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MUC LUC

Grammar Review ......................................................................................................... 1


1. Danh t dm d oc v khng dm d oc (Count noun/ Non - count noun) .................................. 1
Qun t khng xc nh "a" v "an" ........................................................................ 3
Qun t xc nh "The" .............................................................................................. 4
ch !" #$ng an%ther v %ther. ................................................................................ &
ch !" #$ng 'itt'e( a 'itt'e( )ew( a )ew .................................................................... 11
*+ h,u cch ............................................................................................................... 1-
.er/ ............................................................................................................................ 14
1. Present ....................................................................................................................................... 14
1) Simple Present ........................................................................................................................ 14
2) Present Progressive (be + V-ing) ............................................................................................ 14
3) Present Perfect : Have + P ................................................................................................... 1!
4) Present Perfect Progressive : Have been V-ing ..................................................................... 1"
2. Past ............................................................................................................................................ 17
1) Simple Past: V-e# ................................................................................................................... 1$
2) Past Progresseive: %as&%ere + V-ing .................................................................................... 1$
3) Past Perfect: Ha# + P ........................................................................................................... 1'
4) Past Perfect Progressive: Ha# + (een + V-ing ...................................................................... 1'
3. Future ......................................................................................................................................... 19
1) Simple )*t*re: %ill&S+all&,an&-a. + Verb in simple form ...................................................... 1/
2) 0ear )*t*re ............................................................................................................................. 21
3) )*t*re Progressive: 2ill&s+all + be + verbing ........................................................................... 21
4) )*t*re Perfect: %ill& S+all + Have + P .................................................................................. 21
*0 h1a h23 gi,a ch4 ng, v 5ng t ...................................................................... --
1. Cc tr ng hop Chu ng dng tch khoi dng t .................................................................... 22
2. Cc danh t Iun di hoi cc dng t v dai t di theo chng o ngi th 3 s t ................ 23
3. Cch su dng None v No ....................................................................................................... 23
4. Cch su dng cu trc either...or (hoc...hoc) v neither...nor (khng...m cng khng)
24
5. V-ing Im chu ng ..................................................................................................................... 25
6. Cc danh t tp th ................................................................................................................... 25
7. Cch su dng a number of, the number of: ............................................................................ 27
8. Cc danh t Iun dng o s nhiu .......................................................................................... 27
9. Thnh ng there is, there are ................................................................................................... 28
67i t .......................................................................................................................... 38
1. ai t nhn x ng (Chu ng) ....................................................................................................... 30
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2. ai t nhn x ng tn ng ........................................................................................................... 31
3. Tnh t so hu ........................................................................................................................... 31
4. ai t so hu ............................................................................................................................. 32
5. ai t phn thn ........................................................................................................................ 32
T9n ng, ...................................................................................................................... 34
1. ng t nguyn th I tn ng ................................................................................................ 34
2. Verb -ing dng Im tn ng ...................................................................................................... 34
3. Bn dng t dc bit ................................................................................................................ 35
4. Cc dng t dng sau gii t ................................................................................................... 36
5. Vn d cc dai t dng tr c dng t nguyn th hoc V-ing dng Im tn ng. ................ 37
ch !" #$ng cc 5ng t /n khi:m khu;:t ....................................................... 3&
1. Need ........................................................................................................................................... 39
1) 34ng n+ m5t 65ng t7 t+ 8ng: 6 9c s: #;ng ra sao c<n t4. v=o c+> ng? c>a n@ ........................ 3/
2) 0ee# 6 9c s: #;ng n+ m5t 65ng t7 A+iBm A+*.Bt .................................................................... 3/
2. Dare ............................................................................................................................................ 40
1) C+i #4ng vDi ng+Ea l= F#GmF .................................................................................................... 41
2) 3are #4ng n+ m5t ngoHi 65ng t7 ............................................................................................. 41
ch !" #$ng t% /e tr%ng m5t !< tr =ng h23 ........................................................ 4-
ch !" #$ng t% get tr%ng m5t !< tr =ng h23 >c /i?t ......................................... 4@
1. To get + P2 ................................................................................................................................. 45
2. Get + V-ing = Start + V-ing: Bt du Im g ............................................................................. 45
3. Get sb/smt +V-ing: Lm ai/ ci g bt du. .............................................................................. 45
4. Get + to + verb ........................................................................................................................... 45
5. Get + to + Verb (ch vn d hnh dng) = Come + to + Verb (ch vn d nhn thc) =
GraduaIIy = dn dn ...................................................................................................................... 46
9u hAi ....................................................................................................................... 4B
1. Cu hoi Yes/ No ......................................................................................................................... 47
2. Cu hoi thng bo .................................................................................................................... 47
a) %+o& 2+at l=m c+> ng? ........................................................................................................... 4$
b) %+om& 2+at l=m tIn ng? ........................................................................................................ 4$
c) ,I* +Ji n+Km v=o cGc bL ng?: %+enM %+ereM Ho2 v= %+. ................................................... 4'
3. Cu hoi gin tip ....................................................................................................................... 48
4. Cu hoi c dui ......................................................................................................................... 48
C<i nDi 3h$ hEa khFng nh v 3h4 nh ................................................................ @8
1. Khng d|nh ................................................................................................................................ 50
2. Phu d|nh .................................................................................................................................... 50
9u 3h4 nh ............................................................................................................. @-
G?nh '?nh thHc ......................................................................................................... @@
65ng t khi:m khu;:t .............................................................................................. @I
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9u iJu ki?n ............................................................................................................. @B
1. iu kin c th thc hin d oc o hin tai ............................................................................... 57
2. iu kin khng th thc hin d oc o hin tai ......................................................................... 57
3. iu kin khng th thc hin d oc o qu kh ........................................................................ 57
ch !" #$ng cc 5ng t wi''( w%u'#( c%u'#( !h%u'# !au i) ............................... @K
G5t !< cch #Lng thMm c4a i) ................................................................................. I8
1. If... then: Nu... th .................................................................................................................... 60
2. If dng trong dang cu khng phi cu diu kin: ng t o cc mnh d din bin bnh
th ng theo thi gian cua chnh n. .............................................................................................. 60
3. If... shouId = If... happen to... = If... shouId happen to... din dat s khng chc chn (Xem
thm phn su dng shouId trong mt s tr ng hop c th) ...................................................... 60
4. If.. was/were to... ....................................................................................................................... 60
5. If it + to be + not + for: Nu khng v, nu khng nh vo. .................................................. 61
6. Not di khi d oc thm vo nhng dng t sau if d by to s nghi ng, khng chc chn.
61
7. It wouId... if + subject + wouId... (s I... nu khng d oc dng trong vn vit) ................ 61
8. If... 'd have... 'have: Dng trong vn ni, khng dng trong vn vit, din dat diu kin
khng th xy ra o qu kh .......................................................................................................... 62
9. If + preposition + noun/verb... (subject + be b| I oc bo) .......................................................... 62
10. If dng kh ph bin vi mt s t nh any/anything/ever/not din dat phu d|nh .............. 62
11. If + Adjective = aIthough (cho d I) .................................................................................... 63
ch !" #$ng t% N%3e( t% Oi!h. .............................................................................. I4
1. iu kin khng c tht o t ong Iai ........................................................................................... 64
2. iu kin khng th thc hin d oc o hin tai ......................................................................... 64
3. iu kin khng th thc hin d oc o qu kh ........................................................................ 64
ch !" #$ng thnh ng, a! i)( a! th%ugh PgQn nh '( nh thR 'S .......................... II
T!e# t%( t% /eUget u!e# t% ........................................................................................ IB
ch !" #$ng thnh ng, w%u'# rather ................................................................... IK
1. Loai cu c mt chu ng .......................................................................................................... 68
2. Loai cu c hai chu ng ........................................................................................................... 68
a) NoHi cI* giO 6Pn+ Q +iRn tHi ..................................................................................................... "/
b) NoHi cI* A+Sng t+T t+Uc +iRn 6 9c Q +iRn tHi ............................................................................ "/
c) NoHi cI* A+Sng t+T t+Uc +iRn 6 9c Q V*G A+W ........................................................................... "/
ch !" #$ng thnh ng, O%u'# 'ike ....................................................................... B8
ch !" #$ng cc 5ng t khi:m khu;:t R #iVn 7t cc tr7ng thi + hi?n t7i . B-
1. CouId, May, Might + Verb in simpIe form = C I, c th. ..................................................... 72
2. ShouId + Verb in simpIe form .................................................................................................. 72
3. Must + Verb in simpIe form ...................................................................................................... 72
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ch !" #$ng cc 5ng t khi:m khu;:t R #iVn 7t cc tr7ng thi + Wu khH B4
1. CouId, may, might + have + P2 = c I d ............................................................................... 74
2. CouId have + P2 = L ra d c th (trn thc t I khng) ..................................................... 74
3. Might have been + V-ing = C I Ic y dang ......................................................................... 74
4. ShouId have + P2 = L ra phi, I ra nn ................................................................................ 74
5. Must have + P2 = hn I d ....................................................................................................... 74
6. Must have been V-ing = hn Ic y dang ................................................................................ 74
c vXn J !" #$ng !h%u'# tr%ng m5t !< tr =ng h23 c$ thR ................................ BI
TYnh t v 3hD t ....................................................................................................... BK
65ng t n<i ................................................................................................................ K8
c #7ng !% !nh c4a tYnh t v 3hD t ................................................................. K-
1. So snh bng ............................................................................................................................ 82
2. So snh hon km ...................................................................................................................... 83
3. So snh hop I ......................................................................................................................... 84
4. So snh dc bit ....................................................................................................................... 85
5. So snh da bi .......................................................................................................................... 86
6. So snh kp ............................................................................................................................... 86
7. Cu trc No sooner... than = Va mi ... th d ... .................................................................... 87
8. So snh gia 2 ng i hoc 2 vt ................................................................................................ 88
9. So snh bc nht ...................................................................................................................... 88
Zanh t #Lng 'm tYnh t .......................................................................................... &8
[n%ugh ....................................................................................................................... &1
G5t !< tr =ng h23 c$ thR #Lng Guch \ Gan; ......................................................... &-
