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IMPLEMENTATION OF AN OFF-SEASON TRAINING PROGRAMME TO ENHANCE THROWING PERFORMANCE IN HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES

By DAUW BRIEDENHANN

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the

MAGISTER TECHNOLOGIAE: SPORT AND EXERCISE TECHNOLOGY

In the

Department Of Sport Sciences FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES TSHWANE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

Supervisor: Prof J.F. Cilliers May 2004

ABSTRACT
Implementation of an off-season training programme to enhance throwing performance in high school athletes. D. BRIEDENHANN The challenge created by the school environment is to develop a training program for athletes with continuous progression and that will achieve better performance (Conroy (Feb 1999: 52-54).

The athletes were randomly picked to participate in the study, and a group of +/-30 athletes were selected who had at least 1 year of technique training and who was 16years or older. Both boys and girls were eligible to participate in the study. The study will also monitored a control group who had not participated in the sport specific training program that is suggested.

The test protocol consists of full body flexibility testing, isokinetic strength testing consisting of shoulder flexion/extension, shoulder internal/external rotation, elbow flexion/extension, and knee flexion/extension, functional strength, explosive strength, muscular endurance, posture analysis, and athletic type lifts.

The importance of this research study lies therein that the implementation of basic periodization concepts will assist schools, coaches and athletes to overcome problems such as over training, overuse injuries, limited performance capabilities and ineffective maintenance of sport specific seasonal programmes.

The results indicate that when making use of specific exercises such as strength training, functional strength training, and athletic type lifts, such as discussed in this study, the athlete will achieve optimal performance when this training is implemented as part of off season training.

This study is dedicated to my Dad and Mom For their love and support.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to: My study leader, Prof J.F. Cilliers, for his positive attitude and guidance. Tshwane University of Technology, for financial assistance. Menlopark High School, for athletes and facilities. The exercise models, Jean and Cara. All involved in assisting to finshing this final product.

INDEX PAGE CHAPTER 1 1. 1 1.1 1 1.2 1 1.3 2 1.4 2 CHAPTER 2 2. 3 2.1 3 2.2 5 2.3 6 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4 16 2.5 17 2.6 17 2.7 LITERATURE STUDY THE PROBLEM

Introduction

Study Purpose

Problem statement

Hypothesis

The Basis For Designing a Scientifically Based Training Program

Principles and concepts of strength training

The physiological laws of training

Law of overload Law of Specificity Law of Reversibility The Psychological Principles Of Training

6 10 13

The Pedagogical Principles Of Training

Trends in Training Theory

FORCE AS MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC

21

3 23 3.1 24 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 28

PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF POWER PRODUCTION

Principles of power production

Resistance training Plyometrics Sprint training

25 26

3.1.4 3.2 32 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 4. 38 4.1

Sport specific training Physiology of power training

30

Motor unit recruitment and rate coding Hypertrophy factors The muscular system The nervous system The neuromuscular connection The cardiovascular system EXPLOSIVE EXERCISES

33 36 36 37 38 38

Athletic type strength training = Transfer of training 41

4.2 41 4.3 42 4.4 43 CHAPTER 3

Base strength training exercises

Dynamic strength / speed power exercises

Specific speed / quickness exercises

II

3. 45 3.1 45 3.2 46 3.3 47 3.4 49 3.4.1

METHODOLOGY

Selection of subjects

Anatomical principles that needs to be considered

The mechanical principles involved in throwing

The test protocol

Flexibility Testing

49 49 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 54 54 55 55 55 55

3.4.1.1 Lower back & Hamstring 3.4.1.2 Shoulder internal & external rotation 3.4.1.3 Shoulder abduction & adduction 3.4.1.4 Elbow flexion & extension 3.4.1.5 Hip flexion & extension 3.4.2 Strength Testing

3.4.2.1 Knee extension & flexion 3.4.2.2 Shoulder internal & external rotation 3.4.2.3 Elbow flexion & extension 3.4.3 Testing Functional Strength

3.4.3.1 Lower back 3.4.3.2 Pulley flexion 3.4.4 Testing Explosive Strength

3.4.4.1 Medicine ball putt 3.4.4.2 Medicine ball seated backward throw 56 3.4.4.3 Medicine ball overhead throw

56

III

3.4.5

Testing muscular endurance

56 57 57 58 58 58 59

3.4.5.1 Sit ups 3.4.5.2 Push ups 3.4.5.3 Pull ups 3.4.6 3.4.7 Testing Posture Testing Athletic Type Lifts

3.4.7.1 Push press 3.5 59 3.5.1 60 3.5.2 3.5.3 THE BLUEPRINT TRAINING DESIGN

Neural control

Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system

60 61 61

3.5.3.1 Sensory division 3.5.3.2 Motor division 61 3.5.3.2(1) 61 3.5.3.2(2) 61 3.5.3.2(2)(i) Somatic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic

62 62

3.5.3.2(2)(ii) Parasympathetic 3.6 62 3.7 64 3.8 65 3.9 65 Primary muscle groups used

Range and duration of movement

Strength speed requirements

Metabolic considerations

IV

3.10 3.11 3.12

THE TRAINING PROGRAM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND CHILDREN EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM

67 70 72

CHAPTER 4 4. 73 4.1 73 4.2 75 4.3 77 4.4 78 4.5 79 4.6 79 4.7 80 4.8 80 CHAPTER 5 5. 83 5.1 83 5.2 87 5.3 88 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Athletic type lifts testing Flexibility testing RESULTS

Cybex strength testing

Functional strength testing

Explosive strength testing

Muscular endurance testing

Posture testing

Antropometric measurements testing

The effect of the training program on strength measurements

The effect of the training program on functional strength

The effect of the training program on athletic type lifts

5.4 89 5.5 89 5.6 90 5.7 91 5.8 91 CHAPTER 6 6. 93 6.1 93 6.2 93 6.3 94 6.4 94 6.5 94 6.6 95 6.7 95 6.8 95 6.9 6.10

The effect of the training program on antropometric measurements

The effect of the training program on flexibility measurements

The effect of the training program on explosive strength

The effect of the training program on muscular endurance

The effect of the training program on posture measurements

SUMMARY

Flexibility

Strength

Functional strength

Explosive strength

Muscular endurance

Posture

Athletic type lifts

Antropometric measurements

Recommendations Conclusion

95 96 97

BIBLIOGRAPHY

VI

ANNEXURE A Visual presentation of training ANNEXURE B Test protocol 116 ANNEXURE C Letter to parents ANNEXURE D Consent form 120 ANNEXURE E Posture analysis

101

118

122

LIST OF FIGURES PAGE Figure 2.1 Auxiliary science Figure 2.2 Blueprint of Strength Training Management 4 Figure 2.3 Training effect (Overcompensation curve) 8 Figure 2.4 Effective & Ineffective Training effect Figure 2.5 Overloading Microcycle (Super compensation) Figure 2.6 Interdependence of biomotor abilities 12 Figure 2.7 Dominant biomotor abilities 12 Figure 2.8 Progressive overload 14 Figure 2.9 Progressive overload over microcycles Figure 2.10 The athlete ecosystem Figure 2.11 Energy drain 18 Figure 2.12 Training structure for athletes 19 14 18 8 9 3

VII

Figure 2.13 Details of a future training theory 20 Figure 2.14 Force velocity curve Figure 2.15 Athletic type strength training 23 41

LIST OF TABLES PAGE Table 2.1 Restoration times for restoring phosphagen Table 2.2 Restoration times for different energy systems Table 2.3 Estimating intensity of effort Table 2.4 Factors related to force generating capabilities Table 2.5 Types of explosive exercises Table 3.1 Primary muscle groups used Table 3.2 Experimental group training program Table 3.3 Control group training program Table 4.1 Strenth testing results Table 4.2 Flexibility testing results Table 4.3 Functional strength testing results Table 4.4 Explosive strength testing results 7 7 10 33 40 63 69 70 75 77 78 78

VIII

Table 4.5 Muscular endurance testing results 81 Table 4.6 Postur testing results Table 4.7 Athletic type lifts testing results Table 4.8 Antropometric measurements testing results Table 5.1 Effect of training on tested variables Table 7.1 Discus Power exercises Table 7.2 Discus Weight training Table 7.3 Discus Core exercises Table 7.4 Javelin Power exercises Table 7.5 Javelin Weight training Table 7.6 Javelin Core exercises Table 7.7 Shot put Power exercises 110 LIST OF TABLES PAGE Table 7.8 Shot put Weight training 111 Table 7.9 Shot put Core exercises Table 7.10 Explosive exercises 114 114 81 81 82 86 102 104 106 106 107 110

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CHAPTER 1

1.

THE PROBLEM

1.1 Introduction The high school setting provides confines for the strength and conditioning specialist to develop a training program. There needs to be change, revision and modification along the way (Conroy 1999:52). The challenge created therefore by the school environment, Conroy (Feb 1999:52-54) is to develop a training program for athletes with continuous progression. Stone et al (1999:56-62) discusses the fact that research in the field of strength training is limited. According to the authors, most current information on periodization and variations on strength training programs are obtained from observations, written data, referred information from related studies and a series of meso-cycle length periodization studies.

Stone et al (1999:56-62) explains that the periodization concept is not a new one and that its focus is on preparing athletes for seasonal competitive programs. Periodization is defined by Stone et al (1999:56-62) as a logical facet method to manipulate training variables in an effort to increase the potential for achieving a specific goal. Periodization does not only prepare the athlete for

immediate competition but also for forthcoming training years. Periodization therefore is long term planning of quality preparation to increase performances.

1.2

Study Purpose

The importance of this research study is the implementation of basic periodization concepts that will assist schools, coaches and athletes to overcome problems such as over training, overuse injuries, limited performance capabilities and ineffective maintenance of sport specific seasonal programmes.

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1.3

Problem statement

Preparation for the in-season school athlete in South Africa is forced into a week or two after the summer holidays. According to the head coach javelin at the Menlo Park High School, the start of each athletic season is an advanced form of crisis management.

This is attributed to the fact that athletes do not participate in an off-season training program for throwing events such as javelin, and the consequences of this are poor results and that the athletes are not physically fit to compete. The incidence of injuries is very high and yearly talented athletes end up on the injured list. This however, is not just a South African problem and is seen worldwide. Arnheim and Prentice (2003) found the same situation at schools in America and Europe.

1.4

Hypothesis

The implementation of an off-season training program for high school field athletes will cause a noticeable progression in the results that are achieved.

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2.

LITERATURE STUDY

2.1 The Basis For Designing a Scientifically Based Training Program According to Bompa (1999:3) the need for scientifically based training programs has progressed over the past few years. Performance levels unimaginable before are now commonplace, and the number of athletes capable of outstanding results are increasing. There is no easy answer to these dramatic improvements. One factor is that athletics is a challenging field, and intense motivation has encouraged long, hard hours of work. Coaching has become more sophisticated, partially due to the assistance of sport specialists and scientists. A broader base of knowledge about athletes now exists, which is reflected in training methodology. Sport sciences have progressed from descriptive to scientific. Bompa (1999:4) state exercise is now the focus of sport science". Research from several sciences enriches the theory and methodology of training, which has become a science of its own (Fig 2.1). Anatomy Physiology Biomechanics Statistics Theory and methodology of training Psychology Motor learning Pedagogy Nutrition History Sociology Test & Measurements Sports Medicine

Figure 2.1 Auxiliary sciences (Adapted Bompa. 1999: 4) Bompa (1999:4) states that during training the athlete reacts to various stimuli, some of which may be predicted more certainly than others. All this diverse auxiliary science information is collected from the training process. The coach, who builds the training process, may not always be in aposition to evaluate it. However, we must evaluate all the feedback from the training process to understand the athletes reaction to the quality of training and properly plan future programs.

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According to OShea (2000:4) a blueprint for athletic strength training and conditioning, represents a strategic long term master plan designed to optimise true athletic potential (Fig 2.2). The key

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elements of such a plan encompass the principle of training specificity, and the concepts of variability, progressive overload, and periodization. Blueprint of Athletic Strength Training Management Keys to Superior Performance Analysis of Sport Specific Performance Demands (Physical and Biomechanical) Evaluation of Present Performance Goals Design of the Training Program Application of Scientific Training Principles and Concepts SAID Principle/Specificity Concept (specific adaptation to imposed demands) Progressive Overload Concept Variability Concept Periodization Concept Training Prescription Strength Speed Power Endurance Flexibility Mobility Adaptations Physical Metabolic Mechanical Psychological OPTIMAL ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE Figure 2.2 Blueprint of Athletic Strength Training Management (OShea. 2000:5) As previously mentioned, OShea (1995:7) designing a scientifically based athletic strength and conditioning training program begins with the development of a multi dimensional working blueprint. To achieve this the following is done: STEP 1 Make a sports specific analysis of the physical and biomechanical performance demands of your sport in terms of neural control, primary muscle groups used, range of movement, duration of movement, strength/speed requirements, and metabolic considerations.

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STEP 2 Objectively test and evaluate your present performance level and its relevance to the specific demands of your sport. Identify both strong and weak points. Any deficiencies or imbalances must be corrected. STEP 3 Based on your present performance level determine your future performance goals, both long term and short term. Be realistic in setting these goals. Dont expect to become bigger, stronger, and faster overnight; it just wont happen. Keep in mind that total athletic strength training is a long-term process. STEP 4 Formulate and design your strength-training program using the data generated in steps 1 3. This requires an applied understanding of the SAID principle (i.e. specific adaptation to imposed demands), and the concepts of variability and periodization. Without the application of these principles and concepts, all training is ultimately doomed to failure.

2.2 Principles and concepts of strength training Regardless of the training program used by a coach or athlete, it must conform to the same principles of training. They are called principles because they will always hold true. Any effective system must be planned around them. We will look at three types of principles: the physiological, psychological, and pedagogical (teaching) (O Shea 2000:11). The physiological principle is the physical effects of training on the athlete; they concern the athletes physical state. The psychological principle affects the athletes mental or physiological state. The pedagogical principles relate more to how training is planned and implemented and how skills are taught, than to its physiological effects (OShea 2000:11).

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2.3 The physiological laws of training

2.3.1

Law of overload The law of overload states that any improvement in fitness requires an increased training load that challenges the athlete level of performance, (Kirksey and Stone 1998:42). in training. According to Bompa (1999:45) the overloading principle represents another traditional loading pattern used According to the original proponents of this principle, performance will increase only if athletes work at their maximum capacity against workloads that are higher than those normally encountered. Fox, Bowes and Foss (1989) suggest that the load in training should increase throughout the course of the program. On a short-term basis, an athlete may be able to cope with the stress of overloading. On a long-term basis, however, it will lead to critical levels of fatigue, burnout, and even over-training, because when rigidly applied it does not allow phases of regeneration and psychological relaxation. This can lead to overuse injuries and burnout. Many young athletes leave the sport before maximizing their physical capacity because they are constantly exposed to continuous high intensity training, year in and out. As illustrated in fig 2.3 loading causes fatigue, and when the loading ends, recovery begins. According to Bompa (1999:115) and Howley and Powers (1996:4658) under normal training situations recovery (i.e. restoring fuels and removing metabolic by products) require a certain length of time, depending on the energy system the athletes use during training or competition (i.e. aerobic; anaerobic; or anaerobic lactic). Different activities require different restoration times for restoring phosphagen (Table 2.1). If the training load was optimal, after recovery the athlete will be more fit (as a result of overcompensation) than before the training load was applied (OShea 2000: 11-12).

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According to Bompa (1999:115) restoring phosphagen (ATP CP) requires energy derived from the oxygen system through the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Phosphagen is restored rapidly, with 50% to 70% restored during the first 20 to 30 seconds and the remainder in 3 minutes. Table 2.1 Restoration times for restoring phosphagen Adapted from Bompa (1999:115) For 30sec For 60sec For 90sec For 120sec For 150sec For 180sec 50% 75% 87% 93% 97% 98%

Table 2.2 indicates the time necessary for each energy system. If the effort is less than 10 seconds, the phosphagen used is minimal. Although phosphagen restoration demands little time, PC requires up to 10 minutes for full recovery. Table 2.2 Restoration times for different energy systems Adapted from Bompa(1999:116)

Recovery process Restoration of muscle phosphagen Restoration of alacticid O2 debt Restoration of O2 myoglobin Restoration of alacticid O2 debt

Minimum 2 min 3 min 1 min 30 min

Maximum 3 5 min 5 min 2 min 1 hr

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Figure 2.3 Training effect (Overcompensation curve) Adapted from Track Technique (1999) This super compensation by the body is what training is all about. The coach tries to plan a training load that will result in improved fitness when the athlete has recovered. Loading imposed too soon during the recovery stage, depending on the energy system demanded by activity, will cause super compensation to fail and performance to decrease (Siff and Verkhoshansky 1993:85). Siff and Verkhoshansky (1993:86) state however that if the training load is too infrequent or imposed too late, then super compensation (training effect) is minimal and performance tends to stagnate after recovery (Fig 2.4).

Figure 2.4 Effective and Ineffective Training Effect Adapted from Siff & Verkhoshansky (1993:86)

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Zatsiorsky (1995:15) state that if the training load is too big the athlete will be fortunate to return even to the original fitness level. An overloading micro cycle may be designed with too little rest, followed by a longer recovery that results in super compensation as illustrated in fig 2.5.

