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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

1. Introduction ATM does not stand for automatic teller machine. In the telecommunication, it stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode, in which data sends asynchronously. This mode is another fast packet switchin mode. ATM is re arded as the technolo y of the !"st century and its impact is e#pected to $e similar to PCM %pulse code modulation& which is used widely around the world in telecommunication. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a technolo y that has his its history in the de'elopment of $road$and ISD( in the ")*+s and ),+s. Technically, it can $e 'iewed as an e'olution of pocket switchin . -ike packet switchin for data , ATM inte rates the multiple#in and switchin functions, is well suited for $usty traffic and allows communications $etween de'ices that operate at different speeds . .nlike packet switchin , ATM is desi ned for hi h/ performance multimedia networkin . ATM is also a set of international interface and si nalin standards defined $y the International Telecommunication Union- Telecommunications (ITUT) Standards Sector (formerly the CCITT). The ATM forum has played a pi'otal role in the ATM market since its formulation in "))". The ATM forum is an international 'oluntary or ani0ation composed of 'endors , ser'ice pro'iders, research or ani0ation, and users. Its purpose is to accelerate the use of ATM products and ser'ices throu h the rapid con'er ence of interopera$ility specifications, promotion of industry cooperation , and other acti'ities. De'elopin multi'endor implementation a reements also furthers this oal. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this S1S is to fully descri$e the e#ternal $eha'ior of the Inek Software 2 application, as well as nonfunctional re3uirements, desi n constraints, and other factors necessary to pro'ide a complete, comprehensi'e description of the software re3uirements. 1.2 Scope This will $e the first prototype 'ersion of the Inek Software 2 system, which will

include enou h functionality to $e marketed to potential licensees, $ut will not $e feature complete. A list of hi h/le'el features the system will pro'ide is discussed in section Error4 1eference source not found.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

1.3 Definition, Acronyms and A What is ATM ?

re!iations

Asynchronous transfer mode is a hi h speed: packet $ased multiple#in techni3ue in which information flow is or ani0ed in short fi#ed len th cells. The cells are enerated when there is new data to send, which allows an element of data compression %e. there is no need to send the pauses that occurs in speech&. It also means that cells with different $andwidth in each direction are possi$le/ a fa# connection, for e#ample uses little $andwidth in return direction. This allows more efficient use of the network resourses. ATM pro'ides a way of multiple#in many sources of data onto a common cells stream. 1e ardless of speed of the inputs. This reatly impro'es fle#i$ility, ena$lin pro'ision of $andwidth on demand.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode Switching Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) an International Telecommunication .nion/ Telecommunications Standards Section %IT./T& standard for cell relay wherein information for multiple ser'ice types, such as 'oice, 'ideo, or data, is con'eyed in small, fi#ed/si0e cells. ATM networks are connection/oriented. This chapter pro'ides summaries of ATM protocols, ser'ices, and operation. ;i ure illustrates a pri'ate ATM network and a pu$lic ATM network carryin 'oice, 'ideo, and data

traffic.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM A Pri!ate ATM "et#or$ and a Pu %ic ATM "et#or$ &oth Can carry !oice, !ideo and data traffic Standards

ATM is $ased on the efforts of the IT./T Broad$and Inte rated Ser'ices Di ital (etwork %B/ISD(& standard. It was ori inally concei'ed as a hi h/speed transfer technolo y for 'oice, 'ideo, and data o'er pu$lic networks. The ATM ;orum e#tended the IT./T<s 'ision of ATM for use o'er pu$lic and pri'ate networks. The ATM ;orum has released work on the followin specifications4 .ser/to/(etwork Interface %.(I& !.+ .(I =.+ .(I =." .(I >.+ 6u$lic/(etwork (ode Interface %6/((I& -A( Emulation %-A(E& Multiprotocol o'er ATM 1.' (eferences Data$ase Mana ement System Software En ineerin An Introduction to Data$ase Systems System Analysis and Desi n Data$ase Mana ement ;undamentals of Data$ase Systems / AS6.(et 6ro rammin / / / / / / / 5enry ;.?orth A$raham Sil$erschat0 1oo er S.pressman Sil$erschat0, korth %foruth edition&. @ames Senn 8eor e Diehr Elmasri (a'athe

Aikas 8upta

MSBSC- Ser'er !+++ online reference MSD( !++= www.microsort.com

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

1.) *+,(+-,.

ATM Devices and the Network Environment ATM is a cell/switchin and multiple#in technolo y that com$ines the $enefits of circuit switchin % uaranteed capacity and constant transmission delay& with those of packet switchin %fle#i$ility and efficiency for intermittent traffic&. It pro'ides scala$le $andwidth from a few me a$its per second %M$ps& to many i a$its per second %8$ps&. Because of its asynchronous nature, ATM is more efficient than synchronous technolo ies, such as time-division multiplexin (T!M). Dith TDM, each user is assi ned to a time slot, and no other station send in that time slot. If a station has much data to send, it can send only when its time slot comes up, e'en if all other time slots are empty. 5owe'er, if a station has nothin to transmit when its time slot comes up, the time slot is sent empty and is wasted. Because ATM is asynchronous, time slots are a'aila$le on demand with information identifyin the source of the transmission contained in the header of each ATM cell. ATM Ce !asic "ormat

ATM transfers information in fi#ed/si0e units called cells. Each cell consists of E= octets, or $ytes. The first E $ytes contain cell/header information, and the remainin >, contain the payload %user information&. Small, fi#ed/len th cells are well suited to transferrin 'oice and 'ideo traffic $ecause such traffic is intolerant of delays that result from ha'in to wait for a lar e data packet to download, amon other thin s. ;i ure illustrates the $asic format of an ATM cell.

An ATM Ce%% Consists of a /eader and Pay%oad Data ATM Devices An ATM net"or# is made up of an ATM s"itch and ATM endpoints. An ATM switch is responsi$le for cell transit throu h an ATM network. The Fo$ of an ATM switch is well defined4 It accepts the incomin cell from an ATM endpoint or another ATM switch. It then reads and updates the cell header information and 3uickly switches the cell to an output interface toward its destination. An ATM endpoint %or end system& contains an 5YDE1ABAD 61ESIDE(7Y 68 79--E8E >

ATM DATABASE SYSTEM ATM network interface adapter. E#amples of ATM endpoints are workstations, routers, di ital ser'ice units %DS.s&, -A( switches, and 'ideo coder/decoders %79DE7s&. ;i ure illustrates an ATM network made up of ATM switches and ATM endpoints.

An ATM "et#or$ Comprises ATM S#itches and end points ATM "et#or$ -nterfaces An ATM network consists of a set of ATM switches interconnected $y point/to/point ATM links or interfaces. ATM switches support two primary types of interfaces4 .(I and ((I. The .(I connects ATM end systems %such as hosts and routers& to an ATM switch. The ((I connects two ATM switches. Dependin on whether the switch is owned and located at the customer<s premises or is pu$licly owned and operated $y the telephone company, .(I and ((I can $e further su$di'ided into pu$lic and pri'ate .(Is and ((Is. A pri'ate .(I connects an ATM endpoint and a pri'ate ATM switch. Its pu$lic counterpart connects an ATM endpoint or pri'ate switch to a pu$lic switch. A pri'ate ((I connects two ATM switches within the same pri'ate or ani0ation. A pu$lic one connects two ATM switches within the same pu$lic or ani0ation. An additional specification, the $road$and intercarrier interface (%-ICI), connects two pu$lic switches from different ser'ice pro'iders. ;i ure illustrates the ATM interface specifications for pri'ate and pu$lic networks.