]h9n /i?t thMm vJ cch #Lng a'%tU '%t! %)U 3'ent;U a great #ea'U !% v^i man;U
much. .......................................................................................................................... &4
G5t !< cch #Lng c$ thR c4a m%re \ m%!t ........................................................... &@
ch #Lng '%ng \ P)%rS a '%ng time ......................................................................... &B
T n<i .......................................................................................................................... &K
1. Because, Because of ................................................................................................................ 98
(eca*se of X on acco*nt of X #*e to .......................................................................................... /'
2. T ni ch mc dch v kt qu ................................................................................................ 98
3. T ni ch nguyn nhn v kt qu. ........................................................................................ 99
4. Mt s cc t ni mang tnh diu kin khc. ........................................................................ 100
9u / 5ng ............................................................................................................. 183
65ng t g9; ngu;Mn nh9n ...................................................................................... 18B
1. To have sb do sth = to get sb to do sth = Sai ai, khin ai, bo ai Im g ............................ 107
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2. To have/to get sth done = a ci g di Im ............................................................................ 107
3. To make sb do sth = to force sb to do sth ............................................................................ 107
4. To make sb + P2 = Im cho ai b| Im sao .............................................................................. 107
5. To cause sth + P2 = Im cho ci g b| Im sao ..................................................................... 107
6. To Iet sb do sth = to permit/aIIow sb to do sth = d ai, cho php ai Im g ........................ 108
7. To heIp sb to do sth/do sth = Gip ai Im g ......................................................................... 108
8. 3 dng t dc bit .................................................................................................................. 108
9u 3hHc h23 v 7i t Wuan h? tha; th: ............................................................ 118
1. That v which Im chu ng cua cu ph .............................................................................. 110
2. That v which Im tn ng cua cu ph ............................................................................... 110
3. Who Im chu ng cua cu ph ............................................................................................. 111
4. Whom Im tn ng cua cu ph ........................................................................................... 111
5. Mnh d ph bt buc v khng bt buc. .......................................................................... 111
1) -Rn+ 6Y p+; bKt b*5c. .................................................................................................. 111
2) -Rn+ 6Y p+; A+Sng bKt b*5c .......................................................................................... 112
6. Tm quan trng cua vic su dng du phy di vi mnh d ph .................................... 112
7. Cch su dng AII, Both, Some, SeveraI, Most, Few + Of + Whom/ Which ......................... 113
8. Whose = cua ng i m, cua con m. ....................................................................................... 113
9. Cch Ioai bo mnh d ph ..................................................................................................... 114
ch !" #$ng ]1 tr%ng m5t !< tr =ng h23 ............................................................ 11@
10. Dng vi mt s cc cu trc dng t. ............................................................................... 115
11. P1 d oc su dng d rt ngn nhng cu di ........................................................................ 116
ch !" #$ng ngu;Mn m_u h%n thnh PT% have ` ]-S ........................... 11K
ah,ng cch !" #$ng khc c4a that ...................................................................... 1-8
1. That dng vi t cch I mt Iin t (rng) ............................................................................. 120
2. Mnh d that ............................................................................................................................ 120
9u gib nh ............................................................................................................. 1--
1. Dng vi wouId rather that ..................................................................................................... 122
2. Dng vi dng t. ................................................................................................................... 122
3. Dng vi tnh t. ...................................................................................................................... 123
4. Cu gi d|nh dng vi mt s tr ng hop khc ..................................................................... 124
5. Cu gi d|nh dng vi it + to be + time ................................................................................. 125
C<i nDi /a% hm ....................................................................................................... 1-B
1. Not onIy ..... but aIso ............................................................................................................... 127
2. As weII as: Cng nh ................................................................................................................ 127
3. Both ..... and ............................................................................................................................ 128
ch !" #$ng t% kn%w( t% kn%w h%w. ................................................................... 1-&
v
G?nh J nh 2ng /5 .................................................................................................. 138
1. Despite/Inspite of = bt chp ................................................................................................. 130
2. AIthough/Even though/Though = Mc du ........................................................................... 130
3. However + adj + S + Iinkverb = d c .... di chng na th .... .............................................. 130
4. AIthough/ AIbeit (more formaI) + Adjective/ Adverb/ AverbiaI Modifier ............................. 131
ah,ng 5ng t #V g9; nhQm '_n ........................................................................... 13-
G5t !< cc 5ng t >c /i?t khc ......................................................................... 13@
*0 3hL h23 vJ th=i 5ng t ................................................................................... 13B
ch !" #$ng t% !a;( t% te'' ................................................................................... 13&
67i t nh9n x ng %ne v ;%u ................................................................................... 148
T i tr ^c R gi^i thi?u ........................................................................................... 141
ch !" #$ng cc 3h9n t + Qu m?nh J 3h$ ................................................... 14-
]h9n t #Lng 'm tYnh t ........................................................................................ 14@
1. Phn t 1(V-ing) d oc dng Im tnh t khi n dp ng dy du cc diu kin sau: ............ 145
2. Phn t 2 (V-ed) d oc dng Im tnh t khi n dp ng dy du cc diu kin sau: ............ 145
9u tha ................................................................................................................... 14I
Xu trcc c9u !%ng !%ng ......................................................................................... 14B
Thng tin tr0c ti:3 v gin ti:3 ............................................................................. 14K
1. Cu trc tip v cu gin tip ................................................................................................ 148
65ng t v^i hai t9n ng, tr0c ti:3 v gin ti:3 ...................................................... 1@8
*0 b% ng 2c 3hD t ................................................................................................ 1@1
1. Mt s cc dang ph t dc bit dng o du cu ................................................................ 151
ch '%7i /A nh,ng c9u trb '=i khng cng tr%ng /i ng, 3h3 ....................... 1@@
1. Kim tra cc Ii ng php co bn bao gm .......................................................................... 155
2. Loai bo nhng cu tr Ii mang tnh r m r: ........................................................................ 155
3. Phi chc chn rng tt c cc t trong cu d oc chn du phi phc v cho ngha cua
bi, dc bit I cc ng dng t. ................................................................................................. 156
4. Phi Ioai bo nhng cu tr Ii bao hm ting Ing, khng d oc php dng trong vn vit
qui chun ...................................................................................................................................... 156
ah,ng t #V g9; nhQm '_n ..................................................................................... 1@B
]h$ '$cd m5t !< nh,ng t #V g9; nhQm '_n khcd ............................................... 1I8
Gi^i t ....................................................................................................................... 1I3
ag, 5ng t ............................................................................................................. 1IB
G5t !< ngu;Mn tec th0c hi?n /i Ec .................................................................... 1B8
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GRAMMAR REVIEW
MT CU TRONG TNG ANH BAO GM CC THANH PHN SAU Y
SUBJECT - VERB AS PREDICATE - COMPLEMENT - MODIFIER
(OBJECT)
DIRECT INDIRECT
SUBJECT C TH LA MT NG TU NGUYN TH, MT VERB_NG,
MT A TU, SONG NHU NHT VN LA MT DANH TU. CHNG BAO
G CNG NG U CU, LAM CHU NG VA QUYT NH VC
CHA NG TU. V LA DANH TU NN CHNG LN QUAN N NHNG
VN SAU:
1. DANH T M C VA KHNG M C (COUNT
NOUN/ NON - COUNT NOUN)
DANH T M C: DNG OC V S M, DO N C HNH
TH S T, S NHU. N C TH DNG OC V "A" VA "THE".
DANH T KHNG M C: KHNG DNG OC V S M, DO
N KHNG C HNH TH S T, S NHU. N KHNG TH
DNG OC V "A", CN "THE" CH TRONG MT S TRNG HOP
AC BT.
MT S DANH TU M OC C HNH TH S NHU AC BT.
MT S DANH TU M OC C DANG S T/ S NHU NH NHAU
CH PHN BT BANG C "A" VA KHNG C "A"
EX: AN AIRCRAFT/ AIRCRAFT; A SHEEP/ SHEEP; A FISH/ FISH.
MT S CC DANH TU KHNG M OC NH FOOD, MEAT, MONEY,
SAND, WATER ... KH OC DNG NH CC DANH TU S NHU
CH CC DANG, LOA KHC NHAU CUA DANH TU .
EX: WATER -> WATERS (NC -> NHNG VNG NC)
1
DANH TU "TIME" NU DNG V NGHA LA "THOI GIAN" LA KHNG
M OC NHNG KH DNG V NGHA LA "THOI AI" HAY "S LN"
LA DANH TU M OC.
EX: ANCIENT TIMES (NHNG THI C AI) - MODERN TIMES (NHNG
THI HIN AI)
BANG S 1 TRANG 45 LA CC NH NG DNG OC V CC DANH
TU M OC VA KHNG M OC.
VC XC NH DANH TU M OC VA KHNG M OC LA HT
SC QUAN TRONG VA THNG LA BC CO BAN M U CHO CC
BA NGHE/ NG PHP CUA TOEFL.
2
QUN T KHNG XC |NH "A" VA
"AN"
DNG "AN" TRC MT DANH TU BT U BANG:
o 4 NGUYN M A, E, I, O.
o 2 BN NGUYN M U, Y.
o NHNG DANH TU BT U BANG "H" CM (AN HEIR/ AN
HOUR)
o NHNG TU M U BANG MT CH VT TT (AN S.O.S/ AN
M.P)
o LU Y: NG TRC MT DANH TU M U BANG "UNI..." PHA
DNG "A" (A UNIVERSITY/ A UNIFORM)
DNG "A" TRC DANH TU BT U BANG MT PHU M.
OC DNG TRC MT DANH TU KHNG XC NH V MAT V TR/
TNH CHT/ AC M HOAC OC NHC N LN U TN TRONG
CU.
DNG TRONG CC THANH NG CH S LONG NHT NH NH: A
LOT OF/ A GREAT DEAL OF/ A COUPLE/ A DOZEN.
DNG TRC NHNG S M NHT NH THNG LA HANG NGAN,
HANG TRAM NH A/ ONE HUNDRED - A/ONE THOUSAND.
DNG TRC "HALF" (MT NA) KH N THEO SAU MT ON V
NGUYN VEN: A KILO AND A HALF, HAY KH N GHP V MT
DANH TU KHC CH NUA PHN (KH VT C DU GACH N): A
HALF - SHARE, A HALF - HOLIDAY (NGAY L CH NGH NA NGAY).
DNG V CC ON V PHN S NH 1/3 A/ONE THIRD - 1/5 A /ONE
FIFTH.
DNG TRONG CC THANH NG CH G CA, TC , T L: $5 A
KILO, 60 KILOMETERS AN HOUR, 4 TIMES A DAY.
DNG TRC CC DANH TU S T M OC. TRONG CC THN TU
WHAT A NICE DAY/ SUCH A LONG LIFE.
A + MR/ MRS/ MS + FAMILY NAME = MT NG/ BA/ C NAO
(KHNG QUEN BIT)
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QUN T XC |NH "THE"
DNG TRC MT DANH TU OC XC NH CU TH V MAT TNH
CHT, AC M, V TR HOAC OC NHC N LN TH HA TRONG
CU.
THE + DANH T + GII T + DANH T
EX: THE GIRL IN BLUE, THE GULF OF MEXICO.
DNG TRC NHNG TNH TU SO SNH BC NHT HOAC ONLY.
EX: THE ONLY WAY, THE BEST DAY.
DNG CHO NHNG KHOANG TH GAN XC NH (THP NN): IN
THE 1990S
THE + DANH T + AI T QUAN H + MNH PHU
EX: THE MAN /TO WHOM YOU HAVE JUST SPOKEN /IS THE CHAIRMAN
TRC MT DANH TU NGU Y CH MT VT RNG BT
EX: SHE IS IN THE (= HER) GARDEN
THE + DANH TU S T TONG TRNG CHO MT NHM TH VT HOAC
VT
EX: THE WHALE = WHALES (LOI C VOI), THE DEEP-FREEZE (THUC
AN NG LANH)
LU Y: NHNG I VI MAN KHI MANG NGHA "LOAI NGI" TUYT I
KHNG OC DNG "THE".
EX: SINCE MAN LIVED ON THE EARTH (K T KHI LOI NGI SINH
SNG TRN TRI T NY)
DNG TRC MT DANH TU S T CH MT NHM, MT HANG
NG NHT NH TRONG X H.
EX: THE SMALL SHOPKEEPER: GII CHU TIM NH/ THE TOP OFFCIAL:
GII QUAN CHUC CAO CP
4
THE + ADJ: TONG TRNG CHO MT NHM NG, CHNG KHNG BAO
G OC PHP S NHU NHNG OC XEM LA CC DANH TU S
NHU. DO VY NG TU VA A TU CNG V CHNG PHA
NG TH 3 S NHU.
EX: THE OLD = THE OLD PEOPLE/ THE UNEMPLOYED/ THE DISABLED
ARE OFTEN VERY HARD IN THEIR MOVING
THE + TN CC VNG/ KHU VUC N TNG V MAT A LY HOAC
LCH SU
EX: THE SAHARA (DESERT)/ THE SIBERIA (TUNDRA)/ THE NORMANDIC
THE + EAST/ WEST/ SOUTH/ NORTH + DANH T
USED AS ADJECTIVE
Ex: EX: THE NORTH/ SOUTH POLE
(BC/ NAM CUC)
Ex: EX: THE EAST END OF LONDON
(KHU NG LN N)
*NHNG KHNG OC DNG THE TRC CC TU NAY NU N
LN V TN CHU LUC HOAC QUC GA: WEST GERMANY, NORTH
AMERCA...
THE + TN GO CC HOP XNG/ DAN NHAC C N/ BAN NHAC
PH THNG
EX: THE BACK CHOIR/ THE PHILHARMONIQUE PHILADELPHIA
ORCHESTRA/ THE BEATLES.
THE + TN GO CC T BO (KHNG TAP CH)/ TAU BN/ CC
KHNH KH CU.
EX: THE TIMES/ THE TITANIC/ THE HINDENBERG
THE + HO MT GA NH S NHU = GA NH NHA
EX: THE SMITHS = MR/ MRS SMITH AND CHILDREN
DNG TRC TN HO CUA MT NG XC NH NG TRONG
S NHNG NG TRNG TN.
KHNG OC DNG "THE" TRC CC DANH TU CH BA AN TRONG
NGAY TRU CC TRNG HOP AC BT.
EX: WE ATE BREAKFAST AT 8 AM THIS MORNING
EX: THE DINNER THAT YOU INVITED ME LAST WEEK WERE
DELECIOUS.
5
KHNG OC DNG "THE" TRC MT S DANH TU NH HOME, BED,
CHURCH, COURT, JAIL, PRISON, HOSPITAL, SCHOOL, CLASS,
COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY V.V... KH N V CC NG TU VA G
TU CH CHUYN NG CH N V MUC CH CHNH HOAC RA
KH CNG V MUC CH CHNH.
EX: STUDENTS GO TO SCHOOL EVERYDAY.
EX: THE PATIENT WAS RELEASED FROM HOSPITAL .
NHNG NU N HOAC RA KH KHNG V MUC CH CHNH
BT BUC PHA DNG "THE".
EX: STUDENTS GO TO THE SCHOOL FOR A CLASS PARTY .
EX: THE DOCTOR LEFT THE HOSPITAL AFTERWORK
*LU Y: TRONG AMERCAN ENGLSH HOSPTAL VA UNVERSTY PHA
DNG V THE:
Ex: HE WAS IN THE HOSPITAL (IN HOSPITAL AS A PATIENT).
Ex: SHE WAS UNHAPPY AT THE UNIVERSITY (AT THE UNIVERSITY
AS A STUDENT).
MT S TRNG HOP AC BT
GO TO WORK = GO TO THE OFFCE.
TO BE AT WORK
TO BE HARD AT WORK (LAM VC CHAM CH)
TO BE N OFFCE (ONG NHM) <> TO BE OUT OF OFFCE
( M N NHM)
GO TO SEA = BN (NH NHNG THUY THU)
GO TO THE SEA = RA BN, THNG NGH
TO BE AT THE SEA: GN BN
TO BE AT SEA ( TRN BN) TRONG MT CHUYN HA
HANH.
GO TO TOWN: VAO TRUNG TM/ PH - TO BE N TOWN
( TRUNG TM) KH TOWN LA CUA NG N.
BANG SU DUNG "THE" VA KHNG SU DUNG "THE" TRONG MT S
TRNG HOP N HNH
C "THE" KHNG "THE"
DNG TRC TN CC A D-
ONG, SNG NG, BN, VNH
VA CC H ( S NHU)
EX: THE RED SEA, THE ATLANTIC
OCEAN, THE PERSIAN GUFL, THE
TRC TN MT H
EX: LAKE GENEVA
6
GREAT LAKES
TRC TN CC D Y N
EX: THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS
TRC TN NHNG VT TH
DUY NHT TRONG V TRU
HOAC TRN TH G
EX: THE EARTH, THE MOON
THE GREAT WALL
THE SCHOOLS, COLLEGES,
UNVERSTES + OF + DANH TU
RNG
EX: THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
THE + S TH TU + DANH TU
EX: THE THIRD CHAPTER.
TRC TN CC CUC CHN
TRANH KHU VUC V U KN
TN KHU VUC PHA OC
TNH TU HO
EX: THE KOREAN WAR (=> THE
VIETNAMESE ECONOMY)
TRC TN CC NC C HA TU
TR LN (NGOA TRU GREAT
BRITAIN)
EX: THE UNITED STATES
TRC TN CC NC OC CO
LA MT QUN AO HOAC MT
QUN AO
EX: THE PHILIPINES
TRC TN CC TA LU HOAC
SU KN LCH SU
EX: THE CONSTITUTION, THE
TRC TN MT NGON N
EX: MOUNT VESUVIUS
TRC TN CC HANH TNH
HOAC CC CHM SAO
EX: VENUS, MARS
TRC TN CC TRNG NAY
NU TRC N LA MT TN
RNG
EX: STETSON UNIVERSITY
TRC CC DANH TU CNG
V MT S M
EX: CHAPTER THREE
TRC TN CC NC M U
BANG NEW, MT TNH TU CH
HNG HOAC CH C MT TU
EX: NEW ZEALAND, NORTH
KOREAN, FRANCE
TRC TN CC LUC A, TNH,
TU BANG, THANH PH, QUN,
HUYN
EX: EUROPE, FLORIDA
7
MAGNA CARTA