Figure 2.5 Overloading Micro cycle (Super compensation) Adapted from Zatsiorsky (1995:15) The law of overload is challenged by two components that needs consideration: i) Principle of individualization Each athlete reacts to a training stimulus in a slightly different way. This principle requires that training be planned in terms of the individuals abilities, needs and potential (Kurz 1991). The coach must consider the athletes chronological and biological (physical maturity) age, experience in the sport, skill level, capacity for effort and performance, training and health status, training load capacity and rate of recovery, body build and nervous system type, and sexual differences (especially during puberty), (Kraemer & Fleck, 1993:9-15). ii) Principle of Multilateral Development This principle calls for developing a base of general skills and fitness as a foundation for developing the more - 10 -

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specialized skills of each event. This multilateral development refers to the general motor skills and fitness development that are the major goal of the early part of the training year. This principle should be a major consideration in the training of children and junior athletes (Bompa, 1999: 29).

2.3.2

Law of Specificity The law of specificity states that the nature of the training load determines the training effect. The training needs to be specific to the desired effect (Dick, 1978:36-39). To train properly for an event, an athlete must use training methods designed to meet the specific demands of that event. The training load becomes specific when it has the proper training ratio (load to recovery) and structure of loading (intensity to load). Intensity is the quality or difficulty of the training load. The measure of intensity depends on the specific attribute being developed or tested. Dick (1978:36-39) and Harre (1982:73-94) state that the intensity of the effort is based on the percentage of the athletes best effort (Table 2.3). Table 2.3 Estimating Intensity of Effort Adapted from Dick (1978:36) & Harre (1982:73) Percent of Maximum Strength 90 100 80 90 70 80 50 70 30 50

Intensity Maximum Sub maximum High Medium Light Low

Work 95 100 85 95 75 85 65 75 50 65 30 50

Heart rate* 190+ 180 190 165 150 130

Endurance % VO2 max 100 90 75 60 50

* Should be based on % of athletes max heart rate.

The extent of the training load is the sum of all training in terms of time, distance and accumulative weight, while the duration of the load is the portion of the load devoted to a single type of training.

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Law of specificity supports two principles: i) Principle of specialization refers to training exercise that develops the capacities and techniques needed for a specific activity or event as illustrated in fig 2.6 interdependence of bio motor abilities and in fig 2.7 dominant bio motor abilities (Bompa 1999:29-49). Elite training is not purely specialized training, any more than it is all general or multilateral training. specific training as the athlete ages. ii) Principle of modelling the training process calls for the development of a model of the competitive event. This model is used to develop the training pattern, which closely simulates the competitive requirements of the event. The greatest difficulty of modelling is that it requires years to develop and perfect the model. It begins with the coachs analysis of the competitive event, but from that point onward the emphasis is upon trial and error based refinement of the model (Bompa 1999: 40-44). Bompa (1999:33-51) suggests a gradual change of emphasis from multilateral to

Strength

Endurance

Speed

Co ordination

Flexibility

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Muscular endurance Power Maximum strength Anaerobic endurance Aerobic endurance Maximum speed Perfect co ordination Full range flexibility Speed endurance Agility Mobility

Figure 2.6 Interdependence of bio motor abilities Adapted from Bompa (1990: 8)

Figure 2.7 Dominant bio motor abilities Adapted from Bompa (1990:14)

2.3.3

Law of Reversibility

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The law of reversibility states that if the loading does not continue the fitness level will fall. In essence, the training effect will reverse itself. If the training does not become more challenging, the fitness level will plateau (flatten out). If the training were to stop, the fitness level will gradually drop until it reaches such a level to only maintain normal daily activities (Dick 1978:36-39). Several principles support the law of reversibility: i) Principle of increasing demands states that the training load must continue to increase if the athletes general and specific fitness are to continue to improve. According to OShea (2000:142-143) this progressive overload principle, states that if continuous progress is to be made in strength and conditioning, training demands (intensity/volume/frequency) must be progressively increased. When the demands are increased too fast or are of two great a magnitude, over training occurs. If they are not progressive, adaptation stops and performance stagnates. Zatsiorsky (1995:15-16) explains that the training load must increase regularly (progressive overload) for the performance level to improve (Fig 2.8). ii) OShea (2000:142-143) states further that the progressive overload principle must be applied in a systematic step wise increase, weekly or bi-weekly, in the intensity of the core lifts. The increase is made in small graded steps to allow for adequate physiological adaptations to the training stimuli and build your work tolerance. Making a too large jump in intensity or volume results in over training, negative progress and injury. Although the progressive overload principle calls for a weekly increase it is not a hard and fast rule. If an off-day is experienced continue with previous weeks intensity or use the workout as an active rest day.

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Figure 2.8 Progressive overload Adapted from Zatsiorsky (1995:5) iii) Bompa (2000:46) indicates that the load may rise and fall (allowing recovery and compensation) across the different micro cycles (Fig 2.9). The training ratio is critical (load to recovery).

Figure 2.9 Progressive overload over micro cycles Adapted from Bompa (1990:47) iv) Principle of continuous load demand requires that the athlete does not have long interruptions to training. While tapering is used to reach a peak, too much time spent with low training loads will cause a drop in fitness level. Only constantly increasing the

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training load from year to year will create superior adaptation and thus superior performance (Bompa 1999:44). v) Principle of feasibility is that the planned training load must be realistic. This is a critical aspect of the principle of increasing demands. The demand should never be beyond the reasonable capability of the athlete, or it will become psychologically destructive to the athletes progress (Bompa 1999:45). vi) Restoration is time spent recovering from a high training load. If too little restoration is allowed, the athlete will gradually lose fitness. According to Bompa (1999:117) the amount of glycogen depleted during exercise will determine some replenishment requirements (i.e. the greater the exercise time, the greater the carbohydrates metabolised). During intermittent exercise, blood glucose levels are hardly affected due to the greater involvement of fast twitch fibres that do not rely on blood glucose or liver glycogen stores for fuel. Instead these fibres rely heavily on glycogen and CP (Bompa 1999: 117). vii) Active rest is a form of restoration that includes physical activity of a light nature. It allows the athletes recovery, yet it helps to maintain a base of general fitness, consisting of low intensity and low volume weight training or other activity (Baechle 1994: 456). According to Bompa (1999:225), active rest should begin immediately following the main competition. During the first week, progressively reduce both work volume and intensity, and emphasize exercise of a different nature from those regularly used in training. If athletes want to completely postpone physical activity, either because of specific medical treatment or a high degree of nervous exhaustion, it should be done the week after the first week of detraining. After total rest, the following two to three

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weeks should consist of active rest, fun, and general enjoyment including physical activities (Bompa 1999: 225). Plan the activities for this phase or allow athletes to plan it on their own. The coach should not be present when the athlete perform these activities and the athletes have to be comfortable to do what they want and have fun. Active rest creates changes in environment and training, and positively affect central nervous system relaxation. Active rest, among many things, allow the body to use protein to build and repair damaged tissues (Bompa 2000:225).

2.4 The Psychological Principles Of Training 2.4.1 Principle of active, conscientious participation means that for optimal results the athlete must be actively involved in the training process by his or her own choice. Training is a co-operative venture between the coach and the athlete (Bompa, 1999:225). 2.4.2 Principle of awareness is the requirement that the coach explain to the athletes what the training program involves. Harre (1982:73-94) states that It also implies that they are in a position to participate actively in the planning and evaluation of their training. This includes developing the determination and independence of the athlete. 2.4.3 Principle of variety According to OShea (2000:11) the complex nature of training is where the training variable encompasses the concept of cross training. It differs from sport specific training in that it allows for the simultaneous training of multiple physiological variables (e.g. aerobic and anaerobic power, strength, speed, and power) contributing to peak athletic performance. In this way boredom or staleness can be avoided.

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2.4.4 Principle of psychological rest at times the exhaustion experienced comes from mental or psychological strain, rather than the physical training load (Bompa 1999:111114). An athlete benefits from change of pace activities that free the mind from training and competing.

2.5 The Pedagogical Principles Of Training 2.5.1 Principle of planning and use of systems requires that the training program be designed systematically and efficiently, from the long-term program down to the individual training unit (McInnis 1981: 7-12). 2.5.2 Principle of 94). 2.5.3 Principle of visual presentation is to try to make training information as vivid as possible for the athlete. periodization calls for the development of the training

program through a series of cycles or training periods (Harre, 1982:73-

2.6 Trends in Training Theory Wells & Gilman (1991: 15-29) examine the athlete as an ecosystem, declaring that the biological, psychological, and sociological factors of the athletes ecosystem determine the athletes potential for adaptation to training (Fig 2.10).

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Figure 2.10 The athlete ecosystem Wells & Gilman (1991: 15) Wells and Gilman (1991:15-29) argue that the athletes energy output and input must be carefully balanced, so it does not stray too far from equilibrium. If the energy input is too little, the result is an energy drain (Fig 2.11).

Figure 2.11 Energy drain Wells & Gilman (1991:26) Tschiene (1989:145-153) argues that no comprehensive theory of training has been developed, resulting in the simplistic training pattern of more is better. Tschiene (1989:145153) calls for a quality approach to training, a move away from the old quantitydominated approaches. This approach calls for an increase in specific exercises and competitions, as seen in the training of international athletes (Fig 2.12).

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Figure 2.12 Training structure for athletes Adapted from Tschiene (1989:150) This quality approach that Tschiene (1989:150) calls for is the basic periodization concept of controlling and manupilating intensity, volume, frequency, duration, rest, variation and specificity. To manage this over the entire training year (macrocycle), within smaller periods of several months (mesocycle) and day to day (microcycles), as indicated in fig 2.12. Gambetta (1989:7-10) suggests that seven trends are visible in the current training theory: 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 Synergy The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The concepts of periodization are being re-evaluated. Validity of the Matveyevan model This simple model applies best to earlier years of training. As an athlete reaches higher levels, a more complex model (Fig 2.13) of Tschiene (1989:151) becomes more appropriate. 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6 The effects of drugs Youth training and early specialization. The long-term career plan.

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2.6.7 Modelling and quantifying training.

The basic conceptions. Theory of functional systems. Theory of human acting. The laws of functional adaptation Problems of transfer The role of competition exercise Variations of The specific The annual * Complexes The training adaptations. muscle fibre structure of of methods for potential of * Different composition. training in special exercises. A work The different conditioning. new organization. accumulated sports. * Abilities. classification * Different effect of * Variation of of exercises in levels of training in methods. training performance. sports. * Apparatus technical * Sex and age. for specific perfectioning conditioning. strategy with & without apparatus application. Typology of sportsmen. The modelling of: * The result. Individual approach psychology. * The special load. The system of control in training. Figure 2.13 Details of a future theory of training Adapted from Tschiene (1989:151) SAID principles (OShea 2000:11) states, According to this principle, the bodys response to stress is specific adaptation to imposed demands. The SAID principle underlies sport specific training and is the guiding force of athletictype strength training (defined as training to assist the athlete to attain their potential by developing the qualities of strength, speed, quickness, and full range body power, which are transferable to power orientated sports), (OShea 2000:105). It explains that physiological, neurological and psychological adaptation will occur in direct response to the imposed training demands. If, however, these demands are not specific to the performance demands of your sport, no functional adaptation will take place, (Functional, in this sense, means transferable.). To a large extent, this explains why explosive athletictype strength training holds a high degree of specificity for all - 21 -

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sports. Compared to other types of strength training (bodybuilding or machines), athletictype strength training comes the closest to duplicating the strength, speed, and power requirements for highpowered athletic performance. According to OShea (2000:11) in formulating a strength training program the SAID principle dictates: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Choice of athletictype lifts, Choice of auxiliary or supplemental lifts, Intensity of training, Volume of training (i.e., number of reps and sets), Type of supplemental conditioning training, Recuperative rest periods.

Bompa (1999:318) indicated that strength is the ability to apply force. Its development should be the prime concern of anyone who attempts to improve an athletes performance. Using several strength development methods leads to faster growth, by 8 to 12 times that of using only skills available for a certain sport. It seems that strength training is, therefore, one of the most important ingredients in the process of developing athletes. Theoretically, we can refer to force as a mechanical characteristic and a human ability. In the former case, force is the object of studies in mechanics, and in the latter, it is the scope of physiological and methodical investigation in training.

2.7

FORCE AS A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC

Direction, magnitude, or the point of application could determine force. OShea (2000: 88) state Newtons second law of motion, force is equal to mass (m) times acceleration (a), or: F=m.a

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Consequently Bompa (1999:319) showed that an athlete can increase strength by changing one or both factors (m or a). Such change results in quantitative alterations to consider when developing strength. The following equations used in mechanics illustrates this point: F mx = M mx . A And F mx = m . A mx Where F. mx is maximum force; M. mx is maximum mass; and A. mx means maximum acceleration. In the first equation, maximum force develops by using the maximum mass (or load) possible; whereas the same result occurs in the second equation by using the maximum speed of movement. The force that an athlete can apply and the velocity at which he or she can apply it maintain an inverse relationship. This is true for the relationship between an athletes applied force and the time over which he or she can apply it. The gain in speed or time ability is at the expense of the other. Consequently, although force may be the dominant characteristic of ability, you cannot consider it in isolation because the speed and time component will directly affect its application (Bompa, 1999:319). OShea (2000: 86) states force is the effect one body has upon another. A weight can be lifted only when force has been applied, however it is possible to have force without motion, as in functional isometric lifting. O Shea (2000: 86) states further that force does not affect motion when its result is zero though the effects can be seen and measured in terms of magnitude, direction and point of application. The force-velocity inverse relationship, is demonstrated by Hill (1922:19-41) and Ralston et al. (1949:526-533). An adaptation of Ralstons force velocitycurve is illustrated by fig 2.14, which demonstrates that when the mass is low, the acceleration

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is high, given maximum effort by the participant. acceleration decreases up to no movement at all. As the mass increases the

Figure 2.14 Force velocity curve Adapted from OShea (2000:89) The magnitude of the force directly relates to the magnitude of the mass. This relationship is linear only at the beginning, when the force increases as the mass of the moving object increases. A continuous elevation of a mass will not necessarily result in an equally increase in applied force. The force per gram that an athlete applies against a shot putt will, therefore, be greater than that for lifting a barbell. As suggested by Florescu et al. (1969), to put a shot of 7.250 kg a distance of 18.19 m, an athlete displays a power of 6.9 horsepower (h.p.) or 5.147 watts, but to snatch (weightlifting) 150 kg requires only 4.3 h.p. or 3.207 watts.

3.

PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF POWER PRODUCTION

The primary purpose of athletictype strength training is to increase maximum kinetic energy and increase acceleration and speed for maximum time and/or distance through a full range of multi joint movements (OShea, 2000:85).

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According to Chu (1996:2) the optimal way to develop explosive strength and maximum power is by using complex training which is a workout system that combines strength work and speed work for the optimal training effect. Exercise scientists define power as the optimal combination of speed and strength to produce movement. Power is what separates the medal winners from the also runs, and it is power that will make you a winner. Some athletes lift weights to develop power, some perform plyometrics and some do both. Complex training develops power in a very sport specific manner. According to Haff & Potteiger (2001:13-20) explosive exercise can be defined as having a maximal or near maximal initial rate of force development that is maintained throughout a specified range of motion. These types of exercises are marked by a rapid initiation of force production and focus on movement accelerations, which result in near maximal or maximal movement velocities at a given resistance. Baker (2001:47-56) indicated that Intensity for strength training is defined in a number of accepted manners (e.g. 5 repetition maximum [5 RM] or a percentage of 1 RM). However, intensity in power training may refer to the percentage of maximum power output. Therefore, intense power training resistance is the resistance that allows for power output to be as close to the maximum as possible. Consequently, an intense power training session may require that the athlete generate a power output of 80% to 100% of his maximum even though the resistance may only be 40% to 60% of his 1 RM. OShea (1995: 172-175) is of the same opinion.

3.1 Principles of Power Production The concept of athletic type power does not mean the ability to lift heavy weights, but rather the ability to apply force throughout a full range of body joint movements with speed for maximum time and/or distance. Athletic power production involves torso kinetic energy, torso rotational energy, and stored kinetic energy (OShea 1995:75) and (Adams et al. 1992:36-41)

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According to OShea (1995:83) kinetic energy is the energy of motion and is related to both the mass of the body and velocity (momentum = MV). Torso kinetic energy is the movement, which can be generated with athletic type lifts that produce torso rotational energy, allowing you to exert force in multiple directions. Torso rotational energy is the energy that comes from a body segment. It involves large muscle groups generating great force through and around the centre of mass (bodys power zone). For example, bending the hip flexor when jumping, squatting, or cleaning, the hip joint creates a high torque, or movement force situation. Stored kinetic energy, referred to as stored elastic energy, applies to all movement involving eccentric forces. When a muscle contracts eccentrically under external force, it stretches and stores energy. Subsequently, stored energy is added to the muscle force generated during concentric contraction as both are converted to kinetic energy of motion (OShea, 1995:83). Application of the concept of stored kinetic energy is the key to maximum high power output during athletic-type lifting and all other activities requiring high instantaneous power (OShea, 1995:83). Analysis of the squat movement illustrates the role stored kinetic energy plays in high power production. In the execution of a squat, during the hip flexion phase (descent), energy generated from eccentric hip and quadriceps contraction and stretch reflex contraction, in resisting gravitational force, is stored as kinetic energy. On the squat recoil (extension), the lifter utilizes stored kinetic energy to generate greater quadriceps force, and greater hip and torso rotational energy to accelerate and power out of the bottom position (OShea, 1995:83). According to Chu (1996:2) the proposed model of power training, called complex training, focuses mainly on four major concepts, including resistance training, plyometrics, sprint training and sport specific training.

3.1.1 Resistance Training Most people tend to associate this with weight training, but anything that makes a muscle work harder can be classified as resistance training.

