Sie sind auf Seite 1von 38

1

Tank Lifting.
Tank Foundation. Tank Relocation.
Website: arwatson.com
E-Mail: arwatson@msn.com
Click to continue
Welcome to
Alan Watson
Presenting
A.P.I. 650 and 653 only give general guide lines to
the type of foundation
Number of different types, evaluated on the basis for:
Risk
Cost
Constructability
Schedule
2
Grass, moss growing out from under the tank
What to look for around tank to show Faulty
Foundation
Trees growing from under the tank
3
Tank floor laid on river stone
Tank shell has edge settlement
4
Tank is below ground
Water lying around ring wall foundation
5
Ground outside foundation cracked
Water lying around tank
6
Timber railway ties laid under shell holding moisture
Foundation around tank is uneven
7
Concrete foundation has large cracks
Tank floor annular plate is starting to delaminate
8
Tank shell is flattening out at the top of the tank
Floating roof jams on the way up
9
Tank is not level
Insulation holding moisture
10
Tar laid on top of annular hiding corrosion
Bottom shell course bulges out
11
Concrete ring wall slopes under tank
Foundation Failure Causing Underside
Corrosion
Poorly constructed or inadequate foundation material
12
Moisture held in the foundations
Welding of the tank floor not to any code
13
If the steel tank floor is in contact with concrete,
the moisture in the concrete and the galvanic
action between the dissimilar metals will, over a
period of time, cause the steel to corrode at an
accelerated rate.
Concrete Ring Walls and Grout
Double Bottom Method
14
Developed in the 1980s as the only viable
secondary containment method, has failed
in a number of cases
With the old steel floor and a new steel floor
spaced apart with sand or concrete, the oxygen
and moisture makes a perfect battery cell and the
new floor becomes the sacrificial anode.
15
The new steel floor corrodes out at a rate 4 times
faster than the old floor.
C.P.must be designed and installed by experienced
contractors or it may result in increasing the rate of
corrosion of the tank floor.
Any change in the amount of moisture in the
foundation material will cause the resistivity of
the material to change and this may result in the
C.P. breaking down.
16
In some cases, where oil impregnated fiber board or
oil sand has been used, nature has done its work
and eaten the oil out of the sand. This can reduce the
resistance of the sand and this condition has proven
to accelerate corrosion.
NDT (Non-Destructive Testing) inspection has
limitations and flaws and cannot inspect 100%
of the tank floor. It cannot inspect the critical
zone around the shell to annular weld, lap
joints, under the roof columns, around tank
sumps. Sometimes packed rust shows up as
good metal
17
We have identified that many of the
problems with aboveground storage tanks
start at the foundations. Tanks not properly
founded are bound to fail.
Tank Foundation
18
When built on good foundations tanks have
lasted 50 and more years
Tank Shell
Tank Bottom
Difference in Settlement between Center and
Periphery
Settlement at center 30% greater than at Shell
EEMUA 159
Shell settlement
19
Corrosion Triangle
Steel
Air
If all 3 elements are present then corrosion can occur
Remove moisture = no corrosion
Corrosion Triangle
Steel
Moisture
If all 3 elements are present then corrosion can occur
Remove air = No corrosion
20
New Tank Foundation Construction with Liner
9. Main Conclusions and Recommendations
EEMUA 183
-Codes and standards covering the design and construction
of storage tanks are based on over 100 years of
experience. There is no need to question the integrity
of the tank structure as a as a primary container,
provided it is properly designed and built to
recognised standards.
-Effective prevention of ground and ground water pollution
from storage tanks depends on the design and
construction of a good foundation, a properly
construction tank bottom and regular, effective
inspection.
21
Alan Watson is working on re-writing
API 650 APPENDIX B
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATIONS FOR
ABOVEGROUND OIL STORAGE TANKS
If you have any suggestions please contact him at
arwatson@msn.com
All accidents are preventable
22
Safe Methods & Procedures
Tank Lifting
Tank Lift Engineering
23
Tank lifting work is started after thorough
professional engineering evaluations are performed.