TRC TN CC NHM DN TC
THU S
EX: THE INDIANS
TRC TN CC MN HOC CU
TH
EX: THE SOLID MATTER PHYSICS
TRC TN BT K MN TH
THAO NAO
EX: BASEBALL, BASKETBALL
TRC CC DANH TU TRUU T-
ONG (TRU MT S TRNG HOP
AC BT)
EX: FREEDOM, HAPPINESS
TRC TN CC MN HOC N
CHUNG
EX: MATHEMATICS
TRC TN CC NGAY L, TT
EX: CHRISTMAS, THANKSGIVING
8
CCH S DUNG ANOTHER VA
OTHER.
HA TU NAY TUY GNG NHAU V MAT NGHA NHNG KHC NHAU V
MAT NG PHP.
DNG V DANH TU M OC DNG V DANH TU KHNG M
OC
ANOTHER + DANH T M C
S T = MT C NA, MT C
KHC, MT NG NA, MT
NG KHC.
THE OTHER + DANH T M -
C S T = C CN LA (CUA
MT B), NG CN LA (CUA
MT NHM).
ANOTHER + DANH T M C
S NHIU = MY C NA, MY
C KHC, MY NG NA, MY
NG KHC.
THE OTHER + DANH T M -
C S NHIU = NHNG C
CN LA (CUA MT B), NHNG
NG CN LA (CUA MT
NHM).
ANOTHER + DANH T KHNG
M C = MT CHT NA.
THE OTHER + DANH T KHNG
M C = CH CN ST LA.
EX: I DON'T WANT THIS BOOK. PLEASE GIVE ME ANOTHER.
(ANOTHER = ANY OTHER BOOK - NOT SPECIFIC)
I DON'T WANT THIS BOOK. PLEASE GIVE ME THE OTHER .
(THE OTHER = THE OTHER BOOK, SPECIFIC)
ANOTHER VA OTHER LA KHNG XC NH TRONG KH THE OTHER
LA XC NH, NU CHU NG HOAC DANH TU OC NHC N
9
TRN TH D CH CN DNG ANOTHER HOAC OTHER NH MT
A TU LA U.
NU DANH TU OC THAY TH LA S NHU: OTHER -> OTHERS.
KHNG BAO G OC DNG OTHERS + DANH TU S NHU. CH -
OC DNG MT TRONG HA.
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP NG TA DNG A TU THAY TH ONE
HOAC ONES ANG SAU ANOTHER HOAC OTHER.
LU Y: THIS HOC THAT C TH DUNG VI ONE NHNG THESE VA
THOSE KHNG C DUNG VI ONES.
10
CCH S DUNG LITTLE, A LITTLE,
FEW, A FEW
LITTLE + DANH T KHNG M C = RT T, KHNG (C
KHUYNH HNG PH |NH)
EX: I HAVE LITTLE MONEY , NOT ENOUGH TO BUY GROCERIES.
A LITTLE + DANH T KHNG M C = C MT CHT,
EX: I HAVE A LITTLE MONEY , ENOUGH TO BUY GROCERIES
FEW + DANH T M C S NHIU = C RT T, KHNG
(C KHUYNH HNG PH |NH)
EX: I HAVE FEW BOOKS , NOT ENOUGH FOR REFERENCE READING
A FEW + DANH T M C S NHIU: C MT CHT, U
EX: I HAVE A FEW RECORDS , ENOUGH FOR LISTENING.
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP KH DANH TU TRN OC NHC
N TH PHA D CH CN DNG LITTLE HOAC FEW NH MT A
TU LA U.
EX: ARE YOU READY IN MONEY. YES, A LITTLE .
QUITE A FEW (M C) = QUITE A BIT (KHNG M C) = QUITE
A LOT (C HAI) = RT NHIU.
11
S HU CCH
THE NOUN'S + NOUN: CH OC DNG CHO NHNG DANH TU CH
NG HOAC NG VT, KHNG DNG CHO CC VT.
EX: THE STUDENT'S BOOK THE CAT'S LEGS.
V DANH TU S NHU C SN "S" U CH CN DNG
DU PHY
EX: THE STUDENTS' BOOK.
NHNG V NHNG DANH TU S NHU AC BT KHNG
"S" U VN PHA DNG Y U DU S HU CCH.
EX: THE CHILDREN'S TOYS. THE PEOPLE'S WILLING
NU C HA DANH TU CNG NG S HU CCH TH DANH TU
NAO NG GN DANH TU B S HU NHT S MANG DU S HU.
EX: PAUL AND PETER'S ROOM.
V NHNG TN RNG HOAC DANH TU C SN "S" U
C TH CH CN DNG DU PHY VA NHN MANH U KH OC
HOAC DNG S HU CCH VA PHA THAY CCH OC. TN
RNG KHNG DNG "THE" ANG TRC.
EX: THE BOSS' CAR = THE BOSS'S CAR [BOSIZ]
AGNES' HOUSE = AGNES'S [SIZ] HOUSE.
N OC DNG CHO TH GAN (NAM, THNG, THP NN, TH K)
EX: THE 1990S' EVENTS: NHNG SU KIN CUA THP NIN 90
THE 21
ST
CENTURY'S PROSPECTS.
C TH DNG CHO CC MA TRONG NAM TRU MA XUN VA MA
THU. NU DNG S HU CCH CHO HA MA NAY TH NG VT
NHN CCH HO CHNG. NGAY NAY NG TA DNG CC MA
TRONG NAM NH MT TNH TU CHO CC DANH TU ANG SAU, T
DNG S HU CCH.
EX: THE AUTUMN'S LEAF : CHIC L CUA NNG THU.
12
DNG CHO TN CC CNG TY LN, CC QUC GA
EX: THE ROCKERFELLER'S OIL PRODUCTS. CHINA'S
FOOD.
V CC CUA HU C NGH NGHP AC TRNG CH CN DNG
DANH TU V DU S HU.
EX: IN A FLORIST'S AT A HAIRDRESSER'S
AC BT LA CC TM AN: ANTONIO'S
DNG TRC MT S DANH TU BT NG VT CH TRONG MT S
THANH NG
EX: A STONE'S THROW FROM ...(CCH NOI U MT TM NEM).
13
VERB
NG TU TRONG TNG ANH CHA LAM 3 TH CHNH:
QU KH (PAST)
HIN TAI (PRESENT)
TONG LAI (FUTURE)
M TH CHNH LA CHA THANH NHU TH NH DN AT
TNH CHNH XC CUA HANH NG.
1. PRESENT
1) SIMPLE PRESENT
KH CHA NG TU TH NAY NG TH 3 S T, PHA C "S"
TN CNG VA M D PHA OC OC LN
EX: HE WALKS.
EX: SHE WATCHES TV
N DNG DN AT MT HANH NG THNG XUYN XAY RA
HN TA, KHNG XC NH CU TH V TH GAN, HANH NG LAP
LAP LA C TNH QU LUT.
THNG DNG V MT S CC PH TU CH TH GAN NH TODAY,
PRESENT DAY, NOWADAYS.
AC BT N DNG V MT S PH TU CH TN SUT NH:
ALWAYS, SOMETIMES, OFTEN, EVERY + THOI GIAN...
2) PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (BE + V-ING)
DNG DN AT MT HANH NG XAY RA VAO MT TH
M NHT NH CUA HN TA. TH M NAY OC XC NH CU
TH BANG MT S PH TU NH : NOW, RIGHTNOW, AT THIS
MOMENT.
DNG THAY TH CHO TH TONG LA GN, AC BT LA TRONG
VAN N.
AC BT LU Y NHNG NG TU BANG SAU KHNG OC CHA
TH TP DN D BT C TH NAO KH CHNG LA NHNG NG
14
TU TNH DN AT TRANG TH CAM GC CUA HOAT NG TNH
THN HOAC TNH CHT CUA SU VT , SU VC. NHNG KH CHNG
QUAY SANG HNG DNG TU HANH NG TH CHNG LA OC
PHP DNG TH TP DN.
KNOW BELEVE HEAR SEE SMELL
WSH
UNDERSTAND HATE LOVE LKE WANT
SOUND
HAVE NEED APPEAR SEEM TASTE
OWN
EX: HE HAS A LOT OF BOOKS.
HE IS HAVING DINNER NOW. (NG T HNH NG: AN TI)
I THINK THEY WILL COME IN TIME
I'M THINKING OF MY TEST TOMORROW. (NG T HNH NG:
ANG NGH V)
3) PRESENT PERFECT : HAVE + P
II
DNG DN AT MT HANH NG XAY RA TU TRONG QU KH
KO DA N HN TA VA CHM DT HN TA, TH DM HANH
NG HOAN TOAN KHNG OC XC NH TRONG CU.
CH MT HANH NG XAY RA NHU LN TRONG QU KH KO DA
N HN TA
EX: GEORGE HAS DNG V ALREADY TRONG CU KHNG NH,
LU Y RANG ALREADY C TH NG NGAY SAU HAVE VA CNG C
TH NG CU CU.
DNG V YET TRONG CU PHU NH, YET THNG XUYN NG
CU CU.
DNG V YET TRONG CU NGH VN
EX: HAVE YOU WRITTEN YOUR REPORTS YET?
SEEN THIS MOVIE THREE TIME.
DNG V 2 G TU SNCE/FOR+TME
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP PHU NH, YET C TH NG NGAY
SAU HAVE NHNG PHA THAY V MAT NG PHP: NOT MT VA
P