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According to Baechle & Earle (2000:170) an athlete trains the various physiological systems to encourage adaptation and improve performance. This training must be specific to the desired outcome, since the body can be subjected to large variations in exercise intensity and duration. At one extreme, resistance training can involve very heavy loads with minimal repetitions. At the other end, distance cycling or running requires a very sub maximal muscular effort but it is extended over a long period of time. According to Chu (1996: 6) resistance training raises the bodys ability to excite the motor neurons by nearly 50%. This gives the nervous system more involvement in the workout and prepares the muscle for even greater challenges. However, the activity has to be a highintensity session of strength training to achieve the best results. As with plyometrics, quality is more important than quantity. The resistance training portion of the complex training model will therefore consist of low repetitions of moderate to heavy loads, as they produce the greatest amount of motor neuron firing and preparation for plyometrics, (Chu, 1996:5).

3.1.2

Plyometrics Defined by Chu (1998:2) plyometrics are exercises that enable a muscle to reach maximum strength in as short a time as possible. This speed and strength ability is known as power. Explained by Baechle & Earle (2000:428) plyometric exercises is a quick, powerful movement using a pre-stretch, or counter movement, that involves the stretch shortening cycle. The purpose of plyometric exercises according to Baechle & Earl (2000:428) is to increase the power of subsequent movements by using

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both the natural and elastic components of muscle, and tendon and the stretch reflex. According to Hedrick (2002:71-74) and Holcomb et al. (1998: 36-39) plyometric training is emphasized when the goal is to increase power. However, it is important to select plyometric drills that are movement specific; i.e. plyometric drills should be selected based on their similarity to movements that occur within the sport. In this manner, plyometric training can be used to link increases in strength to improved movement capabilities. If the athletes ability to move effectively during competition is enhanced as a result of training, then training can be considered on the right track toward developing optimal performance. According to Chu (1996:6) plyometrics consists of hopping, skipping, jumping, and throwing activities designed to make the athlete faster. During the complex training method plyometrics must be done at maximum speeds; sub maximal efforts will produce sub-maximal results. This is an application of the law of specificity. Going from slow muscles to fast muscles requires performing quick, explosive movements. These activities must allow for minimal contact with the ground (lower body) or the hand contact surface (upper body). Plyometrics are the best answer for these types of exercise needs. Lower body plyometrics exercise emphasizes quick foot movements and the ability to get off the ground quickly. Upper body plyometric exercises emphasize using medicine balls to teach the muscle to respond more quickly to external forces (Chu, 1996:6). According to Pettit & Bryson (2002:20-29) a plyometric program, if well designed and properly performed, will have a positive effect on a players speed, quickness, agility, and jumping ability and can ultimately help prevent the incidence of non-contact knee injuries.

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According to Chu (1998:23) a plyometric training program for pubescent athletes should begin as gross motor activities of low intensity. They should be introduced into warm ups and then added to sport specific skills. When designing the program Haff (1999:92-97) states that an effective program accomplishes specific goals through manipulation of four variables: intensity, volume, frequency, and recovery. Intensity is the effort involved in performing a given task, in plyometrics this means the type of exercise used, beginning with easy (skipping drills) and progressing to more difficult (alternate bounding), (Chu, 1998: 27). Volume is the total work performed in a single workout session. In plyometric training this means counting foot contacts during a session. In the off-season 60 to 100 foot contacts would be used for beginners and 120 to 200 for advanced athletes in the same season. This number will increase as the season progress (Chu, 1998:28). Frequency is the number of repetitions performed as well as the number of times a session during a training cycle take place (Chu, 1998:29). Recovery (Chu, 1998:30) is a key variable in determining whether plyometrics will succeed in developing power or muscular endurance. For power training, longer recovery periods is needed (45 to 60 seconds). A work to rest ratio of 1:5 to 1:10 is required to assure proper execution and intensity of the exercise.

3.1.3

Sprint Training The third component or building block of the complex training method is sprint training. According to Pettitt & Bryson (2002:20-29) a sprint training program should focus on developing a variety of locomotor skills observed in the specific sport. Too often, coaches devote

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significant time to general sprint training only to neglect training explosive backward and diagonal movements. According to Baechle & Earle (2000:472) in most sports, the ability to change direction and speed is more important than simply achieving or maintaining high velocity. Chu (1996:7) from a totally theoretical standpoint, states that the speed of movement in running depends on two factors: stride length and stride frequency. Stride frequency is generally considered to be largely dependent on the type of muscle fibre the athlete has. Faster muscle fibre types give an athlete an advantage in the quality and speed of muscle contraction. Slower muscle fibres provide an advantage in maintaining work over prolonged periods because when faster fibres fatigue there is a shift to slower fibres and maximum strength is developed (OShea 2000: 62). If an athlete cant make significant improvements in stride frequency by pushing harder and faster off the ground, the athlete looks toward improving stride length. This is usually the case because it is so difficult to improve stride frequency. Increasing stride length allows athletes to cover the same distance as athletes with greater stride frequency in the same amount of time, thereby offsetting their competitors advantage (Baechle & Earle 2000:475). The question can be posed: How do you go about increasing the ability to push off the ground with more power? According to Baechle & Earle (2000:472) the answer lies in the fact that such agility requires rapid force development and high power output, as well as the ability to efficiently couple eccentric and concentric actions in ballistic movements. To get to this point (Chu, 1996:7), you have to take a course slightly different from the norm: The workouts may be shorter but of higher intensity. Quality is the key not quantity. The athlete

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will also have much longer rest periods. This is needed because these workouts are extremely stressful on the nervous system.

3.1.4

Sport Specific Training The final component of complex training method is sport specific training and according to Chu (1996:8) the better way is to stimulate the muscle with resistance training, rather than perform sport specific movements. The essence of complex training is that athletes must do more than just build muscle to increase strength: they need to train the nervous system as well. Complex training allows athletes to work the muscles in conjunction with the nervous system in such a way that the slow twitch fibres behave like the fast twitch fibres (OShea 2000:63). According to Chu (1996:9) the human body contains both fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibres. Slow twitch fibres are called type I and are capable of producing sub maximal force over extended periods. These are the fibres athletes involved in aerobic activities (such as distance running) want to develop. Fast twitch fibres are classified as type IIa and type IIb and are capable of producing maximal force for brief periods. These are the types of fibres strength and power athletes such as participants to this study, and sprinters want to develop. Type IIc can develop either fibre characteristic. The difference between these two fibre types is that type IIa has more endurance characteristics whereas the type IIb has more speed characteristics (Chu, 1996:10). Powers & Howley (1996:136) is of a similar opinion in that slow twitch fibres (type I) contain higher concentrations of myoglobin than fast twitch fibres. The high concentration of myoglobin, the large number of capillaries, and the high mitochondrial enzyme activities provide type 1 fibres with a large capacity for aerobic metabolism and a high resistance to fatigue. Powers & Howley (1996:136) states further that fast twitch fibres (type IIa and type IIb) have a relative small number of mitochondria, a limited capacity for aerobic metabolism, and are less resistant to fatigue than

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slow twitch fibres. However, these fibres are rich in glycolytic enzymes, which provide them with a large anaerobic capacity. Despite the implied preference a strength and power athlete would have for predominantly fast twitch fibres, both are important to the athletes overall development. Fast twitch muscle fibres give the athlete the ability to move quickly and explosively. Slow twitch muscle fibres are responsible for the stabilization and posture the athlete needs when performing any movement. In other words, they provide the stability to make the action complete (Chu 1996:10) In context to sport specific training the primary goal of a strength and power athlete is to first emphasize the type IIb fibres and get the type IIc fibres to act like type IIb fibres. The type IIa fibres, although called fast twitch muscle fibres, are often not useful to sport specific training because strength gains cannot be displayed explosively. OShea (2000:61) discuss this with regards to recruitment order where in strength training, slow twitch motor units are recruited first, because of their small size and low activation threshold. Fast twitch fatigue resistant units are second and the fast twitch fatiguable units last. The order of recruitment as determined by the size principle does not hold in maximum explosive power movements. In performing such movements it is almost entirely the fast twitch motor units that are recruited. According to Chu (1996:10) when properly challenged, the human body has the capacity to make significant changes, one of which is a change in how muscle fibres function. It is possible to train a fast twitch muscle fibre to behave like a slow twitch muscle fibre and visa versa. Therefore, athletes involved in aerobic sports must be careful not to include too much training for fast twitch muscle fibres or they will risk teaching their slow twitch muscle fibres to behave like fast twitch muscle fibres. However these changes are difficult to bring about and require a great amount of work (Chu, 1996:11).

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The muscular system works like a computer in that whatever an athlete puts into it is what the athlete gets out. If an athlete teaches muscle to complete the given task slowly, thats what the athlete will get back. It follows then that an athlete who needs to compete at higher speeds need to train the muscle to function optimally at these higher speeds (Chu 1996:11).

3.2 Physiology of Power Training OShea (2000:86) define strength as the ability of the muscle to contract and exert force. OShea (2000:89) defines power as the capacity to do a given amount of work as rapidly as possible. According to Haff and Potteiger (2001:13-20) when examining strength and the factors that are involved in the production of muscular force, several factors can be delineated (Table 2.4). The effectiveness of explosive exercises as training tools may be related to their ability to affect these factors. The bodys ability to recruit motor units or to stimulate the rate coding mechanism is of critical importance to understanding the effectiveness of explosive exercises in sports performance. Developing explosive power, according to OShea (2000:97), neuro muscularly, executing explosive movement involves a rapid stretching of a muscle that is undergoing eccentric contractions. The stretch reflex, also known as myotatic reflex, is utilized to accomplish this rapid movement. The faster a muscle is lengthened, the greater the concentric force developed. If the switch from muscle lengthening to shortening is done as rapidly as possible, then the maximum advantage of the release of stored kinetic energy to produce explosive forceful movement can be enjoyed. Additionally, the hyper trophic response to explosive exercise may add further evidence to the effectiveness of explosive exercises as a training modality.

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Table 2.4 Factors related to force generating capabilities Adapted from Haff & Potteiger (2001:14) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. FACTORS Motor unit recruitment and activation patterns. Rate coding. Synchronization. Neural inhibition. Muscle cross sectional area. Motor unit type.

3.2.1

Motor Unit Recruitment and Rate Coding When examining the neuromuscular system, Powers & Howley (1996:128) describe the motor unit as being composed of a motor neuron and all the muscle fibres it innervates. Haff and Potteiger (2001:13-20) further states that motor units are generally composed of between 9 and 2 muscle fibres per motor neuron. According to Powers & Howley (1996:135) muscle fibres have been classified in two categories: Category 1 - Slow twitch, and Category 2 Fast twitch. Most muscle groups are known to be composed of predominantly fast or slow twitch fibres, most muscle groups in the body contain an equal mixture of both slow and fast twitch fibre types. The fibre composition of skeletal muscle plays an important role in performance in both power and endurance events (Powers & Howley, 1996:135). According to OShea (2000:62) one of the prerequisites in developing maximum strength and power is increased strength of the slow twitch fibres. To develop slow twitch muscle fibre strength, the athlete must first fatigue the fast twitch muscle fibres. In the squat, for example, this is done by taking 75% to 80% of your squat 1 repetition maximum (RM) and doing 10 12 repetitions for 3 sets. The first 3 4 repetitions involve mainly the fast twitch fatigable fibres. As these fibres fatigue - 34 -

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there is a gradual shift to the slow twitch fibres, repetitions 8 12. Important to remember is to use at least 75% to 80% of the 1 RM value to increase strength of the slow twitch muscle fibres. According to OShea (2000:62) training fast twitch muscle fibres is the exact opposite to training slow twitch muscle fibres in that the slow twitch muscle fibres need to be fatigued. Training the fast twitch fibres means to increase the endurance capacity of both fast and slow twitch muscle fibres. This can be done by using 60 70 percent of your 1 RM for 15 20 repetitions, 3 4 sets. Muscle fibres that have a lower muscle fibre to motor neuron ratio are used to control fine movements, whereas muscle with large ratios is used in the performance of gross physical movements. The ability to regulate the amount of tension produced by a muscle is clearly related either to the ability to recruit or to the rate coding of motor units. Rate coding is often defined as occurring when the frequency of neural impulses sent to motor neurons already activated is increased (Haff & Potteiger, 2001:1320) and (OShea 2000:60) Generally, small motor units, which tend to have lower thresholds and are predominantly composed of type I fibres, are recruited in response to lower force demands (Haff & Potteiger, 2001:13-20). When higher forces are demanded, the higher threshold motorunits, which are typically made out of type II fibres, are recruited. The fact that larger, more powerful motorunits are recruited only when high force or high power outputs are demanded by activity is of particular interest to understanding the effectiveness of explosive exercises (Haff & Potteiger, 2001:1320). Haff and Potteiger (2001:13-20) explain further that in order to activate the larger motor units, explosive exercises which generally require high force and high power output are needed. In addition to stimulating the recruitment of higher threshold motor units, explosive exercises, which

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require high contraction speeds, have the potential to alter the motor unit recruitment pattern. These exercises may train higher threshold motor units to contract before or in concert with low threshold motor units. Therefore, the use of explosive exercises in a training program may result in adaptations that allow the athletes to be able to recruit larger motor units sooner or more efficiently. Another strategy for increasing the amount of force generated is the activation of the rate coding mechanism. The rate coding process is unique in that the force generated increases without additional motor units being recruited. It is believed that there is an inter-play between rate coding and motor unit recruitment in the bodys ability to generate force. The interplay of these two forcegenerating mechanisms may be related to the size and fibre type composition of the muscle. Because of their high force and power output generating capabilities, explosive exercises appear to be the optimal mechanism for inducing sport specific changes in motor unit recruitment and rate coding (Haff and Potteiger, 2001:13-20). Baechle and Earle (2000:37) discuss motor unit recruitment and rate coding as the way that neural control affects the maximal force output of a muscle by determining which and how many motor units are involved in a muscle contraction and the rate at which the motor units are fired. Baechle and Earle (2000:37) discuss further that generally muscle force is greater when more motor units are involved in a contraction, the motor units are greater in size, or the rate of firing is faster. Early strength gains in resistance training is attributable to neural adaptations (Baechle and Earle 2000:37).

3.2.2

Hypertrophy factors According to Haff and Potteiger (2001:13-20) the hypertrophy effects of explosive resistance exercise training is associated with type II muscle fibre. According to Powers & Howley (1996:136) these fibres are rich in

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glycolyctic enzymes, which provide them with a large anaerobic capacity. This may be related to the preferential activation of higher threshold motor units, which are predominantly, composed of type II fibre (Haff & Potteiger, 2001:13-20). Thus, it is likely that alterations in maximal strength are probably related to the combined effects of hypertrophic factors, whereas rate of force development may be associated with alterations in neural activation. However, it is likely that hypertrophy of type II fibres can result in some alterations in the rate of force development. Chu (1996:9) showed that to understand fully how to use complex training as method of power training requires not only knowing its components, but having a general knowledge of the bodys energy and movement systems. You should have an overall perspective on how your muscular, nervous, and cardiovascular systems work together.

3.2.3

The Muscular System According to Chu (1996:9); Powers & Howley (1996:135-140) and OShea (2000: 62-63) the human body contains both fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibres. Slow twitch fibres are called type I and are capable of producing sub maximal force over extended periods. These are the fibres athletes involved in aerobic activities want to develop. Fast twitch fibres are classified as type IIa and Type IIb and are capable of producing maximal force for brief periods. These are the types of fibres strength and power athletes such as, participants in study, field athletes and football players. The difference between these two fibres is that type IIa has more endurance characteristics whereas the type IIb has more speed characteristics. Despite the implied preference a strength and power athlete would have for predominantly fast twitch fibres, both are important to the athletes

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overall development. Fast twitch fibres give the athlete the ability to move quickly and explosively. Slow twitch fibres are responsible for the stabilization and posture the athlete needs when performing any movement (Powers & Howley, 1996:136). The muscular system works like a computer system in that whatever an athlete puts in is what it gets out. Muscles want to complete a task in the most efficient way they know how.

3.2.4

The Nervous System According to Chu (1996:11) the nervous system triggers a muscles response to a stimulus, telling it what to do and when to do it. The neurons activate muscle fibres to behave like a fast twitch or a slow twitch muscle fibre. The stimulation process is similar to lighting a fuse on a packet of firecrackers. The central nervous system sparks the process, sending the signal down the axon toward the muscle fibres. At the end of the axon is the synapse, which holds the chemical acetylcholine (Ach) in little pouches. The pools of Ach then jump over to the muscle membrane, where the Ach generates the explosion of an electrical impulse throughout the muscle fibre. The better trained the athlete the more efficient the process (Chu, 1996:12). To capitalize on a muscles utmost potential to gain strength and speed, an athlete must raise the level of excitement in the muscle fibres and challenge them when they reach their highest levels. This is a two-step process in an athletes conditioning program, and each is equally important (Chu, 1996:13) and (Bompa, 1999:139-155). Once the motor neurons are fired up (resistance training), its time to teach the muscle to function at their highest possible speeds. The second half of the workout will thus be a plyometric exercise, matched to stimulate the muscle

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awakened during the resistance training exercise by performing a related or specific explosive movement similar to the resistance exercise (Chu, 1996:13).

3.2.5

The Neuromuscular Connection According to Chu (1996:13) the number of muscle fibres an athlete has and the types of fibre in these muscles are both important factors. However, it is the neural factors that gives the body the kick start that allows the training process to begin. takes over the limelight. As the conditioning process continues, the nervous system learns the necessary skills and hypertrophy

3.2.6

The Cardiovascular System While still at school, aerobic training is necessary but not vital to strength and power athletes. According to Chu (1996:14) aerobic training may help an athlete recover from high intensity exercises, but it does so at the expense of speed and power and increases the risk of overuse injuries and over training. Only do endurance training as much as absolutely necessary and be certain that the type of endurance training developed is specific to the sport.

