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Practice MCAT 3

Ken Evans, MSc, MD Charlene Bramwell, MEd

Reviewed by Rodney Doyle, PhD Peter Minns, PhD

Practice MCAT 3

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copyright Dr. Ken Evans

Practice MCAT 3

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Contents
Physical Sciences
Passage I Passage II Passage III Passage I& Passage & Passage &I Passage &II Gas la s Chemical !inetics In"epen"ent #$estions %o$se circ$itry Colligative properties 'erno$lli(s principle In"epen"ent #$estions p% meter )le*i+le en"oscopy In"epen"ent #$estions

Verbal Reasoning Writing Sample Biological Sciences


Passage I Passage II Passage III Passage I& Passage & Passage &I Passage &II A$tonomic nervo$s system "r$gs 'loo" p% In"epen"ent #$estions Circ$latory system Al!yl hali"es ,espiratory system In"epen"ent #$estions -rganic synthesis Digestive system In"epen"ent #$estions

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Physical Sciences
!mber o" #tems$ %& Time Allowed$ '( min!tes

D#RECT#) S$ Most #$estions in the Physical .ciences test are organi/e" into gro$ps0 each prece"e" +y a "escriptive passage. A1ter st$"ying the passage0 select the one +est ans er to each #$estion. .ome #$estions are not +ase" on a "escriptive passage an" are also in"epen"ent o1 each other. 2o$ sho$l" also select the one +est ans er to these in"epen"ent #$estions. A perio"ic ta+le is provi"e" an" yo$ may cons$lt it henever yo$ ish.

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Periodic Table o" the Elements


IA IIA IIIA I&A &A &IA &IIA &IIA

4 * 4.5 3 +i 6.7 44 a 23.5 47 K 37.4 3: Rb 98.8 88 Cs


432.7

3 Be 7.5 42 M23.3 25 Ca 35.4 39 Sr 9:.6 86 Ba


43:.3

24 Sc 38.5 37 1 99.7 8: +a=


439.7

22 Ti 3:.7 35 /r 74.2 :2 *"


4:9.8

23 . 85.7 34 b 72.7 :3 Ta
495.7

23 Cr 82.5 32 Mo 78.7 :3 3
493.7

28 Mn 83.7 33 Tc
;79<

26 ,e 88.9 33 R!
454.4

2: Co 89.7 38 Rh
452.7

29 i 89.: 36 Pd
456.3

27 C! 63.8 3: A45:.7

35 /n 68.3 39 Cd
442.3

8 B 45.9 43 Al 2:.5 34 0a 67.: 37 #n


443.9

6 C 42.5 43 Si 29.4 32 0e :2.6 85 Sn


449.:

: 43.5 48 P 34.5 33 As :3.7 84 Sb


424.9

9 ) 46.5 46 S 32.4 33 Se :7.5 82 Te


42:.6

7 , 4:.5 4: Cl 38.8 38 Br :7.7 83 #


426.7

2 *e 3.5 45 e 25.2 49 Ar 37.7 36 Kr 93.9 83 2e


434.3

:8 Re
496.2

:6 )s
475.2

:: #r
472.2

:9 Pt
478.4

:7 A!
47:.5

95 *255.6

94 Tl
253.2

92 Pb
25:.2

93 Bi
257.5

93 Po
;257<

98 At
;245<

96 Rn
;222<

9: ,r
;223<

99 Ra
;226<

97 Ac>
;22:<

453 R"
;264<

458 Db
;262<

456 S;266<

45: Bh
;263<

459 *s
;2::<

457 Mt
;269<

445 Ds
;294<

444
4!!
;2:2<

442
4!b
;264<

443
4!5
;297<

446
4!h
;297<

89 Ce 43 5 75 Th 23 2

87 Pr 43 5 74 Pa 23 4

65 d 43 3 72 4 23 9

64 Pm 43 3 73 6 23 :

62 Sm 48 5 73 P! 23 3

63 E! 482 78 Am 233

63 0d 48: 76 Cm 23:

68 Tb 48 9 7: B7 23 :

66 Dy 46 2 79 C" 28 4

6: *o 46 3 77 Es 28 2

>

69 Er 46 : 45 5 ,m 28 :

67 Tm 46 9 45 4 Md 28 9

:5 1b 4: 3 45 2 o 28 7

:4 +! 4:8 453 +r 262

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Passa-e # The i"eal gas la s may +e s$mme" $p as the i"eal gas e#$ation +elo ? P& @ n,T In many instances0 the i"eal gas e#$ation can +e $se" 1or act$al gases provi"e" certain con"itions are met. %o ever0 $n"er con"itions o1 high press$re an"Aor relatively lo temperat$re0 gases +ehave "i11erently than o$l" +e e*pecte" $sing the i"eal gas e#$ation. In these sit$ations0 the &an "er Baals e#$ation provi"es a +etter appro*imation?
n2a (V nb ) = nRT P + V2

here a an" + are constants speci1ic 1or each gas. 4. T o i"entical evac$ate" 1las!s o1 negligi+le eight are 1ille" ith "i11erent gases to the same press$re. -ne is 1ille" ith hy"rogen an" the other ith propane. Compare" ith the 1irst 1las!0 the 1las! 1ille" ith propane eighs A< 44 times more. '< 22 times more. C< the same. D< 33 times more. A soccer +all ith initial press$re P an" initial vol$me & is in1late" ith air $ntil the press$re is 2P an" the vol$me is 4.4&. Temperat$re is !ept constant. The eight o1 air in the +all has increase" +y a 1actor o1 A< 2.2 '< 4.4 C< 4.5 D< 2.5 Given that the critical temperat$re o1 o*ygen is 483 K an" its critical press$re is 85 atm0 hich o1 the 1ollo ing statements isAare tr$eC I. In a close" container at 483 K an" 85 atm0 the soli"0 li#$i"0 an" gaseo$s phases o1 o*ygen are in "ynamic e#$ili+ri$m. II. -*ygen can +e compresse" into a li#$i" at room temperat$re. III. It can +e reasone" that ammonia has a critical temperat$re a+ove 483 K. A< '< C< D< 3. I is tr$e II an" III are tr$e III is tr$e I an" III are tr$e

2.

3.

In the &an "er Baals e#$ation0 the p$rpose o1 the n+ term is to A< ta!e into acco$nt that gas molec$les e*ert intermolec$lar attractive 1orces. 6

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'< C< D< 8.

ta!e into acco$nt that gas molec$les have a 1inite vol$me. ta!e into acco$nt that gas molec$les react chemically ith each other an" the e#$ili+ri$m constant "epen"s on P an" T. ta!e into acco$nt %eisen+erg(s $ncertainty principle.

In the &an "er Baals e#$ation0 the p$rpose o1 the n2aA&2 term is to A< ta!e into acco$nt that gas molec$les e*ert intermolec$lar attractive 1orces. '< ta!e into acco$nt that gas molec$les have a 1inite vol$me. C< ta!e into acco$nt that gas molec$les react chemically ith each other an" the e#$ili+ri$m constant "epen"s on P an" T. D< ta!e into acco$nt %eisen+erg(s $ncertainty principle.

Passa-e ## Consi"er the "ata in the ta+le +elo 0 hich pertain to the reaction A D ' C. This e#$ation may or may not +e +alance". E*periment no. 4 2 3 6. EAF 5.45 5.45 5.25 E'F 5.45 5.25 5.45 Initial rate o1 1ormation o1 C ;MAs< 3.5 * 45G8 3.5 * 45G8 46.5 * 45G8

The rate la 1or the reaction is A< ,ate @ !EAFE'F '< ,ate @ !EAF2E'F C< ,ate @ !EAF2 D< ,ate @ !EAFE'F2 Bhich graph o$l" sho a linear relationshipC ;t stan"s 1or time.< A< 4AEAF vers$s t '< lnEAF vers$s t C< EAF vers$s t D< EAF2 vers$s t The rate constant0 !0 is A< 3.5 * 45G3 MG4sG4 '< 3.5 * 45G3 MsG4 C< 3.5 * 45G8MG4sG4 D< 3.5 * 45G8 MsG4 Bhat is the hal1Gli1e o1 A hen the initial concentration o1 A is 5.2 MC A< 48.: mins '< 49.3 mins C< 25.9 mins :

:.

9.

7.

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D< 45.

23.8 mins

The mechanism o1 the a+ove reaction most li!ely involves A< a termolec$lar rateG"etermining step. '< a +imolec$lar rateG"etermining step involving t o molec$les o1 A0 1ollo e" +y a 1ast step involving a molec$le o1 '. C< A 1ast step involving a molec$le o1 A an" a molec$le o1 '0 1ollo e" +y a +imolec$lar rateG"etermining step involving another molec$le o1 A. D< a +imolec$lar rateG"etermining step involving a molec$le o1 A an" a molec$le o1 '0 1ollo e" +y a 1ast step involving another molec$le o1 A. Bhich o1 the 1ollo I. ! increases II. ! increases III. ! "ecreases A< '< C< D< ing statements isAare tr$eC ith activation energy. ith temperat$re. ith increasing concentrations o1 pro"$cts.

44.

-nly II is tr$e I an" II are tr$e II an" III are tr$e All are tr$e

8!estions 9& to 9% are inde6endent o" any 6assa-e and o" each other: 42. Ass$me that the stan"ar" re"$ction potential 1or the reaction A3D D eG A2D is EoA0 an" the stan"ar" re"$ction potential 1or the reaction 'D D eG ' is Eo'. A sol$tion initially containing EA3DF @ 4.5 M0 EA2DF = 4.5 M0 an" E'DF @ 4.5 M is agitate" ith e*cess soli" ' metal. Bhen e#$ili+ri$m is attaine"0 the sol$tion contains EA3DF @ 5.: M0 EA2DF @ 4.3 M0 an" E'DF @ 4.3. Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing can +e concl$"e"C A< EoA @ Eo' '< EoA H Eo' C< EoA I Eo' D< EoA D Eo' @ 5 Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing has the greatest ionic character in its +on"sC A< ,+Cl '< Ji Cl C< 'Cl3 D< Ca Cl2 Three chil"ren o1 mass 25 !g0 35 !g0 an" 65 !g ant to +alance themselves on a 9 m long seeGsa 0 pivote" at its center. The 65 !g chil" sits 4 m 1rom the le1t en". The 35 !g chil" sits at the right en". Bhere m$st the 25 !g chil" sitC A< 3 m 1rom the right en" '< 3 m 1rom the le1t en" C< 4 m 1rom the right en" D< 2 m 1rom the right en" 9

43.

43.

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48.

I1 the intensity o1 a so$n" goes $p +y 25 "'0 ho many times "oes the so$n" intensity increaseC A< 25 times '< 4555 times C< 45 times D< 455 times

Passa-e ### Typically "omestic electric po er is 1irst generate" 1rom 1ossil 1$els0 n$clear reactions0 or 1alling ater. An A.C. em1 is pro"$ce" hich is steppe"G$p in voltage 1or longG"istance transmission0 then steppe" "o n gra"$ally so that 1inally each ho$sehol" receives 425&A235& po er as sho n in the simpli1ie" "iagram +elo . In the ho$se "epicte"0 there are three circ$its? t o 425& an" one 235&. The ire la+ele" K"( is the ne$tral ire0 hich is gro$n"e". Ass$me all resistances are nonGin"$ctive.