ATM -nterface Specifications Differ for Pri!ate and Pu %ic "et#or$s

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM ATM Ce%% /eader 0ormat An ATM cell header can $e one of two formats4 .(I or ((I. The .(I header is used for communication $etween ATM endpoints and ATM switches in pri'ate ATM networks. The ((I header is used for communication $etween ATM switches. ;i ure depicts the $asic ATM cell format, the ATM .(I cell header format, and the ATM ((I cell header format.

An ATM Ce%%, ATM 1"- Ce%%, and ATM ""- Ce%% /eader ,ach contain'2&ytes of Pay%oad .nlike the .(I, the ((I header does not include the 8eneric ;low 7ontrol %8;7& field. Additionally, the ((I header has a Airtual 6ath Identifier %A6I& field that occupies the first "! $its, allowin for lar er trunks $etween pu$lic ATM switches. ATM 7ell 5eader ;ields In addition to 8;7 and A6I header fields, se'eral others are used in ATM cell header fields. The followin descriptions summari0e the ATM cell header fields illustrated in ;i ure4 3eneric 0%o# Contro% (30C)G6ro'ides local functions, such as identifyin multiple stations that share a sin le ATM interface. This field is typically not used and is set to its default 'alue of + %$inary ++++&. +irtua% Path -dentifier (+P-)GIn conFunction with the A7I, identifies the ne#t destination of a cell as it passes throu h a series of ATM switches on the way to its destination. +irtua% Channe% -dentifier (+C-)GIn conFunction with the A6I, identifies the ne#t destination of a cell as it passes throu h a series of ATM switches on the way to its destination. Pay%oad Type (PT)GIndicates in the first $it whether the cell contains user data or control data. If the cell contains user data, the $it is set to +. If it contains control data, it is set to ". The second $it indicates con estion %+ H no con estion, " H con estion&, and

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM the third $it indicates whether the cell is the last in a series of cells that represent a sin le AA-E frame %" H last cell for the frame&. Ce%% 4oss Priority (C4P)GIndicates whether the cell should $e discarded if it encounters e#treme con estion as it mo'es throu h the network. If the 7-6 $it e3uals ", the cell should $e discarded in preference to cells with the 7-6 $it e3ual to +. /eader ,rror Contro% (/,C)G7alculates checksum only on the first > $ytes of the header. 5E7 can correct a sin le $it error in these $ytes, there$y preser'in the cell rather than discardin it.

ATM Services Three types of ATM ser'ices e#ist4 permanent 'irtual circuits %6A7&, switched 'irtual circuits %SA7&, and connectionless ser'ice %which is similar to SMDS&. 6A7 allows direct connecti'ity $etween sites. In this way, a 6A7 is similar to a leased line. Amon its ad'anta es, 6A7 uarantees a'aila$ility of a connection and does not re3uire call setup procedures $etween switches. Disad'anta es of 6A7s include static connecti'ity and manual setup. Each piece of e3uipment $etween the source and the destination must $e manually pro'isioned for the 6A7. ;urthermore, no network resiliency is a'aila$le with 6A7. An SA7 is created and released dynamically and remains in use only as lon as data is $ein transferred. In this sense, it is similar to a telephone call. Dynamic call control re3uires a si nalin protocol $etween the ATM endpoint and the ATM switch. The ad'anta es of SA7s include connection fle#i$ility and call setup that can $e handled automatically $y a networkin de'ice. Disad'anta es include the e#tra time and o'erhead re3uired to set up the connection. ATM #irtua Connections ATM networks are fundamentally connection/oriented, which means that a 'irtual channel %A7& must $e set up across the ATM network prior to any data transfer. %A 'irtual channel is rou hly e3ui'alent to a 'irtual circuit.& Two types of ATM connections e#ist4 virtual paths, which are identified $y 'irtual path identifiers, and virtual channels, which are identified $y the com$ination of a A6I and a virtual channel identifier (&CI). A 'irtual path is a $undle of 'irtual channels, all of which are switched transparently across the ATM network $ased on the common A6I. All A6Is and A7Is, howe'er, ha'e only local si nificance across a particular link and are remapped, as appropriate, at each switch. A transmission path is the physical media that transports 'irtual channels and 'irtual paths. ;i ure illustrates how A7s concatenate to create A6s, which, in turn, tra'erse the media or transmission path.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

+Cs Concatenate to Create +Ps ATM Switching $%erations The $asic operation of an ATM switch is strai htforward4 The cell is recei'ed across a link on a known A7I or A6I 'alue. The switch looks up the connection 'alue in a local translation ta$le to determine the out oin port %or ports& of the connection and the new A6IJA7I 'alue of the connection on that link. The switch then retransmits the cell on that out oin link with the appropriate connection identifiers. Because all A7Is and A6Is ha'e only local si nificance across a particular link, these 'alues are remapped, as necessary, at each switch. ATM &eference Mode The ATM architecture uses a lo ical model to descri$e the functionality that it supports. ATM functionality corresponds to the physical layer and part of the data link layer of the 9SI reference model. The ATM reference model is composed of the followin planes, which span all layers4 Contro%GThis plane is responsi$le for eneratin and mana in si nalin re3uests. 1serGThis plane is responsi$le for mana in the transfer of data. Mana5ementGThis plane contains two components4 -ayer mana ement mana es layer/specific functions, such as the detection of failures and protocol pro$lems. 6lane mana ement mana es and coordinates functions related to the complete system. The ATM reference model is composed of the followin ATM layers4 Physica% %ayerGAnalo ous to the physical layer of the 9SI reference model, the ATM physical layer mana es the medium/dependent transmission. ATM %ayerG7om$ined with the ATM adaptation layer, the ATM layer is rou hly analo ous to the data link layer of the 9SI reference model. The ATM layer is responsi$le for the simultaneous sharin of 'irtual circuits o'er a physical link %cell multiple#in & and passin cells throu h the ATM network %cell relay&. To do this, it uses the A6I and A7I information in the header of each ATM cell. ATM adaptation %ayer (AA4)G7om$ined with the ATM layer, the AA- is rou hly analo ous to the data link layer of the 9SI model. The AA- is responsi$le for isolatin hi her/layer protocols from the details of the ATM processes. The adaptation layer prepares user data for con'ersion into cells and se ments the data into >,/$yte cell payloads. ;inally, the hi her layers residin a$o'e the AA- accept user data, arran e it into packets, and hand it to the AA-. ;i ure illustrates the ATM reference model.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