4. EXPLOSIVE EXERCISES According to Bompa (1999:335) the main beneficiaries of developing acyclic power are athletes involved in throwing and jumping events in athletics, gymnastics (most elements), fencing, diving, and every other sport requiring a takeoff, for example volleyball. For these sport types or athletic components, power performed acyclically is the dominant factor in the performance. Although maximum strength is an important element of progression, exercises using lower loads and performed extremely quickly

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(medicine ball exercises) ought to be part of the program as well. Most strength

training exercises, such as power clean, snatch, clean and jerk, are from the weightlifters repertoire. This does not, however, exclude other exercises such as weight belts and vests and various jumps, for example depth jumps over benches and bounding exercises (Bompa, 1999:335). The load for acyclic power is between 50% and 80% of maximum with the movement performed quickly. Adequate recovery, 3 to 5 minutes rest interval, is paramount because only a completely recovered athlete can perform acyclic power exercises efficiently. Acyclic power is defined as part of a classification system using bio motor abilities as a criteria. Bio motor abilities include strength, speed, endurance, and co-ordination. This is a highly practical classification system for coaches. 1999:335). A characteristic of sport requiring cyclic power is that their relationship with speed is pronounced. These sport include sprinting in athletics, swimming, speed skating and cycling and all sport requiring speed (Bompa, 1999:335). The training load for cyclic exercises need to be 30% to 50% of maximum performed in a dynamic rhythm, with up to 10 repetitions, and a long recovery interval of 5 minutes (Bompa, 1999:335). According to Haff and Potteiger (2001:13-20) explosive exercises or speed strength exercises result in the production of high power outputs. The exercises most typically employed in this capacity are the Olympic style lifts (Table 2.5). Table 2.5 Types of explosive exercises Haff & Potteiger (2001:17) Sport skills can be classified into three groups of exercises: cyclic, acyclic and acyclic combined (Bompa,

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Exercises Snatch (squat and power) Clean (squat and power) Pulls (clean and snatch) Jump squats Speed squats Jerks (push and split)

According to Haff and Pottgeiter (2001:13-20) when comparing athletic type strength training (ATST) to traditional high force / low velocity exercises, higher power outputs are encountered. Thus, the use of explosive lifts such as athletic type strength training may partially explain the differences in power output capabilities of different strength power athletes. Because these exercises stimulate improved power output capabilities, many have suggested that they will produce a significant carry over to other strength power sport. This suggestion is generally based on the belief that these exercises produce movement patterns, velocity characteristics, and power outputs that are similar to those needed in many sport performances (Haff & Pottgeiter, 2001:1320). According to OShea (1995:75) athletic type strength trainings primary purpose is to increase maximum acceleration and speed through a full range of multi joint movement. As illustrated in fig 2.15, only athletic type lifting (snatches, cleans, pulls and squats) has the capacity to effectively train your bodys power zone. A highly developed power zone offers the greatest opportunity for the transfer of weight-trained power to your sport, (OShea 1995:76).

ATHLETIC TYPE STRENGTH TRAINING Snatch and Clean Explosive-Reactive-Ballistic Movements (In execution require) Strength, Speed, Quickness, Mobility Utilizing Stored Kinetic Energy - 41 -

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Plyometric training Maximizes the relationship between Strength-Acceleration-Speed OPTIMAL ATHLETIC POWER PERFORMANCE. Figure 2.15. Athletic Type Strength Training Adapted from OShea (2000:87)

4.1

Athletic type strength training = Transfer of training

Athletic type lifting is supposed to be hard. If it wasnt hard everyone would be doing it. J.P. OShea (1995:93). According to OShea (1995:74) athletic strength training falls into three major groups: 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 Base strength training lifts, Dynamic strength / speed power lifts, Specific speed / quickness exercises,

4.2

Base strength training exercises According to OShea (2000:105) these are weightlifting movements that build foundation strength in large muscle groups of the bodys power zone (Muscles that span both the hip and knee joint hip flexors and extensors, spinal erectors, abdominal, quadriceps, and hamstrings). OShea (2000:106) also states that the muscle groups of the upper torso should also not be overlooked, because they play a significant role in transferring the force generated by the power zone to throwing, punching, swinging, and hitting movements.

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According to OShea (2000) absolute strength training exercises are the parallel squat, dead lift and all types of pressing movements (especially the standing push press and the incline dumbbell press). The push press and squat are classified as athletic type lifts. The push press is in many respects superior to the bench press in its ability to develop high torso kinetic energy when lifting maximum to near maximum loads. The ballistic nature of the lift provides for excellent transfer of power to martial arts and throwing events (javelin, discus & shot) (OShea, 2000:106) and (Verkhoshansky, 1977).

4.3

Dynamic strength / speed power exercises According to OShea (2000:107) lifting movements composing the dynamic strength / speed power exercises produce high kinetic energy and are full range multiple body joint exercises: power snatches, power cleans, and a variety of high pulling movements. The lifting movement is fast and explosive, which forces you to think in terms of both quick reaction speed and movement speed, as well as strength. According to Stone (1993:7-14) the movement specificity and the relative power outputs of pulling movements (i.e. snatch pulls, snatches, clean pulls, cleans, etc.) should have considerable transfer of training effect to many strength - speed sport. This is because the movement patterns, velocities and power outputs of these pulling movements are more similar to many sport performances than are typical high force slow movements. OShea (2000:107) explains that most sport consists of highly explosive skills and require strong torso rotational energy. To develop this type of energy, you need to train with explosive torso rotational lifting movements such as dynamic strength / speed power exercises. This is a direct application of the training specificity principle.

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4.4 Specific speed / quickness exercises. According to OShea (2000:107) for the athlete to develop optimal power, the training program must include speed work and jumping movements (plyometrics). According to Roper (1998:60-63) plyometric training can be more than just eliciting a stretch shortening cycle response. It can be tailored to the specific needs of the individual athlete to increase not only power and movement efficiency, but balance, coordination and agility as well. Specific speed / quickness exercises will help you to effectively transmit the forces of strength and power acquired through weightlifting to your sport. The explosive power derived from your knees and hip extensor muscles in sprinting and jumping provide the same ballistic movement used in many sports, so you need to sprint and jump well. Great jumpers make powerful athlete, (O'Shea 2000:107). According to Stone (1993:7-14) explosive exercises are those exercises in which the initial rate of concentric force production is maximal, or near maximal, and maximal or near maximal force production is maintained throughout a specified range of motion in keeping with the exercise technique involved. Thus, explosive exercises are movements in which rapid initiation of force production and the ability to accelerate are of primary importance. According to Haff & Potteiger (2001:13-20) explosive exercises can result in improvements in power production. It appears that the Olympic style lifts have the greatest potential to affect power production. These lifts stimulate neuromuscular adaptations, which may potentially result in improved sports performance. Power production may be maximised by using a combination of explosive exercise modalities in a periodized training program. Additionally, when these exercises are performed with appropriate techniques and are supervised by a quality strength professional, there is minimal risk of injury.

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CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 3

3.

METHODOLOGY

Preparation for the in-season school track and field athletes in South Africa are forced into a week or two after the summer holidays. According to the head javelin coach at the Menlo Park High School, the start of each athletic season is an advanced form of crisis management.

This is attributed to the fact that athletes do not participate in an off-season program and the consequences of this are that the athletes are not physical ready to compete. The incidence of injuries is very high and yearly talented athletes end up on the injured list. This however, is not just a South African tendency and is seen

worldwide. Arnheim and Prentice (2003) found the same situation was observed in schools in America and Europe.

With this problem as main driving force the Menlo Park High School was approached with this study proposal to select, pre- and post-test, train and develop high school throwing athletes to achieve better results at the main competitive meeting of the year. The head coach of throwing events at the school made himself available to assist with the study. The head coach has competed at the highest level of javelin throwing in South Africa.

3.1 Selection of subjects The athletes were randomly picked from the previous years athletic squad to participate in the study, and a group of twenty (20) athletes were selected (12 boys and 8 girls) who had at least 1 year of technique training and who was 16 years or older. Both boys and girls were eligible to participate in the study. The selected athletes were called together and the purpose of the study was explained to them. Since the athletes were very young each was given a consent form (annexure D) that needed to be returned signed by their parents together with a letter (annexure C) explaining the purpose of the study and what would be required of their children for the 6 week - 45 -

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training period after pre-testing had been completed. They were informed of posttesting thereafter. Results achieved at the end of the 6 weeks, including the final major athletics meeting of the year, will be compared with the prior years results.

The following characteristics of an effective test program had to be adhered to for effective results (MacDougall et al, 1991:3).

i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii)

The variables that are tested are relevant to that sport, The test that is selected is valid and reliable, The test protocols are as sport specific as possible, Test administration is rigidly controlled, The athletes human rights are respected, Testing is repeated at regular intervals, Results are interpreted to the coach and athlete directly.

Test protocols had been set up according to the anatomical and mechanical principles of the throwing motion. (Luttgens & Hamilton, 1997:507-509).

3.2

Anatomical principles that need to be considered

According to Luttgens & Hamilton (1997:507):

3.2.1

Muscles contract more forcefully if they are first put on a stretch, provided they are not overstretched,

3.2.2

Unnecessary movements and tensions in the performance of a motor skill should be eliminated because it means both awkwardness and unnecessary fatigue,

3.2.3

Skill-full and efficient performance in a particular technique can be developed only by practice of that technique,

3.2.4

The most efficient type of movement in throwing skills is ballistic movement. Skills that are primarily ballistic should be practised with - 46 -

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ballistic movements, even in the earliest learning stages. This means that from the beginning the emphasis should be placed on form rather than on aim,

3.2.5

When there is a choice of anatomical leverage, the lever appropriate for the task should be used that is, a lever with a long resistance arm for movements requiring range or speed, and a lever with a long effort arm for movements requiring strength.

3.3

The mechanical principles involved in throwing

According to Yessis (1980:32-34) in order for the training of a power athlete to be specific, the athletic skill should first be analysed bio-mechanically. To determine not only the kinds of physical qualities that are needed but also how effectively the athlete can execute the particular skill. If skill is to be modified somewhat, then exercises must be included in the general and specialized training phase to strengthen the muscles used in the movements.

According to Luttgens & Hamilton (1997:508-509):

3.3.1

The object will move only if the force is of sufficient magnitude to overcome the objects inertia. The force must be great enough to

overcome not only the mass of the object but also restraining forces. These include friction between the object and the supporting surface, resistance of the surrounding medium, and internal resistance,

3.3.2

The pattern and range of joint movements depends on the purpose of the movement. If maximum force magnitude is not needed, the optimum movement pattern should be changed with respect to the range, speed, and number of joint actions until it is most efficient for the task,

3.3.3

Force exerted by the body will be transferred to an external object in proportion to the effectiveness of the counterforce of the feet against the ground, - 47 -

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3.3.4 Linear velocity is imparted to external objects as a result of the angular velocity of the body segments. The linear velocity at the end of any segment is the product of the angular velocity and the length of the segments,

3.3.5

Optimum summation of internal force is needed if maximum force is to be applied to move an object. For maximum velocity of each

contributing body segment to occur at release of or impact with the external object, the slower or heavier segments must start to move first and the lightest and quickest ones last. Its preferable for the slower segments to begin their forward movements while the faster segments are still completing the back swing. This timing pattern facilitates use of the stretch reflex,

3.3.6

For a change in momentum to occur, force must be applied over time. If maximum force is desired in projection type activities, maximum muscle torques should be applied over as long a time as possible,

3.3.7

Force applied in line with an objects centre of gravity will result in linear motion of the object, provided the latter is freely movable,

3.3.8

If the force applied to a freely movable object is not in line with the latter centre of gravity, it will result in rotary motion of the object.

Considering all these characteristics a test protocol was drawn up to effectively test the selected athletes for there given throwing activity.

Annexure B shows the protocol that was used in this study.

The protocol consisted of testing flexibility, strength, functional strength, explosive strength, muscular endurance, posture analysis, and athletic type lifts. Both pre- and post-testing were conducted by the same individual to avoid experimenter variability.

3.4 The test protocol - 48 -

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3.4.1 Flexibility Testing:

According to Baechle & Earle (2000:322), flexibility can be defined as the range of motion about a body joint. The study used conventional goniometers (MacDougal et al 1991:332), which measure joint angle, and a standard sit and reach box (Baechle and Earle 2000:301), which is used to evaluate the combined flexibility of the lower back and hamstrings. According to MacDougal et al (1991:310), several classification systems have been proposed for joint actions, but the major objectives of these systems should be to define the type of movement that can take place around a joint and to determine which axis and through which plane this movement occurs. The needs of the specific sport should be assessed and then used to form the basis for determining which joint and joint movements should be tested.

Flexibility Test:

3.4.1.1 Lower back & Hamstring

Procedure: Ensure that the athlete warms up. Have the shoeless athlete sit down with legs straight and heels of feet flat against the reach box.

Have the athlete reach slowly with both hands, long fingers on top of each other, as far as possible. Hold this position for at least 3 seconds.

To get the best stretch, the athlete should exhale and drop the head between the arms when reaching. Be sure that the athlete keeps the hands on top of each other and does not lead or stretch with one hand. straight. Equipment: - 49 Hold the athlete knees down to keep them

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Standard sit and reach box with tape measure. (MacDougal et al 1991:331).

3.4.1.2 Shoulder internal & external rotation

Procedure: Athlete lies supine with arm to be tested at 90 abduction and elbow flexed at 90.

Examiner passively, internally or externally, rotates the shoulder via the forearm and wrist, ensuring that the posterior aspect of the shoulder maintains contact with the plinth. Rotation is performed until either (a) the athlete complains of pain or apprehension, (b) internally humeral head begins to protrude excessively anteriorly or no further range can be acquired, (c) externally athlete begins to extend thoracic spine or no further range can be acquired.

Equipment: Conventional goniometer and assistant. (Australian Sports Commission 2000:105).

3.4.1.3 Shoulder abduction and adduction

Procedure: The subject is in a standing position with the arms at the sides in a neutral position. The left side of the body faces toward the wall with the shoulder touching the wall. The left (or right) fist is doubled with the knuckles forward, the thumb side of the fist touching the hip, and the opposite side of the fist touching the wall. The feet are together and the knees and elbows straight. The goniometer is on the apex of the Acromion process.

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Shoulder abduction can also be measured from the anatomical starting position with the palms facing forward and the radial Ulnar joint supinated. Maintain this position throughout

movement preventing any medial or lateral shoulder rotation.

Equipment: Conventional goniometer and assistant. (MacDougall et al, 1991 342)

3.4.1.4 Elbow flexion and Extension

Procedure: The palm faces upward in the starting position, with the radial Ulnar joint in a supinated position. The forearm moves upward and backward in an arc as near the shoulder as possible elbow flexion. The forearm moves downward and forward until the arm is forcibly extended elbow hyperextension.

Equipment: Conventional goniometer. (MacDougall et al, 1991: 344)

3.4.1.5 Hip flexion and Extension

Procedure: The athlete lies in a supine position flat on the floor. The knee must be straight, and hip in a neutral position. The knee of the leg not being measured should be bent. The leg moves in an arc upward and toward the forehead as far as possible. The knee must remain straight and the back flat on the floor throughout the movement. Care must be taken to stabilize the Pelvis hip flexion. - 51 -

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The athlete lies in a prone position on the floor. The knee is straight and the hip in a neutral position. The leg moves in an arc upward and backward as far as possible. The knee must remain straight and the Pelvis in contact with the bench throughout the movement hip extension.

Equipment: Conventional goniometer. (Australian Sports Commission 2000:109)

3.4.2

Strength Testing:

According to MacDougal et al (1991:21) the relevance and relative importance of strength and power in sport performance vary widely. In activities like weight lifting and throwing, jumping, and sprinting events in track and field, strength and power are dominant factors. Strength is defined as the peak force of torque developed during a maximal voluntary contraction under a given set of conditions. The purpose of testing strength according to MacDougal et al (1991:27) is to: Determine the relevance and relative importance of strength and power to performance.

Developing an athletes profile. Monitoring training progress. Monitoring the rehabilitation of injuries.

According to MacDougal et al (1991:30) strength can be tested in different ways, this study made use of isokinetic testing. The term

isokinetic means constant velocity where both concentric and eccentric contractions may be isokinetic. An isokinetic dynamometer, such as the Cybex 2000, allows isokinetic contractions to be made at various preset velocities. An isokinetic dynamometer provides resistance by

accommodating the force or torque applied against the resistance - 52 -

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mechanism, thereby preventing acceleration beyond the set velocity of movement. A popular feature of isokinetic dynamometers is their ability to measure the torque, work, and power achieved by contractions done at various velocities up to the limit of the dynamometer.

According to Australian Sport Commission (2000:155) important components of any testing procedure that need to be identified and reported are factors such as frequency of testing, athletes pretest status, ergogenic agents, time of day, pretest warm-up, positioning and stabilization, axis alignment, dynamometer lever length, gravitational and other torques, range of motion, and other dynamometer settings.

3.4.2.1 Knee Extension Flexion

Procedure: The test position is seated, with hip flexion angle of 80. The knee extension flexion axis is approximated by aligning the dynamometer rotational axis with the lateral Femoral Condyle. Restraint straps are applied to the distal thigh, Pelvis, and upper Torso. The shin pad is attached just above the lateral Malleolus. Testing done in this study was all done concentric concentric testing of agonist and antagonist muscle groups. (Australian Sports Commission 2000:167)

3.4.2.2 Shoulder Internal External rotation

Procedure: As a test of the anterior and posterior rotator cuff musculature, shoulder internal external rotation is arguably the most important shoulder test for most upper limb athletes. The test position is seated, with 45 humeral abduction and 90 elbow flexion. The dynamometer axis is aligned with the long axis of the Humerus. This test is performed with a handgrip attached, thus wrist movements and strength may affect the test. - 53 -

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Other shoulder test movements include flexion extension (as was used in this study), and abduction adduction. (Australian Sports Commission 2000:167)

3.4.2.3 Elbow Flexion Extension

Procedure: The test position is supine, with arm 45 adducted and 90 elbow flexion. The dynamometer axis is aligned with medial The test is performed with a

Epicondyle of the Humerus.

handgrip attached. Testing problems experienced with this test are related to axis location/alignment, stabilization, resistance pad placement and gravitational torque compensation. (Australian Sports Commission 2000:167)

3.4.3

Testing Functional Strength:

Specific test for throwing events low back strength was measured by isometric strength where the peak force or torque is produced by a maximal voluntary isometric contraction. According to MacDougal et al (1991:24) a high level of strength and power is associated with a greater ability to accelerate the body mass or external objects. Strength training might therefore be expected to improve speed performance in similar conditions. The degree of correlation between strength and speed The correlation

performance depends on how strength is measured.

between increases in strength through training and improvements in speed performance depends on the degree to which the training is velocity specific.