To a.c. generator and remainder of power distribution system

final step-down transformer before power reac es ouse

120 V

120 V outside ouse d 30 40 60 a inside ouse

40 c 60

120 240 V 48 b

46.

The rootGmeanGs#$are voltage +et een ires Ka( an" K"( is 425&. Bhat is the pea! voltage an" mean s#$are voltage +et een these ires0 respectivelyC ;Lote? 2 @ 4.3< A< 4:5 & an" 290755 &2 '< 4:5 & an" 430355 &2 C< 235 & an" 290755 &2 D< 235 & an" 430355 &2 7

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4:.

Bhat is the rootGmeanGs#$are c$rrent in ire Ka(C A< 35 A '< 8 A C< 25 A D< 45 A Bhat is the rootGmeanGs#$are c$rrent in ire K+(C A< 35 A '< 8 A C< 25 A D< 45 A Bhat is the rootGmeanGs#$are c$rrent in ire Kc(C A< 35 A '< 8 A C< 25 A D< 45 A Bhat is the rootGmeanGs#$are c$rrent in ire K"(C A< 5 A '< 8 A C< 25 A D< 45 A Bhat is the average po er cons$mption o1 the ho$seC A< 3 !B '< 8 !B C< 2 !B D< 43 !B

49.

47.

25.

24.

Passa-e #. .ol$tions have some $ni#$e properties that are terme" colligative. These properties "epen" only on the ratio o1 the n$m+er o1 particles o1 sol$te an" solvent an" not on the i"entity o1 the sol$te. 22. Bhich is the correct or"ering 1or the 1ollo ing sol$tions hen liste" 1rom highest +oiling point to lo est +oiling pointC ;Ka o1 %) is :.2*45G3.< 5.58 M Mg;L-3<2 5.45 M s$crose 5.48 M KCl 5.45 M LaI 5.58 M %) A< Mg;L-3<20 KCl0 LaI0 %)0 s$crose '< KCl0 LaI0 Mg;L-3<20 s$crose0 %) C< LaI0 KCl0 Mg;L-3<20 s$crose0 %) 45

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D< 23.

KCl0 Mg;L-3<20 LaI0 s$crose0 %)

The vapor press$re o1 ater at 285oC is 23.6 mm%g. I1 5.495 !g o1 gl$cose is a""e" to 5.755 !g o1 ater0 hat is the vapor press$re o1 this sol$tionC A< 23.4 mm%g '< 23.4 mm%g C< 22.8 mm%g D< 22.2 mm%g %o m$ch ethylene glycol ;C2%6-2< m$st +e a""e" to 4 !g o1 ater to "epress the 1ree/ing point to G35oCC Ass$me the K1 o1 ater is 4.7 KAm. A< 5.7 !g '< 5.9: !g C< 435 g D< 4.3 !g :9 g o1 +en/ene ;C6%6M vapor press$re at 25oC is :8 mm%g< are mi*e" ith 493 g o1 tol$ene ;C:%9M vapor press$re at 25oC is 22 mm%g<. There is no chemical reaction. The vapor press$re o1 this mi*t$re at 25oC is A< 39.8 mm%g '< :8 mm%g C< 35 mm%g D< 38 mm%g A protein sol$tion ith concentration 95 gAJ has an osmotic press$re o1 5.5258 atm at 2:oC. Bhat is the appro*imate molec$lar eight o1 the proteinC ;The gas constant is 5.592 JG atmAKGmol.< A< 760555 '< 4720555 C< 390555 D< 40855

23.

28.

26.

Passa-e . 'erno$lli(s e#$ation can +e $se" to "escri+e the 1lo o1 ater "o n a pipe. It is commonly e*presse" in the 1orm +elo . P4 D gh4 D Nv42 @ P2 D gh2 D Nv22 Consi"er a "am that is $se" to generate hy"roelectric po er. Bater 1lo s "o n a pipe to t$r+ines at the +ottom0 ca$sing them to spin0 hich ca$ses electromagnetic in"$ction o1 em1 in generator coils0 pro"$cing electricity. The top o1 the pipe is practically at the level o1 the s$r1ace o1 the ater +ehin" the "am. Each min$te 4250555 m3 o1 ater "rops a vertical "istance o1 38m. Ass$me the "ensity o1 ater is 40555 !gAm3 an" g is 45mAs2. 2:. The se#$ence o1 energy trans1ormations is +est "escri+e" as? 44

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A< '< C< D< 29.

potential energy0 rotational !inetic energy0 translational !inetic energy0 electrical energy. hy"rostatic energy0 translational !inetic energy0 rotational !inetic energy0 electrical energy. potential energy0 translational !inetic energy0 rotational !inetic energy0 electrical energy. potential energy0 translational !inetic energy0 rotational !inetic energy0 electromagnetic ra"iation.

The "i11erence in press$re +et een ater at the top o1 the pipe an" ater coming o$t at the +ottom is? A< 385 !Pa '< 5 !Pa C< 38 !Pa D< 385 Pa Bhat is the velocity o1 ater at the +ottom o1 the pipe ;ass$me the velocity at the top is /ero<C A< 755 mAs '< 24 mAs C< 38 mAs D< 35 mAs Theoretically0 hat is the ma*im$m electrical po er that can +e generate" ith this 1lo o1 aterC A< 755 mega atts '< 75 mega atts C< 755 !ilo atts D< 75 !ilo atts I1 the +ottom o1 the pipes +ecame completely +loc!e"0 hat o$l" +e the hy"rostatic press$re in the pipes at that pointC A< 385 !Pa '< 5 !Pa C< 38 !Pa D< 385 Pa .$ppose that the po er company ants to "ecrease the ma*im$m amo$nt o1 po er availa+le. Possi+le ays to accomplish this incl$"e? I. ,eGpositioning the opening o1 the pipe at the reservoir to a certain "epth +elo the s$r1ace o1 the ater. II. Attaching 1ins to the insi"e o1 the pipe to create t$r+$lence. III. ,e"$cing the crossGsectional area o1 the pipe. I&. Moving the po er generator to a higher elevation so that the ater 1alls a shorter vertical "istance. A< I0 II0 an" III are correct 42

27.

35.

34.

32.

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'< C< D<

II0 III0 an" I& are correct I0 III0 an" I& are correct I0 II0 an" I& are correct

8!estions 33 to 3; are inde6endent o" any 6assa-e and o" each other: 33. )or an o*i"ationGre"$ction reaction0 hich o1 the 1ollo ing is a consistent set o1 relationsC A< GoI50 EoH50 Ke#I4 '< GoH50 EoI50 Ke#I4 C< GoI50 EoI50 Ke#I4 D< GoI50 EoI50 Ke#H4 Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing is not a +asic physical #$antityC A< J$mino$s intensity '< Temperat$re C< L$m+er o1 moles D< )orce )or a gas0 the 1ollo ing isAare tr$e? I. !inetic energy is proportional to temperat$re II. the velocity o1 a molec$le is proportional to the 4A;s#$are root o1 its molec$lar eight< III. the velocity o1 a molec$le is proportional to the s#$are root o1 temperat$re A< '< C< D< 36. I an" III I an" II II an" III All are tr$e

33.

38.

A stone is "roppe" into a ell. Ten secon"s later a splash is hear". %o "eep is the ater level +elo the ell opening ;ignore the time ta!en 1or so$n" to travel<C A< 4555 m '< 855 m C< 85 m D< 255 m

Passa-e .# IonGselective chemical electro"es pro"$ce em1(s that "epen" on the concentration o1 speci1ic ions in 1l$i"s $n"er test. They0 there1ore0 can +e $se" to meas$re the concentration o1 speci1ic ions. A p% meter $ses a hy"rogen ionGselective electro"e that pro"$ces an em1 accor"ing to the e#$ation +elo 0 hich is "erive" 1rom the Lernst e#$ation. 43

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E @ constant D 5.587 log45E%DF here E is the em1 an" a temperat$re o1 28oC is ass$me". p% meters are cali+rate" so that the e11ect o1 the constant term is cancelle" o$t. 3:. Bhich graph sho s the correct relationship +et een E an" E%DFC A<
!

0.0 0.0 1.0

"#$%

'<
!

0.0 0.0 1.0

"#$%

C<
!

&.& &.& 1.&

"#$%

D<
!

&.& &.& 1.&

"#$%

39.

I1 the p% o1 a sol$tion is increase" +y 4.50 E ill A< increase +y 87 m&. '< "ecrease +y 87 m&. C< "ecrease +y log455.587 m&. 43

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D< 37.

This cannot +e "etermine" since the ans er "epen"s on the initial p%.

A 5.45 M sol$tion o1 1ormic aci" ;C%2-2< has a p% o1 2.39. Bhat is the Ka o1 1ormic aci"C A< 4.9 * 45G3 '< 4.9 * 45G3 C< 4.9 * 45G8 D< 4.9 * 45G6 Phosphoric aci" ;%3P-3< has Ka4 @ :.8 * 45G30 Ka2 @ 6.2 * 45G90 an" Ka3 @ 3.2 * 45G43. Bhat is the p% o1 4.5 M phosphoric aci"C A< 4.4 '< 3.8 C< 8.2 D< 6.9 Bhat is the p% o1 5.54 M triso"i$m phosphate ;La3P-3<C A< :.5 '< 9.3 C< 45.7 D< 42.2

35.

34.

Passa-e .## )le*i+le en"oscopes are $se" e*tensively in me"icine to vis$ali/e internal str$ct$res s$ch as the respiratory tract0 $pper gastrointestinal tract0 an" colon. The a"vantage o1 a 1le*i+le en"oscope over a rigi" en"oscope is that it can +en" an" th$s go aro$n" Ocorners.P This means less "iscom1ort 1or the patient an" the en"oscope can +e a"vance" 1arther into the cavity o1 interest. An en"oscope has a n$m+er o1 channels0 e.g. 1or irrigation0 s$ctioning0 s$rgical manip$lation0 ill$mination0 an" imaging. 'elo is a "iagrammatic representation o1 the imaging components o1 a relatively simple 1le*i+le en"oscope.
Tip of endoscope
e(terior s eat

principal a(is

lens 1

lens 2

bundle of optical fibers coated wit lig t-absorbing material at tips - fibers lead bac' to eyepiece.

48

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!yepiece of endoscope

principal a(is

obser)er bundle of optical fibers lens 3

Jens 4 1ocal length is G2 cm. Jens 2 1ocal length is 4 cm. Jens 3 can +e easily remove" an" replace" ith another lens. Also0 the "istance +et een the lens an" the en" o1 the optical 1i+ers can +e a"Q$ste". Each optical 1i+er consists o1 a cylin"rical core s$rro$n"e" +y a cla""ing. Jight enters one en" o1 a 1i+er an" is total internally re1lecte" repeate"ly $ntil it e*its the 1i+er at the opposite en". 32. )or the +est image #$ality0 the 1ollo ing con"itions sho$l" +e met. I. The core o1 the 1i+ers m$st not a+sor+ a signi1icant amo$nt o1 light. II. The cla""ing m$st have a higher optical "ensity than the core. III. Jight rays m$st +e inci"ent on the coreGcla""ing inter1ace at angles o1 inci"ence greater than the critical angle. I&. The en"oscope m$st not +e +ent too ac$tely. A< '< C< D< 33. I0 II0 an" III are correct I0 II0 an" I& are correct I0 III0 an" I& are correct All are correct

The critical angle o1 the coreGcla""ing inter1ace is given +y A< critical angle @ sinG4;ncla""ingAncore< '< critical angle @ sinG4;ncoreAncla""ing< C< critical angle @ sinG4;4Ancore< D< critical angle @ sinG4;4Ancla""ing< I1 each 1i+er core is 4 mm in "iameter0 ncore is 4.850 an" ncla""ing is 4.250 hat is the minim$m length o1 lightGa+sor+ing material re#$ire" at the en"s o1 the 1i+ers to prevent re1raction o1 light into the cla""ingC A< 4 mm '< 4.33 mm C< 4.8 mm 46

33.

