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Theory & Technology Basics The FEM-Design can perform the following calculations: Linear static analysis for

r all structure types, tatic analysis accor!ing to secon! or!er theory for spatial structures" #lo$al sta$ility analysis with $uc%ling shapes an! critical loa!s for spatial structures" Dynamic analysis - &i$ration shapes an! eigen fre'uencies for all structure types, eismic calculation - response spectra metho! for (D mo!els, )on-linear static analysis - supports resisting only compression, *rac%ing analysis - trac%ing of the crac%ing process" tatic analysis The linear static analysis is the solution of the: Ku=Q Linear, inhomogeneous e'uation system with constant coefficients, which is !eri&e! from the !isplacement metho!, where: K + the coefficient matri, of the system, the so calle! stiffness matri,, Q + the matri, of the loa! &ectors, !eri&e! from the loa!s of e&ery loa! cases, u + matri, of the !isplacement of no!es" FEM-Design contains two e'uation system-sol&ers" -ne of them is the so-calle! frontal type, the other is the ./L0)E type sol&er" Both metho!s are optimise! for the a&aila$le memory, an! they contain &ery efficient no!e num$ering optimisation for minimi1ing of on one han! the front wi!th, on the other han! the $an!wi!th" The results of the linear static analysis are always the no!e !isplacements, reaction forces an! internal forces or stresses of elastic elements" )ote, that an a&erage &alue is ta%en for the internal forces of elements in no!es of region or plate where more elements of the same %in! are connecte!, in or!er to a&oi! !iscontinuities that !oes not e,ist in reality $ut generate! $y the finite element metho! !uring the calculation" 2nd order analysis *alculation of structures $ase! on the linear theory mean that the e'uili$rium con!itions are !etermine! accor!ing to the shape of the structure $efore loa!ing" 0n case of larger !eformations the results woul! $e more accurate if the change of structure geometry was ta%en into consi!eration" This metho! results in non-linear e'uations" 0n case of fle,i$le, elastic structures the appro,imate solution for this pro$lem is the secon! or!er theory which gi&es satisfying accurate results for practice" 0n this theory the

!eformations !uring the loa!ing are only ta%en into consi!eration in the relationship of mem$rane forces an! $en!ing moments" For e,ample, at a straight $ar the normal force influences the $en!ing moments $ecause of the !eflections perpen!icular to the $ar, an! it mo!ifies of course the !eflections" *onse'uently, the stiffness matri, of the system is a linear function of the normal internal forces 2in case of plane plate, mem$rane forces3: [K + KG (N)] u = Q 4here K is the original 2linear3 stiffness matri,, u is the matri, of the no!e !isplacement, Q is the matri, calculate! from the loa!s, an! KG is the geometrical stiffness matri," ) in the argument means the !istri$ution of the normal 2or mem$rane3 forces of the structure" ince the stiffness is a function of the normal force !istri$ution, the calculation has to $e performe! in two steps" First, the normal forces of the elements ha&e to $e calculate! $y using the . matri," 0n the secon! step KG is !etermine! accor!ing to the pre&iously calculate! )" The mo!ifie! !isplacements, internal forces an! stresses can $e calculate! $y the [K + KG] matri," 0t is possi$le, that the N normal force !istri$ution calculate! from the loa!s happens to result in a singular [K + KG] mo!ifie! coefficient matri,, which means that the e'uation system cannot $e sol&e!" This phenomenon occurs if the loa! is larger then the critical loa! of the system, which ma%es it lose sta$ility" Stability analysis 5t !escription of secon! or!er theory it was pointe! out that the resultant stiffness of the system !epen!s on the normal force !istri$ution" 0n case of linear elastic structures the geometrical stiffness matri, is a linear function of normal forces an! conse'uently of loa!s: KG (N) = KG (N) The structure loses its loa! $earing capa$ility if the normal forces !ecrease the stiffness to 1ero, i"e" the resultant stiffness matri, $ecomes singular: det [K + KG (N)] = 0 0t is an eigen &alue calculation pro$lem, an! the smallest eigen &alue is the critical loa! parameter" The calculation has to $e performe! in two steps" First, the normal forces of the elements has to $e calculate! $y using the K matri," 0n the secon! step KG an! the parameter can $e !etermine!" The critical loa! is the pro!uct of the loa! an! the parameter"