3.4.3.1 Lower Back

Procedure: The test position is standing. The athlete stands on the isometric dynamometer facing forward with knees slightly bent back - 54 -

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straight. The athlete grasps the adjustable handgrip holding it just below the knees and pull with the back. A reading is taken from the isometric dynamometer.

3.4.3.2 Pulley flexion:

Procedure: The test position is standing. An adjustable pulley system is used, to be adjusted at each athletes shoulder height when standing upright facing forward. The athlete assumes a standing position similar to a javelin delivery stride taking the handgrip behind him. Keeping the Torso as still as possible (movement is allowed) with the arm slightly bent, the athlete flexes the shoulder and arm to the front, pulling all the way to the top of the quadriceps.

3.4.4

Testing Explosive Strength:

According to Baechle & Earle (2000:289) high-speed muscular strength or maximal anaerobic muscular power is the ability of a muscle to exert high force while contracting at a high speed. Such strength and power tests are of very short duration, performed at maximal movement speeds and produce very high power outputs.

3.4.4.1 Medicine Ball Putt:

Procedure: The test position is seated. The athlete sits upright with his backside touching his shoes. The athlete begins by holding the ball with both hands at chest level, elbows pointing out. With no body movement the ball is pushed off the athletes chest ending with the arms straight. At the time of release the athletes

backside must be in contact with his shoes. Distance of medicine ball putt is measured with measuring tape. Each athlete has three maximum efforts (Chu 1996:80). - 55 -

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3.4.4.2 Medicine Ball Seated Backward Throw:

Procedure: The test position is seated. Sit holding the ball outstretched over the athletes straight legs. Raise the upper body, the arms and the ball as a unit and toss the ball up and back over the athletes head while keeping the arms extended and the back straight. At time of release the athletes back should be at a 90 position before momentum takes the athlete further back. Distance of medicine ball seated backward throw is measured with measuring tape. Each athlete has three maximum efforts (Chu 1996:117).

3.4.4.3 Medicine Ball Overhead Throw:

Procedure: The test position is standing. Start by standing holding the ball overhead. Step forward and bring the ball sharply forward with both arms, throwing it as far as possible. Distance of medicine ball overhead throw is measured with measuring tape. athlete has three maximum efforts (Chu 1996:106-107). Each

3.4.5

Testing Muscular Endurance:

According to Baechle & Earle (2000:289) testing endurance is the ability of a certain muscle or muscle group to perform repeated contractions against a sub maximal resistance. A test of local muscular endurance should be performed in a continuous manner for several minutes without the advantage of rest periods or extraneous body movements.

3.4.5.1 Sit Ups

Procedure: The athlete assumes the starting position by lying on his back with knees bent at 90. Keep feet together. Another athlete - 56 -

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holds the athletes ankles with the hands only. The heel is the only part of the foot that must remain in contact with the ground. The athletes fingers are interlocked behind the neck, and the backs of the hands touch the mat.

On the go command, the athlete begins raising the upper body until elbows touches the knees. The athlete lowers the body then until the upper portion of the back touches the mat. The head, hands, arms, and elbows do not have to touch the ground. The athlete is motivated to do as many as possible in 1 minute. (Baechle and Earle 2000:297)

3.4.5.2 Push Ups

Procedure: The test position is when the athlete assumes the front leaning rest position by placing the hands where they are comfortable. The feet together. When viewed from the side the body should form an essentially straight line from the shoulders to the ankles. On the go command, the athlete begins the push up by bending the elbows and lowering the entire body as a unit until the upper arms are parallel to the ground. The athlete returns to the starting position by raising the entire body until the arms are fully extended. The body must remain straight and move as a unit for the entire repetition. The athlete is motivated to do as many as possible repetitions in 1 minute (Baechle 1994:263).

3.4.5.3 Pull Ups

Procedure: The test position is hanging from a straight high bar. The athlete start by grasping the bar with both hands shoulder width apart. The athlete bends his legs to 90 and start by pulling himself up until his chin is raised above the bar. He then lowers himself to a position were the arms is bend at 45. - 57 The up and down

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movement is continuous and resting in the down position with the arms straight is not permitted. The athlete is motivated to do as many as possible (Prentice 1993:141-142).

3.4.6

Testing Posture:

According

to

Howley & Franks

(1992:193-195)

the

postural

considerations have implications for exercise prescription. Through the use of postural screening instruments, one will be able to detect factors that might not otherwise be noticed. For example, the individual noted to have rounded shoulders is not going to benefit from a regimen that emphasizes bench presses, for this could further exacerbate the condition. Posture testing is done on shoulders, spine, hips, upper back, and lower back. The athletes were screened from the side and the back with shirts off. The New York Posture Rating Chart was used. Note. From The New York Physical Fitness Test: A Manual for Teachers of P.E., New York State Education Department. 1958. Points were given according to the chart. The chart can be viewed in annexure E (Howley and Franks 1992:195).

3.4.7

Testing Athletic Type Lifts:

According to OShea (1995:93) maximal throwing power is generated through the multi-linked skeletal system, beginning first with the bodys power zone then flowing through the upper back, the shoulder, and finally the throwing arm. Using the push press to test athletic strength is important because of the excellent power transfer derived from it for throwing events in track and field. According to OShea (1995:94) the push press is in many aspects superior to the bench press in its ability to develop functional strength and power. It is a free standing full

body lift requiring the generation of high Torso kinetic energy when lifting maximum to near maximum loads.

3.4.7.1 Push Press - 58 -

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Procedure: The test position is standing holding the barbell across the chest hands shoulder width apart. The athlete slightly flexes the hips and knees, keeping Torso erect. Immediately follow with an explosive push upward by extending the knees Keep Torso erect and tensed. At maximum hip and knee extension, shift body weight to balls of feet and extend ankle joints. At maximum plantar flexion, push bar from the shoulders. Push the bar with the arms to a fully extended elbow position overhead. Lower bar to shoulders and flex hips and knees slightly as bar touches shoulders. Straighten the hips and knees before the upward movement phase begins again. Exhale through the sticking point of the upward movement phase. Inhale during the downward movement phase (Baechle 1994:396).

3.5

THE BLUEPRINT TRAINING DESIGN

When developing a training program the blueprint designed by OShea (2000:4) is of critical importance, and therefore each step of the blueprint design will be discussed thoroughly. To illustrate clearly how the training program for the throwing high school throwing athletes were developed.

3.5.1 Neural control

According to Marieb (1995:340) the nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, action, and emotion reflects its activity. The nervous system is by far the most rapid acting and complex. Cells of the nervous system communicate by means of electrical signals, which are rapid, specific and usually cause almost immediate response.

Marieb (1995:340) states the three overlapping functions: - 59 -

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i) It uses its millions of sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring both inside and outside of the body. These changes are called stimuli and the gathered information is called sensory input.

ii)

It processes and interprets the sensory input and makes decisions about what should be done at each moment a process called integration.

iii)

It causes a response by activating the effector organs, our muscles or glands; this response is called motor output.

According to Marieb (1995:341) humans only have a single, highly integrated nervous system. The nervous system can be divided into two integral parts:

3.5.2 Central nervous system (CNS): Consist of the brain and spinal cord

The CNS is the integrating and command centre of the nervous system. It interprets incoming sensory information and dictates responses based on past experiences, reflexes, and current conditions (Marieb, 1995:341).

3.5.3

Peripheral nervous system (PNS):

Is the part of the nervous system outside of the CNS and consists mainly of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord. Spinal nerves carry impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord and cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain.

These peripheral nerves serve as communication lines linking all parts of the body to the central nervous system (Marieb, 1995:341). - 60 -

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The PNS subdivides:

3.5.3.1 Sensory division:

Sensory division is nerve fibres that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory receptors located throughout the body. The sensory fibres subdivide into somatic (from body in) and visceral (from visceral organs to CNS). The sensory division keeps the CNS constantly informed of events going on both inside and outside of the body.

3.5.3.2 Motor division:

Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs, muscles, and glands. Simply they effect a motor response. The motor division can be subdivided in:

3.5.3.2(1)

Somatic nervous system these fibres conduct impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscle.

3.5.3.2(2)

Autonomic nervous system these fibres regulate the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands. This system has two functional subdivisions:

3.5.3.2(2)(i) Sympathetic mobilizes body systems during emergency situations.

3.5.3.2(2)(ii) Parasympathetic conserves energy and promotes non-emergency

functions.

This organizational system of the nervous system as explained needs to be trained specifically to teach muscle to most effective perform required actions. When the body is taught a javelin throwing action the central - 61 -

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nervous system activates nerve fibres involved and stores the information learned. When at a later stage an action is performed the central nervous system recalls learned information and the same nerves for the required activity are activated. Therefore training must stimulate the

organizational system of the bodys nervous system.

3.6

Primary muscle groups used

When training throwing athletes, the primary muscle used seem to overlap but differences in each state of motion does exist and needs to be considered when designing a training program for each athletes specific item as shown in Table 3.1. The table consist of the combined efforts of Gain (1983:4), Dearmond & Semenick (1989:2) and Pyka & Otrando (1991:1).

Table 3.1 Primary muscle groups used Adapted from Gain (1983:4), Dearmond & Semenick (1989:2), Pyka & Otrando (1991:1)
(Position column refer to the action performed by the athlete involved in column A, B, and C. Column A C indicates the muscles used by the athletes in each phase of them performing their specific item)

POSITION

A.Javelin

B. Discus

C. Shot put

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A1. Run up
Gluteus Maximus Bicep Femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranous Soleus Rectus Femoris Gastrocnemius Vastus lateralis Deltoid Vastus medialis Trapezius Deltoid Erector spinae Internal oblique External oblique Rectus abdominus Quadriceps Hamstring Gastrocnemius Soleus Adductor brevis Adductor longus Adductor Magnus Gracillis Internal oblique External oblique Pectoral major Deltoid Rectus abdominus Deltoid Extensor digitorum Communis Tricep Rectus abdominus External oblique Sartorius Rectus Femoris Soleus Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Gastrocnemius Deltoid Rectus abdominus Tricep Rectus Femoris External oblique Vastus medialis Gluteus Maximus Gastrocnemius Soleus Rectus Femoris Vastus medialis Gastrocnemius Soleus Rectus abdominus Tricep External oblique Deltoid Gluteus Maximus Bicep Femoris Gastrocnemius Soleus External oblique Deltoid Vastus lateralis Tricep Rectus Femoris Pectoral major

B2. Start

C3. Set up

A2.Withdrawal

B2. 1st movement phase sprint

C2. Turn A3. Crossover

B3. Power position

C3. Power position A4. Throw and release

Gluteals Adductor longus Aductor magnus Gracilis Gastrocnemius Soleus Erector spinae Quadriceps Semimembranous Sartorius Sartorius Adductor longus Quadriceps Adductor brevis Adductor magnus Gluteals Semimembranous Bicep Femoris

B4.

C4. Finish A5. Follow through

Medial deltoid Palmaris longus Pectoral major Rectus abdominus Latisimus dorsi Anterior deltoid Flexor carpi ulnaris External oblique Tricep brachi Internal oblique Trapezius Posterior deltoid Erector spinae Gluteus Maximus Gastrocnemius Soleus

The six-week training program was designed to stimulate the muscles involved in each throwing activity, to achieve higher level of preparedness and achievements. The complete training program, in pictures, for each throwing event is illustrated in annexure A.

3.7 Range and duration of movement

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When designing the training program the principles of different motions involved, in throwing activities, are integrated.

Luttgens and Hamilton (1997:487), found that motion is a given, whether by hand, foot, head, or implement, it involves the imparting of force. Force is described in terms of its magnitude, direction, and point of application. In a sporting environment these principles provide the basis to giving motion to external objects such as shotput. Shot-put is classified as an pushpull application. According to Luttgens and Hamilton (1997:490) the magnitude of force used in pushing can be increased in two ways. The immediate way is by using the lower extremities and, in some instances, pushing activiates the direction and point of application of force which are interrelated. They both have an important bearing on the effectiveness of the force exerted, and on the economy of effort and avoidance of strain. Economy of effort is ensured when the force is applied in line with the objects centre of gravity and in the desired direction of motion.

Luttgens and Hamilton (1997:502) explain the patterns of motion used by javelins and discus athletes. These athletes make use of sequential movements. Each activity involves sequential movement of the body segments resulting in the production of a summated velocity at the end of the chain of segments used. The path produced by the end point of this chain of segments is curvilinear in nature.

Javelin throwing makes use of the over arm pattern.

This kind of throw is

characterized by rotation at the shoulder joint. In the pull back phase the abducted arm rotates laterally and in the forward, or force phase, the arm rotates medially. Some elbow extension, wrist flexion, and spinal rotation occur in the force phase. These movements are accompanied by rotation of the pelvis at the hip joint of the opposite limb, resulting in medial rotation of the thigh. An immature pattern may be identified as using fewer segments, working more simultaneously rather than sequential, and involving a more limited range of motion (Luttgens and Hamilton 1997:502).

In discus, Luttgens and Hamilton (1997:504) found that the sidearm pattern is used. In this pattern the basic movement is medial rotation of the pelvis on the opposite hip with the arm usually in an abducted position. - 64 The arm is moved forward in a

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horizontal plane due to the pelvic action and spinal rotation. The spine also laterally flexes toward the throwing arm.

3.8 Strength speed requirements

OShea (1995:95) explains that most sports consist of highly explosive skills and require strong torso rotational energy. To develop this type of energy you need to train with explosive torso rotational lifting movements, such as dynamic strength / speed power exercises. This is a direct application of the training specificity principle. According to OShea (1995:94) absolute strength training exercises are the parallel squat, dead lift and all types of pressing movements (especially the standing push press and the incline dumbbell press). The push press is in many respects superior to the bench press in its ability to develop high torso kinetic energy when lifting maximum to near maximum loads. The balastic nature of the lift provides for

excellent transfer of power to throwing events (javelin, discus & shot-put).

3.9 Metabolic considerations

When designing a training program for power activities such as throws in athletics, the energy systems involved need to be identified and trained too, with all other training components, achieve optimal performance. Siff and Verkhoshansky

(1993:69) find there is not only one type of fitness. A different type of fitness is required for cardiovascular, strength, and muscle endurance activities. The existence of these different types of fitness is largely a consequence of the different metabolic processes, which are responsible for providing energy in response to the special demands imposed by the specific activity. According to Siff and Verkhoshansky (1993:69) the physics concept of power combines the factors of intensity and duration, and can serve as a useful alternative measure of which energy system predominates during a specific activity. According to Sherman And Ruud (1994) non-endurance sport such as football, basketball, track and field, wrestling, or weightlifting usually involves brief periods of high-energy activity with alternate rest periods.

They may not reduce muscle glycogen to the same extent as continuous exercise for the same period of time. One study reported that high intensity, weight resistive exercise led to a moderate 30% reduction in muscle glycogen. While there are no - 65 -

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exact recommendations for carbohydrate, it is possible that the non-endurance athlete who trains daily and consumes a low carbohydrate diet is at risk for reduced muscle glycogen levels that could have a negative effect on training and performance.

Therefore non-endurance athletes should consume enough carbohydrate to maintain muscle glycogen levels during training and workouts. Maintaining adequate dietary carbohydrate is especially important for the non-endurance athlete who incorporates aerobic exercise into his training regimen.

It is also important to remember that a high carbohydrate diet probably provides a protein sparing effect. This means carbohydrate calories will be used to supply

energy, allowing protein to be used for its more important function building and repairing tissue. In general, power and strength rely heavily on the high-energy phosphagen system, muscle endurance on the oxygenindependent glycolytic system, and cardiovascular endurance on the oxygendependent energy system. Due to its nature throwing activities (javelin, discus, and shot-put) rely on the high-energy phosphagen system (ATP and CP), that provides energy for high intensity, high power or very rapid activities. The initial energy is furnished by the breakdown of ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate Pi in the presence of water and the enzyme adenosine triphosphatase, (Siff and Verkhoshansky 1993:72).

According to Siff and Verkhoshansky (1993:72) each mole of ATP produces about 7.3 kilocalories of energy and a residue of ADP, which has to be upgraded to ATP from the CP stores. The small quantity of ATP in the muscle cells is depleted within a few seconds of strenuous all-out activity and muscle action would cease but for the fact that energy is transferred rapidly to the ADP by the CP reservoir in the cells. There is 3 5 times as much CP as ATP in the cells, which enables the phosphagen system to fuel intense effort for a maximum of 20 30 seconds. The enzyme creatine kinase catalyses this reaction.

After this, the exercise intensity has to drop to enable the phophagen stores to be replenished by the other energy systems. Any increase in the concentration of ADP in the cell signals the need for more energy to be made available from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fat or protein in order to restore the levels of ATP, (Siff and Verkhoshansky 1993: 73) - 66 -

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3.10

The training program

The purpose of this study is to introduce an off-season training program for high school athletes and coaches to improve all phases of athletic performance with regards to throwing events (javelin, discus and shot-put).