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D< 38.

2 mm

The principle o1 the optical system sho n is that light 1rom an o+Qect is 1oc$se" +y the t o o+Qective lenses ;4 an" 2< onto the plane at hich the optical 1i+ers terminate. This image is then transmitte" thro$gh the optical 1i+er +$n"le to the eyepiece. I1 lenses 4 an" 2 are 4 cm apart at their optical centers an" lens 2 is 2 cm 1rom the optical 1i+er +$n"le0 ho 1ar a ay m$st the o+Qect +e 1rom lens 4 to 1orm a sharp image on the en" o1 the optical 1i+er +$n"leC A< 4.5 cm '< 4.8 cm C< 2.5 cm D< 2.8 cm The e11ect o1 lens 4 is I. to possi+ly re"$ce overall chromatic a+erration II. to pro"$ce a virt$al0 erect0 an" "iminishe" image that is the o+Qect 1or lens 2 III. create a i"er 1iel" o1 vie A< '< C< D< I an" II are correct I an" III are correct II an" III are correct I0 II0 an" III are correct

36.

3:.

Bhen light has travele" the length o1 the optical 1i+ers it e*its the en"s o1 them an" passes thro$gh lens 30 hich acts li!e a magni1ying glass. I1 an o+server chooses a lens o1 85 "iopters0 ho 1ar sho$l" lens 3 +e 1rom the en" o1 the optical 1i+ers to 1orm an image at in1inityC A< 2.5 cm '< 2.8 cm C< 3.5 cm D< 3.8 cm

8!estions <= to %& are inde6endent o" any 6assa-e and o" each other: 39. A +all is thro n $p in the air ith a velocity o1 45 mAs. Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing is tr$eC A< time in air is 4 sM ma*im$m height is 8 m. '< time in air is 4 sM ma*im$m height is 45 m. C< time in air is 2 sM ma*im$m height is 8 m. D< time in air is 2 sM ma*im$m height is 45 m. The e11ect o1 eightlessness can +e pro"$ce" +y 1lying a plane in a circ$lar arc ;i.e. ascen"ing then "escen"ing in a smooth motion<. I1 the spee" o1 the plane is constant at 455 mAs0 hat is the ra"i$s o1 the arc that m$st +e 1lo nC A< 40555 m '< 450555 m C< 455 m D< 40855 m 4:

37.

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85.

Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing energy s$+levels can contain the most electronsC A< n@30 l@5 '< n@80 l@2 C< n@60 l@30 lm@D4 D< n@30 l@3 Tl "ecays +y the emission o1 +eta particles ;hal1Gli1e @ 3.4 mins<. As a res$lt0 P+ is pro"$ce". A1ter 7.3 mins0 an initially p$re sample o1 Tl contains : g o1 P'< Bhat as the appro*imate mass o1 the original sampleC A< : g '< 9 g C< 29 g D< 32 g The isoelectric point o1 glycine is 6.5. Bhen glycine is in a +$11er ith a p% o1 6.50 hich 1orm pre"ominatesC A< %3LDGC%2GC--G '< %2LGC%2GC--% C< %3LDGC%2GC--% D< %2LGC%2GC--G

84.

82.

ST)P: I) 2-R )ILI.% 'E)-,E TIME I. CAJJED0 C%ECK 2-R, B-,K. 2-R MA2 G- 'ACK T- AL2 SRE.TI-L IL T%E P%2.ICAJ .CIELCE. TE.T '--KJET.

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Practice MCAT 3

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.erbal Reasonin!mber o" #tems$ <( Time Allowed$ ;( min!tes

D#RECT#) S$ There are seven passages in the &er+al ,easoning test. Each passage is 1ollo e" +y several #$estions. A1ter rea"ing a passage0 select the one +est ans er to each #$estion. I1 yo$ are not certain o1 an ans er0 eliminate the alternatives that yo$ !no to +e incorrect then select an ans er 1rom the remaining alternatives. In"icate yo$r selection +y clic!ing on the ans er +$++le ne*t to it.

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Practice MCAT 3

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Passa-e # There is a con1$se" notion in the min"s o1 many persons that the gathering o1 the property o1 the poor into the han"s o1 the rich "oes no $ltimate harm0 since in hoever han"s it may +e0 it m$st +e spent at last0 an" th$s0 they thin!0 ret$rn to the poor again. This 1allacy has +een again an" again e*pose"M +$t granting the plea tr$e0 the same apology may0 o1 co$rse0 +e ma"e 1or +lac!mail0 or any other 1orm o1 ro++ery. It might +e ;tho$gh practically it never is< as a"vantageo$s 1or the nation that the ro++er sho$l" have the spen"ing o1 the money he e*torts0 as that the person ro++e" sho$l" have spent it. '$t this is no e*c$se 1or the the1t. I1 I ere to p$t a t$rnpi!e on the roa" here it passes my o n gate0 an" en"eavor to e*act a shilling 1rom every passenger0 the p$+lic o$l" soon "o a ay ith my gate0 itho$t listening to any pleas on my part that it as as a"vantageo$s to them0 in the en"0 that I sho$l" spen" their shillings0 as that they themselves sho$l". '$t i10 instea" o1 o$t1acing them ith a t$rnpi!e0 I can only pers$a"e them to come in an" +$y stones0 or ol" iron0 or any other $seless thing0 o$t o1 my gro$n"0 I may ro+ them to the same e*tent0 an" +e0 moreover0 than!e" as a p$+lic +ene1actor an" promoter o1 commercial prosperity. An" this main #$estion 1or the poor o1 Englan" G 1or the poor o1 all co$ntries G is holly omitte" in every treatise on the s$+Qect o1 ealth. Even +y the la+orers themselves0 the operation o1 capital is regar"e" only in its e11ect on their imme"iate interests0 never in the 1ar more terri1ic po er o1 its appointment o1 the !in" an" the o+Qect o1 la+or. It matters little0 $ltimately0 ho m$ch a la+orer is pai" 1or ma!ing anythingM +$t it matters 1ear1$lly hat the thing is0 hich he is compelle" to ma!e. I1 his la+or is so or"ere" as to pro"$ce 1oo"0 1resh air0 an" 1resh ater0 no matter that his ages are lo 0 the 1oo" an" the 1resh air an" ater ill +e at last there0 an" he ill at last get them. '$t i1 he is pai" to "estroy 1oo" an" 1resh air0 or to pro"$ce iron +ars instea" o1 them0 the 1oo" an" air ill 1inally not +e there0 an" he ill not get them0 to his great an" 1inal inconvenience. .o that0 concl$sively0 in political as in ho$sehol" economy0 the great #$estion is0 not so m$ch hat money yo$ have in yo$r poc!et0 as hat yo$ ill +$y ith it an" "o ith it. 83. It can +e in1erre" that the a$thor pro+a+ly 1avors A< capitalism. '< totalitarianism. C< socialism. D< anarchism. Accor"ing to the passage0 the in"ivi"$al sho$l" +e partic$larly concerne" ith A< ho m$ch ealth he can acc$m$late. '< the ac#$isition o1 lan" property rather than money. C< charging the c$stomer a 1air price. D< the #$ality o1 goo"s hich he p$rchases ith his 1$n"s. The passage implies that A< OA stitch in time saves nine.P '< OIt is +etter late than never.P 25

83.

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C< D< 86.

O%e ho steals my p$rse steals trash.P OAll(s ell that en"s ell.P

It can +e in1erre" that0 in regar" to the acc$m$lation o1 ealth0 the a$thor A< e#$ates the rich ith the thie1. '< thin!s that there are 1e honest +$sinessmen. C< con"ones some "ishonesty in +$siness "ealings. D< +elieves "estr$ction o1 property is goo" +eca$se it creates cons$mer "eman". Bhat is the Omain #$estion 1or the poorP re1erre" to +y the a$thorC A< the $se to hich the la+orer can p$t his money '< the metho"s +y hich capital may +e acc$m$late" C< the res$lts o1 their or! an" their lac! o1 a$thority to "etermine to hat en"s their or! shall +e p$t D< hether 1$ll meas$re o1 recompense shall +e accor"e" to the la+oring person 1or the investment o1 his time in orthy or! Accor"ing to the vie s e*presse" in the passage0 people sho$l" +e happiest "oing hich o1 the 1ollo ingC A< mining ore 1or the man$1act$re o1 eapons '< cleaning se age pon"s at a treatment plant C< aiting ta+les 1or a rich man D< helping a poor man "o his Qo+

8:.

89.

Passa-e ## .hams an" "el$sions are esteeme" 1or so$n"est tr$ths0 hile reality is 1a+$lo$s. I1 men o$l" stea"ily o+serve realities only0 an" not allo themselves to +e "el$"e"0 li1e0 to compare it ith s$ch things as e !no 0 o$l" +e li!e a 1airy tale an" the Ara+ian Lights( entertainments. I1 e respect only hat is inevita+le an" has a right to +e0 m$sic an" poetry o$l" reso$n" along the streets. Bhen e are $nh$rrie" an" ise0 e perceive that only great an" orthy things have any permanent an" a+sol$te e*istence0 that petty 1ears an" petty pleas$res are +$t the sha"o o1 the reality. This is al ays e*hilarating an" s$+lime. 'y closing the eyes an" sl$m+ering0 an" consenting to +e "eceive" +y sho s0 men every here esta+lish an" con1irm their "aily li1e o1 ro$tine an" ha+it0 hich still is +$ilt on p$rely ill$sory 1o$n"ations. Chil"ren0 ho play li1e0 "iscern its tr$e la an" relations more clearly than men ho 1ail to live it orthily0 +$t ho thin! that they are iser +y e*perienceM that is0 +y 1ail$re. I have rea" in a %in"$ +oo! that there as a !ing(s son ho0 +eing e*pelle" in in1ancy 1rom his native city0 as +ro$ght $p +y a 1orester0 an"0 gro ing $p to mat$rity in that state0 imagine" himsel1 to +elong to the +ar+aro$s race ith hich he live". -ne o1 his 1ather(s ministers0 having "iscovere" him0 reveale" to him hat he as0 an" the misconception o1 his character as remove"0 an" he !ne himsel1 to +e a prince. O.o so$l0P contin$es the %in"$ philosopher0 O1rom 24

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the circ$mstances in hich it is place"0 mista!es its o n character0 $ntil the tr$th is reveale" to it +y some holy teacher0 an" then it !no s itsel1 to +e Brahme. Be thin! that that is hich appears to +e. I1 a man sho$l" give $s an acco$nt o1 the realities he +ehel"0 e sho$l" not recogni/e the place in his "escription. Joo! at a meetingGho$se0 or a co$rtG ho$se0 or a Qail0 or a shop0 or a " elling ho$se0 an" say hat that thing really is +e1ore a tr$e ga/e0 an" they o$l" all go to pieces in yo$r acco$nt o1 them. Men esteem tr$th remote0 in the o$ts!irts o1 the system0 +ehin" the 1arthest star0 +e1ore A"am an" a1ter the last man. In eternity there is in"ee" something tr$e an" s$+lime. '$t all these times an" places an" occasions are no an" here. Go" himsel1 c$lminates in the present moment0 an" ill never +e more "ivine in the lapse o1 all ages. An" e are ena+le" to apprehen" at all hat is s$+lime an" no+le only +y the perpet$al instilling an" "renching o1 the reality that s$rro$n"s $s. The $niverse constantly an" o+e"iently ans ers to o$r conceptionsM hether e travel 1ast or slo 0 the trac! is lai" 1or $s. Jet $s spen" o$r lives in conceiving then. The poet or the artist never yet ha" so 1air an" no+le a "esign +$t some o1 his posterity at least co$l" accomplish it. 87. The A< '< C< D< riter(s attit$"e to ar" the arts is one o1 in"i11erence. s$spicion. a"miration. rep$lsion.