The ATM (eference Mode% (e%ates to the 4o#est T#o 4ayers of the *S- (eference Mode% The ATM 6hysical -ayer The ATM physical layer has four functions4 7ells are con'erted into a $itstream, the transmission and receipt of $its on the physical medium are controlled, ATM cell $oundaries are tracked, and cells are packa ed into the appropriate types of frames for the physical medium. ;or e#ample, cells are packa ed differently for S9(ET than for DS/ =JE/= media types. The ATM physical layer is di'ided into two parts4 the physical medium/dependent %6MD& su$ layer and the transmission con'er ence %T7& su$ layer. The 6MD su$ layer pro'ides two key functions. ;irst, it synchroni0es transmission and reception $y sendin and recei'in a continuous flow of $its with associated timin information. Second, it specifies the physical media for the physical medium used, includin connector types and ca$le. E#amples of physical medium standards for ATM include Synchronous Di ital 5ierarchyJSynchronous 9ptical (etwork %SD5JS9(ET&, DS/=JE=, "EE M$ps o'er multimode fi$er %MM;& usin the ,BJ"+B encodin scheme, and "EE M$ps ,BJ"+B o'er shielded twisted/pair %ST6& ca$lin . The T7 su$layer has four functions4 cell delineation, header error control %5E7& se3uence eneration and 'erification, cell/rate decouplin , and transmission frame adaptation. The cell delineation function maintains ATM cell $oundaries, allowin de'ices to locate cells within a stream of $its. 5E7 se3uence eneration and 'erification enerates and checks the header error control code to ensure 'alid data. 7ell/rate decouplin maintains synchroni0ation and inserts or suppresses idle %unassi ned& ATM cells to adapt the rate of 'alid ATM cells to the payload capacity of the transmission system. Transmission frame adaptation packa es ATM cells into frames accepta$le to the particular physical layer implementation.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM ATM Adaptation 4ayers6 AA41 AA-", a connection/oriented ser'ice, is suita$le for handlin constant $it rate sources %7B1&, such as 'oice and 'ideoconferencin . ATM transports 7B1 traffic usin circuit/ emulation ser'ices. 7ircuit/emulation ser'ice also accommodates the attachment of e3uipment currently usin leased lines to an ATM $ack$one network. AA-" re3uires timin synchroni0ation $etween the source and the destination. ;or this reason, AA-" depends on a medium, such as S9(ET, that supports clockin . The AA-" process prepares a cell for transmission in three steps. ;irst, synchronous samples %for e#ample, " $yte of data at a samplin rate of "!E microseconds& are inserted into the 6ayload field. Second, Se3uence (um$er %S(& and Se3uence (um$er 6rotection %S(6& fields are added to pro'ide information that the recei'in AA-" uses to 'erify that it has recei'ed cells in the correct order. Third, the remainder of the 6ayload field is filled with enou h sin le $ytes to e3ual >, $ytes. ;i ure illustrates how AA-" prepares a cell for transmission.

AA41 Prepares a Ce%% for Transmission So That the Ce%%s (etain Their *rder ATM Adaptation 4ayers6 AA42 Another traffic type has timin re3uirements like 7B1 $ut tends to $e $ursty in nature. This is called 'aria$le $it rate %AB1& traffic. This typically includes ser'ices characteri0ed as packeti0ed 'oice or 'ideo that do not ha'e a constant data transmission speed $ut that do ha'e re3uirements similar to constant $it rate ser'ices. AA-! is suita$le for AB1 traffic. The AA-! process uses >> $ytes of the cell payload for user data and reser'es > $ytes of the payload to support the AA-! processes. AB1 traffic is characteri0ed as either real/time %AB1/1T& or as non/real/time %AB1/ (1T&. AA-! supports $oth types of AB1 traffic.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM ATM Adaptation 4ayers6 AA437' AA-=J> supports $oth connection/oriented and connectionless data. It was desi ned for network ser'ice pro'iders and is closely ali ned with Switched Multime a$it Data Ser'ice %SMDS&. AA-=J> is used to transmit SMDS packets o'er an ATM network. AA-=J> prepares a cell for transmission in four steps. ;irst, the con'er ence su$layer %7S& creates a protocol data unit %6D.& $y prependin a $e innin Jend ta header to the frame and appendin a len th field as a trailer. Second, the se mentation and reassem$ly %SA1& su$layer fra ments the 6D. and prepends a header to it. Then the SA1 su$layer appends a 717/"+ trailer to each 6D. fra ment for error control. ;inally, the completed SA1 6D. $ecomes the 6ayload field of an ATM cell to which the ATM layer prepends the standard ATM header. An AA- =J> SA1 6D. header consists of Type, Se3uence (um$er, and Multiple#in Identifier fields. Type fields identify whether a cell is the $e innin , continuation, or end of a messa e. Se3uence num$er fields identify the order in which cells should $e reassem$led. The Multiple#in Identifier field determines which cells from different traffic sources are interlea'ed on the same 'irtual circuit connection %A77& so that the correct cells are reassem$led at the destination. ATM Adaptation 4ayers6 AA4) AA-E is the primary AA- for data and supports $oth connection/oriented and connectionless data. It is used to transfer most non/SMDS data, such as classical I6 o'er ATM and -A( Emulation %-A(E&. AA-E also is known as the simple and efficient adaptation layer %SEA-& $ecause the SA1 su$layer simply accepts the 7S/6D. and se ments it into >,/octet SA1/6D.s without reser'in any $ytes in each cell. AA-E prepares a cell for transmission in three steps. ;irst, the 7S su$layer appends a 'aria$le/len th pad and an ,/$yte trailer to a frame. The pad ensures that the resultin 6D. falls on the >,/$yte $oundary of an ATM cell. The trailer includes the len th of the frame and a =!/$it cyclic redundancy check %717& computed across the entire 6D.. This allows the AA-E recei'in process to detect $it errors, lost cells, or cells that are out of se3uence. Second, the SA1 su$layer se ments the 7S/6D. into >,/$yte $locks. A header and trailer are not added %as is in AA-=J>&, so messa es cannot $e interlea'ed. ;inally, the ATM layer places each $lock into the 6ayload field of an ATM cell. ;or all cells e#cept the last, a $it in the 6ayload Type %6T& field is set to + to indicate that the cell is not the last cell in a series that represents a sin le frame. ;or the last cell, the $it in the 6T field is set to ". ATM Addressin5 The IT./T standard is $ased on the use of E."I> addresses %similar to telephone num$ers& for pu$lic ATM %B/ISD(& networks. The ATM ;orum e#tended ATM addressin to include pri'ate networks. It decided on the su$network or o'erlay model of addressin , in which the ATM layer is responsi$le for mappin network layer addresses to ATM addresses. This su$network model is an alternati'e to usin network layer protocol addresses %such as I6 and I6K& and e#istin routin protocols %such as I816 and

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM 1I6&. The ATM ;orum defined an address format $ased on the structure of the 9SI network ser'ice access point %(SA6& addresses.