The priority of the off-season program is to improve strength, power, strength power transition, and flexibility. The school athletes have never done specific training for their sport, therefore the first three weeks of training was item specific conditioning and preparation for high intensity sport specific training in the next three weeks.

The off-season focussed on base strength development, power improvement, and conditioning. The off-season training started with preliminary testing of item specific needs. For the first three weeks the athletes did specific training for their throwing items at 3 sets of 12, 10, 8 repetitions at 70% to 80% of 1RM. Athletic type lifts specific to each item were introduced in the first three weeks to teach the athlete how to perform them as to be able to increase intensity in the following three weeks. Two sets of 10 repetitions were used. Development of the power zone is vital for power athletes and a complete session was given to this throughout the six-week training period. The athletes had an active rest during the summer break where they took part in non-specific training. The first three weeks after the summer break the same exercises were used to prepare for competition at a higher intensity, 3 sets of 10, 8, 6 repetitions at 80% to 90% of 1RM with explosive medicine ball work (upper body) and plyometric jumps (lower body) as part of each set, for example: Incline bench press medicine ball chest pass rest 2 minutes, repeat, and Squat Medicine bal squat jump rest 2 minutes and repeat. The athletes took a 1 to 2 minute rest interval between sets in session 1 and 2 and 45 seconds to 1 minute in session 3. Warming up before each session was handled by the school coach. Table 3.2 shows the program used for the full 6 weeks. Table 7.10 provides full pictures and action discussion on each explosive exercise used.

The control group did not have off-season training only in season training. They followed the program as shown in Table 3.3 for the whole season. The control group was only used to compare results with the experimental group at the end of the study. - 67 -

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The experimental group also took part in the technique training and medicine ball work as prescribed by the coach.

Table 3.2 Experimental group training program

Session 1
Rest 1-2min

Session 2
Rest 1-2min

Week 1-3 Sets


2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3

Week 1-3 Repetition s


10 10 12;10;8 12;10;8 12;10;8 12;10;8 12;10;8 12;10;8

Week 4-6 Week 4-6 Sets Repetitions


2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 10 10 10;8;6 10;8;6 10;8;6 10;8;6 10;8;6 10;8;6

Pec flys High pulls BB pullovers Front lat pulldown DB shoulder press BB bicep curl Tricep pressdown Wrist roller

Clean Jerk Squat DB Lunges Leg curl Inc leg press Seated calf raises DB step upToe raises

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Session 3
Rest 45-60sec Crunches Reverse crunches Side crunches Back extension V- ups Alternating arm leg raise Stretching

Week 1-3 Sets/Repetitions


2/20 2/20 2/20 2/15 2/20 2/15 10 minutes

Week 4-6 Sets/Repetitions


2/30 2/30 2/30 3/15 2/30 3/15

Explosive exercises Session 1


Drop & catch push up Power drop Vertical toss Push up depth jump Medicine ball chest pass Overhead medicine ball throw

Used in: Session 2


Medicine ball squat jump Split squat jump with cycle Underhand medicine ball throw

Week 4-6 Sets


3 3 3 3 3 3

Week 4-6 Repetitions


6 6 6 6 6 6

Table 3.3 Control group training program The control group training consisting of the following: MO TUE WED THUR FRI SA Medicine Technique Speed And Technique Competition Competition Balls & training Rhythm Training or or Weight Rest Rest training
300 Chest pass, 300 Overhead throws Weight training 4top and 4 bottom 3x 15;12;10 Speed: 3x30m; 3x50m; 3x80m; 3x100m; 1-2min rest Rhythm: 2x30m; Side shuffle; Carioca; High hops; Knee lifts; Butt kicks

SO Rest

3.11 Resistance training and children

According to Kraemer and Fleck (1993:1-5) the use of resistance training to increase muscular strength and endurance in prepubescent and adolescent boys and girls was - 69 -

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highly controversial. Boys and girls were discouraged from using free weights for fear that they might injure themselves and prematurely stop the growth process. Furthermore, many scientists speculated that resistance training would have little or no effect on the muscle of prepubescent boys because their levels of circulating androgens were still low.

Studies on animals suggest that heavy resistance training can lead to stronger, broader, and more compact bones. But these studies have not contributed much to our

understanding of the benefits or risks associated with this form of activity for humans because it is nearly impossible to load these animals to the same extent as youngsters can be loaded. Fortunately, several studies have been conducted in which both

prepubescent and adolescent children have participated in resistance training. Kraemer and Fleck (1993:1-5) have concluded from these studies that the risk of injury is very low. In fact, resistance training might offer some protection against injury, for example, by strengthening the muscles that cross a joint. A conservative approach is still recommended, particularly for preadolescents (Faigenbaum and Polakowski 1999:73-76).

When in a study such as this youngsters are taught athletic type lifts such as the clean and jerk, push press, and power clean, parents become concerned because of the perception from television images of competitive weightlifters attempting to press 2 to 3 times their body weight overhead.

Despite these preconceived concerns associated with youth resistance training, an expanding body of evidence indicates that resistance training can be a safe and effective method of conditioning for children provided that appropriate training guidelines are followed and qualified supervision is present, (Kraemer & Fleck 1993:15).

According to Faigenbaum and Polakowski (1999:73-76) the belief that resistance training is riskier than other sport and activities in which youth participate is not only inconsistent with current research findings, but also creates a difficult environment for experienced coaches and teachers who want to introduce youngsters to more advanced training techniques. Ironically, it seems that the forces to which children are exposed in sport and recreational activities may be greater in both duration and magnitude than - 70 -

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the forces generated during the performance of the snatch or the clean and jerk. Thus the argument that resistance training is dangerous for children because it involves the performance of a single maximal exertion appears suspect, because children regularly perform maximal efforts in other sports and recreational activities as they jump, tackle, throw and kick.

When working with children, it is important to keep in mind that they are not miniature adults. No matter how big or strong a child is, coaches and teachers need to remember that children are less mature than adults and are often experiencing new sport and activities for the very first time. Children should have the emotional

maturity to accept and follow directions and to adhere to safety considerations. Children should be aware of the potential for injury and should understand that they can get hurt if they do not pay close attention to coaching instructions, (Kraemer & Fleck 1993:12) and (Faigenbaum and Polakowski 1999:73-76). The risk associated with advanced multi joint exercises is not greater than the risk of other sport and activities in which children regularly participate, provided that age specific training guidelines are followed, Kraemer & Fleck (1993:33). Teachers and coaches need to appreciate the time it takes to teach children these lifts and the need to focus on the technical mastery of each lift before heavy loads are used. If boys and girls are given the opportunity to learn these lifts properly during their developmental years, they will be more likely to reach their genetic potential in musculoskeletal strength and power during adulthood.

3.12 Effectiveness of the program

Performances at the major final athletics meeting of the year improved significantly. A number of variables were tested, as indicated in annexure A and discussed in chapter 3, to evaluate effectiveness of the implemented training program. Results of both the experimental and control groups were obtained at the final major meeting of the year. These results was used to compare with results obtained at the final major meeting of the year after the athletes took part in suggested training program in the off season. The off season started with pre-program testing, followed by the

implementation of the off season training program that moved into pre-and in season technique training. Performance results are of vital importance to this study as it - 71 -

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indicates effectiveness of the implemented training program, for the experimental group, to the lack of such training for the control group. The laboratory and field test results for the pre-and post program implementation indicate commitment on the experimental groups part. The results achieved by the experimental group at the final major meeting of the year, show the effectiveness of the implemented program.

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4.

RESULTS

Because of the vast amount of results and statistical analyses, these will be presented in sections and in the same order in which the tests were performed.

The main purpose of the results is to establish the effect of training in the off-season at high school level as preparation to in season athletic participation and performance increase.

The changes between T1 [pre-test before training intervention] and T2 [post-test after season] represent the training effect indicated as percentage [%] increase. Standard deviation is presented and a p-value of <0.05 is significant to achieved results throughout. Results of each test are indicated as a mean value of all participating subjects.

Negative signs in front of % difference always indicate a rise or an increase in the mean value of that variable.

4.1

Cybex strength testing

SHOULDER

FLEXION,

EXTENSION;

ELBOW

FLEXION,

EXTENSION;

SHOULDER INTERNAL, EXTERNAL ROTATION; AND KNEE FLEXION, EXTENSION.

The mean shoulder flexion was measured at 35.3ft-lbs at T1 and increased to 45.4ftlbs at T2. This reflects a significant percentage increase of 22.24%, [p = 0.0001]. The mean shoulder extension was measured at 50.9ft-lbs at T1 and decreased to 40.7ft-lbs at T2. This reflects a significant percentage decrease of 20.03%, [p = 0.0002].

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Elbow flexion achieved a mean at T1 of 28.3ft-lbs and increased to 30ft-lbs at T2 reflecting a significant percentage increase of 5.6% between T1 and T2, [p = 0.0001]. Elbow extension achieved a mean at T1 of 32ft-lbs and decreased to 29.5ft-lbs at T2 reflecting a significant percentage decrease of 7.81%, [p = 0.0001].

Shoulder internal rotation achieved a mean at T1 of 24.8ft-lbs and decreased to 23.6ftlbs at T2 reflecting a significant percentage decrease of 0.04%, [p = 0.0005]. Shoulder external rotation achieved a mean at T1 of 17.3ft-lbs and increased to 18.1ftlbs at T2 reflecting a significant percentage increase of 0.04%, [p = 0. 0001].

Knee flexion achieved a mean of 84.4ft-lbs at T1 and increased to 88.1ft-lbs at T2 reflecting a significant percentage increase of 4.19%, [p = 0. 0002]. Knee extension achieved a mean of 132ft-lbs at T1 and increased to 135.2ft-lbs at T2 reflecting a significant percentage increase of 2.36%, [p = 0. 0001].

Strength testing results is presented in table 4.1

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Table 4.1 Strength testing results

P Variables Units T1 T2 Standard Deviation


1 Shoulder flexion 2 Shoulder extension 3 Elbow flexion 4 Elbow extension 5 Shoulder internal rotation 6 Shoulder external rotation 7 Knee flexion 8 Knee extension Ft lbs Ft lbs Ft lbs 17.3 84.4 132 18.1 88.1 135.2 4.8 19 20.9 0.04% 4.19% 2.36% . 0001 . 0002 . 0001 Ft lbs 24.8 23.6 16.3 -0.04% .0002 Ft lbs Ft lbs Ft lbs Ft lbs 35.3 50.9 28.3 32 45.4 40.7 30 29.5 9.15 12.05 7.35 6.8

Percentage increase
22.24% -20.03% 5.6% -7.81%

value <0.05
.0001 .0002 . 0001 . 0001

4.2

Flexibility Testing

LOW BACK; SHOULDER INTERNAL ROTATION; SHOULDER EXTERNAL ROTATION; SHOULDER ADDUCTION; SHOULDER ABDUCTION; ELBOW FLEXION; ELBOW EXTENSION; HIP FLEXION; AND HIP EXTENSION.

The low back mean score at T1 was 8.7 centimeters [cm] and increased to 9.7cm at T2 reflecting an insignificant percentage increase of 0.10%, [p = 0.17].

Shoulder internal rotation achieved a mean score of 50.2 at T1 and a mean of 46.6 at T2. This reflects an insignificant percentage decrease of 7.17%, [p = 0.48].

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Shoulder external rotation achieved a mean at T1 of 82.4 degrees and increased to 85.2 degrees at T2. This reflects an insignificant percentage increase of 3.4%, [p = 0.57].

Shoulder adduction achieved a mean score of 90.9 at T1 and increased to 94 at T2 reflecting an insignificant percentage increase of 3.29%, [p = 0.65].

Shoulder abduction achieved a mean score at T1 of 18.3 and increased to 22.7 at T2 reflecting an insignificant percentage increase of 19.38%, [p = 0.60].

Elbow flexion achieved a mean score at T1 of 138.2 and increased to 141 at T2 reflecting a significant percentage increase of 1.98%, [p = 0.02].

Elbow extension achieved a mean score of 0 at T1 and T2. Therefore no percentage increase or p value was achieved.

Hip flexion achieved a mean score of 98.7 at T1 and decreased to 96.5 at T2 reflecting an insignificant percentage decrease of 0.02%, [p = 0.48].

Hip extension achieved a mean score of 19.6 at T1 and increased to 22 at T2 reflecting an insignificant percentage increase of 10.9%, [p = 0.52].

The flexibility test results are presented in table 4.2 Table 4.2 Flexibility results

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P value Variables Units T1 T2 Standard deviation
1 Low back 2 Shoulder internal rotation 3 Shoulder external rotation 4 Shoulder adduction 5 Shoulder abduction 6 Elbow flexion 7 Elbow extension 8 Hip flexion 9 Hip extension Cm degrees degrees -8.7 50.2 82.4 -9.7 46.6 85.2 6.45 9.95 8.2

Percentage increase
0.10% -7.17% 3.4%

<0.05

0.17 0.50 0.56

degrees

90.9

94

13.05

3.29%

0.65

degrees degrees

18.3 138.2

22.7 141

6.65 6.8

19.38% 1.98%

0.59 0.02

degrees degrees degrees

0 98.7 19.6

0 96.5 22

0 17 4.15

0 -0.02% 10.9%

0 0.48 0.51

4.3

Functional strength testing

LOW BACK STRENGTH; PULLEY EXTENSION.

Low back functional strength testing achieved a mean score at T1 of 90.7 Kg f and increased to 105.5 Kg f at T2 reflecting a highly significant percentage increase of 14.02%, [p = 0.008].

Pulley extension functional strength testing achieved a mean score at T1 of 4.8 kg and increased to 6.1 kg at T2 reflecting a highly significant percentage increase of 21.31%, [p = 0.001].

Functional strength test results can be observed in table 4.3. 4.4 Explosive strength testing

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MEDICINE BALL PUTT; MEDICINE BALL SEATED BACKWARD THROW; AND MEDICINE BALL STANDING OVERHEAD THROW.

Table 4.4 shows all of the medicine ball test results. Of all the measurements taken only medicine ball putt experienced a decrease from T1 to T2 of 3.84 % and is insignificant.

There was no significant change in medicine ball distance achieved measured in meters from T1 to T2. Explosive strength test results can be observed in table 4.4 Table 4.3 Functional strength P Variables Units T1 T2 Standard deviation
1 Low back 2 Pulley extension Kg f 90.7 105.5 29.45

Percentage increase
14.02%

value <0.05
0.008

Kilogram

4.8

6.1

1.8

21.31%

0.001

Table 4.4 Explosive strength Variables Units T1 T2 Standard deviation


1 Medicine ball putt 2 Medicine ball backward throw 3 Medicine ball overhead throw Meter Meter Meter 5.2 5.8 8 5 5.8 8.1 0.7 1 1.1

Percentage increase
-3.84% 0% 1.23%

P value <0.05
0.251 0.528 0.264

4.5

Muscular endurance testing

PUSH UP; SIT UP; AND PULL UP.

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Push up muscular endurance testing achieved a mean score at T1 of 40 reps and increased to 43 at T2 reflecting an insignificant percentage increase of 7.62%, [p = 0.380].

Sit up muscular endurance testing achieved a mean score at T1 of 40 reps and increased to 47 at T2 reflecting a percentage increase of 15.61%. The difference between T1 and T2 had no significant effect on the study, [p = 0.395].

Pull up muscular endurance testing achieved a mean score at T1 of 5 reps and increased to 6 at T2 reflecting a percentage increase of 13.79%. The difference between T1 and T2 is however significant, [p = 0.003]. Muscular endurance test results can be observed in table 4.5.

4.6 Posture Testing

SHOULDER POSTURE; SPINE POSTURE; HIP POSTURE; UPPER BACK POSTURE; AND LOW BACK POSTURE.

Shoulder posture achieved a mean score at T1 of 7 and obtained the same value at T2. No difference was reflected between T1 and T2.

Spine posture achieved a mean score at T1 of 9 and increased to 10 at T2 reflecting an insignificant percentage increase of 8.16%, [p = 0.210].

Hip posture achieved a mean score at T1 of 10 and obtained the same value at T2. No difference was reflected between T1 and T2.

Upper back posture achieved a mean score at T1 of 9 and increased to 10 at T2 reflecting an insignificant percentage increase of 8.16%, [p = 0.849]. Lower back posture achieved a mean score at T1 of 9 and increased to 10 at T2 reflecting an insignificant percentage increase of 9.18%, [p = 0.287].

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Posture test results can be observed in table 4.6

4.7 Athletic Type Lifts testing

PUSH PRESS

Push press achieved a mean at T1 of 23.7kg and increased to 31.8kg at T2 reflecting a highly significant percentage increase of 25.47%, [p = 0 .0002].

Athletic type lifts test results can be observed in table 4.7.

4.8

Antropometric measurements testing

HEIGHT TESTING; AND MASS TESTING Height testing achieved a mean score at T1 of 173cm and increased to 173.7cm at T2 reflecting a highly significant percentage increase of 0.4%, [p = 0.005].

Mass testing achieved a mean score at T1 of 69.5kg and increased to 70.8kg at T2 reflecting a highly significant percentage increase of 1.83%, [p = 0.009].

Antropometric measurements test results can be observed in table 4.8.