65.

The a$thor +elieves that chil"ren are o1ten more ac$te than a"$lts in their appreciation o1 li1e(s relations +eca$se A< chil"ren !no more than a"$lts. '< chil"ren can $se their e*perience +etter. C< chil"ren(s eyes are $nclo$"e" +y 1ail$re. D< e*perience is the +est teacher. The passage implies that h$man +eings A< cannot "isting$ish the tr$e 1rom the $ntr$e. '< are immoral i1 they are la/y. C< sho$l" +e +ol" an" 1earless. D< +elieve in 1airy tales. The a$thor is primarily concerne" ith $rging the rea"er to A< me"itate on the meaninglessness o1 the present. '< loo! to the 1$t$re 1or enlightenment. C< appraise the present 1or its tr$e val$e. D< honor the is"om o1 past ages. The passage is primarily concerne" ith pro+lems o1 A< history an" economics. '< society an" pop$lation. C< +iology an" physics. D< theology an" philosophy. 22

64.

62.

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63.

Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing +est "escri+es the a$thor(s i"ea o1 the relationship +et een man an" the $niverseC A< Each person(s min" can control the gala*ies. '< Bhat yo$ see is hat yo$ get. C< -$r lives are pre"etermine". D< Be may choose to live #$ic!ly or slo ly.

Passa-e ### The origin o1 continental n$clei has long +een a p$//le. Theories a"vance" so 1ar have generally 1aile" to e*plain the 1irst step in continent gro th. Rn1ort$nately0 the geological evol$tion o1 the Earth(s s$r1ace has ha" an o+literating e11ect on the original composition an" str$ct$re o1 the continents to s$ch an e*tent that 1$rther terrestrial investigations have small chance o1 arriving at an $nam+ig$o$s ans er to the #$estion o1 continental origin. Para"o*ically0 cl$es to the origin an" early history o1 the s$r1ace 1eat$res o1 Earth may +e 1o$n" on the moon an" planets0 rather than on Earth0 +eca$se some o1 these +o"ies appear to have ha" a m$ch less active geological history. In the case o1 +oth the moon an" Mars0 it is generally concl$"e" 1rom the appearance o1 their heavily cratere" s$r1aces that they have +een s$+Qecte" to +om+ar"ment +y large meteoroi"s "$ring their geological history. Ji!e ise0 it o$l" appear a reasona+le hypothesis that Earth has also +een s$+Qecte" to meteoroi" +om+ar"ment in the past0 an" that very large +o"ies str$c! Earth early in its geological history. The largest crater on the moon liste" +y 'al" in has a "iameter o1 298 !m. %o ever0 i1 e accept the hypothesis o1 1ormation o1 some o1 the mare +asins +y impact0 the ma*im$m l$nar impact crater "iameter is pro+a+ly as large as 685 !m. 'ase" on a l$nar analogy0 one might e*pect several impact craters o1 at least 855 !m "iameter to have +een 1orme" on Earth. There is little "o$+t that the 1ormation o1 a 855 !m crater o$l" +e a maQor geological event. L$mero$s a$thors have consi"ere" the geological implications o1 s$ch an event. Donn et al. have0 1or e*ample0 calle" on the impact o1 continentGsi/e +o"ies o1 sialic composition to 1orm the original continents. T o maQor "i11ic$lties inherent in this concept are the lac! o1 any !no n sialic meteorites0 an" the high pro+a+ility that the energy o1 impact o$l" res$lt in a i"e "issemination o1 sialic material0 rather than its concentration at the point o1 impact. Gilvarry0 on the other han"0 calle" on meteoroi" impact to e*plain the pro"$ction o1 ocean +asins. The maQor "i11ic$lties ith this mo"el are that the morphology o1 most o1 the ocean +asins is not consistent ith impact0 an" that the origin an" gro th o1 continents are not a"e#$ately e*plaine". Be agree ith Donn et al. that the impact o1 large meteorites or asteroi"s may have ca$se" continent 1ormation0 +$t o$l" rather thin! in terms o1 the locali/e" a""ition o1 energy to the system0 rather than in terms o1 the a""ition o1 act$al sialic material. 23

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68.

The a$thor(s p$rpose in riting the passage as to A< analy/e ays in hich asteroi"s an" meteorites co$l" have in1l$ence" the "evelopment o1 continents on Earth. '< "isc$ss the possi+le ca$ses o1 continent 1ormation. C< revie l$nar continent 1ormation. D< "isc$ss the theories o1 continental n$clei 1ormation. A mare +asin is most pro+a+ly A< an area here animal li1e 1lo$rishe" at one time. '< a 1orm$la 1or "etermining the relationship +et een the "epth an" i"th o1 craters. C< a valley that is 1ille" in hen a spatial +o"y. D< an area o1 the moon that is the res$lt o1 collision +et een the moon an" some other +o"y. The passage is primarily concerne" ith A< the origin o1 continents on Earth. '< the origin o1 craters on the moon. C< "i11erences o1 opinion among schools o1 geological tho$ght. D< the relationship +et een asteroi"s an" meteorites an" other space +o"ies. The A< '< C< D< riter "oes not +elieve that an asteroi" is larger than a meteorite. material 1rom space0 $pon hitting the Earth0 as event$ally "istri+$te". oceans ere 1ormerly craters. Earth0 at one time0 ha" craters.

66.

6:.

69.

67.

It may +e in1erre" 1rom the passage that the a$thor +elieves geologists researching continental origins an" "evelopment o$l" "o ell to "evote m$ch0 i1 not most0 o1 their st$"y to A< asteroi"s an" large meteorites. '< Earth. C< the s$n. D< other planets an" the moon.

Passa-e #. The Planning Commission asserts that the nee"e" re"$ction in ac$te care hospital +e"s can +est +e accomplishe" +y closing the smaller hospitals0 mainly vol$ntary an" proprietary. This strategy 1ollo s 1rom the arg$ment that closing entire instit$tions saves more money than closing the e#$ivalent n$m+er o1 +e"s scattere" thro$gho$t the health system. The iss$e is not that simple. Jarger hospitals generally are "esigne" to provi"e more comple* care. ,o$tine care at large hospitals costs more than the same care given at smaller hospitals. There1ore0 clos$re o1 all the small hospitals o$l" commit the city to paying0 consi"era+ly more 23

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1or inpatient care "elivere" at ac$te care hospitals than o$l" +e the case ith a mi*t$re o1 large an" small instit$tions. .ince reim+$rsement rates at the large hospitals are no +ase" on total costs0 paying the large instit$tions a lo er rate 1or ro$tine care o$l" simply raise the rates 1or comple* care +y a compara+le amo$nt. .$ch a reim+$rsement rateGa"Q$stment might ma!e the charges 1or each in"ivi"$al case more acc$rately re1lect the act$al costs0 +$t there o$l" +e no re"$ction in total costs. There is some evi"ence that giant hospitals are not the most e11icient. .ervice organi/ations T an" me"ical care remains largely a service in"$stry G 1re#$ently 1in" that savings o1 scale have an $pper limit. .imilarly0 the #$ality o1 ro$tine care in the very largest hospitals appears to +e less than optim$m. Also0 the concentration o1 all hospital +e"s in a 1e locations may a11ect the access to care. Th$s0 simply closing the smaller hospitals ill not necessarily save money or improve the #$ality o1 care. .ince the 1act remains that there are too many ac$te care hospital +e"s in the city0 the pro+lem is to "evise a proper strategy 1or selecting an" $rging the clos$re o1 the e*cess +e"s0 ho ever many it may t$rn o$t to +e. The closing o1 hole +$il"ings ithin large me"ical centers has many o1 the cost a"vantages o1 closing the hole o1 smaller instit$tions0 +eca$se the 1i*e" costs can also +e re"$ce" in s$ch cases. Rn1ort$nately0 many o1 the separate +$il"ings at me"ical centers are special $se 1acilities0 the relocation o1 hich is e*tremely costly. .till0 a search sho$l" +e ma"e 1or s$ch opport$nities. The c$rrent lac! o1 a"e#$ate am+$latory care 1acilities raises another possi+ility. .ome 1loors or other large compact areas o1 hospitals co$l" +e trans1erre" 1rom inpatient to am+$latory $ses. ,eim+$rsement o1 am+$latory services is chaotic0 +$t the pro+lem is +eing a""resse". The overhea" associate" ith the entire hospital sho$l" not +e charge" even pro rata to the am+$latory 1acilities. Even i1 it ere0 the total cost o$l" pro+a+ly +e less than that o1 +$il"ing a ne 1acility. Many other iss$es o$l" also nee" st$"y0 especially the potential overG centrali/ation o1 am+$latory services. The Planning Commission lang$age seems to imply that one reason 1or closing smaller hospitals is that they are Omainly vol$ntary an" proprietary0P th$s preserving the p$+lic hospital system +y ma!ing the rest o1 the hospital system a+sor+ the nee"e" c$ts. It is important to preserve the p$+lic hospital system 1or many reasons0 +$t the iss$e sho$l" +e 1ace" "irectly an" not hi""en +ehin" arg$ments a+o$t hospital si/e0 i1 in"ee" that as the Commission(s meaning. :5. The Planning Commission is acc$se" +y the a$thor o1 +eing A< $n1air. '< racist. C< 1oolish. D< shortsighte". -n the s$+Qect o1 the n$m+er o1 hospital +e"s0 the a$thor A< is in complete agreement ith the Planning Commission. '< ishes to see large n$m+ers o1 +e"s close". 28

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C< D< :2.

ishes to 1orestall the closing o1 any more hospital +e"s. is $ns$re o1 the n$m+er o1 e*cess +e"s there really are.