Su net#or$ Mode% of Addressin5 The su$network model of addressin decouples the ATM layer from any e#istin hi her/ layer protocols, such as I6 or I6K. Therefore, it re3uires an entirely new addressin scheme and routin protocol. Each ATM system must $e assi ned an ATM address, in addition to any hi her/layer protocol addresses. This re3uires an ATM address resolution protocol %ATM A16& to map hi her/layer addresses to their correspondin ATM addresses. "SAP 0ormat ATM Addresses The !+/$yte (SA6/format ATM addresses are desi ned for use within pri'ate ATM networks, whereas pu$lic networks typically use E."I> addresses, which are formatted as defined $y IT./T. The ATM ;orum has specified an (SA6 encodin for E."I> addresses, which is used for encodin E."I> addresses within pri'ate networks, $ut this address can also $e used $y some pri'ate networks. Such pri'ate networks can $ase their own %(SA6 format& addressin on the E."I> address of the pu$lic .(I to which they are connected and can take the address prefi# from the E."I> num$er, identifyin local nodes $y the lower/order $its. All (SA6/format ATM addresses consist of three components4 the authority and format identifier %A;I&, the initial domain identifier %IDI&, and the domain/specific part %DS6&. The A;I identifies the type and format of the IDI, which, in turn, identifies the address allocation and administrati'e authority. The DS6 contains actual routin information. Three formats of pri'ate ATM addressin differ $y the nature of the A;I and IDI. In the (SA6/encoded E."I> format, the IDI is an E."I> num$er. In the D77 format, the IDI is a data country code %D77&, which identifies particular countries, as specified in IS9 ="II. Such addresses are administered $y the IS9 (ational Mem$er Body in each country. In the I7D format, the IDI is an international code desi nator %I7D&, which is allocated $y the IS9 IE!= re istration authority %the British Standards Institute&. I7D codes identify particular international or ani0ations. The ATM ;orum recommends that or ani0ations or pri'ate network ser'ice pro'iders use either the D77 or the I7D formats to form their own num$erin plan. ;i ure illustrates the three formats of ATM addresses used for pri'ate networks.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

Three 0ormats of ATM Addresses Are 1sed for Pri!ate "et#or$s ATM Address ;ields The followin descriptions summari0e the fields illustrated in ;i ure A0-GIdentifies the type and format of the address %E."I>, I7D, or D77&. DCCGIdentifies particular countries. /i5h89rder Domain/Specific 6art %59/DS6&G7om$ines the routin domain %1D& and the area identifier %A1EA& of the (SA6 addresses. The ATM ;orum com$ined these fields to support a fle#i$le, multile'el addressin hierarchy for prefi#/$ased routin protocols. ,nd System -dentifier (,S-)GSpecifies the >,/$it MA7 address, as administered $y the Institute of Electrical and Electronic En ineers %IEEE&. Se%ector (S,4)GIs used for local multiple#in within end stations and has no network si nificance. -CDGIdentifies particular international or ani0ations. ,.19'GIndicates the BISD( E."I> address. ATM Connections ATM supports two types of connections4 point/to/point and point/to/multipoint. Point8to8point connects two ATM end systems and can $e unidirectional %one/way communication& or $idirectional %two/way communication&. Point8to8mu%tipoint connects a sin le/source end system %known as the root node& to multiple destination end systems %known as lea'es&. Such connections are unidirectional only. 1oot nodes can transmit to lea'es, $ut lea'es cannot transmit to the root or to each other on the same connection. 7ell replication is done within the ATM network $y the ATM switches where the connection splits into two or more $ranches.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM It would $e desira$le in ATM networks to ha'e $idirectional multipoint/to/multipoint connections. Such connections are analo ous to the $roadcastin or multicastin capa$ilities of shared/media -A(s, such as Ethernet and Token 1in . A $roadcastin capa$ility is easy to implement in shared/media -A(s, where all nodes on a sin le -A( se ment must process all packets sent on that se ment. .nfortunately, a multipoint/to/multipoint capa$ility cannot $e implemented $y usin AA-E, which is the most common AA- to transmit data across an ATM network. .nlike AA-=J>, with its Messa e Identifier %MID& field, AA-E does not pro'ide a way within its cell format to interlea'e cells from different AA-E packets on a sin le connection. This means that all AA-E packets sent to a particular destination across a particular connection must $e recei'ed in se3uence: otherwise, the destination reassem$ly process will $e incapa$le of reconstructin the packets. This is why AA-E point/to/multipoint connections can $e only unidirectional. If a leaf node were to transmit an AA-E packet onto the connection, for e#ample, it would $e recei'ed $y $oth the root node and all other leaf nodes. At these nodes, the packet sent $y the leaf could $e interlea'ed with packets sent $y the root and possi$ly other leaf nodes, precludin the reassem$ly of any of the interlea'ed packets. ATM and Mu ticasting ATM re3uires some form of multicast capa$ility. AA-E %which is the most common AA- for data& currently does not support interlea'in packets, so it does not support multicastin . If a leaf node transmitted a packet onto an AA-E connection, the packet could $e intermi#ed with other packets and $e improperly reassem$led. Three methods ha'e $een proposed for sol'in this pro$lem4 A6 multicastin , multicast ser'er, and o'erlaid point/ to/multipoint connection. .nder the first solution, a multipoint/to/multipoint A6 links all nodes in the multicast roup, and each node is i'en a uni3ue A7I 'alue within the A6. Interlea'ed packets hence can $e identified $y the uni3ue A7I 'alue of the source. .nfortunately, this mechanism would re3uire a protocol to uni3uely allocate A7I 'alues to nodes, and such a protocol mechanism currently does not e#ist. It is also unclear whether current SA1 de'ices could easily support such a mode of operation. A multicast ser'er is another potential solution to the pro$lem of multicastin o'er an ATM network. In this scenario, all nodes wantin to transmit onto a multicast roup set up a point/to/point connection with an e#ternal de'ice known as a multicast ser'er %perhaps $etter descri$ed as a rese3uencer or seriali0er&. The multicast ser'er, in turn, is connected to all nodes wantin to recei'e the multicast packets throu h a point/to/ multipoint connection. The multicast ser'er recei'es packets across the point/to/point connections and then retransmits them across the point/to/multipoint connectionG$ut only after ensurin that the packets are seriali0ed %that is, one packet is fully transmitted $efore the ne#t is sent&. In this way, cell interlea'in is precluded. An o'erlaid point/to/multipoint connection is the third potential solution to the pro$lem of multicastin o'er an ATM network. In this scenario, all nodes in the multicast roup esta$lish a point/to/multipoint connection with each other node in the roup and, in turn, $ecome lea'es in the e3ui'alent connections of all other nodes. 5ence, all nodes can $oth transmit to and recei'e from all other nodes. This solution re3uires each node to maintain 5YDE1ABAD 61ESIDE(7Y 68 79--E8E ">