TR V DANG NGUYN TH C TO.


15
EX: JOHN HAS YET TO LEARN THE MATERIAL = JOHN HASN'T LEARNT
THE MATERIAL YET.
DNG V NOW THAT... (G Y KH MA...)
EX: NOW THAT YOU HAVE PASSED THE TOEFL TEST SUCCESSFULLY,
YOU CAN APPLY...
DNG V MT S PH TU NH TILL NOW, UNTILL NOW, SO FAR
(CHO N G). NHNG THANH NG NAY C TH NG U CU
HOAC CU CU.
EX: SO FAR THE PROBLEM HAS NOT BEEN RESOLVED.
DNG V RECENTLY, LATELY (GN Y) NHNG THANH NG NAY
C TH NG U HOAC CU CU.
EX: I HAVE NOT SEEN HIM RECENTLY.
DNG V BEFORE NG CU CU.
EX: I HAVE SEEN HIM BEFORE.
4) PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE : HAVE BEEN V-ING
DNG GNG HT NH PRESENT PERFECT NHNG HANH NG
KHNG CHN DT HN TA MA VN TP TUC TP DN, THNG
XUYN DNG V SINCE, FOR + TIME
PHN BT CCH DNG GA HA TH:
PRESENT PERFECT
HANH NG CHM DT
HN TA DO C KT QUA
R RT.
EX: I'VE WAITED YOU FOR HALF AN
HOUR (AND NOW I STOP WORKING
BECAUSE YOU DIDN'T COME).
PRESENT PERFECT
PROGRESSIVE
HANH NG VN TP DN
HN TA, C KHA NANG LAN T
TONG LA DO KHNG C KT
QUA R RT.
EX: I'VE BEEN WAITING FOR YOU
FOR HALF AN HOUR (AND NOW I'M
STILL WAITING, HOPING THAT
YOU'LL COME)
16
2. PAST
1) SIMPLE PAST: V-ED
MT S NG TU TRONG TNG ANH C CA DANG SIMPLE PAST
VA PAST PERFECT BNH THNG CNG NH AC BT. NG ANH A
DNG SIMPLE PAST CHA BNH THNG VA P
2
AC BT LAM ADJ
HOAC TRONG DANG B NG
EX: TO LIGHT
LIGHTED/LIGHTED: HE LIGHTED THE CANDLES IN HIS BIRTHDAY
CAKE.
LIT/ LIT: FROM A DISTANCE WE CAN SEE THE LIT RESTAURANT.
N DN AT MT HANH NG XAY RA T M TRONG QU
KH, KHNG LN QUAN G T HN TA, TH DM TRONG CU -
OC XC NH R RT BANG MT S CC PH TU CH TH GAN
NH YESTERDAY, AT THAT MOMENT, LAST + TIME
2) PAST PROGRESSEIVE: WAS/WERE + V-ING
N DNG DN AT MT HANH NG ANG XAY RA VAO MT
TH M NHT NH CUA QU KH. TH DM OC DN AT
CU TH = NGAY, G.
N DUNG KT HOP V MT SIMPLE PAST THNG QUA 2 PH TU
CH TH GAN LA WHEN VA WHILE, CH MT HANH NG ANG
TP DN TRONG QU KH TH MT HANH NG KHC CHEN
NGANG VAO (KH ANG... TH BNG...).
Subject + Simple Past while - Subject + Past Progressive
EX: SMB HIT HIM ON THE HEAD WHILE HE WAS WALKING TO HIS CAR
Subject + Past Progressive - when - Subject + Simple Past
EX: HE WAS WALKING TO HIS CAR WHEN SMB HIT HIM ON THE HEAD
17
MNH C WHEN & WHILE C TH NG BT K NO NAO TRONG
CU NHNG SAU WHEN PHA LA SIMPLE PAST VA SAU WHILE PHA
LA PAST PROGRESSIVE.
N DN AT 2 HANH NG ANG CNG LC XAY RA TRONG QU
KH.
Subject + Past Progressive - while - Subject + Past Progressive
EX: HER HUSBAND WAS READING NEWSPAPER WHILE SHE WAS
PREPARING DINNER.
MNH HANH NG KHNG C WHILE C TH SIMPLE PAST
NHNG T KH V D B NHM LN.
3) PAST PERFECT: HAD + P
II
DNG DN AT MT HANH NG XAY RA TRC MT HANH
NG KHC TRONG QU KH, TRONG CU BAO G CNG C 2
HANH NG
DNG KT HOP V MT SIMPLE PAST THNG QUA 2 PH TU CH
TH GAN AFTER VA BEFORE.