The evaluations are accomplished with very
conservative safety factors built in.
Air Bag Support Timbers
Allowable Air Bag Pressure
Tank Lifting Engineering
Wind Uplift Wind Forces
S i e s m i c F o r c e s
Tank Perimeter Supports Ground Bearing Pressure
V e r t i c a l S h e l l C o m p r e s s i o n
R a d i c a l S h e l l / F l o o r C o m p r e s s i o n
Vertical Shell Compression Radial Shell/Floor Compression
Calculations are in accordance with:
Local codes and practices
Knowledge of the tanks original construction
A.P.I. tank construction standards and details
Local wind conditions
24
Air Bag Support Timbers
Allowable Air Bag Pressure
Tank Lifting Engineering
Wind Uplift Wind Forces
S i e s m i c F o r c e s
Tank Perimeter Supports
Ground Bearing Pressure
V e r t i c a l S h e l l C o m p r e s s i o n
R a d i c a l S h e l l / F l o o r C o m p r e s s i o n
Vertical Shell Compression Radial Shell/Floor Compression
Tank Stress
Maximum air bag pressure
Calculated floor sag
Required number of perimeter supports
Air Bag Support Timbers
Allowable Air Bag Pressure
Tank Lifting Engineering
Wind Uplift Wind Forces
S i e s m i c F o r c e s
Tank Perimeter Supports
Ground Bearing Pressure
V e r t i c a l S h e l l C o m p r e s s i o n
R a d i c a l S h e l l / F l o o r C o m p r e s s i o n
Vertical Shell Compression Radial Shell/Floor Compression
Foundation load
Proven ground bearing pressure and shear strength
Minimum number of tank supports
25
Air Bag Support Timbers
Allowable Air Bag Pressure
Tank Lifting Engineering
Wind Uplift Wind Forces
S i e s m i c F o r c e s
Tank Perimeter Supports
Ground Bearing Pressure
V e r t i c a l S h e l l C o m p r e s s i o n
R a d i c a l S h e l l / F l o o r C o m p r e s s i o n
Vertical Shell Compression Radial Shell/Floor Compression
Wind Velocity
Skidding
Tank overturning
Sty overturning
Additional cribbing system installed before any
personnel can go under a lifted tank
26
Water in the foundation will weaken the soil. It may
not support the load under the lifting jacks
On the Job Safety; For Everyone; Everyday; All
the time
Job Safety Analysis:
ASSESS the risk;
What could go wrong?
What is the worst thing that could happen if
something does go wrong?
House keeping; Follow written procedures; ask for
assistance, if needed
27
Air bag Technology
Correction of the tank rim settlement
Repair/replacement of tank floor plates
Restore/change the tank floor profile
Reconstruct tank foundation
28
No welding required on tank
Air bags can be move to balance tank weight
29
100% under floor visual inspection
No limit in size
30
All internal fixtures can remain in place
Tank lifting equipment is portable
31
Tank can be lifted completely external
Tanks that have leaked can be safely lifted
32
Tank suction can be overcome by increasing the
number of air bags
Tank can be moved and rotated
33
Laying new steel floor
Tank floor inspection made easier with plenty of
light
34
An added benefit of tank lifting, is the ease at which a
tank can be relocated once the tank is in the air. This
can save the tank operators thousands of dollars and
months of downtime.
Tank Relocation
35
Moving tanks for tank farm upgrade
Moving tanks to give better utilization of the land
36
Joining tank farms together to maximize terminal
facilities
Tank moved to make building a new foundation
easier and more cost effectively
37
Moving tank to sell land for a profit
Returning leased land back to the owner
38
Relocation of tank to a new site.
Questions?
Contact: Alan Watson
Washington Office:
4016 E Maryland St.
Bellingham, WA 98226
Phone: USA 360-734-9157
Fax: USA 360-752-1779