ATM DATABASE SYSTEM a connection for each transmittin mem$er of the roup, whereas the multicast/ser'er mechanism re3uires only two connections. This type of connection also re3uires a re istration process for informin the nodes that Foin a roup of the other nodes in the roup so that the new nodes can form the point/to/multipoint connection. The other nodes must know a$out the new node so that they can add the new node to their own point/to/ multipoint connections. The multicast/ser'er mechanism is more scala$le in terms of connection resources $ut has the pro$lem of re3uirin a centrali0ed rese3uencer, which is $oth a potential $ottleneck and a sin le point of failure. ATM 'ua ity of Service ATM supports CoS uarantees comprisin traffic contract, traffic shapin , and traffic policin . A traffic contract specifies an en'elope that descri$es the intended data flow. This en'elope specifies 'alues for peak $andwidth, a'era e sustained $andwidth, and $urst si0e, amon others. Dhen an ATM end system connects to an ATM network, it enters a contract with the network, $ased on CoS parameters. Traffic shapin is the use of 3ueues to constrain data $ursts, limit peak data rate, and smooth Fitters so that traffic will fit within the promised en'elope. ATM de'ices are responsi$le for adherin to the contract $y means of traffic shapin . ATM switches can use traffic policin to enforce the contract. The switch can measure the actual traffic flow and compare it a ainst the a reed/upon traffic en'elope. If the switch finds that traffic is outside of the a reed/upon parameters, it can set the cell/loss priority %7-6& $it of the offendin cells. Settin the 7-6 $it makes the cell discard eli i$le, which means that any switch handlin the cell is allowed to drop the cell durin periods of con estion. ATM Signa ing and Connection Esta( ishment Dhen an ATM de'ice wants to esta$lish a connection with another ATM de'ice, it sends a si nalin /re3uest packet to its directly connected ATM switch. This re3uest contains the ATM address of the desired ATM endpoint, as well as any CoS parameters re3uired for the connection. ATM si nalin protocols 'ary $y the type of ATM link, which can $e either .(I si nals or ((I si nals. .(I is used $etween an ATM end system and ATM switch across ATM .(I, and ((I is used across ((I links. The ATM ;orum .(I =." specification is the current standard for ATM .(I si nalin . The .(I =." specification is $ased on the C.!)=" pu$lic network si nalin protocol de'eloped $y the IT./T..(I si nalin re3uests are carried in a well/known default connection4 A6I H +, A6I H E. The ATM Connection)Esta( ishment *rocess ATM si nalin uses the one/pass method of connection setup that is used in all modern telecommunication networks, such as the telephone network. ;irst, the source end system sends a connection/si nalin re3uest. The connection re3uest is propa ated throu h the network. As a result, connections are set up throu h the network. The connection re3uest reaches the final destination, which either accepts or reFects the connection re3uest 5YDE1ABAD 61ESIDE(7Y 68 79--E8E "E

ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

2. *+,(A44 D,SC(-PT-*"
2.1 P(*D1CT P,(SP,CT-+, 2.1.1 System interfaces AS6.(ET is $ased on the common lan ua e runtime, the power and fle#i$ility of that entire platform is a'aila$le to De$ application de'elopers. The .(ET ;ramework class li$rary, Messa in , and Data Access solutions are all seamlessly accessi$le from the De$. AS6.(ET is also lan ua e/independent, so you can choose the lan ua e that $est applies to your application or partition your application across many lan ua es. ;urther, common lan ua e runtime interopera$ility uarantees that your e#istin in'estment in 79M/$ased de'elopment is preser'ed when mi ratin to AS6.(ET. AS6.(ET makes it easy to perform common tasks, from simple form su$mission and client authentication to deployment and site confi uration. ;or e#ample, the AS6.(ET pa e framework allows you to $uild user interfaces that cleanly separate application lo ic from presentation code and to handle e'ents in a simple, Aisual Basic / like forms processin model. Additionally, the common lan ua e runtime simplifies de'elopment, with mana ed code ser'ices such as automatic reference countin and ar$a e

2.1.2 1ser interfaces Ser'er stores each data item in its own fields. In SC- Ser'er, the fields relatin to a particular person, thin s or e'ent are $undled to ether to form a sin le complete unit of data, called a record %it can also $e referred to as raw or an occurrence&. Each record is made up of a num$er of fields. (o two fields in a record can ha'e the same field name. Durin an SC- ser'er Data$ase desi n proFect, the analysis of your $usiness needs identifies all the field or attri$ute of interest. A data$ase mana ement, or DBMS, i'es the user access to their data and helps them into information. Such data$ase mana ement systems include dBase, parado#, IMS, SC- Ser'er and s3l ser'er. These systems allow user to create, update and e#tract information form their data$ase. A data$ase is a structured collection of data. Data refers to the characteristics of people, thin s and e'ents. SC- If your $usiness needs chan e o'er time, you define any additional fields or chan e the definition of e#istin fields. S:4 Ser!er Ta %es6

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM SC- ser'er stores records relatin to each other in a ta$le. Different ta$les are created for 'arious roup of information. 1elated ta$les are rouped to ether to form a data$ase.

Primary ;ey6 E'ery ta$le in SC- ser'er has a field or a com$ination of fields that uni3uely identifies each record in the ta$le. The .ni3ue identifier is called the 6rimary ?ey, or simply the ?ey. The primary key pro'ides the means to distin uish one record form all other in a ta$le. It allows the user and the data$ase system to identify, locate and refer to one particular record in the data$ase. (e%ationa% Data ase6 Sometimes all the information of interest to a $usiness operation can $e stored in one ta$le. SC- ser'er makes it 'ery easy to link the data in multiple ta$les. Matchin an employee to the department in which they work in one e#ample. This is what makes SC- ser'er a relational data$ase mana ement system, or 1DBMS. It stores data in two or more ta$les and ena$les you to define relationship $etween the ta$les. 0orei5n ;ey6 Dhen a field is one ta$le matches the primary key of another field is referred to as a forei n key. A forei n key is a field or a roup of fields in one ta$le whose 'alues match those of the primary key of another ta$le. (eferentia% -nte5rity6 (ot only does SC- Ser'er allow you to link multiple ta$les, it also maintains consistency $etween them. Ensurin that the data amon related ta$les is correctly matched is referred to as maintainin referential inte rity.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

Data A straction6 A maFor purpose of a data$ase system is to pro'ide users with an a$stract 'iew of the data. This system hides certain details of how the data is stored and maintained. Data a$straction is di'ided into three le'els. Physica% 4e!e%6 This is the lowest le'el of a$straction at which one descri$es how the data are actually stored. Conceptua% 4e!e%6 At this le'el of data$ase a$straction all the attri$uted and what data are actually stored is descri$ed and entries and relationship amon them. +ie# 4e!e%6 This is the hi hest le'el of a$straction at which one descri$es only part of the data$ase. Ad!anta5es of (D&MS6 1edundancy can $e a'oided Inconsistency can $e eliminated Data can $e shared Standard can $e enforced Security restrictions can $e applied Inte rity can $e maintained

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM 7onflictin re3uirements can $e $alanced Data independence can $e achie'ed. Disad!anta5es of D&MS4 A si nificant disad'anta e of the DBMS system is cost. In addition to the cost of purchasin of de'elopin the software, the hardware has to $e up raded to allow for the e#tensi'e pro rams and the workspace re3uired for their e#ecution and stora e. Dhile centrali0ation reduces duplication, the lack of duplication re3uires that the data$ase $e ade3uately $acked up to that in case of failure the data can $e reco'ered.