All o1 the 1ollo ing are reasons the a$thor opposes the Planning Commission(s recommen"ation e*cept A< .ervice in"$stries have an $pper limit 1or savings o1 scale. '< .ingle +$il"ings o1 large centers may +e closa+le instea" o1 smaller hospitals. C< p$+lic hospitals have a $ni#$e contri+$tion to ma!e an" sho$l" not +e close". D< the smaller hospitals recommen"e" 1or clos$re provi"e services more cheaply than larger hospitals. Bith hich o1 the 1ollo ing o$l" the a$thor pro+a+ly not agreeC A< Jarge me"ical centers provi"e +etter an" more comple* care than smaller hospitals. '< ,eim+$rsement rates "o not necessarily re1lect the act$al costs o1 provi"ing me"ical care to a given patient. C< Patients nee"ing only ro$tine me"ical care can o1ten +e "isting$ishe" 1rom those re#$iring comple* care prior to hospitali/ation. D< Too m$ch centrali/ation o1 am+$latory care is possi+le. The a$thor(s p$rpose in "isc$ssing am+$latory care is to A< "isc$ss alternatives to closing hospital +e"s. '< present a metho" o1 re"$cing the 1iscal "isa"vantages o1 closing only parts o1 larger hospitals. C< sho another opport$nity 1or saving money. D< help preserve the p$+lic hospital system. Bith hich o1 the 1ollo ing is the a$thor least li!ely to agreeC A< a proposal to save costs in a prison system +y +$il"ing only very large prison comple*es '< a plan to stop the closing o1 any hospital +e"s hatsoever in the city $ntil the costs o1 vario$s alternatives can +e 1$lly consi"ere" C< an or"er +y the Planning Commission man"ating that no p$+lic hospitals +e close" D< a proposal +y an architect$re 1irm that ne hospital +$il"ings have centrali/e" recor" systems

:3.

:3.

:8.

Passa-e . Every pro1ession or tra"e0 every art0 an" every science has its technical voca+$lary0 the 1$nction o1 hich is partly to "esignate things or processes hich have no names in or"inary English0 an" partly to sec$re greater e*actness in nomenclat$re. .$ch special "ialects0 or Qargons0 are necessary in technical "isc$ssion o1 any !in". 'eing $niversally $n"erstoo" +y the "evotees o1 the partic$lar science or art0 they have the precision o1 a mathematical 1orm$la. 'esi"es0 they save time0 1or it is m$ch more economical to name a process than to "escri+e it. Tho$san"s o1 these technical terms are very properly incl$"e" in every large "ictionary0 yet0 as a hole0 they are rather on the o$ts!irts o1 the English lang$age than act$ally ithin its +or"ers. 26

Practice MCAT 3

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Di11erent occ$pations0 ho ever0 "i11er i"ely in the character o1 their special voca+$laries. In tra"es an" han"icra1ts an" other vocations0 s$ch as 1arming an" 1ishing0 that have occ$pie" great n$m+ers o1 men 1rom remote times0 the technical voca+$lary is very ol". It consists largely o1 native or"s0 or o1 +orro e" or"s that have or!e" themselves into the very 1i+er o1 o$r lang$age. %ence0 tho$gh highly technical in many partic$lars0 these voca+$laries are more 1amiliar in so$n"0 an" more generally $n"erstoo"0 than most other technicalities. The special "ialects o1 la 0 me"icine0 "ivinity0 an" philosophy have also0 in their ol"er strata0 +ecome pretty 1amiliar to c$ltivate" persons0 an" have contri+$te" m$ch to the pop$lar voca+$lary. 2et0 every vocation still possesses a large +o"y o1 technical terms that remain essentially 1oreign0 even to e"$cate" speech. An" the proportion has +een m$ch increase" in the last 1i1ty years0 partic$larly in the vario$s "epartments o1 nat$ral an" political science an" in the mechanic arts. %ere ne terms are coine" ith the greatest 1ree"om0 an" a+an"one" ith in"i11erence hen they have serve" their t$rn. Most o1 the ne coinages are con1ine" to special "isc$ssions0 an" sel"om get into general literat$re or conversation. 2et0 no pro1ession is no a"ays0 as all pro1essions once ere0 a close" g$il". The la yer0 the physician0 the man o1 science0 the cleric0 all associate 1reely ith his 1ello creat$res0 an" "o not meet them in a merely pro1essional ay. )$rthermore0 hat is calle" Opop$lar scienceP ma!es every+o"y ac#$ainte" ith mo"ern vie s an" recent "iscoveries. Any important e*periment0 tho$gh ma"e in a remote or provincial la+oratory0 is at once reporte" in the ne spapers0 an" every+o"y is soon tal!ing a+o$t it as in the case o1 the ,oentgen rays an" ireless telegraphy. Th$s0 o$r common speech is al ays ta!ing $p ne technical terms an" ma!ing them commonplace. :6. Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing or"s is least li!ely to have starte" its li1e as QargonC A< s$n '< cal1 C< plo D< loom The a$thor(s main p$rpose in the passage is to A< "escri+e a phenomenon. '< arg$e a +elie1. C< propose a sol$tion. D< stim$late action. Bhen the a$thor re1ers to pro1essions as no longer +eing Oclose" g$il"sP he means that A< it is m$ch easier to +ecome a pro1essional than in the past. '< there is more social interco$rse +et een pro1essionals an" others. C< pop$lar science has tol" its secrets to the orl". D< anyone can no $n"erstan" anything in a pro1ession. I1 the a$thor o1 the passage ishe" to st$"y a ne 1iel"0 he o$l" pro+a+ly A< call in a "ictionary e*pert. 2:

::.

:9.

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'< C< D< 95.

+ecome easily "isco$rage". loo! to the histories o1 the or"s in the ne 1iel". pay care1$l attention to the ne 1iel"(s technical voca+$lary.

It seems that the passage implies that A< English is al ays +ecoming larger an" larger. '< the or"s o1 the English lang$age are al ays changing. C< one can never +e s$re o1 hat a or" means itho$t cons$lting an e*pert. D< technical terms in most nonGscienti1ic 1iel"s have little chance o1 +ecoming part o1 the main +o"y o1 the lang$age in these scienti1ic "ays.

Passa-e .# .$ppose yo$ go into a 1r$iterer(s shop anting an apple. 2o$ ta!e $p one0 an" on +iting it yo$ 1in" it is so$rM yo$ loo! at it0 an" see that it is har" an" green. 2o$ ta!e $p another one0 an" that0 too0 is har"0 green0 an" so$r. The shopman o11ers yo$ a thir"M +$t0 +e1ore +iting it0 yo$ e*amine it0 an" 1in" that it is har" an" green0 an" yo$ imme"iately say that yo$ ill not have it0 as it m$st +e so$r0 li!e those that yo$ have alrea"y trie". Lothing can +e simpler than that0 yo$ thin!M +$t i1 yo$ ill ta!e the tro$+le to analy/e an" trace o$t into its logical elements hat has +een "one +y the min"0 yo$ ill +e greatly s$rprise". In the 1irst place yo$ have per1orme" the operation o1 in"$ction. 2o$ 1o$n" that0 in t o e*periences0 har"ness an" greenness in apples ent together ith so$rness. It as so in the 1irst case0 an" it as con1irme" +y the secon". Tr$e0 it is a very small +asis0 +$t still it is eno$gh 1rom hich to ma!e an in"$ctionM yo$ generali/e the 1acts0 an" yo$ e*pect to 1in" so$rness in apples here yo$ get har"ness an" greenness. 2o$ 1o$n" $pon that a general la 0 that all har" an" green apples are so$rM an" that0 so 1ar as it goes0 is a per1ect in"$ction. Bell0 having got yo$r nat$ral la in this ay0 hen yo$ are o11ere" another apple0 hich yo$ 1in"0 is har" an" green0 yo$ say0 OAll har" an" green apples are so$rM this apple is har" an" green0 there1ore0 this apple is so$r.P That train o1 reasoning is hat logicians call a syllogism0 an" has all its vario$s parts an" terms G its maQor premise0 its minor premise0 an" its concl$sion. An"0 +y the help o1 1$rther reasoning0 hich0 i1 "ra n o$t0 o$l" have to +e e*hi+ite" in t o or three other syllogisms0 yo$ arrive at yo$r 1inal "etermination0 OI ill not have that apple.P .o that0 yo$ see0 yo$ have0 in the 1irst place0 esta+lishe" a la +y in"$ction0 an" $pon that yo$ have 1o$n"e" a "e"$ction0 an" reasone" o$t the special partic$lar case. Bell no 0 s$ppose0 having got yo$r concl$sion o1 the la 0 that at some times a1ter ar"s0 yo$ are "isc$ssing the #$alities o1 apple ith a 1rien"M yo$ ill say to him0 OIt is a very c$rio$s thing0 +$t I 1in" that all har" an" green apples are so$rUP 2o$r 1rien" says to yo$0 O'$t ho "o yo$ !no thatCP 2o$ at once reply0 O-h0 +eca$se I have trie" them over an" over again0 an" have al ays 1o$n" them to +e so. Bell0 i1 e ere tal!ing science instea" o1 common sense0 e sho$l" call that an e*perimental veri1ication. An"0 i1 still oppose"0 yo$ go 1$rther an" say0 OI have hear" 29

Practice MCAT 3

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1rom the people in .omersetshire an" Devonshire0 here a large n$m+er o1 apples are gro n0 an" in Jon"on0 here many apples are sol" an" eaten0 that they have o+serve" the same thing. It is also 1o$n" to +e the case in Lorman"y0 an" in Lorth America. In short0 I 1in" it to +e the $niversal e*perience o1 man!in" herever attention has +een "irecte" to the s$+Qect.P Bhere $pon0 yo$r 1rien"0 $nless he is a very $nreasona+le man0 agrees ith yo$0 an" is convince" that yo$ are #$ite right in the concl$sion yo$ have "ra n. %e +elieves0 altho$gh perhaps he "oes not !no he +elieves it0 that the more e*tensive veri1ications have +een ma"e0 an" res$lts o1 the same !in" arrive" at G that the more varie" the con"itions $n"er hich the same res$lts are attaine"0 the more certain is the $ltimate concl$sion0 an" he "isp$tes the #$estion no 1$rther. %e sees that the e*periment has +een trie" $n"er all sorts o1 con"itions0 as to time0 place0 an" people0 ith the same res$ltM an" he says ith yo$0 there1ore0 that the la yo$ have lai" "o n m$st +e a goo" one0 an" he m$st +elieve it. 94. The a$thor has the approach o1 a;an< A< scientist. '< artist. C< novelist. D< economist. The term Onat$ral la P as it appears in the passage re1ers to A< common sense. '< the Ohonor system.P C< the res$lt o1 an in"$ction. D< the or"er o1 nat$re. Apples are $se" A< in or"er to convince the rea"er that 1r$it has no intellect. '< to ill$strate the s$+Qect o1 the passage. C< to give color to the story. D< to sho ho 1oolish logic is. I1 yo$ 1in" a har" an" green apple that is not so$r0 yo$ sho$l" A< try 1$rther apples to see i1 the nat$ral la has change". '< eat the rest o1 the apple at once. C< reQect the la stating har" an" green apples are $s$ally so$r. D< con"$ct 1$rther investigations an" ma!e a"Q$stments to the la o1 apples as necessary. OAll gira11es are +ea$ti1$l an" grace1$l. Geral" is a gira11e. Geral" is0 there1ore0 +ea$ti1$l an" grace1$l.P Accor"ing to the passage0 this reasoning is a;an< A< empirical veri1ication. '< in"$ction 1rom cases. C< syllogism. D< e*perimental concl$sion. A "isease that is ac#$ire" +y +eing e*pose" to other person(s ho have the "isease is 27

92.

