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ASTM D92 Test Date : 23.02.2014

Name : Sagar Safar Algamdi. ID : 000000000. Submit Date : 02.03.2014

1. Introduction :
The flash point of a volatile liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. Measuring a liquid's flash point requires an ignition source. At the flash point, the vapor may cease to burn when the source of ignition is removed. The flash point is not to be confused with the auto ignition temperature, which does not require an ignition source. The fire point, a higher temperature, is defined as the temperature at which the vapor continues to burn after being ignited. Neither the flash point nor the fire point is related to the temperature of the ignition source or of the burning liquid, which are much higher. The flash point is often used as a descriptive characteristic of liquid fuel, and it is also used to help characterize the fire hazards of liquids. Flash point refers to both flammable liquids and combustible liquids. There are various standards for defining each term. Most chemists agree that liquids with a flash point less than 60.5C (141F) or 37.8C (100F) , depending upon the standard being applied are flammable, and liquids with a flash point above those temperatures are combustible. Every liquid has a vapor pressure, which is a function of that liquid's temperature. As the temperature increases, the vapor pressure increases. As the vapor pressure increases, the concentration of evaporated flammable liquid in the air increases. Hence, temperature determines the concentration of evaporated flammable liquid in the air. Each flammable liquid requires a different concentration of its vapor in air to sustain combustion. The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which there will be enough flammable vapor to ignite when an ignition source is applied.

Flash Point : Is the lowest temperature at which the application of test flame causes the
vapors from the material to momentarily catch fire in the form of a flash under specified conditions of the test.

Fire Point : Is the lowest temperature at which the application of test flame causes the
material to ignite and burn at least for 5 seconds under specified conditions of the test.

2. Objective :
This experiment is to obtain the temperature level of the asphalt materials for flash and fire point. This is to know its optimum temperature level. The flash point of cutback asphalt is generally determined by use of a Tagliabue Open Cup apparatus, whereas the Cleveland Open Cup is used for flash point determination on other asphaltic materials.

3. Apparatus :
1- Cleveland Open Cup. 2- Thermometer. 3-

4. Methodology :
First, the cup filled at any convenient temperature so that the top of the meniscus is exactly at the filling line. Then light the test flame and adjust it to a diameter of 3.2 to 4.8 mm. Heat initially are applied, the rate of temperature rise of the sample is to14C to 17C /min. When the sample temperature is approximately 56C below anticipated flash point, decrease the heat so that the rate of temperature rise for the last 28C before the flash point is 5C to 6C/min. At least at 28C below the flash point start, the test flame are applied when the temperature read on the thermometer reached each successive 2c mark. The test flame is passed across the center of the cup, at right angles to the diameter, which passed through the thermometer. With a smooth continuous motion applied the flame either in straight line or along the circumference of a circle having a radius of at least 150 mm . The center of the test flame must move in horizontal plane not more than 2 mm above the plane of the upper edge of the cup and passing in one direction only. At the time of the next test flame application, the flame passed in the opposite direction. The time consumed in passed the test flame across the cup in each case shall be about 1 s. The observed flash point the temperature read on the thermometer when a flash appears at any point on the surface of the bluish halo that sometimes surrounds the test flame recorded. The fire point determined and continue heating so the sample temperature increased at a rate of 5C to 6C/min. the application of the test flame at 2C intervals until the oil ignites. Fire point of the oil is observed.

5. Result :
Point Flash point Fire point Temperature (OC)

6. Discussion :
Safety procedures must be followed when using a flash tester. Fire extinguishers, safety visors and breathing apparatus should all be available. Draught prevention is important as toxins such as PCBs can be produced during heating. Automated equipment will prevent any potential health risk to the user.

7. Conclusions :
The sample is heated at a slow, constant rate. A small flame is directed into the cup. The flash point has endured the test of time. In many applications of used oil analysis the flash point test remains the method of choice in detecting certain contaminants and nonconforming lubricant conditions. In other cases the flash point serves as a dependable diagnostic tool or confirming test when a suspect condition has already been flagged. And, like most everything in the world of oil analysis, success in using the flash point depends on the careful adherence to such things as sample handling and test protocol.