Subject + Simple Past after Subject + Past Perfect
Subject + Past Perfect before Subject + Simple Past
LU Y
MNH C AFTER & BEFORE C TH NG U HOAC CU
CU NHNG SAU AFTER PHA LA PAST PERFECT CN SAU BEFORE
PHA LA SIMPLE PAST.
BEFORE & AFTER C TH OC THAY BANG WHEN MA KHNG SO B
NHM LN V TRONG CU BAO G CNG C 2 HANH NG, 1 TR-
C, 1 SAU.
EX: THE POLICE CAME WHEN THE ROBBER HAD GONE AWAY.
4) PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: HAD + BEEN + V-ING
DNG GNG HT NH PAST PERFECT DUY C U HOAT NG
DN RA LN TUC CHO N TN SIMPLE PAST. N THNG KT
18
HOP V SIMPLE PAST THNG QUA PH TU BEFORE. TRONG CU
THNG XUYN C SINCE, FOR + TIME
LU Y: TH NAY NGAY NAY T DNG, NG TA THAY TH N BANG
PAST PERFECT VA CH DNG KH NAO CN N AT TNH CHNH XC
CUA HANH NG.
3. FUTURE
1) SIMPLE FUTURE: WILL/SHALL/CAN/MAY + VERB IN SIMPLE
FORM
NGAY NAY NG PHP HN A, AC BT LA NG PHP M CHP
NHN VC DNG WILL CHO TT CA CC NG, CN SHALL CH DNG
V CC NG I, WE TRONG MT S TRNG HOP NH SAU:
A RA NGH MT CCH LCH SU
EX: SHALL I TAKE YOU COAT?
DNG M NG KHC MT CCH LCH SU:
EX: SHALL WE GO OUT FOR LUNCH?
DNG NG G TRONG KH MAC CA, MUA BN:
EX: SHALL WE SAY : $ 50
THNG OC DNG V 1 VAN BAN MANG TNH PHP QU BUC CC
BN PHA TH HANH U KHOAN TRONG VAN BAN:
EX: ALL THE STUDENTS SHALL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR PROPER
EXECUTION OF THE DORM RULE
TRONG TNG ANH BNH DN , NG TA THAY SHALL = MUST
DANG CU NAY.
N DNG DN AT MT HANH NG S XAY RA MT TH
M NHT NH TRONG TONG LA NHNG KHNG XC NH CU
TH. THNG DNG V MT S PH TU CH TH GAN NH
TOMORROW, NEXT + TIME, IN THE FUTURE, IN FUTURE = FROM
NOW ON.
19
2) NEAR FUTURE
DN AT MT HANH NG S XAY RA TRONG TONG LA GN, TH-
NG DNG V CC PH TU D DANG: IN A MOMENT (LT NA),
AT 2 O'CLOCK THIS AFTERNOON....
EX: WE ARE GOING TO HAVE A RECEPTION IN A MOMENT
N CH 1 VC CHC CHN S PHA XAY RA THEO NH DU TNH CHO
D TH GAN LA TONG LA XA.
EX: WE ARE GOING TO TAKE A TOEFL TEST NEXT YEAR .
NGAY NAY NG TA THNG DNG PRESENT PROGRESSIVE.
3) FUTURE PROGRESSIVE: WILL/SHALL + BE + VERBING
DN AT MT U S XAY RA TRONG TONG LA VAO MT TH
M NHT NH
Ex: AT 8:00 AM TOMORROW MORNING WE WILL BE ATTENDING THE
LECTURE.
Ex: GOOD LUCK WITH THE EXAM! WE WILL BE THINKING OF YOU.
DNG KT HOP V PRESENT PROGRESSIVE KHC DN AT
HA HANH NG ANG SONG SONG XAY RA. MT HN TA, CN
MT TONG LA.
Ex: NOW WE ARE LEARNING ENGLISH HERE, BUT BY THE TIME
TOMORROW WE WILL BE ATTENDING THE MEETING AT THE
OFFICE.
OC DNG CP N CC SU KN TONG LA OC XC
NH HOAC QUYT NH (KHNG MANG Y NGHA TP DN).
Ex: PROFESSOR BAXTER WILL BE GIVING ANOTHER LECTURE ON
ROMAN GLASS MAKING AT THE SAME TIME NEXT WEEK.
HOAC NHNG SU KN OC MONG O LA S XAY RA THEO MT
TN TRNH THNG L (NHNG KHNG DN AT Y NH CUA C
NHN NG N).
Ex: YOU WILL BE HEARING FROM MY SOLICITOR.
Ex: I WILL BE SEEING YOU ONE OF THESE DAYS, I EXPECT.
DU ON CHO TONG LA:
20
Ex: DON'T PHONE NOW, THEY WILL BE HAVING DINNER.
DN AT L NGH NH NHAN MUN BT V K HOACH CUA
NG KHC
Ex: YOU WILL BE STAYING IN THIS EVENING.
(NG CO DU INH LAI Y TI NAY CHU A)
4) FUTURE PERFECT: WILL/ SHALL + HAVE + P
II
CH MT HANH NG S PHA OC HOAN TT VAO MT TH
M NHT NH TRONG TONG LA. N THNG OC DNG V PH
TU CH TH GAN D DANG
BY THE END OF....., BY THE TIME + SENTENCE
EX: WE WILL HAVE ACCOMPLISHED THE TOEFL TEST TAKING SKILLS
BY THE END OF NEXT YEAR .
EX: BY THE TIME HALLEY'S COMET COMES RACING ACROSS THE
NIGHT SKY AGAIN, MOST OF THE PEOPLE ALIVE TODAY WILL HAVE
PASSED AWAY.
21
SU HA HP GIA CH NG VA
NG T
TRONG MT CU TNG ANH, THNG THNG TH CHU NG NG LN
NGAY V NG TU VA QUYT NH VC CHA NG TU NHNG
KHNG PHA LUN LUN NH VY.
1. CC TRONG HP CH NG NG TCH KHI NG
T
EN VAO GA LA MT NG G TU (MT G TU M U CNG
CC DANH TU THEO SAU). CC NG G TU NAY KHNG H C
QUYT NH G T VC CHA NG TU, NG TU PHA CHA THEO
CHU NG CHNH.
CC THANH NG BANG SAU CNG V CC DANH TU THEO
SAU N TAO NN HN TNG NG CHU NG. N S NG XEN
VAO GA CHU NG VA NG TU, TCH RA KH GA 2 THANH
PHN = 2 DU PHAY VA KHNG C ANH HNG G N VC
CHA NG TU.
Ex: THE ACTREES, ALONG WITH HER MANAGER AND SOME FRIENDS,
IS GOING TO A PARTY TONIGHT.
TOGETHER WITH ALONG WITH ACCOMPANIED BY
AS WELL AS
NU 2 DANH TU LAM CHU NG N V NHAU BANG AND TH NG
TU PHA CHA NG TH 3 S NHU (THEY)
NHNG NU 2 NG CHU NG N V NHAU BANG OR TH NG TU
PHA CHA THEO DANH TU NG SAU OR. NU DANH TU LA S
T TH NG TU PHA CHA NG TH 3 S T VA NGOC LA.
Ex: THE ACTRESS OR HER MANAGER IS GOING TO ANSWER THE
INTERVIEW.
22
2. CC DANH T LUN I HI CC NG T VA AI T
I THEO CHNG NGI TH 3 S T
LA CC DANH TU BANG SAU (CN GO LA CC A TU PHM
CH).
ANY + NO + SOME +
SINGULAR NOUN SINGULAR NOUN
SINGULAR NOUN
ANYBODY NOBODY SOMEBODY
ANYONE NO ONE SOMEONE
ANYTHING NOTHING SOMETHING
EVERY + SINGULAR NOUN EACH +
SINGULAR NOUN
EVERYBODY
EVERYONE EITHER *
EVERYTHING NEITHER*
*EITHER AND NEITHER ARE SINGULAR IF THAY ARE NOT USED WITH
OR AND NOR
EITHER (1 TRONG 2) CH DNG CHO 2 NGI HOC 2 VT. NU
3 NGI (VT) TR LN PHI DNG ANY.
NEITHER (KHNG MT TRONG HAI) CH DNG CHO 2 NGI, 2
VT. NU 3 NGI TR LN DNG NOT ANY.
Ex: NEITHER OF HIS CHUTES OPENS AS HE PLUMMETS TO THE
GROUND
Ex: NOT ANY OF HIS PENS IS ABLE TO BE USED.
3. CCH S DUNG NONE VA NO
NU SAU NONE OF THE LA MT DANH TU KHNG M OC TH
NG TU PHA NG TH 3 S T. NHNG NU SAU N LA MT
DANH TU S NHU TH NG TU PHA CHA NG TH 3 S
NHU.
23

none + of the + non-count noun + singular verb

none + of the + plural count noun + plural verb

Ex: NONE OF THE COUNTERFEIT MONEY HAS BEEN FOUND.
Ex: NONE OF THE STUDENTS HAVE FINISHED THE EXAM YET.
NU SAU NO LA MT DANH TU M OC S T HOAC KHNG M
OC TH NG TU PHA NG TH 3 S T NHNG NU SAU N LA
MT DANH TU S NHU TH NG TU PHA NG TH 3 S
NHU

no + {singular noun/non-count noun} + singular verb

no + plural noun + plural verb
Ex: NO EXAMPLE IS RELEVANT TO THIS CASE.
4. CCH S DUNG CU TRC EITHER...OR
(HOC...HOC) VA NEITHER...NOR (KHNG...MA CNG
KHNG)
U CN LU Y NHT KH SU DUNG CU TRC NAY LA NG TU
PHA CHA THEO DANH TU SAU OR HOAC NOR. NU DANH TU
LA S T TH DNG TU CHA NG TH 3 S T VA NGOC LA.