93.

93.

98.

96.

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tho$ght +y a physician to +e ca$se" +y an in1ectio$s agent. This reasoning is an e*ample o1 A< the scienti1ic metho". '< in"$ction. C< "e"$ction. D< hypothesis testing. Passa-e .## Cons$mers rely on several metho"s to ac#$ire in1ormation a+o$t pro"$ct #$ality. The most straight1or ar"0 o1 co$rse0 is to Oe*perienceP the pro"$ct G eat it or $se it. Jo Gprice"0 1re#$ently p$rchase" pro"$cts re#$ire the e*perience approach0 +$t some goo"s have OsearchP characteristics. In1ormation on search goo"s can +e o+taine" +y inspection0 as!ing one(s 1rien"s0 or even rea"ing technical reports. Lelson has s$ggeste" a"vertising intensity as yet another in"e* o1 pro"$ct #$ality. 'ase" largely on the e*perience an" search characteristics an" rational +ehavior +y cons$mers0 his theory is note orthy in light o1 the i"esprea" controversy over the in1ormation content o1 a"vertising. Television a"vertising has o1ten +een critici/e" on the gro$n"s that it lac!s concrete pro"$ct in1ormation. '$t Lelson 1in"s 1a$lt ith the criticisms. I1 a"vertising provi"es no in1ormation0 then hy "o cons$mers respon" to itC I1 there as tr$ly no in1ormation provi"e"0 cons$mers o$l" most li!ely learn to ignore or to +e #$ite s!eptical o1 the many commercials they see each "ay. )inally0 only a relatively small proportion o1 pro"$cts are heavily a"vertise". Apparently0 there are many pro"$cts 1or hich a"vertising "oes not elicit strong cons$mer response. .earch pro"$ct a"vertising is relatively nonGcontroversial0 since it provi"es Ohar"P in1ormation ;s$ch as price0 location0 +ran"0 o+Qective #$ality ratings0 etc.< to cons$mers pro+a+ly more cheaply than they can get it else here. It can also +e chec!e" 1or acc$racy +e1ore +$ying. It is a"vertising o1 e*perience goo"s that is o1ten critici/e" 1or its lac! o1 in1ormational val$e an" its e11ect on mar!et per1ormance. 'eca$se s$ch in1ormation may +e mislea"ing an" cons$mers have no ay o1 separating the tr$th1$l 1rom the mislea"ing0 cons$mers have goo" reason not to respon" to Oin1ormationalP a"vertising a+o$t e*perience characteristics. Th$s0 there is less incentive 1or a"vertisers o1 e*perience goo"s to provi"e har" in1ormation +eyon" the pro"$ct(s 1$nction. Do heavy e*pen"it$res on e*perience goo"s a"vertising provi"e any +ene1it to cons$mers i1 little acc$rate pro"$ct in1ormation is conveye"C Lelson conten"s that they "o. %e says that heavy a"vertising is itsel1 in"irect in1ormation. A"vertising is costly0 an" this cost may +e inc$rre" long +e1ore apprecia+le sales are ma"e. Ma!ers o1 heavily a"vertise"0 in1erior pro"$cts cannot e*pect repeate" sales. Cons$mers ill learn thro$gh e*perience that the +ran" is in1erior. -n the other han"0 cons$mers ho p$rchase a heavily a"vertise"0 s$perior pro"$ct are li!ely to ma!e 1$rther p$rchases as their e*perience reveals the pro"$ct(s s$periority. )or that reason0 Lelson arg$es that the ma!ers o1 s$perior pro"$cts can e*pect a greater ret$rn 1rom a"vertising ;more sales per $nit o1 a"vertising< than can the ma!ers o1 in1erior pro"$cts. 35

Practice MCAT 3

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Pro"$cers o1 in1erior pro"$cts gain only initial p$rchases in response to a"vertising0 hile ma!ers o1 s$perior pro"$cts net initial pl$s repeat p$rchases. .ince pro"$cers o1 s$perior pro"$cts e*pect a higher ret$rn 1rom their a"vertising0 they have a greater incentive to a"vertise. I1 pro"$cers respon" to this incentive0 then s$perior pro"$cts sho$l" +e more heavily a"vertise" than in1erior0 an" cons$mers can ith goo" reason $se a"vertising as an in"icator o1 pro"$ct #$ality. Lelson(s contention0 that more heavily a"vertise" pro"$cts provi"e more #$ality 1or the price0 is still #$ite controversial. It "epen"s cr$cially on the a+ility o1 cons$mers to acc$rately assess pro"$ct characteristics a1ter p$rchase. %is hypothesis is not concerne" ith characteristics hose #$ality cannot +e "etermine" even a1ter $se ;1or e*ample0 the e11icacy o1 a "r$g<. Lor is it concerne" ith the iss$e o1 hether a"vertising alters cons$mers( perceptions. The vali"ity o1 Lelson(s hypothesis is "i11ic$lt to test. ,ecently some preliminary tests o1 the hypothesis have +een $n"erta!en. A"vertise" +ran"s in 44 "i11erent 1oo" pro"$ct classes ere selecte" 1or the test. S$ality ratings o1 each +ran" ere o+taine" 1rom Consumer Reports. .ales an" +ran"s ithin each class ere ran!e" accor"ing to their a"vertising e*pen"it$re per $nit o1 sales. The research #$estion as hether there as any ten"ency 1or +ran"s ran!e" high in #$ality to also +e ran!e" high in a"vertising per $nit o1 sales. The res$lts in"icate a ten"ency 1or a"vertising intensity an" #$ality to +e positively associate" in those samples. The coe11icient as negative only 1or one pro"$ct class. The samples in this preliminary st$"y are small0 ranging 1rom 8 to 42 +ran"s in each pro"$ct classM 1or that reason an in1erence that o$r estimates o$l" hol" 1or all +ran"s in a pro"$ct class is not Q$sti1ie". In a""ition0 e are not testing Lelson(s strong contention that heavily a"vertise" pro"$cts provi"e more #$ality per "ollar0 +$t a ea!er contention ;hel" +y most a"herents to Lelson(s position< that heavily a"vertise" pro"$cts are o1 higher #$ality ; itho$t consi"eration o1 price<. Given the small sample si/e0 e cannot say that the hypothesis is concl$sively s$pporte"0 nor can e ma!e precise assertions a+o$t the strength o1 associations +et een a"vertisingGsales ratios an" pro"$ct #$ality. %o ever0 Lelson(s hypothesis cannot +e reQecte" on the +asis o1 o$r "ata T he may +e right an" his theory "eserves to +e ta!en serio$sly. A !ey 1actor may +e the e*tent to hich cons$mers act$ally learn thro$gh e*perience. 9:. The a$thor(s p$rpose in riting this article is to A< s$pport Lelson(s theory. '< oppose Lelson(s theory. C< present an" "isc$ss some tests o1 Lelson(s theory. D< present an alternative to Lelson(s theory. The a$thor(s tone is A< s!eptical. '< intensive. C< s$pportive. 34

99.

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D< 97.

scienti1ic.

Accor"ing to the passage0 Lelson(s theory can +e characteri/e" +y all o1 the 1ollo ing e*cept that it is A< har" to test in its strongest 1orm. '< +ase" on rational "ecisionGma!ing +y cons$mers. C< oppose" to the i"ea that television a"vertising has no in1ormational content. D< "epen"ent on others 1or testing. Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing 1$t$re research 1in"ings o$l"0 i1 tr$e0 ten" to ea!en Lelson(s hypothesisC I. Le +ran"s ten" to +e +oth heavily a"vertise" an" perceive" as high #$ality. II. Most nonGsearch pro"$ct a"vertising s$ccee"s in +l$nting the cons$mer(s a+ility to eval$ate the tr$e #$ality o1 a pro"$ct. III. The reason many pro"$cts are not a"vertise" is that the response hich is s$re to +e generate" is har" to convert to pro1its 1or the a"vertiser hen the pro"$ct is not +ran"e". A< '< C< D< I only II only III only I an" III

75.

74.

Lelson(s hypothesis o$l" apply to all o1 the 1ollo ing e*cept A< tomato so$p. '< caviar. C< 1ish 1illets. D< mil!. The passage seems to A< treat television a"vertising as the maQor part o1 a"vertising. '< give too m$ch eight to Lelson(s hypothesis. C< +e overly ca$tio$s in its interpretations. D< con1$se Oe*perienceP pro"$cts ith OsearchP pro"$cts.

72.

ST)P: I) 2-R )ILI.% 'E)-,E TIME I. CAJJED0 C%ECK 2-R, B-,K. 2-R MA2 G- 'ACK T- AL2 SRE.TI-L IL T%E &E,'AJ ,EA.-LILG TE.T '--KJET.

32

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3ritin- Sam6le
Time? 65 min$tes totalM 35 min$tes per essay0 each separately time".

73.

Essay Topic 4 Politicians too o"ten base their decisions on what will 6lease the voters, not on what is best "or the co!ntry: Brite a $ni1ie" essay in hich yo$ per1orm the 1ollo ing tas!s. E*plain hat yo$ thin! the a+ove statement means. Descri+e a speci1ic sit$ation in hich a politician might ma!e an $npop$lar "ecision 1or the goo" o1 the co$ntry. Disc$ss the principles yo$ thin! sho$l" "etermine hether political "ecisions sho$l" +e ma"e to please the voters or to serve the nation.

73.

Essay Topic 2 >!stice is best served by tr!th: Brite a $ni1ie" essay in hich yo$ per1orm the 1ollo ing tas!s. E*plain hat yo$ thin! the a+ove statement means. Descri+e a speci1ic sit$ation in hich Q$stice might not +e serve" +y tr$th. Disc$ss hat yo$ thin! "etermines hether or not tr$th serves Q$stice.

33

Practice MCAT 3

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Biolo-ical Sciences
!mber o" #tems$ %& Time Allowed$ '( min!tes

D#RECT#) S$ Most #$estions in the Physical .ciences test are organi/e" into gro$ps0 each prece"e" +y a "escriptive passage. A1ter st$"ying the passage0 select the one +est ans er to each #$estion. .ome #$estions are not +ase" on a "escriptive passage an" are also in"epen"ent o1 each other. 2o$ sho$l" also select the one +est ans er to these in"epen"ent #$estions. A perio"ic ta+le is provi"e" an" yo$ may cons$lt it henever yo$ ish.