The a$o&e mentione! eigen &alue pro$lem is sol&e! $y the Lanc1os metho! in FEMDesign" The results of the calculations are as many $uc%ling shapes as the user re'uire! an! the matching critical loa! parameters" Linear dynamic 0f the loa!s acting on a structure &ary 'uic%ly, the no!e !isplacements of the structure also &ary as a function of time" 0n this case the outer loa!s - accor!ing to the !65lam$ert theorem - shoul! $e e,ten!e! $y the !istri$ute! inertial forces, which are proportional to the acceleration of the points of the structures" This results the following $asic e'uation, if the !umping of the structure is ignore!: K u = Q ! u"" 4here: ! is the !iagonal mass matri, of the structure an! u"" is the matri, of the no!e acceleration 2secon! !eri&ati&e of the no!e !isplacements an! rotations3" 0f the structure is unloa!e!, i"e" the free oscillation is analyse!, all points of a structure with statically !etermine! supports mo&e perio!ically, accor!ing to the following e'uation: u = # sin (t) 0f Q + 7, it results in the following eigen &alue pro$lem: [K $2 !] # = 0 4here $ is the eigen angular fre'uency an! # is the matching &i$ration shapes, or amplitu!e !istri$ution" The eigen &alue pro$lem is sol&e! $y the Lanc1os metho! in the (D an! $y the u$space iteration metho! in the 8D mo!ules of FEM-Design" Seismic analysis 0n case of linear elastic structures the analysis of the effect of seismic support motion is performe! $y the response spectrum metho!" First the linear !ynamic calculation has to $e e,ecute! in or!er to !etermine the necessary num$er of &i$ration shapes an! fre'uencies" The acceleration-fre'uency spectrum is an input !ata, which !efines the ma,imal support accelerations $elonging to the &i$ration shapes" *onsi!ering these &alues the ma,imal no!e !isplacements an! internal forces $elonging to the gi&en fre'uency can $e calculate!" They are calle! mo!al components" ince the phases shifting in time of the mo!al component !isplacements are not %nown, the e,pecte! ma,imum $elonging to the resultant of the support e,citation is calculate! accor!ing to the following summari1ation 2 9 3 formula:

0n this formula n is the num$er of fre'uencies calculate! !uring the linear !ynamic calculation" This is !efine! $y the user, consi!ering the e,citation an! the structure" 0n general cases it is enough to use the !ominant fre'uencies 2first (-:7 &alues3" The results of the calculation 2!isplacements, internal forces, stresses3 are positi&e num$ers, which are the e,pecte! ma,imum &alues reache! !uring the e,citation" Non linear calculation %&li't calculation

0n the 4all an! ;late mo!ules of FEM-Design there is possi$ility to !efine point, line an! surface supports resisting only compression" The uplift-calculation in&ol&es material nonlinearity an! has to $e sol&e! with an iterati&e metho!" 0n this case the relationship $etween reaction forces an! !isplacements can $e interprete! $y the following !iagram" The solution implemente! in FEM-Design is: 0n the first step, when supports also resist tension, it is chec%e! if tension appeare! in any support" 0f yes, an! the support is !efine! to resist only compression, then the linear static analysis is repeate! with setting the stiffness &alues in the tensione! elements to a &ery small &alue" 4e repeat this proce!ure until there is no tensione! support any more" 0f the user !efines this %in! of supports, he has to $e aware of the !irection 2local coor!inate system3 of them, furthermore to the fact that the structure can $ecome cinematically un!etermine!" (rac) analysis in *+! ,esi-n .late 0n FEM-Design a crac% analysis techni'ue is applie!, where an iteration mechanism is calculating the effect of the crac%s" 5s the crac% analysis is a non-linear calculation the principle of superposition is not true" By this fact the crac% analysis is not applica$le for loa! groups an! the calculation has to

$e e,ecute! for e&ery single com$ination" #enerally the iteration is loa!ing the structure in loa! steps, an! mo!ifies the stiffness of it in e&ery step as more an! more crac%s occur !uring the loa!ing process" The stiffness of the plate will $e !ecrease! only in the !irection that is perpen!icular to the crac% lines, in the !irection of the crac% lines the stiffness remains the same as for the un-crac%e! state" The %ey of the calculation is the way the crac% !irection is calculate! in a certain point" Dr" Ferenc )emeth from the Technical <ni&ersity of Bu!apest has in&ente! a metho! for this, which is $ase! on e,periments" The crac%e! stiffness calculation is $ase! on a con&entional cross section mo!ulus calculation of the secon! crac% state which is com$ine! with a Euro co!e li%e crac% !istri$ution calculation 2to consi!er the effect of un-crac%e! parts of the plate $etween two crac%s3"