+ noun + + plural noun + plural verb


+ noun + + singular noun + singular verb
neither
either
nor
or
neither
either
nor
or
Ex: NEITHER JOHN NOR HIS FRIENDS ARE GOING TO THE BEACH
TODAY.
Ex: EITHER JOHN OR HIS FRIENDS ARE GOING TO THE BEACH
TODAY.
Ex: NEITHER THE BOYS NOR CARMEN HAS SEEN THIS MOVIE
BEFORE.
24
Ex: EITHER JOHN OR BILL IS GOING TO THE BEACH TODAY.
5. V-ING LAM CH NG
KH V-ING DNG LAM CHU NG TH NG TU PHA CHA NG TH
3 S T
NG TA S DNG V-ING KH MUN DN AT 1 HANH NG CU TH
XAY RA NHT TH NHNG KH MUN DN AT BAN CHT CUA SU
VT, SU VC TH PHA DNG DANH TU
Ex: DIETING IS VERY POPULAR TODAY.
Ex: DIET IS FOR THOSE WHO SUFFER FROM A CERAIN DISEASE.
NG TU NGUYN TH CNG C TH DNG LAM CHU NG VA
NG TU SAU N S CHA NG TH 3 S T. NHNG NG TA TH-
NG DNG CHU NG GA IT M U CU.
Ex: TO FIND THE BOOK IS NECESSARY FOR HIM = IT IS NECESSARY
FOR HIM TO FIND THE BOOK.
6. CC DANH T TP TH
LA CC DANH TU BANG SAU DNG CH 1 NHM NG
HOAC 1 T CHC NHNG TRN THUC T CHNG LA NHNG DANH TU
S T, DO VY CC DA TU VA NG TU THEO SAU CHNG CNG
NG TH 3 S T.
CONGRESS FAMILY GROUP COMMITTEE
CLASS
ORGANIZATION TEAM ARMY CLUB
CROWD
GOVERNMENT JURY MAJORITY* MINORITY
PUBLIC
Ex: THE COMMITTEE HAS MET, AND IT HAS REJECTED THE
PROPOSAL.
TUY NHN NU NG TU SAU NHNG DANH TU NAY CHA NG
TH 3 S NHU TH CU M CH CC THANH VN TRONG
NHM ANG HOAT NG RNG R:
Ex: CONGRESS VOTES FOR THE BILL.
25
*(CONGRESS ARE DSCUSSNG ABOUT THE BLL. (SOME AGREE, SOME
DSAGREE)).(TOEFL KHNG BT L NAY).
DANH TU THE MAJORITY OC DNG TU THEO THANH PHN SAU
N CHA NG TU

the majority + singular verb

the majority of the + plural noun + plural verb
Ex: THE MAJORITY BELIEVES THAT WE ARE IN NO DANGER.
Ex: THE MAJORITY OF THE STUDENTS BELIEVE HIM TO BE INNOCENT.
THE POLCE/SHEEP/FSH + PLURAL VERB
Ex: THE SHEEP ARE BREAKING AWAY
Ex: THE POLICE COME ONLY TO SEE THE DEAD BODIES AND A RUIN
IN THE BANK
A COUPLE + SNGULAR VERB
Ex: A COUPLE IS WALKING ON THE PATH
THE COUPLE + PLURAL VERB
Ex: THE COUPLE ARE RACING THEIR HORSES THROUGH THE
MEADOW.
CC CUM TU BANG SAU CH MT NHM NG VT HOAC GA
SC. CHO D SAU G TU OF LA DANH TU S NHU TH NG TU
VN CHA THEO NG CHU NG CHNH NG TH 3 S T.
FLOCK OF BIRDS, SHEEP
SCHOOL OF FISH
HERD OF CATTLE
PRIDE OF LIONS
PACK OF DOGS
Ex: THE FLOCK OF BIRDS IS CIRCLING OVERHEAD.
26
TT CA CC DANH TU TP TH CH TH GAN, TN BAC, S O
U OC XEM LA 1 DANH TU S T. DO CC NG TU VA A
TU THEO SAU CHNG PHA NG TH 3 S T.
Ex: 25 DOLLARS IS TOO MUCH....
*NOTE: HE HAS CONTRIBUTED $50, AND NOW HE WANTS TO
CONTRIBUTE ANOTHER 50 .
7. CCH S DUNG A NUMBER OF, THE NUMBER OF:
A NUMBER OF = MT S LN NHNG... NU V DANH TU S
NHU TH NG TU CHA NG TH BA S NHU.

a number of + plural noun + plural verb
Ex: A NUMBER OF STUDENTS ARE GOING TO THE CLASS PICNIC (A
NUMBER OF = MANY).
NHNG THE NUMBER OF = MT S... OC CO LA MT TNG TH S
T, DO CHO D SAU N LA MT DANH TU S NHU TH NG
TU VN PHA CHA NG TH 3 S T.

the number of + plural noun + singular verb...

Ex: THE NUMBER OF DAYS IN A WEEK IS SEVEN.
8. CC DANH T LUN DNG S NHIU
BANG SAU LA NHNG DANH TU BAO G CNG HNH TH S
NHU V CHNG BAO GM 2 THUC TH NN CC A TU VA NG
TU CNG V CHNG CNG PHA S NHU.
SCISSORS SHORTS PANTS JEANS TONGS
TROUSERS EYEGLASSE
S
PLIERS TWEEZERS
NU MUN CHNG THANH NG S T PHA DNG A PAIR OF...
Ex: THE PANTS ARE IN THE DRAWER.
Ex: A PAIR OF PANTS IS IN THE DRAWER.
27
9. THANH NG THERE IS, THERE ARE
THANH NG NAY CH SU TN TA CUA NG HOAC VT TA MT NO
NAO . CHU NG THT CUA THANH NG NAY LA DANH TU SAU.
NU N LA DANH TU S T TH NG TU TO BE CHA NG TH 3
S T VA NGOC LA.
MO BN V TH VA TH U NAM TO BE CN THERE G
NGUYN.
Ex: THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE IMPORTATION OF
FOREIGN CARS.
Ex: THERE HAVE BEEN A NUMBER OF TELEPHONE CALLS TODAY.
LU Y CC CU TRC: THERE S CERTAN/ SURE/ LKELY/ BOUND TO
BE: CHC CHN LA S C
Ex: THERE IS SURE TO BE TROUBLE WHEN SHE GETS HIS LETTER
(CHC CHN L S CO RC RI KHI C Y NHN OC TH ANH
TA)
Ex: DO YOU THINK THERE IS LIKELY TO BE SNOW
(ANH CHO RNG CHC CHN S CO TUYT CHU)
TRONG DANG TNG ANH QUY CHUN HOAC VAN CHONG MT S
CC NG TU KHC NGOA TO BE CNG OC SU DUNG V
THERE.
NG TU TRANG TH: STAND/ LE/ REMAN/ EXST/ LVE
NG TU CH SU N: ENTER/ GO/ COME/ FOLLOW




of state
There + verb + noun as subject
of arrival
Ex: IN A SMALL TOWN IN GERMANY THERE ONCE LIVED A POOR
SHOEMAKER
(TAI MT THI TRN XEP UC TNG CO MT NG THO GIY
NGHO SNG O)
Ex: THERE REMAINS NOTHING MORE TO BE DONE
(CH CN CO G O NA M LM)
28
Ex: SUDDENLY THERE ENTERED A STRANGE FIGURE DRESSED ALL
IN BLACK
(BNG CO MT HNH BONG K LA I VO MC TON EN)
Ex: THERE FOLLOWED AN UNCOMFORTABLE SILENCE
(MT SU IM LNG N BT TIN TIP THEO SAU O)
THERE + SUBECT PRONOUN + GO/ COME/ BE: KA/ TH LA/ R TH
Ex: THERE HE COMES
(ANH TA N RI KIA KA)
Ex: THERE YOU ARE, I HAVE BEEN WAITING FOR YOU FOR OVER AN
HOUR
(ANH Y RI, TI ANG CH ANH N HON MT TING RI
Y)

THERE + BE + NAME OF PEOPLE : TH C .. .. Y TH .. NHAM
GO TA SU CH Y N
THERE + BE + ALWAYS + NOUN: TH LC NAO CHA C .. MT GA
PHP KHA D CHO 1 VN
Ex: WHOM COULD WE ASK ? WELL, THERE IS JAMES, OR MIRANDA,
OR ANN, OR SUE...
Ex: WHERE CAN HE SLEEP/_ WELL, THERE IS ALWAYS THE ATTIC
THERE WAS THS + NOUN: CHNH LA C ... NAY Y ( M U
CHO MT CU CHUYN)
Ex: THERE WAS THIS MAN, SEE, AND HE COULD NOT GET UP IN THE
MORNING. SO HE ...
(NY, CHNH L CI ANH CHNG NY Y, ANH TA KHNG DY
OC BUI SNG. TH L ANH TA...
THERE (LAM TNH TU) CHNH C/ CON/ NG Y
Ex: GIVE THAT BOOK THERE, PLEASE
LM ON A CHO TI CHNH CUN SCH Y
THAT THERE DOG: CHNH CON CHO Y Y
THAT THERE GIRL, SHE BROKE TWO RECORDS OF SPEED
(CHNH C GI Y Y, C TA PH HAI K LC V TC )
29
AI T
CHA LAM 5 LOA V CC CHC NANG SU DUNG KHC NHAU.
1. AI T NHN XNG (CH NG)

