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Membrane technologies (Reverse Osmosis) Sea water is filtered, by applying pressure across a membrane separating permeate on one side, and brine on the other 32 to 80 bars from brackish to seawater Thermal technologies
Sea water is evaporated, and condensed to form a salt-free distillate Multi-Stage-Flash (MSF) Multi-Effect-Distillation (MED).

Electrodialysis - Involves the removal of salts by separating and collecting their chemical components through electrolysis and is more suited to salty groundwater than seawater.

By - Mayuresh Kulkarni

Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Desalination Process

Thermal Desalination Process

By - Mayuresh Kulkarni

Plant Layout

By - Mayuresh Kulkarni

Market Share
Projected growth in Water demand by 2025 exceed by 56% Majority of large scale desalination plants in the Arab Gulf Region (AGR) employ thermal desalination processes. 77% of the total water production in the AGR Gulf Region - 94% of the total production by multistage flash (MSF) distillation process

By - Mayuresh Kulkarni

Demand for fresh water in India (annual) Fresh water available in India (annual) Population with no access to safe drinking water in India Number of plants installed in India so far Global desalination market by 2015 Annual desalination market in Middle East Current global water treatment market Current size of Indian water market Current share of desalination in water market 900 billion cu m 500-600 billion cu m

22.5 crore
175 US$ 95 billion US$ 8 billion US$ 400 billion US$ 1 billion 0.10%

Share of RO in desalination technologies

59% Source:

By - Mayuresh Kulkarni

Key Players in India in desalination sector

Sr. No. 1 Name Larsen & Toubro Ltd. Activities Large projects including thermal desalination.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL)

Have Installed 1 MGD Sea Water RO plant and a number small capacity BWRO plants in Tamil Nadu for the supply of drinking water. Active in R&D of Desalination processes. Water & Waste Water Solutions Has water recovery plant consisting of primary treatment, secondary treatment and RO. Piping Design, manufacture and supply of Titanium equipments, Electrolysers and electrochlorinators Pump manufacturers Water process Tecnology Turnkey & EPC Pumping Systems

3 4

Thermax Limited Chennai Petrochemical Corporation Limited George Fischer Piping System Ltd., Titanium Tantalum Products Limited

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7 8 9

KSB Pumps Ltd., LARSEN & TOUBRO LTD M/s. Kirloskar Brothers Limited

By - Mayuresh Kulkarni


Cost Economics
Project cost for setting up a plant (excluding water intake system) with 1 MLD capacity Power consumption to produce1 cu m of water Rs. 5-6 crore for thermal plants Rs. 4-5 crore for RO plants 4 units by RO plants 0.7-1 unit by thermal plants

Cost of producing water (from Rs. 30-50 per cum seawater) Rs. 10-15 per cum Cost of producing water (from brackish water)

By - Mayuresh Kulkarni