann, 1998. Book, Reading Reminders: Tools, Tips, and Techniques by Jim Burke, Boynton/Cook, 2003. Students need to read in a wide variety of genres: narrative, informational, procedural, biographical, persuasive, poetic; the texts will become part of their background knowledge, providing textual information to help them to draw conclusions and interpret facts. When working with them, try to follow the usual steps of before, while and after reading, and don't forget to give students positive feedback on their work. Speaking http://www.onestopenglish.com/section.asp?section Type=listsummary&catid=59406&docid=153770 http://www.eslflow.com/speakingandcommunica tiveicebreakeractivities.html http://www.proteacher.com/070001.shtml http://iteslj.org/c/games.html Book, Keep Talking: Communicative Fluency Activities for Language Teaching (Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers) by Friederike Klippel, Cambridge University Press, 1984. Book, Communication Games Intermediate by Jill Hadfield, Pearson, 2000. Book, Pronunciation Games, Mark Hancock, Cambridge University Press, 1995. For a successful English speaking lesson it is recommended to show pictures to the class and elicit students' ideas about them by asking and answering questions. Role playing dialogues and drills may help them to pay attention to the pronunciation and intonation of words. Give students plenty and different ways of practicing and encourage them to speak as much as they can. Writing http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/ bl_guided_writing.htm http://www.readingrockets.org/article/5608 http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/ blwrite_informalletter.htm http://www.englishclub.com/esl-articles/200004.htm http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/ bl_guided_writing.htm Book, Simple Writing Activities, Jill & Charles Hadfield, Oxford Basics series, Oxford University Press, 2000. Book, Choices, (Writing Projects for Students of Esl), Cambridge University Press, 1999. Writing is one of the most difficult tasks for students of English as a foreign language, so it is advisable to offer interesting topics that make them want to write.

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