I e
you you
he
she they
it
NG U CU, LAM CHU NG, QUYT NH VC CHA NG TU
NG SAU NG TU TO BE
EX: THE TEACHERS WHO WERE INVITED TO THE PARTY WERE
GEORGE, BILL AND I.
EX: IT WAS SHE WHO CALLED YOU.
NG ANG SAU CC PH TU SO SNH NH THAN, AS (LI CO BN)
ANG SAU CC NG S NHU NH WE, YOU C QUYN DNG MT
DANH TU S NHU TRUC TP ANG SAU.
EX: WE STUDENTS ARE GOING TO HAVE A PARTY (SINH VIN CHNG
TI .....)
YOU GUYS (BN MY)
WE/ YOU/ THEY + ALL/ BOTH
EX: WE ALL GO TO SCHOOL NOW
THEY BOTH BOUGHT THE ENSURANCE
YOU ALL COME SHOPPING.
NHNG NU ALL HOAC BOTH V CC A TU NAY DANG CU
C NG TU KP TH ALL HOAC BOTH S NG SAU TRO NG TU
(FUTURE, PROGRESSIVE, PERFECT)
EX: WE WILL ALL GO TO SCHOOL NEXT WEEK.
THEY HAVE BOTH BOUGHT THE INSURANCE.
30
ALL VA BOTH CNG PHA NG SAU NG TU TO BE TRN TNH TU
EX: WE ARE ALL READY TO GO SWIMMING.
DNG HE/SHE THAY TH CHO CC VT NU NU CHNG OC XEM
LA C TNH CCH, THNG MNH HOAC TNH CAM (CH, MO,
NGUA...)
Ex: GO AND FIND A CAT IF WHERE SHE STAYS IN.
Ex: HOW'S YOUR NEW CAR? TERRRIFIC, SHE IS RUNNING
BEUTIFULLY.
TN NC OC THAY TH TRANG TRONG BANG SHE (NGAY NAY T
DNG).
Ex: ENGLAND IS AN ISLAND COUNTRY AND SHE IS GOVERNED BY A
MORNACH.
2. AI T NHN XNG TN NG
me us
you you
him
her them
it
NG ANG SAU CC A TU VA CC G TU LAM TN NG : US/
YOU/ THEM + ALL/ BOTH
EX: THEY INVITED US ALL (ALL OF US) TO THE PARTY LAST NIGHT.
ANG SAU US C TH DNG MT DANH TU S NHU TRUC TP
EX: THE TEACHER HAS MADE A LOT OF QUESTIONS FOR US
STUDENTS.
3. TNH T S HU

my our
your your
his
her their
its
NG TRC MT DANH TU VA CH SU S HU CUA NG HOAC VT
V DANH TU .
31
4. AI T S HU

mine ours
yours yours
his
hers theirs
its

NG TA DNG A TU S HU TRNH KH PHA NHC LA TNH
TU S HU + DANH TU N TRN.
NG U CU LAM CHU NG VA QUYT NH VC CHA NG
TU.
NG SAU CC PH TU SO SNH NH THAN HOAC AS
EX: YOUR TEACHER IS THE SAME AS HIS TEACHER. YOURS IS THE
SAME AS HIS.
NG SAU NG TU TO BE
NG ANG SAU MT NG TU HANH NG LAM TN NG.
EX: I FORGOT MY HOMEWORK. I FORGOT MINE
5. AI T PHN THN
myself ourselves
yourself yourselves
himself
herself themselves
itself
DNG DN AT CHU NG LAM MT VC G CHO CHNH MNH.
TRONG TRNG HOP NAY N NG NGAY ANG SAU NG TU
HOAC G TU FOR CU CU.
EX: I WASHED MYSELF
HE SENT THE LETTER TO HIMSELF.
DNG NHN MANH VAO VC CHU NG TU LAM LY VC G,
TRONG TRNG HOP NAY N NG NGAY SAU CHU NG. TRONG
MT S TRNG HOP N C TH NG CU CU, KH N HO
NGNG LA MT CHT.
32
EX: I MYSELF BELIEVE THAT THE PROPOSAL IS GOOD.
SHE PREPARED THE NINE-COURSE MEAL HERSELF.
BY + ONESELF = MT MNH.
EX: JOHN WASHED THE DISHES BY HIMSELF (ALONE)
33
TN NG
QNG TU DUNG LAM TN NG
KHNG PHA BT C NG TU NAO TRONG TNG ANH CNG U
H TN NG NG SAU N LA MT DANH TU. MT S CC NG TU
LA H TN NG SAU N PHA LA MT NG TU KHC. CHNG
CHA LAM HA LOA.
1. NG T NGUYN TH LA TN NG
BANG D Y LA NHNG NG TU H TN NG SAU N LA
MT NG TU NGUYN TH KHC.
AGREE ATTEMPT CLAM DECDE DEMAND
DESRE EXPECT FAL FORGET HESTATE
HOPE NTEND LEARN NEED OFFER
PLAN PREPARE PRETEND REFUSE SEEM
STRVE TEND WANT WSH
EX: JOHN EXPECTS TO BEGIN STUDYING LAW NEXT SEMESTER.
2. VERB -ING DNG LAM TN NG
BANG D Y LA NHNG NG TU H TN NG THEO SAU N
PHA LA MT VERB - ING
ADMT APPRECAT
E
AVOD CANT HELP CONSDER
DELAY DENY ENOY FNSH MND
MSS POSTPONE PRACTCE QUT RECALL
REPEAT RESENT RESST RESUME RSK
SUGGEST
EX: JOHN ADMITTED STEALING THE JEWELS.
LU Y RANG TRONG BANG NAY C MU NG TU CAN'T HELP
DOING/ BUT DO SMT: KHNG TH NG C PHI LAM G
34
EX: WITH SUCH GOOD ORANGES, WE CAN'T HELP BUYING (BUT BUY)
TWO KILOS AT A TIME.
NU MUN THANH LP TH PHU NH CHO CC NG TU TRN
Y DNG LAM TN NG PHA AT NOT TRC NGUYN TH HOAC
VERB - ING.
BANG D Y LA NHNG NG TU MA TN NG SAU N C TH
LA MT NG TU NGUYN TH HOAC MT VERB - ING MA NG
NGHA KHNG THAY .
BEGN CANT STAND CONTNUE DREAD
HATE LKE LOVE PREFER
START TRY
LU Y RANG TRONG BANG NAY C MT NG TU CAN'T STAND TO
DO/DOING SMT: KHNG TH CH|U UNG C KHI PHI LAM G.
EX: HE CAN'T STAND TO WAIT / WAITING SUCH A LONG TIME.
3. BN NG T C BIT
LA NHNG NG TU MA NG NGHA CUA CHNG S KHC
HOAN TOAN KH TN NG SAU N LA MT NG TU NGUYN TH
HOAC VERB - ING.
1) STOP TO DO SMT: DNG LAI LAM G
2) STOP DOING SMT: DNG LAM VIC G
3) REMEMBER TO DO SMT: NH S PHI LAM G
EX: I REMEMBER TO SEND A LETTER AT THE POST OFFICE
TOMOROW MORNING.
4) REMEMBER DOING SMT: NH LA LAM G
EX: I REMEMBER LOCKING THE DOOR BEFORE LEAVING, BUT NOW I
CAN'T FIND THE KEY.
AC BT N THNG OC DNG V MU CU: S + STILL
REMEMBER + V-ING : VN CN NH LA ...
EX: I STILL REMEMBER BUYING THE FIRST MOTORBIKE
35
5) FORGET TO DO SMT: QUN S PHI LAM G
EX: I FORGOT TO PICKUP MY CHILD AFTER SCHOOL
6) FORGET DOING SMT: (CH C DNG TRONG CC MU CU PH
|NH.
AC BT N THNG OC DNG V MU CU S + WILL NEVER
FORGET + V-ING: S KHNG BAO GIO QUN C LA ...
EX: SHE WILL NEVER FORGET MEETING THE UEEN.
7) REGRET TO DO SMT: LY LAM TIC V PHI (THONG BO TIN XU)
EX: WE REGRET TO INFORM THE PASSENGERS THAT THE FLIGHT FOR
WASHINGTON DC WAS CANCELED BECAUSE OF THE BAD WEATHER.
8) REGRET DOING SMT: LY LAM TIC V
EX: HE REGRETS LEAVING SCHOOL EARLY. IT'S A BIG MISTAKE.
4. CC NG T NG SAU GII T
TT CA CC NG TU NG SAU G TU U PHA DANG V-ING
MT S CC NG TU THNG KM V G TU TO. KHNG OC
NHM LN G TU NAY V TO CUA NG TU NGUYN TH.
VERB + PREPOSTONS + V-NG
APPROVE OF BE BETTER OF COUNT ON DEPEND ON
GVE UP NSST ON KEEP ON PUT OFF
RELY ON SUCCEED N THNK ABOUNT THNK OF
WORRY
ABOUNT
OBECT TO LOOK
FORWARD TO
CONFESS TO
EX: FRED CONFESSED TO STEALING THE JEWELS
ADECTVE + PREPOSTONS + V-NG
ACCUSTOMED
TO
AFRAD OF CAPABLE OF FOND OF
NTENT ON NTERESTED N SUCCESSFUL N TRED OF
EX: MITCH IS AFRAID OF GETTING MARRIED NOW.
36
NOUN + PREPOSTONS + V-NG
CHOCE OF EXCUSE FOR NTENTON OF METHOD FOR
POSSBLTY OF REASON FOR (METHOD OF)
EX: THERE IS NO REASON FOR LEAVING THIS EARLY.
KHNG PHA BT C TNH TU NAO CNG U H SAU N LA
MT G TU + V-ING. NHNG TNH TU BANG SAU LA H SAU
N LA MT NG TU NGUYN TH.
ANXOUS BORNG DANGEROUS HARD
EAGER EASY GOOD STRANGE
PLEASED PREPARED READY ABLE
USUAL COMMON DFFCULT
EX: IT IS DANGEROUS TO DRIVE IN THIS WEATHER.
ABLE/ UNABLE TO DO SMT = CAPABLE/ INCAPABLE OF DOING
SMT.
5. VN CC AI T NG TRC NG T NGUYN
TH HOC V-ING DNG LAM TN NG.
NG TRC MT NG TU NGUYN TH LAM TN NG TH DANG
CUA A TU VA DANH TU S LA TN NG.
ALLOW ASK BEG CONVNC
E
EXPECT NSTRUCT
NVTE ORDER PERMT PERSUAD
E
PREPARE PROMSE
REMND URGE WANT

S + ! + complement form "pronoun/ noun# + $to + verb%
EX: JOE ASKED MARY TO CALL HIM WHEN SHE WOKE UP.
EX: WE ORDERED HIM TO APPEAR IN COURT.
TUY NHN NG TRC MT V- ING LAM TN NG TH DANG CUA
A TU VA DANH TU S LA S HU.
37