2.1.3 /ard interfaces Intel 6entium 1AM %SDJDD1& 5ard Disc 2.1.' Soft#are interfaces De$ Technolo ies -an ua es Data$ase 9peratin System De$ Ser'er Scriptin 8.I Tools 2.1.) Memory constrains 1AM %SDJDD1& 5ard Disc 6 6 "8B I+ 8B or a$o'e 6 6 6 AS6.(et!.+ 6 7L.(et, AS6.(et 6 SC- SE1AE1 !++E Dindows K6J!++= IISE." 6 @a'aScript 6 AS.(et!++E 6 I++ M50 or a$o'e. 6 "8B 6 I+ 8B or a$o'e

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM 2.1.9 *P,(AT-*"S Administrator6 This module of Administrator will handle all the remainin modules which are presented in this proFect. 5e ha'e all the pri'ile es to add, delete modify the details of customers, mana ers and accountants. Mana5er6 The mana er module will take care of the customer re3uirements, ser'ices and the complaintsJsu estions. It was also found that time/parallel simulations of ATM systems with Marko' sources can $e efficiently performed usin parallel prefi# methods only when the sources ha'e a small num$er of states, while more comple# sources re3uire end/state matchin for efficient simulation. Accountant6 5e will ather all the information from the customers, $ank mana ement and from the ATM centers. 5e can enerate the reports of different accounts and the details of deposits, withdraws and D.D, che3ues. Customer6 In a replica/parallel simulation of an ATM system, lar e 'ariations in computed statistics are caused $y small differences in the distri$ution of employed random num$er enerators. A comparison of these distri$utions usin a secondary statistical measure ser'ed to disam$i uate the results. De disco'ered that, with the proper choice of initial state distri$utions and partial re eneration points, the time and memory re3uirements can $e much impro'ed.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM 3. SP,C-0-C (,:1-(,M,"TS 3.1 ,<T,("A4 -"T,(0AC,S 6urpose4 The main purpose for preparin this document is to i'e a eneral insi ht into the analysis and re3uirements of the e#istin system or situation and for determinin the operatin characteristics of the system. Scope4 This Document plays a 'ital role in the de'elopment life cycle %SD-7& As it descri$es the complete re3uirement of the system. It is meant for use $y the de'elopers and will $e the $asic durin testin phase. Any chan es made to the re3uirements in the future will ha'e to o throu h formal chan e appro'al process 3.2 01"CT-*"S

The system will ha'e .I screens allowin the user to enter his demo raphic information.

The demo raphic information can $e rouped into the followin cate ories and each of these cate ories will ha'e a separate .I for data entry4 o o o o o 6ersonal Information Spouse Information 7hildren Information Address Information 1isk Tolerance

The system will allow users to enter the simulation mode and select one of the se'en predefined inflationJdeflation modes. The system will always work with the current Inflation rate as applica$le in the country. In order to achie'e this, the system will ha'e to try to fetch the current inflation rate from e#ternal pre/desi nated data sources on a periodic $asis. The system will ha'e .I screens throu h which the user can enter his ross income %$efore/ta# income&. The system will ha'e .I screen allowin the user to enter his ta# related information, cate ori0ed as follows
o

;ederal ta#

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM ;I7A ta# o State Ta# o -ocal Ta#


o

;or each of the a$o'e/mentioned ta#es, there may $e separate .I screens.


The system will ha'e .I screens for enterin information a$out cost of li'in e#penses. The system will allow the user to cate ori0e his e#penses as follows4 o o o o o o o o ;ood and Be'era es 5ousin Apparel and .pkeep Transportation Medical care 1ecreation Education and 7ommunication 9ther 8oods and Ser'ices

Each of the a$o'e cate ories may ha'e separate .I screens. The user will ha'e the option of either enterin each of the e#penses in detail or he can enter the total for each of the cate ories. The system will allow the user to enter his short term and lon /term oals. The data entry will $e M@ust/in/Time,N meanin that if some information is not a'aila$le, the system in'okes the appropriate .I screens allowin the user to enter that data. The system must implement Inek Software Ns patented O;i'e Step Model,P which allows the system to analy0e the financial data entered $y the user and produce financial reports such as4 o Balance Sheet 1eport o ;i'e Year 6roFection 1eport o 8oal Status 1eport 3.3 Performance 6erformance is the response time, utili0ation, and throu hput $eha'ior of the system. This attri$ute may not $e as important as initially thou ht. The OefficiencyP aspect of the usa$ility 3uality attri$ute should $e sufficient for the needs of this software. Because this

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM software is interacti'e with the user, it need only $e as fast as the user and not pro'ide any la time.

'. S=ST,M A"A4=S-S


'.1 ,<-ST-"3 S=ST,M 0easi i%ity Study ,conomic 0easi i%ity Economic feasi$ility attempts to wei h the costs of de'elopin and implementin a new system, a ainst the $enefits that would accrue from ha'in the new system in place. This feasi$ility study i'es the top mana ement the economic Fustification for the new system. A simple economic analysis which i'es the actual comparison of costs and $enefits are much more meanin ful in this case. In addition, this pro'es to $e a useful point of reference to compare actual costs as the proFect pro resses. There could $e 'arious types of intan i$le $enefits on account of automation. These could include increased customer satisfaction, impro'ement in product 3uality $etter decision makin timeliness of information, e#peditin acti'ities, impro'ed accuracy of operations, $etter documentation and record keepin , faster retrie'al of information, $etter employee morale. *perationa% 0easi i%ity 6roposed proFect is $eneficial only if it can $e turned into information systems that will meet the or ani0ationNs operatin re3uirements. Simply stated, this test of feasi$ility asks if the system will work when it is de'eloped and installed. Dhat are the maFor $arriers to ImplementationQ 5ere are 3uestions that will help test the operational feasi$ility of a proFect4 Is there sufficient support for the proFect from mana ement from usersQ If the current system is well liked and used to the e#tent that person will not $e a$le to see reasons for chan e, there may $e resistance. Are the current $usiness methods accepta$le to the userQ If they are not, .sers may welcome a chan e that will $rin a$out a more operational and useful systems. 5a'e the user $een in'ol'ed in the plannin and de'elopment of the proFectQ Early in'ol'ement reduces the chances of resistance to the system and in eneral and increases the likelihood of successful proFect. Since the proposed system was to help reduce the hardships encountered in the e#istin manual system, the new system was considered to $e operationally feasi$le. Technica% 0easi i%ity Technical feasi$ility centers on the e#istin computer system %hardware, software, etc& and to what e#tent it can support the proposed addition. ;or e#ample, if the current computer is operatin at ,+R capacity San ar$itrary ceilin /then runnin another 5YDE1ABAD 61ESIDE(7Y 68 79--E8E !=

ATM DATABASE SYSTEM application could o'erload the system or re3uire additional hardware. This in'ol'es financial considerations to accommodate technical enhancements. If the $ud et is a serious constraint, then the proFect is Fud ed $ut not feasi$le.