33

Practice MCAT 3

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Periodic Table o" the Elements


IA IIA IIIA I&A &A &IA &IIA &IIA

4 * 4.5 3 +i 6.7 44 a 23.5 47 K 37.4 3: Rb 98.8 88 Cs


432.7

3 Be 7.5 42 M23.3 25 Ca 35.4 39 Sr 9:.6 86 Ba


43:.3

24 Sc 38.5 37 1 99.7 8: +a=


439.7

22 Ti 3:.7 35 /r 74.2 :2 *"


4:9.8

23 . 85.7 34 b 72.7 :3 Ta
495.7

23 Cr 82.5 32 Mo 78.7 :3 3
493.7

28 Mn 83.7 33 Tc
;79<

26 ,e 88.9 33 R!
454.4

2: Co 89.7 38 Rh
452.7

29 i 89.: 36 Pd
456.3

27 C! 63.8 3: A45:.7

35 /n 68.3 39 Cd
442.3

8 B 45.9 43 Al 2:.5 34 0a 67.: 37 #n


443.9

6 C 42.5 43 Si 29.4 32 0e :2.6 85 Sn


449.:

: 43.5 48 P 34.5 33 As :3.7 84 Sb


424.9

9 ) 46.5 46 S 32.4 33 Se :7.5 82 Te


42:.6

7 , 4:.5 4: Cl 38.8 38 Br :7.7 83 #


426.7

2 *e 3.5 45 e 25.2 49 Ar 37.7 36 Kr 93.9 83 2e


434.3

:8 Re
496.2

:6 )s
475.2

:: #r
472.2

:9 Pt
478.4

:7 A!
47:.5

95 *255.6

94 Tl
253.2

92 Pb
25:.2

93 Bi
257.5

93 Po
;257<

98 At
;245<

96 Rn
;222<

9: ,r
;223<

99 Ra
;226<

97 Ac>
;22:<

453 R"
;264<

458 Db
;262<

456 S;266<

45: Bh
;263<

459 *s
;2::<

457 Mt
;269<

445 Ds
;294<

444
4!!
;2:2<

442
4!b
;264<

443
4!5
;297<

446
4!h
;297<

89 Ce 43 5 75 Th 23 2

87 Pr 43 5 74 Pa 23 4

65 d 43 3 72 4 23 9

64 Pm 43 3 73 6 23 :

62 Sm 48 5 73 P! 23 3

63 E! 482 78 Am 233

63 0d 48: 76 Cm 23:

68 Tb 48 9 7: B7 23 :

66 Dy 46 2 79 C" 28 4

6: *o 46 3 77 Es 28 2

>

69 Er 46 : 45 5 ,m 28 :

67 Tm 46 9 45 4 Md 28 9

:5 1b 4: 3 45 2 o 28 7

:4 +! 4:8 453 +r 262

38

Practice MCAT 3

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Passa-e # The a$tonomic nervo$s system consists o1 t o "ivisions? the sympathetic nervo$s system0 hich is mainly concerne" ith activating organs 1or O1ight or 1lightPM an" the parasympathetic nervo$s system0 hich essentially co$nteracts the sympathetic nervo$s system hen there are no stressors an" th$s allo s the +o"y to res$me a more rest1$l an" restorative state. The 1$nctions o1 the a$tonomic nervo$s system are re1le*ly controlle". The t o "ivisions $s$ally act in a +alance" 1ashion? the activity o1 an organ at any one time is the res$lt o1 the t o opposing in1l$ences. %o ever0 this is not al ays tr$e0 1or e*ample? most +loo" vessels have only sympathetic innervation. The main types o1 receptors in the sympathetic nervo$s system are a"renergicM that is0 they are stim$late" +y norepinepherine an" s$+stances similar to norepinepherine. &ario$s pharmace$ticals ta!e a"vantage o1 this 1act to stim$late ;a"renergic agonists< or inhi+it ;a"renergic antagonists< speci1ic a"renergic receptors an" th$s treat certain me"ical con"itions. The ta+le +elo sho s a 1e o1 the e11ects that stim$lation o1 the vario$s types o1 a"renergic receptors pro"$ces. Tiss!e +ronchiolar smooth m$scle myocar"i$m sinoGatrial no"e smooth m$scle in car"iac V s!eletal m$scle arterioles smooth m$scle in s!in V m$cosal arterioles 78. Predominant adrener-ic rece6tor 2 4 4 2 4 Res6onse rela*ation increase" con"$ction velocity V contractility increase" heart rate rela*ation contraction

Pra/osin0 an 4 antagonist0 co$l" +e $se" to A< treat "ia+etes. '< treat an asthmatic attac!. C< lo er high +loo" press$re. D< treat peptic $lcer "isease. Propranolol0 a 4 an" 2 antagonist0 sho$l" not +e $se" +y in"ivi"$als ho I. have arthritis II. have peripheral vasc$lar "isease ;poor circ$lation in the e*tremities< III. have asthma ;episo"ic narro ing o1 the +ronchioles< I&. have heart 1ail$re A< '< I0 II0 an" III are correct I0 II0 an" I& are correct 36

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C< D< 7:.

II0 III0 an" I& are correct I0 III0 an" I& are correct

.al+$tamol0 a 2 agonist0 is +est $se" to A< treat o$n" in1ections. '< treat asthmatic attac!s. C< lo er high +loo" press$re. D< treat peptic $lcer "isease. Anaphyla*is ;an allergic reaction in hich there is severe +ronchoconstriction an" generali/e" vaso"ilation ca$sing hypotension< is +est treate" ith A< norepinephrine0 hich is an 4 an" 4 agonist. '< isoproterenol0 hich is a 4 an" 2 agonist. C< phenylephrine0 hich is an 4 agonist. D< epinephrine0 hich is an 40 40 an" 2 agonist. The most speci1ic treatment o1 nasal congestion "$e to "ilate" +loo" vessels "$e to a viral $pper respiratory tract in1ection o$l" +e a"ministration o1 A< norepinephrine0 hich is an 4 an" 4 agonist. '< isoproterenol0 hich is a 4 an" 2 agonist. C< phenylephrine0 hich is an 4 agonist. D< epinephrine0 hich is an 40 40 an" 2 agonist.

79.

77.

Passa-e ## The maintenance o1 a narro range o1 +loo" p% is essential to normal 1$nctioning. The +o"y maintains normal p% +y means o1 chemical +$11er systems0 the !i"neys0 an" the l$ngs. 455. The maQor +$11er system in the +o"y is the car+onic aci"A+icar+onate +$11er system. -ther +$11er systems incl$"e I. %2P-3GA%P-32G II. intracell$lar an" plasma proteins III. hemoglo+in I&. phosholipi"s A< '< C< D< I an" II I0 II0 an" III II0 III0 an" I& All o1 the a+ove

454. Given that the pKa o1 %2C-3 is 6.4 an" E%2C-3F in mmolAJ is 5.53 * PaC-2 in mm%g ; here PaC-2 is the partial press$re o1 arterial C-2<0 hich o1 the 1ollo ing e*presses arterial E%DF in terms o1 E%C-3 GF an" PaC-2C A< E%DF in nmolAJ @ 955 * PaC-2 in mm%g A E%C-3GF in mmolAJ '< E%DF in mmolAJ @ 23 * PaC-2 in mm%g A E%C-3GF in mmolAJ 3:

Practice MCAT 3

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C< D<

E%DF in mmolAJ @ 23 * PaC-2 in mm%g A E%C-3GF in mmolAJ E%DF in nmolAJ @ 23 * PaC-2 in mm%g A E%C-3GF in mmolAJ

452. Aero+ic meta+olism pro"$ces 43 to 23 moles o1 C-2 per "ay. This represents ho m$ch potential %D pro"$ction per "ayC A< 43 to 23 moles '< 26 to 39 moles C< 6.8 to 42 moles D< 453 to 288 moles 453. Bhat happens to the aci" loa" re1erre" to in the previo$s #$estionC A< At the tiss$e capillaries0 C-2 enters re" +loo" cells here car+onic anhy"rase catalyses the pro"$ction o1 %D. %D com+ines ith hemoglo+in an" is transporte" to the l$ngs here the reverse process occ$rs an" C-2 is e*hale". '< At the tiss$e capillaries0 C-2 com+ines ith ater to 1orm car+onic aci"0 hich is transporte" to the l$ngs here the reverse process occ$rs an" C-2 is e*hale". C< At the tiss$e capillaries0 C-2 com+ines ith ater to 1orm car+onic aci"0 hich is transporte" to the !i"neys here %D is actively transporte" into the l$men o1 the pro*imal t$+$le. D< At the tiss$e capillaries0 C-2 com+ines ith ater to 1orm car+onic aci"0 hich is transporte" to the !i"neys here %D is actively transporte" into the l$men o1 the "istal t$+$le. 453. %D e*cretion in the !i"neys is enhance" +y all o1 the 1ollo ing e*cept A< increase" levels o1 al"osterone '< increase" concentration o1 ammonia an" %P-32G in the t$+$lar l$men C< aci"osis D< increase" concentration o1 potassi$m in the +loo" 458. D$ring meta+olism more %D ions are pro"$ce" than are cons$me". All o1 the 1ollo ing are so$rces o1 %D ions e*cept A< anaero+ic respiration "$ring intense e*ercise '< meta+olism o1 "ietary protein ;especially 1rom meat< C< aero+ic respiration D< lipogenesis 8!estions 9(; to 9(? are inde6endent o" any 6assa-e and o" each other: 456. The +ase se#$ence o1 one stran" o1 a piece o1 "o$+leGstran"e" DLA is 1o$n" to +e 8(G TGTCAG3(. The se#$ence o1 the other stran" is A< 8(GTGACAG3( '< 8(GACTGTG3( C< 8(GTGTCAG3( D< 8(GGTCACG3( 39

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45:. The correct or"er o1 increasing +asicity 1or the 1ollo ing amines is

* #
*#2
*#2

I A< '< C< D< II0 I0 III I0 II0 III III0 I0 II III0 II0 I

II

III

459. The primary spermatocyte gives rise to 1o$r spermato/oa. The primary oocyte gives rise to A< 9 ova. '< 3 ova. C< 2 ova. D< 4 ov$m. 457. )r$it 1lies that are hetero/ygo$s 1or a "ominant eye color can +e "isting$ishe" 1rom those that are homo/ygo$s "ominant +y A< crossing them ith homo/ygo$s "ominant 1lies. '< crossing them ith other o11spring 1rom the same parents. C< crossing them ith homo/ygo$s recessive 1lies. D< crossing them ith hetero/ygo$s 1lies. Passa-e ### The main p$rpose o1 the circ$latory system is to "eliver 1oo" an" o*ygen to tiss$es an" remove astes 1rom tiss$es. These processes occ$r in capillaries0 hich are the smallest +loo" vessels in the +o"y an" the only ones that are semipermea+le. The 1lo o1 +loo" to a partic$lar organ is reg$late" +y the cali+er o1 the arterioles in the organ as ell as +y the cali+er o1 the precapillary sphincters. Generally0 the percentage o1 car"iac o$tp$t 1lo ing to a partic$lar organ is relate" to the meta+olic activity o1 that organ in comparison ith the other organs in the +o"y. 445. Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing is not a "eterminant o1 +loo" 1lo C A< colloi" osmotic press$re '< press$re gra"ient C< +loo" vessel "iameter D< +loo" viscosity 37

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444. An organ in hich the percentage o1 car"iac o$tp$t 1lo ing to it is not relate" to its meta+olic activity in comparison ith the other organs in the +o"y is A< the heart. '< the intestine. C< the !i"ney. D< the +rain. 442. D$ring e*ercise0 +loo" 1lo in s!eletal m$scle increases. Circ$latory system a"Q$stments responsi+le 1or this change incl$"e I. Increase" car"iac o$tp$t. II. &aso"ilation in s!eletal m$scle. III. Increase" alveolar ventilation rate. A< '< C< D< I is correct I an" II are correct I an" III are correct II an" III are correct

