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Knowledge management Knowledge management (KM) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organisation to identify, create, represent,

distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embedded in organisations as processes or practices.More recently, other fields have started contributing to KM research; these include information and media, computer science, public health, and public policy. Many large companies and non-profit organisations have resources dedicated to internal KM efforts, often as a part of their business strategy, information technology, or human resource management departments Several consulting companies also exist that provide strategy and advice regarding KM to these organisations. Knowledge management efforts typically focus on organisational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the organisation. KM efforts overlap with organisational learning, and may be distinguished from that by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on encouraging the sharing of knowledge. It is seen as an enabler of organisational learning and a more concrete mechanism than the previous abstract research. Ethics in HRM Human resource management deals with manpower planning and development related activities in an organization. Arguably it is that branch of management where ethics really matter, since it concerns human issues specially those of compensation, development, industrial relations and health and safety issues. The role of ethics in human resource management is simply the fact that ethics is the chief cornerstone of the entire human resource management practice. Indeed, human resources (HR) deals with the personal aspects of the business enterprise, and it touches on many issues that require the application of ethical standards. Some of the areas that demonstrate this include the hiring of employees and issues of promotion, discrimination, sexual harassment, and privacy, as well as the practice of stated occupational safety and health standards. Work life balance Worklife balance is a concept including proper prioritizing between "work" (career and ambition) and "lifestyle" (health, pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development/meditation). Related, though broader, terms include "lifestyle calm balance" and "lifestyle choices" The Six Components of Work - Life Balance 1) Self-Management

Getting proper sleep, exercise, and nutrition. Self-management is the recognition that effectively using the spaces in our lives is vital, and that available resources, time, and life are finite. 2) Time Management Effective time management involves making optimal use of your day and the supporting resources that can be summoned. 3) Stress Management Most forms of multi-tasking ultimately increase our stress, versus focusing on one thing at a time. 4) Change Management In our fast-paced world, change is virtually the only constant. Continually adopting new methods and re-adapting others is vital to a successful career and a happy home life. 5) Technology Management Effectively managing technology means ensuring that technology serves you, rather than abuses you. Often there is no choice but to keep up with the technological Joneses, but you must rule technology, not vice versa. 6) Leisure Management The most overlooked of the work-life balance supporting disciplines, leisure management acknowledges the importance of rest and relaxation.Thus, effective leisure management requires varying ones activities. Workforce Diversity In an increasingly competitive marketplace businesses cannot afford to carry any additional weight that doesn't help them to succeed. So how does having a diverse workforce further a company's goals? A diverse workforce can provide tangible benefits to a company besides just fulfilling legal compliance and good faith efforts. In fact, as markets expand globally being able to understand and reach out to the individual needs of people from other cultures and regions will be paramount. A multicultural, talented, and trained employee base gives companies that key advantage. Technology and HRM

There is a general consensus that technology has enabled human resource management to dispense with routine and transactional administrative tasks. In turn, HR managers increasingly contribute to business strategy and execution. The advances have been impressive. But a question that remains is whether increasing HR participation in management alters downstream firm outcomes. Will increasing HR's involvement with line management temper management decisions? If so, will changes be in predictable directions? 1. It can streamline operations. 2. It can improve relations with other departments through more timely and efficient service. 3.It can play a transformational role by removing barriers to horizontal integration within and outside the firm. HR outsourcing Human Resource (HR) Outsourcing is a momentous strategic HR initiative . It helps organization to focus on internal resources towards doing what they do best and simultaneously helps to control the bottom lines. Human Resource Outsourcing (HRO) helps an organization to gain cost and time efficiencies and provides cutting edge over their human resource strategies and improves service improves services to their employees. Human Resources Outsourcing helps in boosting organizational performance with many strategic benefits like eliminating the redundant non-core HR functions, increasing cost competitiveness effectiveness and helps in maintaining strategic HR focus. Gender discrimination Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex. Sexist attitudes may stem from traditional stereotypes of gender roles, and may include the belief that a person of one sex is intrinsically superior to a person of the other.A job applicant may face discriminatory hiring practices, or (if hired) receive unequal compensation or treatment compared to that of their opposite-sex peers.Extreme sexism may foster sexual harassment, rape and other forms of sexual violence. Although gender discrimination is traditionally viewed as a problem normally

encountered by females, it has significantly affected males as well. Jobs customarily and historically held mainly by women were often denied to men based on social stigmas. Some of the more common jobs that fell into this category were nurses, childcare providers and flight attendants. Glass Ceiling Effect A glass ceiling is a political term used to describe "the unseen, yet unbreakable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements." Initially, and sometimes still today, the metaphor was applied by feminists in reference to barriers in the careers of high achieving women. In the US, the concept is sometimes extended to refer to obstacles hindering the advancement of minority men, as well as women.