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Running head: PICO

PICO-Breastfeeding Education Emily W. Kosmicki Ferris State University


Abstract The abstract will be written at a later time once I know more of what I want to say throughout this paper.


Title Here The purpose of this paper is to utilize evidence based research to support decisions in the health care field or in this case, nursing. By utilizing PICO (population/patient, intervention/interest, comparison intervention, outcome(s) desired, and time to achieve outcome), the nurse will be able to better incorporate best practice into daily interactions with patients. PICO Question The question to consider would be; do nurses with breast-feeing education increase the number of mothers breastfeeding compared to nurses without breastfeeding education in postpartum women. The World Health Organization (WHO) states the abundant benefits that improve patient health quality for both the mother and infant. These benefits include: providing essential nutrients and antibodies to the infant, breast-milk is readily available and affordable, reduces the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, and can speed up the mothers metabolism to help return to pre-pregnancy weight (WHO, 2013). With the known benefits of breastfeeding, one may wonder if the education or lack thereof that a mother receives (from a nurse) pre and post-partum contributes to successful lactation. Nurses can provide training, supplies, and support that are needed for a positive experience for both the mother and the baby. There are several factors that play a role in the nurses role in breastfeeding education. Larger, more urban hospitals most likely have lactation specialists on staff that can work with the nursing staff to assist with difficult cases, whereas more rural hospitals rely solely on the nurses for all breastfeeding needs and education.

Research Findings


Newborns were found to have a 30% chance of successful lactation 24-48 hours post-partum, if their mother had received breastfeeding education prior to birth as well as support throughout the process (Li et al, 2013). An article by Li, Li, Ashley, Smiley, Cohen, & Dee (2013), discusses the findings of their study; Our study suggests that by providing breastfeeding-related education to new nurses, hospitals are helping to ensure that they are prepared to give patients the support they need to breastfeed and may also suggest that the time invested by hospitals in staff training is proportional to the outcomes achieved (p. 7). Some nurses may feel inadequate to care for and or provide support to post-partum women in certain situation. For example, if a mother went through a difficult labor and is in the ICU, a critical care nurse may not have the knowledge or experience to provide lactation education. In this case, critical care nurses must rely on support from co-workers (nurse practitioners, lactation consultants, etc.) for optimal patient care (Engstrm & Lindberg, 2013). Recommendations to Improve Quality and Safety It is recommended to limit the amount of abbreviations used throughout a paper, but if used refer to Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary for credibility. Conclusion


References Engstrm, ., & Lindberg, I. (2013). Critical care nurses experiences of nursing mothers in an ICU after complicated childbirth. Nursing in Critical Care, 18(5), 251257. doi:10.1111/nicc.12027

Li, C.-M., Li, R., Ashley, C. G., Smiley, J. M., Cohen, J. H., & Dee, D. L. (2013). Associations of hospital staff training and policies with early breastfeeding practices. Journal of Human Lactation, 0890334413484551. doi:10.1177/0890334413484551

World Health Organization. (2013, July). 10 facts on breastfeeding. Retrieved from