443. In hich o1 the 1ollo ing organs ill +loo" 1lo change the least "$ring e*erciseC A< intestine '< s!in C< heart D< +rain 443. Let movement o1 1l$i" 1rom the intravasc$lar space to the interstitial space occ$rs ith all o1 the 1ollo ing e*cept A< "ecrease" plasma protein concentration '< lymphatic o+str$ction C< constriction o1 precapillary arterioles D< constriction o1 postcapillary ven$les 448. Jymph 1lo is increase" +y all o1 the 1ollo ing e*cept A< +ra"y!inin '< elevate" plasma protein concentration C< elevate" capillary press$re D< elevate" interstitial 1l$i" protein concentration Passa-e #. A characteristic o1 al!yl hali"es is their a+ility to $n"ergo n$cleophilic s$+stit$tion reactions ith n$cleophiles an" elimination reactions ith +ases0 altho$gh reactants are o1ten +oth n$cleophiles an" +ases. Depen"ing on 1actors s$ch as the relative strength o1 n$cleophile vers$s +ase0 steric e11ects0 temperat$re0 an" car+ocation sta+ility0 the reaction mechanism an" most a+$n"ant pro"$cts o1 certain reactions involving al!yl hali"es can +e pre"icte". 35

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446. Bhat is the maQor pro"$ct o1 the reaction +elo 0 an" hat is the mechanism +y hich it is pro"$ce"C C%3C%2'r D C%3-G
temperat$re? 855oC solvent? C%3-%

A< '< C< D<

etheneM E4 etheneM E2 ethyl methyl etherM .L2 ethyl methyl etherM .L4

44:. Bhat is the maQor pro"$ct o1 the reaction +elo 0 an" hat is the mechanism +y hich it is pro"$ce"C ;C%3C%2<3C'r D -%G
temperat$re? 855oC solvent? C%3-%

A< '< C< D<

;C%3C%2<3C-%M .L4 ;C%3C%2<3C-%M .L2 C%3C%@C;C%2C%3<2M E2 C%3C%@C;C%2C%3<2M E4

449. Bhat is the maQor pro"$ct o1 the reaction +elo 0 an" hat is the mechanism +y hich it is pro"$ce"C ;C%3C%2<3C'r D C%3-%
temperat$re? 285oC solvent? C%3-%

A< '< C< D<

;C%3C%2<3C-C%3M .L4 ;C%3C%2<3C-C%3M .L2 C%3C%@C;C%2C%3<2M E2 C%3C%@C;C%2C%3<2M E4

447. Bhat is the maQor pro"$ct o1 the reaction +elo 0 an" hat is the mechanism +y hich it is pro"$ce"C C%3C%2'r D ;C%3<3C-G
temperat$re? 855oC solvent? ;C%3<3C-%

A< '< C< D<

;C%3<3C-C%2C%3M .L4 ;C%3<3C-C%2C%3M .L2 C%2@C%2M E4 C%2@C%2M E2

425. Bhat is the maQor pro"$ct o1 the reaction +elo 0 an" hat is the mechanism +y hich it is pro"$ce"C

34

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+r

,2 #-

#.

,#3
temperat$re? 855oC solvent? C%3-%

A< '< C< D<

;,<G2G+$tanethiolM .L2 ;.<G2G+$tanethiolM .L2 ;W<G2G+$tanethiolM .L4 ;.<G2G+$tanethiolM .L4

424. Bhat is the maQor pro"$ct o1 the reaction +elo 0 an" hat is the mechanism +y hich it is pro"$ce"C C%2@C%'r D C%3-G
temperat$re? 855oC solvent? C%3-%

A< '< C< D< Passa-e .

no reaction occ$rs ethyneM E2 metho*yetheneM .L2 metho*yetheneM .L4

A test s$+Qect at rest is connecte" to a spirometer an" as!e" to +reathe normally 1or a 1e secon"s then to inspire ma*imally an" e*pire ma*imally. The spirometer an" the s$+Qect 1orm a close" system so that air cannot lea! in or o$t. Air moving into the s$+Qect ca$ses an $p ar" "e1lection o1 the spirometer nee"le0 hile e*piration ca$ses the reverse. The 1ollo ing graph o1 vol$me o1 air +reathe" in an" o$t vers$s time is pro"$ce". ;As sho n0 the s$+Qect is connecte" to the spirometer mi" ay thro$gh e*piration.<

32

Practice MCAT 3

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3000 ml

2-0 ml 0 -2-0 ml

-1-00 ml

-s

2- s

422. Bhat is the respiratory min$te vol$me at restC A< 8555 mlAmin '< 2855 mlAmin C< :855 mlAmin D< 2555 mlAmin 423. Bhat is the inspiratory capacityC A< 3855 ml '< 3555 ml C< 3855 ml D< 3285 ml 423. The spirometer initially contains 42 J o1 air ith 45X heli$m. A1ter several min$tes o1 +reathing0 the concentration o1 heli$m 1alls to 9X. Ignoring any heli$m a+sorption into the +loo"0 hat is the resi"$al vol$meC A< 4.5 J '< 4.8 J C< 2.5 J D< 3.5 J 428. I1 the patient(s anatomical "ea" space is 255 ml0 hat is his alveolar ventilation rate at restC A< 3555 mlAmin '< 3255 mlAmin C< 3855 mlAmin D< :855 mlAmin 426. Bhich mane$ver ill increase a person(s alveolar ventilation rate the mostC A< Do$+ling ti"al vol$me an" "ecreasing respiratory rate +y hal1 '< Do$+ling respiratory rate an" "ecreasing ti"al vol$me +y hal1 C< 'reathing 455X o*ygen hile maintaining the initial ti"al vol$me an" respiratory rate D< 'reathing 455X o*ygen an" $sing positive en"Ge*piratory press$re hile maintaining the initial ti"al vol$me an" respiratory rate 33

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42:. The concentration o1 car+on "io*i"e is lo est in A< the alveoli at the en" o1 inspiration '< the alveoli at the en" o1 e*piration C< the trachea at the en" o1 inspiration D< the trachea at the en" o1 e*piration 8!estions 9&= to 939 are inde6endent o" any 6assa-e and o" each other: 429. Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing str$ct$res is;are< not prominent "$ring mitosisC A< n$cleol$s '< spin"les C< chromati"s D< centrioles 427. -ne percent o1 a pop$lation e*hi+its the trait 1or a recessive allele. Bhat is the pro+a+ility that an in"ivi"$al selecte" at ran"om 1rom this pop$lation carries at least one copy o1 the alleleC A< 4X '< 45X C< 49X D< 47X 435. Bhich is the pre"ominant pro"$ct hen 403G"imethylcyclohe*ane is reacte" ith the same n$m+er o1 moles o1 chlorine gas $n"er photochemical con"itionsC
#3, ,l #3, ,l ,#2,l ,#3 ,l

#3,

,l

,#3

,#3

,#3

A<

'<

C<

D<

434. -1 1ive genes ;A0 '0 C0 D0 E< on a chromosome0 genes D an" E have a higher rate o1 recom+ination than 1or any other pair. A pro+a+le gene or"er o$l" +e A< EDC'A '< DCAE' C< D'CAE 33

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D<

'EDAC

Passa-e .# .ynthesis I
,#3
%

#,

,#

L a L % 20 L %

/
3

C 3% :' r

J in " la r c a ta ly s t

+r
% ' r0 e th e r

#3,

.ynthesis II

&

&#

' r2 ) e ' r3

C % 3C l A lC l3

K M n-

432. In .ynthesis I0 compo$n" A is A< ethene. '< ethane. C< 403G+$ta"iene. D< acetyli"e ion. 433. In .ynthesis I0 compo$n" ' is A< 4Gpentyne. '< 2Gpentyne. C< 4Gpentene. D< 2Gpentene. 433. In .ynthesis I0 compo$n" C is A< pentane. '< 2G+romoG4Gpentene. C< 4Gpentene. D< 2Gpentene. 438. In .ynthesis II0 compo$n" D is A< 402G"i+romo+en/ene. '< +romo+en/ene. C< +romocyclohe*ane. D< 403G"i+romo+en/ene. 38

+r

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436. In .ynthesis II0 compo$n" E is A< pG+romomethyl+en/ene. '< mG+romomethyl+en/ene. C< pG+romophenol. D< pG+romo+en/al"ehy"e. Passa-e .## The "igestive system +rea!s "o n comple* 1oo" molec$les into simpler molec$les. These are then a+sor+e" an" "istri+$te" thro$gho$t the +o"y +y means o1 the circ$latory system. 43:. Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing s$pports the i"ea that monosacchari"es are a+sor+e" in the g$t +y means o1 active transportC I. There is a ma*im$m rate o1 transport. II. Transport is selective 1or "i11erent s$gars III. Transport can +e +loc!e" +y certain chemicals I&. Transport is not co$ple" ith an e*ergonic chemical reaction A< '< C< D< II an" III are correct I0 II0 an" III are correct II0 III0 an" I& are correct I0 III0 an" I& are correct

439. All o1 the 1ollo ing statements concerning pancreatic Q$ice are correct e*cept A< It has a high hy"rogen car+onate concentration. '< It is al!aline ith a p% o1 appro*imately 9.5. C< Its secretion is stim$late" +y gastrin0 secretin0 cholecysto!ininApancreo/ymin0 an" imp$lses 1rom the vag$s nerve. D< Its secretion is primarily $n"er ne$ral control. 437. A1ter trypsinogen is secrete" into the "$o"en$m0 it is converte" to trypsin +y A< enteropepti"ase. '< chymotrypsin. C< a high p% environment. D< procar+o*ypepti"ase. 435. 'ile salts 1acilitate the a+sorption o1 1ats +eca$se o1 all o1 the 1ollo ing e*cept A< They 1orm aterGsol$+le comple*es ith 1at molec$les calle" micelles. '< They increase the transit time o1 1ats. C< They re"$ce the s$r1ace tension o1 1ats. D< They em$lsi1y 1ats. 434. )at0 a1ter +eing a+sor+e" +y m$cosal cells0 enters the lymphatic system as A< 1atty aci"s an" glycerol. '< monoglyceri"es. C< triglyceri"es. 36

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D<

chylomicrons.

8!estions 9<& to 9<; are inde6endent o" any 6assa-e and o" each other: 432. Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing "isting$ishes +acterial repro"$ction 1rom viral repro"$ctionC A< semiGconservative DLA replcation '< DLA polymerase C< crossGovers D< spin"le 1ormation 433. Bhich o1 the 1ollo ing is not involve" in protein synthesisC A< acetyl CoA '< ,LA polymerase C< t,LA D< antico"ons 433. Ketones res$lt 1rom the o*i"ation o1 A< primary alcohols. '< secon"ary alcohols. C< tertiary alcohols. D< ethers. 438. Bhat is the percentage +y eight o1 car+on in methanalC A< 29X '< 33X C< 35X D< 3:X 436. -n the estern si"e o1 the Gran" Canyon0 the species o1 s#$irrel have hite tailsM hereas0 on the eastern si"e0 the species o1 s#$irrel have gray tails. This is an e*ample o1 A< competition. '< a"aptive ra"iation. C< repro"$ctive isolation. D< m$t$alistic sym+iosis. ST)P: I) 2-R )ILI.% 'E)-,E TIME I. CAJJED0 C%ECK 2-R, B-,K. 2-R MA2 G- 'ACK T- AL2 SRE.TI-L IL T%E 'I-J-GICAJ .CIELCE. TE.T '--KJET. E D ), MCAT E2AM

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