Table 4.5 Muscular endurance

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P value Variables Units T1 T2 Standard deviation
1 Push up 2 Sit up 3 Pull up Repetitions Repetitions Repetitions 40 40 5 43 47 6 10.45 7.25 3.05

Percentage increase
7.62% 15.61% 13.79%

<0.05

0.380 0.395 0.003

Table 4.6 Posture testing Variables Units T1 T2 Standard deviation


1 Shoulder posture 2 Spine posture 3 Hip posture 4 Upper back posture 5 Lower back posture Points Points Points 7 9 10 7 10 10 0 1.6 0

Percentage increase
0% 8.16% 0%

P value <0.05
0.283 0.210 0.185

Points

0%

0.849

Points

10

1.6

9.18%

0.287

Table 4.7 Athletic type lifts Variables Units T1 T2 Standard deviation


1 Push press Kilogram 23.7 31.8 9.5

Percentage increase
25.47%

P value <0.05
0.0002

Table 4.8 Antropometric measurements

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P Variables Units T1 T2 Standard Deviation
1 Height testing 2 Weight testing Meter Kilogram 173 69.5 173.7 70.8 8.55 9.25

Percentage increase
0.4% 1.83%

value <0.05
0.005 0.009

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5.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

The main purpose of the discussion of results is to reason the effectiveness of the implemented training program on the tested variables.

The changes between T1 [pre-test before training intervention] and T2 [post-test after track and field athletic season] represent the training effect indicated as percentage [%] increase. Standard deviation is presented and a p-value of <0.05 is significant to achieved results throughout. Table 5.1 indicates clearly the effect of training on al the variables. It also clearly shows no significant effect of training on the following variables:

Flexibility Explosive strength Muscular endurance Posture

5.1

THE EFFECT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM ON STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS OF

SHOULDER FLEXION, EXTENSION; ELBOW FLEXION, EXTENSION; SHOULDER INTERNAL, EXTERNAL ROTATION; AND KNEE FLEXION, EXTENSION.

In general, strength improved after strength training especially with weights but also with partner training and with additional equipment such as medicine balls, to keep movements sport specific.

The fact that shoulder flexion improved the most, a percentage increase of 22.24%, with all the strength training done, may be attributed to the sport specific nature of strength training done. This percentage increase may be attributed to a couple of factors 1. The anatomical and mechanical principles involved in throwing events as discussed (Yessis 1980 and Luttgens & Hamilton 1997: 508-509)

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and 2. The increase in elbow flexion strength as indicated by the percentage increase of 5.6%. When improving the strength of elbow flexion, a 2 joint muscle is being worked, the biceps brachii, which also crosses the shoulder joint and is active in some movements of the humerus. Both heads are always active in flexion and in abduction with resistance when the elbow is straight (Luttgens and Hamilton 1997:121). This indicates clearly the sport specific nature of the training program. The percentage improvement of external shoulder rotation (0.04%) correlate with shoulder flexion as a clear indication on the stabilization effect of the muscles involved in the execution of movement with regards to throwing a javelin. Luttgens & Hamilton (1997: 508) explain that the efficiency of imparting force to a javelin is judged in terms of speed, distance, and direction of the javelin after its release. It seems therefore that all these factors are involved in achieving optimal distance in throwing a javelin for performance. Mechanically, Luttgens & Hamilton (1997:508) explain that the speed and distance of the throw are directly related to the magnitude of the force used in throwing it and to the speed of the hand at the moment of release. The speed the hand is able to achieve depends on the distance through which it moves in the preparatory part of the act and the summed angular velocities of the contributing body segments. Hence, the longer the preparatory back pull and the greater the distance that can be added by means of rotating the body, shifting the weight, and taking a crossover step, the greater the opportunity for acceleration. Approximately 50% of the javelin speed is obtained from the crossover step and body rotation. The remaining speed is

contributed by the joint actions in the shoulder, elbow, wrist and fingers. Since ground contact is important for a javelin thrower, a 4.19% knee flexion and 2.36% knee extension increase was achieved in leg strength. The ground surface must be firm and there must be no sliding between the ground surface and the foot. The more the direction of the body thrust is backward, the more important the friction becomes. In addition Luttgens & Hamilton (1997: 508) state that if distance is the primary focus of the throw, the angle of projection and the effects of gravitational force and air resistance must also be taken into consideration. The stated mechanical principles seem to support the achieved strength gained results. Therefore it seems that the percentage increase of elbow flexion, shoulder external rotation, and knee flexion and extension are all part of the summation of force generated for the optimal achievement of performance and therefore the very highly significant percentage increase of shoulder flexion. All these tested variables correlate very highly with an increase in

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performance with a p value of well below p<0.05. A percentage decrease are observed for shoulder extension, elbow extension and shoulder internal rotation and may be attributed to the fact that the training program focussed more on flexion type movements. Even so the percentage decrease correlates highly with an increase in performance with a p value of well below p<0.05. This can be explained as discussed previously by Luttgens and Hamilton (1997:508) that in execution of a javelin throw the extension movements performed are essential but not a force generating action.

Furthermore the specific demands of the strength training program places a high demand on the shoulder muscles to adapt to the training intensity. Dick (1978:36-39) and Harre (1982:73-94) discussed the specificity of training and developed the intensity of effort table, (see table 2.3). Bompa (1999:29-49) supported these researchers with the principles of specificity. (see figure 2.6 and 2.7).

All the participants in the study achieved strength gains in shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, shoulder external rotation, knee flexion and knee extension. These improvements may be attributed to the implemented strength training program as well as the individuals abilities and potential (Kurz 1991) and (Wolfe et al, 2004:35-47). The following must also be considered: The athletes chronological and biological (physical maturity) age, experience in the sport, skill level, capacity for effort and performance, training and health status, training load capacity and rate of recovery, body build and nervous system type, and sexual differences. (Kraemer and Fleck, 1993:9-15). Since most of the athletes in this study were in the puberty stage these factors may have had a significant effect on strength gains and may explain the lack of improvement in flexibility (Kraemer and Fleck, 1993:9-15) as seen in table 4.2.

Table 5.1

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Effect of training on tested variables Variables
Shoulder flexion Shoulder extension Elbow flexion Elbow extension Shoulder int rotation Shoulder ext rotation Knee flexion Knee extension Lower back Shoulder int rotation Shoulder ext rotation Shoulder adduction Shoulder abduction Elbow flexion Elbow extension Hip flexion Hip extension Low back Pulley extension Med ball putt Med ball backward throw Med ball overhead throw Push up Sit up Pull up Shoulder posture Spine posture Hip posture Upper back posture Lower back posture Push press Height testing Weight testing Performance [Experimental]

Units
Ft lbs Ft lbs Ft lbs Ft lbs Ft lbs Ft lbs Ft lbs Ft lbs Cm Degrees Degrees Degrees Degrees Degrees Degrees Degrees Degrees Kg f Kilogram Meter Meter Meter Repetitions Repetitions Repetitions Points Points Points Points Points Kilogram Meter Kilogram Meter

T1
35.3 50.9 28.3 32 24.8 17.3 84.4 132 -8.7 50.2 82.4 90.9 18.3 138.2 0 98.7 19.6 90.7 4.8 5.2 5.8 8 40 40 5 7 9 10 9 9 23.7 173 69.5 35.58

T2
45.4 40.7 30 29.5 23.6 18.1 88.1 135.2 -9.7 46.6 85.2 94 22.7 141 0 96.5 22 105.5 6.1 5 5.8 8.1 43 47 6 7 10 10 9 10 31.8 173.7 70.8 37.24

Standard Deviation
9.15 12.05 7.35 6.8 16.3 4.8 19 20.9 6.45 9.95 8.2 13.05 6.65 6.8 0 17 4.15 29.45 1.8 0.7 1 1.1 10.45 7.25 3.05 0 1.6 0 0 1.6 9.5 8.55 9.25 18.3

Percentage increase
22.24% -20.03% 5.6% -7.81% -0.04% 0.04% 4.19% 2.36% 0.10% -7.17% 3.4% 3.29% 19.38% 1.98% 0 -0.02% 10.9% 14.02% 21.31% -3.84% 0% 1.23% 7.62% 15.61% 13.79% 0% 8.16% 0% 0% 9.18% 25.47% 0.4% 1.83% 4.69%

P value <0.05
0.0001 0.0002 0. 0001 0. 0001 0.0002 0. 0001 0. 0002 0. 0001 0.17 0.50 0.56 0.65 0.59 0.02 0 0.48 0.51 0.008 0.001 0.251 0.528 0.264 0.380 0.395 0.003 0.283 0.210 0.185 0.849 0.287 0.0002 0.005 0.009 0.004

5.2 THE EFFECT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM ON FUNCTIONAL STRENGTH

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LOW BACK STRENGTH; PULLEY EXTENSION.

Functional strength training includes exercises that replicate, very closely, the sport specific movement that is used to perform throwing activities such as discussed in this study. A lot of tension is put on the lower back when executing a javelin throw, therefore the increase of 14.02% in lower back strength and 21.31% in pulley extension is highly significant. With a strong lower back the athlete is more stable in his power zone and more force can be generated into the javelin, directly influencing performance ability.

OShea (2000:106) found that when strong rotational strength is developed there is more energy available to the muscles to generate force.

The percentage increase of functional strength may be attributed to that specific speed and quickness exercises as these used in the study are explosive in nature and translate into the production of force and the ability to accelerate, which are of primary importance to javelin throwing, (Stone 1993:7-14), and (OShea 2000:107). The lifting movements composing the dynamic strength and speed power exercises produce high kinetic energy and are full-range multiple body joint exercises. The lifting movement is fast and explosive, which forces you to think in terms of both quick reaction speed and movement speed, as well as strength. OShea (2000:107) states that most sport consist of highly explosive skills and require strong torso rotational energy. To develop this type of energy, you need to train with explosive torso rotational lifting movements. Scientifically, this is the direct application of training specificity principle.

Therefore the percentage increase of lower back strength (14.02%) and shoulder pulley extension (21.31%) may be attributed to the specific nature of the exercises performed. The torso training and explosive athletic type lifts and medicine ball work correlated highly with performance increase of (p< 0.05) (OShea 2000:89). 5.3 THE EFFECT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM ON ATHLETIC TYPE LIFTS

PUSH PRESS.

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OShea (2000:106), and Stone (1993:7-14) found the push press to be the most effective training method to transfer strength and power into explosive athletic events such as javelin throwing. This is of importance to the study since a 25.47% increase was achieved between pre - and post testing.

Haff and Potteiger (2001:13-20), and Stone (1993:7-14) found that using the push press as explosive training method improved power production significantly. This study agrees with this as indicated by the 25.47% increase in test results, (p <0.05).

The increased performance in this study was mostly effected by the implementation of training with athletic type lifts.

According to OShea (1999:42-43), javelin throwing is highly explosive and requires the utmost in ballistic strength and speed. Producing outstanding performance is dependent on the athletes ability to properly direct and utilize the large muscular forces the bodys power zone is capable of generating. When executing the push press, the thrower is duplicating many of the biomechanical demands of throwing.

Push pressing greatly assists in maximizing upper body power (OShea 2000:121123). Once the bar reaches eye level, its continuous upward movement requires strong action from the spinal erectors, trapezius, deltoids, triceps and forearm muscles. These are the same muscles used in throwing. During the execution of a push press, there occurs a summation of forces, through which the powerful muscular forces generated at the knee and hip joints are transmitted through the musculoskeletal system to the upper torso muscles. In turn, these muscles transmit this force to the bar to maintain its upward acceleration.

In throwing, effective technique is also dependent on the summation of forces. Therefore, to train with athletic type lifts, such as the push press that in a large degree duplicate the throwing motion, the athlete will benefit from it in performance as indicated in this study (OShea 2000:123).

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5.4 THE EFFECT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM ON ANTROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

HEIGHT AND MASS.

When working with athletes of pre-adolescent age increases in both height and mass are expected. In this study the mass of the athletes tested increased by 1.83% and together with height that increased by 0.4% seemed to correlate significantly with increases in strength and functional strength.

These increases may be attributed to the fact that young athletes are still growing. In fact, the high correlation that exist may be attributed to growth factors, such as increased muscular co-ordination, increased neuromuscular functioning, increased trainability of the children and various hormonal factors for both boys and girls.

Kraemer & Fleck (1993:3-4) found that strength training had distinct advantages for young athletes in that it can aid in preventing injuries, such as strengthening muscles crossing a joint.

5.5 THE EFFECT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM ON FLEXIBILITY MEASUREMENTS

LOWER BACK; SHOULDER INTERNAL ROTATION; SHOULDER EXTERNAL ROTATION; SHOULDER ADDUCTION; SHOULDER ABDUCTION; ELBOW FLEXION; ELBOW EXTENSION; HIP FLEXION; AND HIP EXTENSION.

As shown in table 5.1, it is found that flexibility had no effect on performance of the athletes partaking in this study with an average p value of (p>0.05). The importance of flexibility cannot be denied, as discussed by Bompa (2000) and Hedrick (2000:3338). Both stressed the importance of flexibility because of its value in assisting in prevention of injuries and enhanced performances. This, according to Ninos

(1999:4849), is most crucial during the adolescent growth spurt.

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This raises the question as to why flexibility had no influence on performance? A few possibilities exist and a lot of it has to do with the fact that this study was aimed at and worked with young athletes at pre-adolescence age. Boys of this age start to develop muscle size, stature and muscle strength as well as bone length and as this increases, flexibility is lost and a decline in performance could be the result. Girls seem to be more flexible for a longer time period as is the case when they start to approach adolescence where they seem to reach a plateau which may affect performance.

By instituting proper flexibility programs and coaching instruction at an early age, athletic injuries secondary to flexibility deficiencies could be minimized. One hopes that a greater understanding of the need for proper flexibility training as an integral part of any conditioning program will be instilled in the developing athletes to promote their success in the future, Ninos (1999:4849).

5.6 THE EFFECT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM ON EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS

MEDICINE BALL PUTT; MEDICINE BALL SEATED BACKWARD THROW; AND MEDICINE BALL STANDING OVERHEAD THROW.

Table 5.1 shows that explosive strength had no significant effect, (p >0.05).

When working with children, it is important to keep in mind that they are still growing. No matter how big or strong a child is, coaches and teachers need to remember that children are less mature than adults and are often experiencing sport and activities for the very first time. Children should have the emotional maturity to accept and follow directions and to adhere to safety considerations. Children should be aware of the potential for injury and should understand that they can get hurt if they do not pay close attention to coaching instructions.

This simple fact, that the study worked with pre-adolescence athletes, may be the biggest factor why explosive strength, working with medicine balls had little effect on performance.

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Since these athletes at this stage only start to develop muscle size and power it may affect the bodys ability to transfer power successfully. Haff & Potteiger (2001) found that the bodys ability to recruit motor units or to stimulate the rate coding mechanism, synchronization, neural inhibition, muscle cross-sectional area and motor unit type may be under developed in pre-adolescence athletes. This may contribute to the fact that in this study explosive work with medicine balls had little effect on performance.

5.7 THE EFFECT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM ON MUSCULAR ENDURANCE MEASUREMENTS

PUSH UP; SIT UP; AND PULL UP.

Muscular endurance was not specifically trained as the program focused on sport specific strength development as well as sport specific lifts. Muscular endurance is important for the basis it provides for future sport specific training, therefore it was tested. The results achieved between test 1 and 2 were not significant to performance as shown by the higher p value (of more than p < 0.05). However, pull ups correlated with performance, (p = 0.003). Pull ups develop the upper back and shoulder region of the athlete and therefore pull ups form the basis for the strength development in the push press, pulley flexion, shoulder flexion and extension.

5.8 THE

EFFECT

OF THE

TRAINING

PROGRAM

ON POSTURE

MEASUREMENTS

SHOULDER POSTURE; SPINE POSTURE; HIP POSTURE; UPPER BACK POSTURE; AND LOWER BACK POSTURE.

Shown in table 5.1, posture had little effect on performance of the high school javelin athlete, as indicated by the average p value of p = 0.36. Kraemer & Fleck, (1993) indicated that the young athletes emotional maturity and trainability, as well as exercise toleration, may contribute to posture having no effect on performance in this study. The study introduced weight training for the first time to many of the

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participants and in a short span of time they had to learn a lot of new movements and techniques. It may be that not all the movements were done perfect and may attribute to the non-significant effect posture had on performance levels.

Siff and Verkhoshansky (1993:158) explain the important relationship between strength and posture as follows: Of the conditions influencing the displaying of strength, the relative disposition of the bodys posture has important significance. The joint angles in posture change with movement, consequently, so does the operating length of the muscle for a given joint and angle of attachment to the bones. Increasing or decreasing the leverage and the moment of the muscular force changes the mechanical conditions of work, which can be advantageous when the force potential of the muscles is used fully and a hindrance when only part of their maximal tension can be used.

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SUMMARY

The purpose of this study was to determine an off-season training program for high school throwing athletes to enhance in season performance, and to determine the effectiveness of implemented training program on tested variables. Tested variables included flexibility, strength, functional strength, explosive strength, muscular endurance, posture, athletic type lifts and antropometric measurements.

A control group was monitored without them being tested. The experimental group was monitored and tested and performance results compared after two consecutive off-season training programs to determine the effectiveness of the implemented training program on the tested variables, if any.

6.1 Flexibility

No significant increase was obtained by the participants relative to the enhancement of performance of the throwing athlete. However lower back flexibility increased by 0.10%, (p = 0.17), shoulder internal rotation decreased by 7.17%, (p = 0.50), shoulder external rotation increased by 3.4%, (p = 0.56), shoulder adduction increased by 3.29%, (p = 0.65), shoulder abduction increased by 19.38%, (p = 0.59), elbow flexion increased by 1.98%, (p = 0.02), elbow extension showed no change, hip flexion decreased by 0.02%, (p = 0.48), and hip extension increased by 10.9%, (p = 0.51). During the off-season the participants did not experience drastic change to their flexibility, however, this may change during the in-season and return to previous levels after competition and is worth monitoring, (Table 4.2).