'.2 Pro %em in the ,>istin5 System6 The desi n and performance e'aluation of the error reco'ery scheme is presented with a set of parameter 'alues to achie'e the $est performance. The results show that the proposed scheme operates correctly and efficiently for the ATM clusterin system. De simulate models of ATM communication systems on a massi'ely parallel SIMD computer. '.3 Proposed System6 ;ast simulations of ATM models are needed $ecause the re imes of interest usually in'ol'e hi h 'olumes of traffic and low failure rates. .ne#pected practical and theoretical difficulties, partly due to the massi'e parallelism and SIMD aspects, were encountered and we show how to cope with them.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

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A(C/-T,CT1(, ? M*D14,S .-T/ 1M4

1M4 stands for 1"-0-,D M*D,4-"3 4A"31A3, The unified modelin lan ua e allows the software en ineer to e#press an analysis model usin the modelin notation that is o'erned $y a set of syntactic, semantic and pra matic rules. A .M- system is represented usin fi'e different 'iews that descri$e the system from distinctly different perspecti'e. Each 'iew is defined $y a set of dia ram, which is as follows. 1. 1ser Mode% +ie# This 'iew represents the system from the users perspecti'e. The analysis representation descri$es a usa e scenario from the end/users perspecti'e. 2. Structura% Mode% !ie# In this model the data and functionality are arri'ed from inside the system. This model 'iew models the static structures. 3. &eha!iora% Mode% +ie# It represents the dynamic of $eha'ioral as parts of the system, depictin the interactions of collection $etween 'arious structural elements descri$ed in the user model and structural model 'iew. '. -mp%ementation Mode% +ie# In this the structural and $eha'ioral as parts of the system are represented as they are to $e $uilt. ). ,n!ironmenta% Mode% +ie# In this the structural and $eha'ioral aspects of the en'ironment in which the system is to $e implemented are represented. .M- is specifically constructed throu h two different domains they are4 .MAnalysis modelin , which focuses on the user model and structural model 'iews of the system. .M- desi n modelin , which focuses on the $eha'ioral modelin , implementation modelin and en'ironmental model 'iews.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

).3

S=ST,M ,"+-(*"M,"T

Implementation includes all those acti'ities that take place to con'ert from the old system to the new. The new system may totally new: replacin an e#istin manual or automated system or it may $e a maFor modification to an e#istin system. In either case, proper implementation is essential to pro'ide a relia$le system to meet or ani0ation re3uirements. Successful implementation may not uarantee impro'ements in the or ani0ation usin the new system $ut improper installation will pre'ent it. System implementation is the process of ha'in systems personal checkout and put new e3uipment into use, train users, installs the new application, and constructs any files of data needed to use it. Dependin on the si0e of the or ani0ation that will $e in'oked in usin the application and list associated with its use, system de'elopers may choose to test the operation in only one area of the firm, say in one department or with only one or two persons. Sometimes they will run the old and new systems to ether to compare the results. In still other situations, de'elopers will stop usin the old system one day and $e in usin the new one the ne#t. 9nce installed, applications are often used for many years. 5owe'er, $oth the or ani0ation and the users will chan e, and the en'ironment will $e different o'er weeks and months. Therefore, the application will undou$tedly ha'e $ee maintained, modification and chan es will $e made to the software filer, or procedures to meet emer in user re3uirements. Since or ani0ation system and the $usiness en'ironment under o continual chan e, the information system should keep place. In this sense, implementation is an on oin process.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

9. D,TA-4 S=ST,M D,S-3" 9.1 1M4 DA-3(AMS

1S,CAS, D-A3(AMS .se case Dia rams represent the functionality of the system from a userNs point of 'iew. .se cases are used to represent the functionality of the system. .se cases focus on the $eha'ior of the system from e#ternal point of 'iew.

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C4ASS D-A3(AM 7lass dia rams descri$e the structure of the system in terms of o$Fects. classes and

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM A.3 -MP4,M,"TAT-*"7-"STA44AT-*" P(*C,D1(,

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-MP4,M,"TAT-*" P(*C,D1(,
Implementation is the sta e where the theoretical desi n is turned into a workin system. The most crucial sta e in achie'in a new successful system and in i'in confidence on the new system for the users that it will work efficiently and effecti'ely. The system can $e implemented only after thorou h testin is done and if it is found to work accordin to the specification. It in'ol'es careful plannin , in'esti ation of the current system and its constraints on implementation, desi n of methods to achie'e the chan e o'er and an e'aluation of chan e o'er methods a part from plannin . Two maFor tasks of preparin the implementation are education and trainin of the users and testin of the system. The more comple# the system $ein implemented, the more in'ol'ed will $e the systems analysis and desi n effort re3uired Fust for implementation. The implementation phase comprises of se'eral acti'ities. The re3uired hardware and software ac3uisition is carried out. The system may re3uire some software to $e de'eloped. ;or this, pro rams are written and tested. The user then chan es o'er to his new fully tested system and the old system is discontinued.

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2. S*0T.A(, S=ST,M ATT(-&1T,S 2.1 (,4-A&-4-T=

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AS6.(ET has $een desi ned with scala$ility in mind, with features specifically tailored to impro'e performance in clustered and multiprocessor en'ironments. ;urther, processes are closely monitored and mana ed $y the AS6.(ET runtime, so that if one mis$eha'es %leaks, deadlocks&, a new process can $e created in its place, which helps keep your application constantly a'aila$le to handle re3uests. 2.3 S,C1(-T= application

Security. Dith $uilt in Dindows authentication and per/ confi uration, you can $e assured that your Applications are secure. -an ua e Support

The Microsoft .(ET 6latform currently offers $uilt/in support for three lan ua es4 7L, Aisual Basic, and @Script. 2.' MA-"TA-"A&-4-T=

AS6.(ET is $ased on the common lan ua e runtime, the power and fle#i$ility of that entire platform is a'aila$le to De$ application de'elopers. The .(ET ;ramework class li$rary, Messa in , and Data Access solutions are all seamlessly accessi$le from the De$. AS6.(ET is also lan ua e/independent, so you can choose the lan ua e that $est applies to your application or partition your application across many lan ua es. ;urther, common lan ua e runtime interopera$ility uarantees that your e#istin in'estment in 79M/$ased de'elopment is preser'ed when mi ratin to AS6.(ET. Simplicity. AS6.(ET makes it easy to perform common tasks, from simple form su$mission and client authentication to deployment and site confi uration. ;or e#ample, the AS6.(ET pa e framework allows you to $uild user interfaces that cleanly separate

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM application lo ic from presentation code and to handle e'ents in a simple, Aisual Basic / like forms processin model. Additionally, the common lan ua e runtime simplifies de'elopment, with mana ed code ser'ices such as automatic reference countin and ar$a e collection. Mana5ea i%ity. AS6.(ET employs a te#t/$ased, hierarchical confi uration system, which simplifies applyin settin s to your ser'er en'ironment and De$ applications. Because confi uration information is stored as plain te#t, new settin s may $e applied without the aid of local administration tools. This W0ero local administrationW philosophy e#tends to deployin AS6.(ET ;ramework applications as well. An AS6.(ET ;ramework application is deployed to a ser'er simply $y copyin the necessary files to the ser'er. (o ser'er restart is re3uired, e'en to deploy or replace runnin compiled code. . CustomiKa i%ity and ,>tensi i%ity. AS6.(ET deli'ers a well/factored architecture that allows de'elopers to Wplu /inW their code at the appropriate le'el. In fact, it is possi$le to e#tend or replace any su$component of the AS6.(ET runtime with your own custom/written component. Implementin custom authentication or state ser'ices has ne'er $een easier.