6.2 Strength

Significant changes were experienced by all the participants, and not only did strength increase, it also had a profound effect on performance levels of the participants. The most significant change was the increase by 22.24%, (p = 0.0001) of shoulder flexion which indicate the sport specific nature of the training program that was followed. Elbow flexion increased by 5.6%, (p = 0.0001), shoulder external rotation increased by 0.04%, (p = 0.0001), knee flexion increased by 4.19%, (p = 0.0002) and knee extension increased by 2.36%, (p = 0.0001). - 93 -

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Table 4.1 shows these and all the other strength training results.

6.3 Functional strength

Significant changes were experienced by all the participants, and not only did functional strength increase, it had a profound effect on performance levels of the participants. The most significant change was the increase by 21.31%, (p = 0.001) of pulley extension and 14.02%, (p = 0.008) of the lower back which indicate the sport specific nature of the training program that was followed.

Table 4.3 shows these values.

6.4 Explosive strength

Explosive strength was monitored by work done with medicine balls. No significant effect on either enhancing performance or training increase was experienced. Medicine ball overhead throw

increased by 1.23%, (p = 0.264) and medicine ball putt decreased by 3.84%, (p = 0.251).

This indicates clearly no value for medicine ball work to be done during off-season training to enhance performance, however, poor form and technique might offer some excuse for lack of increase during in season training with medicine balls.

Table 4.4 shows these values.

6.5 Muscular endurance

Muscular endurance was monitored by doing push ups, sit ups, and pull ups. No significant effect on push ups and sit ups with regards to enhancing performance was experienced, pull ups (p = 0.0037) did show value as a stabilizing factor for specific training such as the push press and pulley flexion. Training increase was experienced. The most significant increase correlating with performance was pull ups which increased by 13.79%, (p = 0.003).

Table 4.5 show this and other results.

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These results seem to indicate that for power transfer a more effective core training program should be adhered to.

6.6 Posture

Posture was only monitored and no specific training was done to improve it. It had no effect on the study. Table 4.6 shows the results achieved as well as the p value to indicate the effectiveness of posture on performance.

6.7 Athletic type lifts

Only the push press was tested and it had the most significant effect on performance as well as training increase. It increased by 25.47%, (p = 0.0002). This result alone leads this investigator to believe that training with more athletic type lifts will develop the throwing athlete in to a more complete thrower. The effect of other athletic type lifts on throwing events, such as, javelin needs to be investigated.

6.8 Antropometric measurements

Although not specifically trained, height and mass had a highly significant effect on performance with a p value of (p = 0.005) for height and (p = 0.009) for mass. This seems to indicate natural growth, since the study worked with young participants who is still growing, height and mass increases not only the ability to grow stronger but also develops neuromuscular abilities and becomes more physically and emotionally mature with regards to trainability.

6.9 Recommendations

To make a general statement that the findings of this research would apply to all throwing athletes is not possible unless a research study is undertaken with a more representative sample and at different levels of competing.

It is the responsibility of the coaches, athletes, and sport scientist alike to make sure, at school level especially, that in the off-season the athletes become well conditioned, strong and fit. They should realise that maintaining this levels is a continuous effort and must continue right through the - 94 95

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competitive season and not only focus on technique training. Especially at school level this process must be well planned and organised, since athletes tend to participate in more sport types through out the year than just athletics, and need to be prepared for those as well.

It is recommended that at school level there is a place for sport specific training as provided for in this research study, however, young athletes need to be treated as such and a continuous year round conditioning program should be adhered to, to achieve optimal success. This is also a long- term process of at least two years, first to introduce and teach the athletes about the benefit of strength training and secondly to make them use the program provided efficiently. This suggested training program differs from the current norm in schools in South Africa, and teachers that do coaching also need to be well advised as to the possible benefit of a training program such as this for their athletes.

6.10 Conclusion

Sufficient statistical evidence was obtained which confirms the hypothesis that the implementation of an off-season training program at high school level will have a significant effect on performance levels. The fact that performance levels at school stagnate and injuries occur is due to the fact that preparation is thrust into a week or two before the season starts, and to too many scheduled athletic meetings, which does not allow for proper preparation.

The sport scientist provides a supportive role to the coach, with regards to preparing the athletes physically, as to allow the coach more time to focus on the technical aspects. Given the opportunity to fulfil this role the sport scientist, athlete, coach and school will benefit performance wise.

Finally, this study clearly indicates that performance will increase when the throwing athletes participate in a off-season training program that focuses on sport specific training, such as, strength development, functional strength and especially athletic type lifts such as the push press

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, K. OShea, J.P. & OShea, K.L. 1992. The effects of six weeks of squat, plyometric and squat plyometric training on power production. Journal of Applied Sport Sciences. 6(1): 36 - 41 Arnheim, D. & Prentice, W. E. 2003. Principles of Athletic Training. 11th edition. McGraw Hill international. New York. Australian Sport Commission. 2000. Physiological Test for Elite Athletes. Champaign IL, Human Kinetic Books. Baechle, R. & Earle, W. 2000. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. National strength and conditioning association. 2nd edition. USA: Human Kinetics. Baechle, T.R. 1994. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. National strength and conditioning association. USA: Human Kinetics. Baker, D. 2001. Acute and long term power response to power training: Observations of the training of an elite power athlete. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 23(1): 4756. Bompa, T. 1999. Periodization training for sports. USA: Human Kinetics. Bompa, T. 1999. Periodization, Theory and Methodology of Training. 4th edition. USA: Kendall / Hunt publishing company. Bompa, T. 1990. Theory and Methodology of Training. 2nd edition. Dubuque, IA: Kendall / Hunt publishing company. Bompa, T. 2000. Total training for young champions. USA: Human Kinetics Chu, D. 1996. Explosive power and strength: complex training for maximum results. USA: Human Kinetics. Chu, D. 1998. Jumping into plyometrics: 100 exercises for power and strength. 2nd edition. California: Human Kinetics. Conroy, M. 1999. The Use of Periodization in the High School Setting. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 21(1): 5254. Dearmond, R. & Semenick, D. 1989. Javelin throw: A kinesiological analysis with recommendations for strength and conditioning program. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 11 (2):1-5. Dick, F. 1978. Training theory. British Amateur Athletic Board. London: King & Jarrett. Faigenbaum, A. D. & Polakowski, C. 1999. Olympic Style Weightlifting, Kid Style. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 21(3): 7376. Florescu, C., Dumitrescu, V., and Predescu, A. 1969. Metodologia desvoltari calitatilor fizice (The methodology of developing physical qualities). Bucharest: National Sports Council.

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MacDougal, J. & Wenger, H. & Green, H. 1991. Physiological Testing of the High Performance Athlete. 2nd edition. Canadian Association of Sports Sciences: Human Kinetics. Marieb, E. N. 1995. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 3rd edition. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. McInnis, A. 1981. A research review of systematized approaches to planned performance peaking with relation to the sport of track & field. Track & Field Quaterley Review, 81(2):7 12. Ninos, J. 1999. Starting them young. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 21(4):4849. OShea, P. 1995. Quantum strength and power training (Gaining the winning edge). Corvallis Oregon: Patrick Books. OShea, P. 2000. Quantum strength and Fitness II (Gaining the winning edge). Applied Strength Training And Conditioning for Peak Performance. Corvallis Oregon: Patrick Books. Pettitt, R. W. & Bryson, E. R. 2002. Training for Womans Basketball. A Biomechanical Emphasis for Preventing Anterior Cruciate Ligament injury. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 24(5):2029. Powers, S. & Howley, E. 1996. Exercise physiology, Theory and application to fitness and performance. 3rd edition. USA: Mcgraw Hill publishers. Prentice, W. 1994. Fitness for college and life. 4th edition. USA: Mosby. Pyka, I. & Otrando, B. 1991. Rotational shot put: A kinesiological analysis with recommendations for strength and conditioning program. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 13 (1) Ralston, H., Polissan, M., Inman, V., Close, J., and Feinstein, B. 1949. Dynamic feature of human isolated voluntary muscle in isometric and free contractions. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1:526 533 Roper, R. L. 1998. Incorporating Agility Training and Backward Movement Into a Plyometric Program. National Strength & Conditioning Association, August: 6063. Siff, M. C. & Verkhoshansky, Y. V. 1993. Supertraining: special strength training for sporting excellence. Univ of Witwatersrand. Johannesburg: South Africa. Stone, M. H. 1993. Literature Review: Explosive Exercises and Training. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 15(3):714. Stone, M. H., Pierce, K.C., Haff,G., Koch, A.J., Stone, M. 1999. Periodization: Effects Of Manipulating Volume And Intensity. Part 1. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 21(2): 56 62. Szymanski, D. J. 1999. College baseball / softball periodized torso program. National Strength & Conditioning Association, 21(4):4247. Tschiene, P. 1989. Finally a theory of training to overcome doping. In: P. Bellotti, G. Benzi, & A. Ljungqvist (Eds.), Official Proceedings, Iind World Symposium on Doping in Sport (pp. 145153). Monte Carlo: International Athletic Federation. -

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Annexure A

1. This annexure A is a visual presentation of the training program done with the javelin throwers as well as with the discus and shot-put. It contains power exercises done at the beginning of each session, weight training and core exercises. 2. These training exercises are recommended specifically to each of the different types of throws. 3. It also contains explosive work done by each group, table 7.10.

Table 7.1 Discus Power exercises Snatch: Deltoid Trapezius Triceps Quadriceps Gluteus Hamstring (Phase 1-2)

Snatch: Deltoid Trapezius Triceps Quadriceps Gluteus Hamstring (Phase 3-4)

Neider press:

Clean: Deltoid Trapezius Triceps Quadriceps Gluteus Hamstring Erector spinae (Phase 1-2) Clean: Deltoid Trapezius Triceps Quadriceps Gluteus Hamstring Erector spinae (Phase 3-4) Jerk: (Phase 1-2)

Jerk: (Phase 3-4)

Table 7.2 Discus Weight training T bar row: Rhomboid Trapezius Latisimus dorsi

Military press: Anterior deltoid Posterior deltoid

Ez bar bicep curl: Biceps

DB triceps overhead extension: Triceps

DB shrugs: Trapezius

Squat: Quadriceps Hamstring Gluteus

Leg curl: Hamstring

DB lunges: Quadricep Hamstring Gluteus

Leg extension: Quadricep

Standing calf raises: Soleus Gastrocnemius

Single leg seated leg press: Quadricep Hamstring Gluteus

Table 7.3 Discus Core exercises: Week 1 3 Bicycle crunch V ups Back extensions Twisting sit ups Back crunch Week 4 6 Weighted crunch 45 degree v ups Reverse back extension Bent knee sit up Back crunch Table 7.4 Javelin Power exercises Clean: Deltoid Trapezius Triceps Quadriceps Gluteus Hamstring Erector spinae (Phase 1-2) Clean: Deltoid Trapezius Triceps Quadriceps Gluteus Hamstring Erector spinae (Phase 3-4)

Clean & Jerk: (Phase 1-2)

Clean & Jerk: (Phase 3-4)

High pulls: Anterior deltoid Trapezius Quadricep Gluteus

Table 7.5 Javelin Weight training Pec flys: Pectorals

BB pullovers: Pectorals Intercostal muscle Serratus anterior

Lat pull down: Latissimus dorsi Biceps

DB shoulder press: Anterior deltoid Supraspinatus

BB bicep curl: Biceps

Triceps press down: Triceps

Wrist roller: Wrist extensors

Squat: Quadriceps Hamstring Gluteus

Leg curl: Hamstring

Inc leg press: Quadricep Hamstring Gluteus

Seated calf raises: Soleus Gastrocnemius

DB step up toe raise: Hip flexor Gastrocnemius

BB lunges: Quadricep Hamstring Gluteus

Table 7.6 Javelin Core exercises Week 1 3 Crunches Reverse crunches Side crunches Back extensions V ups Alternate arm leg raise Week 4 6 Weighted crunch Hanging leg raises Bent knee twisting sit ups Back crunch 45 degree v up Superman toss Table 7.7 Shot-put Power exercises Clean & Jerk: (Phase 1-2)

Clean & Jerk: (Phase 3-4)

Power clean: (Phase 1 & 2)

Power clean: (Phase 3 & 4)

Table 7.8 Shot-put Weight training BB walking lunges: Quadricep Hamstring Gluteus

Leg extensions: Quadriceps

Reverse leg press: Hamstring Quadriceps

Leg curl: Hamstring

DB calf raise: Soleus Gastrocnemius

BB step ups: Hip flexors Gastrocnemius

DB pullover: Pectoralis Intercostal muscle Serratus anterior Triceps

Incline bench press: Pectoralis

BB military press: Anterior deltoid Posterior deltoid

BB dead lifts: Gluteus Low back Hamstring

DB shrugs: Trapezius

DB arm curl: Biceps

DB triceps kickback: Triceps

Table 7.9 Shot-put Core exercises Week 1 3 Reverse crunch Side crunch Leg tucks Alternate arm leg raise Back crunch Week 4 6 Reverse crunch weighted 45 degree v up Opposite jack knives Alternate arm leg raise Reverse back extension Table 7.10 Explosive exercises Medicine ball squat jump

Action:

Stand upright holding medicine bal behind head,

Bend down 90 degrees keeping back straight and jump up.

Split squat jump with cycle

Action:

Jumping up switch leg positions. While bringing the back leg through, try to flex

The knee so that it comes close to the buttock. Land in split position and repeat.

Drop and catch push up.

Action:

Partner holds your upper body at 45-degree angle. Him or her rapidly remove

Their hands and you drop forward. You catch yourself in push up position and

Explosively push back t to 45-degree position and repeat.

Power drop

Action

Partner drops the ball, and you catch it and

Immediately propel it back to your partner. -

Repeat action.

Vertical toss

Action Push up depth jump

Partner drops the medicine

Ball into your hands, catch

And toss back

Action

Push yourself off the boxes,

Catch yourself on the floor, then push off again onto the boxes

Overhead throw

Action

Hold medicine ball overhead. Step forward and sharply bring the ball

Forward with both arms, throwing it forward over set

Distance or to a partner

Underhand throw.

Action

Keeping your back straight, rise straight up and

Throw the ball out over a set distance or partner, using your legs to provide momentum.

Medicine ball chest pass:

Action

Stand with feet shoulder width and knees slightly bent. Begin by holding medicine ball with both hands at chest level, elbows pointing out

Pass the ball off your chest ending with arms straight.

Annexure B

Test Protocol

Name: Age:
FLEXIBILITY 1. Low back & hamstring 2. Shoulder rotation 3.Shoulder abd/add 4. Elbow flex/ext 5. Hip flex/ext STRENGTH TESTING 1. Shoulder rotation 2. Elbow flex/ext 3. Leg flex/ext 4. Shoulder flex/ext FUNCTIONAL STRENGTH 1. Low Back 2. Pulley flexion EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH 1. MB putt 2. MB backward throw 3. MB overhead throw MUSCULAR ENDURANCE 1. push ups (1 min) 2. Sit ups (1 min) 3. Pull ups (max) POSTURE ANALYSIS 1. Shoulders 2. Spine 3. Hips 4. Upper back 5. Lower back AT LIFTS Push press

Height: Weight:
Pre Test Date Mid Test Date

Item: Dominant:
Post test Date

Annexure C

Letter to Parents I wish to inform you of the proposed study that is taking place at the Menlo Park High School Gymnasium in which your child will participate. -

Ek wil u graag inlig oor n beoogde studie wat gaan plaasvind by Menlopark Horskool Gimnasium waarby u kind betrek gaan word. The proposed study concerns the implementation of a item specific (throw) off-season program, to enhance the peformance of High School field athletes. The purpose of this study is found in the fact that preparation is limited at school-level and is forced into a couple of weeks after the summer holidays. This causes the athlete to be physically unfit for participating in athletic meetings and this causes injuries. Arnheim and Prentice (1999) states that this is not just a South African problem and is seen worldwide. The importance of this research study lies therein that the implementation of basic periodization concepts will assist schools, coaches and athletes to overcome problems such as over training, overuse injuries, limited performance capabilities and ineffective maintenance of sport specific seasonal programmes. To implement the specific off-season program I need your consent to test and train the athletes. The athletes will be tested at the Pretoria Technikon with Dr J. Cilliers, registered biokeneticist. After the completion of the test the athletes will under my supervision take part in the training program for the duration of one year to compare results of 2001 and 2002. Who am I? I am Dauw Briedenhann and is currently self-employed at the High School Menloparks gymnasium as Sport Scientist. At the end of 2000 I received my BTech degree in Sport and Exercise Technology. This year I started with my M Tech and for this study I need youryoure your childs cooperation and support. I thank you for your consent and support for this study. Attached please find a Consent form that must be returned, signed, Kind regards Dauw Briedenhann B Tech Sport and Exercise Technology Tel: (h) 333 7052 (sel) 083 399 7650

Annexure D

Consent form I . ( name & surname ) the parent / guardian hereby confirm that ( participant name ) can take part, regarding the proposed Masters study of Dauw Briedenhann regarding implementation of item specific off season training program to enhance performance of high school field athletes, at the gymnasium facility at the High school Menlopark. Although signed parent / guardian is aware that the study training program has risk for participants, I the parent / guardian declares that the participant can take part in the study at own risk, as demanded under the supervision of the study leader. I the parent / guardian release the Menlo Park High School, study leader (Dauw Briedenhann) and Menlogymtech staff of any and all law accountability for possible direct and indirect consequences that might occur because of participation in the study. I the parent / guardian and participant confirm hereby that I the parent / guardian and participant do not withhold any information that will keep participant from partaking in the study. I the parent / guardian hereby give my consent to the study leader (Dauw Briedenhann) to let the participant take part in the masters study for given period until study is finished. Signed at on the day of. . --------------------------Participant --------------------------Parent / guardian

Tel no (H) . (W). (cell)

Annexure E

Posture analysis table