P*(TA&-4-T= AS6.(ET is $ased on the common lan ua e runtime, the power and fle#i$ility of that entire platform is a'aila$le to De$ application de'elopers. The .(ET ;ramework class li$rary, Messa in , and Data Access solutions are all seamlessly accessi$le from the De$. AS6.(ET is also lan ua e/independent, so you can choose the lan ua e that $est applies to your application or partition your application across many lan ua es. ;urther, common lan ua e runtime interopera$ility uarantees that your e#istin in'estment in 79M/$ased de'elopment is preser'ed when mi ratin to AS6.(ET. AS6.(ET makes it easy to perform common tasks, from simple form su$mission and client authentication to deployment and site confi uration. AS6.(ET employs a te#t/$ased, hierarchical confi uration system, which simplifies applyin settin s to your ser'er en'ironment and De$ applications. Because confi uration information is stored as plain te#t, new settin s may $e applied without the aid of local administration tools. This W0ero local administrationW philosophy e#tends to deployin AS6.(ET ;ramework applications as well. An AS6.(ET ;ramework application is deployed to a ser'er simply $y copyin the necessary files to the ser'er. (o ser'er restart is re3uired, e'en to deploy or replace runnin compiled code.

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J.1 Soft#are Testin5

Software testin is a critical element of the software 3uality assurance and represents the ultimate re'iew of specification, desi n and codin . Testin is the e#posure of the system to trial input to see whether it produces correct output. Testin5 Phases6 Software testin phases include the followin 4 Test acti'ities are determined and test data selected. The test is conducted and test results are compared with the e#pected results. There are 'arious types of testin 4 1nit Testin56 .nit testin is essentially for the 'erification of the code produced durin the codin phase and the oal is test the internal lo ic of the moduleJpro ram. Int the 8eneric code proFect, the unit testin is done durin codin phase of data entry forms whether the functions are workin properly or not. In this phase all the dri'ers are tested they are ri htly connected or not. -nte5ration Testin56 All the tested modules are com$ined into su$systems, which are then tested. The oal is to see if the modules are properly inte rated, and the emphasis $ein on the testin interfaces $etween the modules. The eneric code inte ration testin is done mainly on ta$le creation module and insertion module.

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J.2 System Testin5


System Testin56 It is mainly used if the software meets its re3uirements. The reference document for this process is the re3uirement document. Acceptance Testin56 It is performed with realistic data of the client to demonstrate that the software is workin satisfactorily. Testin5 Methods6 Testin is a process of e#ecutin a pro ram to find out errors. If testin is conducted successfully, it will unco'er all the errors in the software. Any testin can $e done $asin on two ways4 .hite &o> Testin56 It is a test case desi n method that uses the control structures of the procedural desi n to deri'e the test cases. .sin this testin a software en ineer can deri'e the followin test cases4 E#ercise all the lo ical decisions on either true or false sides. E#ecute all loops at their $oundaries and within their operational $oundaries. E#ercise the internal data structures to assure their 'alidity. &%ac$ &o> Testin56 It is a test case desi n method used on the functional re3uirements of the software. It will help a software en ineer to deri'e sets of input conditions that will e#ercise all the functional re3uirements of the pro ram. Black $o# Testin attempts to find errors in the followin cate ories4 Incorrect or missin functions Interface errors Errors in data structures 6erformance errors Initiali0ation and termination errors

By Black $o# testin we deri'e a set of test cases that satisfy the followin criteria4 Test cases that reduce $y a count that is reater than one, the num$er of additional test cases that must $e desi ned to achie'e reasona$le testin . Test cases that tell us somethin a$out the presence or a$sence of classes of errors rather than errors associated only with a specific test at hand.

T,ST APP(*AC/6 Testin can $e done in two ways4 5YDE1ABAD 61ESIDE(7Y 68 79--E8E *!

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Bottom up approach Top down approach

&ottom up approach6 Testin can $e performed startin from smallest and lowest le'el modules and proceedin one at a time. ;or each module in $ottom up testin a short pro ram e#ecutes the module and pro'ides the needed data so that the module is asked to perform the way it will when em$edded with in the lar er system. Dhen $ottom le'el modules are tested attention turns to those on the ne#t le'el that use the lower le'el ones they are tested indi'idually and then linked with the pre'iously e#amined lower le'el modules. Top do#n approach6 This type of testin starts from upper le'el modules, since the detailed acti'ities usually performed in the lower le'el routines are not pro'ided stu$s are written. A stu$ is a module shell called $y upper le'el module and that when reached properly will return a messa e to the callin module indicatin that proper interaction occurred. (o attempt is made to 'erify the correctness of the lower le'el module.

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1L. C*"C41S-*" A"D 01T1(, ,"/A"C,M,"TS

C*"C41S-*"6 8 ATM is a technolo y that can handle all types of traffic % 'oice, 'ideo and data& multiple#ed on the same network . in an ATM network $and width can $e reassi ned in real time to different traffic $ased on demand. ATM is the only technolo y common to all en'ironments from -A( to 8A( . The main reason for ATMNs popularly is its selection as switch technolo y for future BISDE( ser'ice and can handle future unknown ser'ice . ATM com$ines $oth circuit and packet / switchin modes and thus a$le to handle traffic with characters ties on the same network.

&enefits of ATM6 8

X The $enefits of ATM are the followin 4 X5i h performance 'ia hardware switchin X Dynamic $andwidth for $usty traffic X7lass/ of Sser'ice support for media X Scala$ility in speed and network si0e X 7ommon -A( J DA( architecture X 9pportunity for simplification 'ia A7 architecture X International standard compliance The hi h / le'el $enefits deli'ered throu h ATM ser'ices deployed on ATM technolo y usin international ATM standard can $e summari0ed as follows4 5YDE1ABAD 61ESIDE(7Y 68 79--E8E *>

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X5i h performance 'ia hardware switchin the hori0on

with tera$it switches on

XDynamic $andwidth for $usty traffic meetin application needs and deli'erin hi h utili0ation of networkin resource: most application are or can $e 'iewed as inherently $ursty : data application are an $ased and are 'ery $usty : 'oice is $ursty , as $oth parties are neither speakin at once nor all the time 4 'ideo is $ursty , as the amount of motion and re3uired resolution 'aries o'er time . X7lass S of S ser'ice support for multimedia traffic allowin application with 'aryin throu hput and latency re3uirement to $e met on a sin le network. XScala$ility in speed and network si0e supportin link speed of T"JE" T9/"! %I!! M$ps& today and into the muti/8$ps ran e $efore the end of the decade : network that scale to si0e of telephone network %i.e., as re3uired for residential applications & are en'isa ed. X9pportunities for simplification is switched A7 architecture : this is particularly for -A( S $ased traffic that today is connectionless in nature: the simplification possi$le throu h ATM A7s could $e in the area such as $illin , traffic mana ement , security , and confi uration mana ement . XInternational standard compliance in central S office and customer/premises en'ironment allowin for multi'endor operation.

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ATM DATABASE SYSTEM

11. &-&4*3(AP/=

&-&4-*3(AP/= Data$ase Mana ement System Software En ineerin An Introduction to Data$ase Systems System Analysis and Desi n Data$ase Mana ement ;undamentals of Data$ase Systems / AS6.(et 6ro rammin /5enry ;.?orth A$raham Sil$erschat0 /1oo er S.pressman /Sil$erschat0, korth %foruth edition&. /@ames Senn /8eor e Diehr /Elmasri (a'athe /Aikas 8upta

MSBSC- Ser'er !+++ online reference MSD( !++= www.microsort.com .e (eferences4 www. oo le.com www.microsort.com www.start'$dotnet.com www.asp.net www.rinl.com

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