Subject + verb + possessive form "pronoun/ noun# + verb-ing

EX: WE UNDERSTAND YOUR NOT BEING ABLE TO STAY LONGER.
EX: WE OBJECT TO THEIR CALLING AT THIS HOUR.
38
CCH S DUNG CC NG T
BN KHIM KHUYT
1. NEED
1) DNG NH MT NG T THONG: C S DUNG RA SAO CN
TY VAO CH NG CA N
A) KHI CH NG LA MT NG VT + NEED + TO + VERB
EX: MY FRIEND NEEDS TO LEARN SPANISH.
B) KHI CH NG LA MT BT NG VT + NEED + TO BE + P
2
/ V-ING
EX: THE GRASS NEEDS CUTTING OR THE GRASS NEEDS TO BE CUT

&ee' ( to be in nee' of + noun

EX: JILL IS IN NEED OF MONEY (JILL NEEDS MONEY).
WANT VA REQUIRE CNG OC DNG THEO MU CU NAY

)ant/ *e+uire + verb-ing

EX: YOUR HAIR WANTS CUTTING
EX: ALL EARS REQUIRE SERVICING REGULARLY
2) NEED C S DUNG NH MT NG T KHIM KHUYT
LUN DANG HN TA.
NG TH BA S T KHNG C "S" TN CNG
CH DNG TH NGH VN VA PHU NH
KHNG DNG V TRO NG TU TO DO.
SAU NEED PHA LA MT NG TU B "TO"
EX: WE NEEDN'T RESERVE SEATS - THERE WILL BE PLENTY OF
ROOMS.
EX: NEED I FILL OUT THE FORM ?
DNG SAU CC TU NH IF/ WHETHER/ ONLY/ SCARCELY/ HARDLY/
NO ONE
39
EX: I WONDER IF I NEED FILL OUT THE FORM
THIS IS THE ONLY FORM YOU NEED FILL OUT.
NEEDN'T + HAVE + P
2
: L RA KHNG CN PHI
EX: YOU NEEDN'T HAVE CAME SO EARLY - ONLY WASTE YOUR TIME.
LU Y: NEEDN'T = KHNG CN PHI TRONG KHI MUSTN'T = KHNG -
C PHP.
2. DARE
1) KHI DNG VI NGHA LA "DM"
KHNG DNG TH KHNG NH, CH DNG TH NGH VN VA
PHU NH. N C TH DNG V TRO NG TU TO DO HOAC V
CHNH BAN THN N. NG TU SAU N V MAT LY THUYT LA C
TO NHNG TRN THUC T THNG B.
EX: DID THEY DARE (TO) DO SUCH A THING = DARED THEY DO SUCH A
THING
EX: HE DIDN'T DARE (TO) SAY ANYTHING = HE DARED NOT SAY
ANYTHING.
DARE KHNG OC DNG TH KHNG NH NGOA TRU THANH
NG I DARE SAY/ I DARESAY V 2 NGHA SAU:
TI CHO RNG: I DARE SAY THERE WILL BE A RESTAURANT CAR
AT THE END OF THE TRAIN
TI THA NHN L: I DARESAY YOU ARE RIGHT.
HOW DARE/ DARED + S + VERB IN SIMPLE FORM: SAO ... DM (T
SU GIN GI)
EX: HOW DARED YOU OPEN MY LETTER: SAO MY DM M TH CUA
TAO.
2) DARE DNG NH MT NGOAI NG T
MANG NGHA THCH THC:
DARE SB TO DO SMT: THCH AI LAM G
40
EX: THEY DARE THE BOY TO SWIM ACROSS THE RIVER IN SUCH A
COLD WEATHER.
41
CCH S DUNG TO BE TRONG
MT S TRONG HP
TO BE OF + NOUN = TO HAVE: C (DNG CH TNH CHT HOC
TNH CM)
EX: MARY IS OF A GENTLE NATURE : MARY CO MT BN CHT T T.
TO BE OF + NOUN: NHN MANH CHO DANH T NG NG SAU
EX: THE NEWLY-OPENED RESTAURANT IS OF ( NGAY) THE
LECEISTER SQUARE
TO BE + TO + VERB: LA DANG CU TAO C BIT C S DUNG
TRONG NHNG TRONG HP SAU:
TRUYN AT CC MNH LNH HOAC CC CH DN TU NG
TH NHT QUA NG TH HA N NG TH BA.
EX: NO ONE IS TO LEAVE THIS BUILDING WITHOUT THE
PERMISSION OF THE POLICE.
DNG V MNH IF KH MNH CHNH DN AT MT CU
TN U KN: MT U PHA XAY RA TRC NHT NU MT
U KHC S XAY RA.
EX1: IF WE ARE TO GET THERE BY LUNCH TIME WE HAD BETTER
HURRY.
EX2: SMT MUST BE DONE QUICKLY IF THE ENDANGERED BIRDS
ARE TO BE SAVE .
EX3: HE KNEW HE WOULD HAVE TO WORK HARD IF HE WAS TO
PASS HIS EXAM
OC DNG THNG BO NHNG YU CU XN CH DN
EX: HE ASKED THE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL WHERE HE WAS TO
LAND.
42
OC DNG RT PH BN TRUYN AT MT DU NH, MT
SU SP AT, AC BT KH N LA CHNH THC.
EX1: SHE IS TO GET MARRIED NEXT MONTH.
EX2: THE EXPEDITION IS TO START IN A WEEK.
EX3: WE ARE TO GET A TEN PERCENT WAGE RISE IN JUNE.
CU TRC NAY RT THNG DUNG TRN BO CH, KH LA TUA
BO TH TO BE OC B TT KM CH.
EX: THE PRIMER MINISTER (IS) TO MAKE A STATEMENT
TOMORROW.
WERE + S + TO + VERB = IF + S + WERE + TO + VERB = TH NU
(DIN AT MT GI THUYT)
EX: WERE I TO TELL YOU THAT HE PASSED HIS EXAMS, WOULD YOU
BELIEVE ME.
WAS/ WERE + TO + VERB: DIN AT TNG V MT S MNH
|NH SN
EX1: THEY SAID GOODBYE WITHOUT KNOWING THAT THEY WERE
NEVER TO MEET AGAIN.
EX2: SINCE 180, AMERICAN PRESIDENTS ELECTED IN YEARS ENDING
ZERO WERE TO BE DIED (HAVE BEEN DESTINED TO DIE )IN OFFICE.
TO BE ABOUT TO + VERB = NEAR FUTURE (SP SA)
EX: THEY ARE ABOUT TO LEAVE .
TRONG MT S DANG CU AC BT
BE + ADJ ... M U CHO MT NG = T RA...
EX: BE CARELESS (T RA BT CN...) IN A NATIONAL PARK WHERE
THERE ARE BEARS AROUND AND THE RESULT ARE LIKELY TO BE
TRAGICAL INDEED
BE + SUBJECT + NOUN/ NOUN PHRASE/ ADJECTIVE = CHO D LA
EX: SOCIETIES HAVE FOUND VARIOUS METHODS TO SUPPORT AND
TRAIN THEIR ARTISTS, BE IT (CHO D L...) THE RENAISSANCE
SYSTEM OF ROYAL SUPPORT OF THE SCULPTORS AND PAINTERS OF
THE PERIOD OR THE JAPANESE TRADITION OF PASSING ARTISTIC
KNOWLEDGE FROM FATHER TO SON.
EX: TO HAVE TECHNIQUE IS TO POSSESS THE PHYSICAL EXPERTISE
TO PERFORM WHATEVER STEPS A GIVEN WORK MAY CONTAIN, BE
THEY SIMPLE OR COMPLEX:
43
(CO OC K THUT L S CO OC SU IU LUYN V MT CO TH
THUC HIN BT K NHNG BC V NO M MT IU V INH SN
CO TH BAO GM, CHO D L CHNG ON GIN HAY PHUC TAP)
44
CCH S DUNG TO GET TRONG
MT S TRONG HP C BIT
,. TO GET + P
2
GET WASHED/ DRESSED/ PREPARED/ LOST/ DROWNED/ ENGAGED/
MARRIED/ DIVORCED.
CH VIC CHU NG TU LM LY HOC TRANG THI M CHU NG
ANG TRONG O.
EX: YOU WILL HAVE 5 MINUTES TO GET DRESSED (... TU MC QUN
O)
EX: HE GOT LOST IN OLD MARKET STREET YESTERDAY. (TRANG THI
LAC)
TUYT NHN KHNG OC LN TRNG HOP NAY V NG TU B
NG.
NG TU TO BE C TH DNG THAY TH CHO GET TRONG LOA
CU NAY.
2. GET + V-ING = START + V-ING: BT U LAM G
EX: WE'D BETTER GOT MOVING , IT'S LATE.
3. GET SB/SMT +V-ING: LAM AI/ CI G BT U.
EX: PLEASE GET HIM TALKING ABOUT THE MAIN TASK. (LM ON BO
ANH TA BT U NOI V NHIM V CHNH I)
EX: WHEN WE GET THE HEATER RUNNING , THE WHOLE CAR WILL
START TO WARM UP. (KHI CHNG TA CHO MY SI BT U CHAY)
4. GET + TO + VERB
TM OC CCH.
EX: WE COULD GET TO ENTER THE STADIUMS WITHOUT TICKETS.
(CHNG TI TM OC CCH LT VO...)
C CO MAY.
45
EX: WHEN DO I GET TO HAVE A PROMOTION.(KHI NO TI CO CO MAY
OC TANG LONG Y)
OC PHP
EX: AT LAST WE GOT TO MEET THE GENERAL DIRECTOR. (CUI CNG
TH RI CHNG TI CNG OC PHEP GP)
5. GET + TO + VERB (CH VN HANH NG) = COME +
TO + VERB (CH VN NHN THC) = GRADUALLY =
DN DN
EX: WE WILL GET TO SPEAK ENGLISH MORE EASILY AS TIME GOES
BY.
EX: HE COMES TO UNDERSTAND THAT LEARNING ENGLISH IS NOT
MUCH DIFFICULT
46
CU HI
TNG ANH C NHU LOA CU H BAO GM NHNG CHC NANG VA
MUC CH KHC NHAU
1. CU HI YES/ NO

au-iliary
be + S + ! ...
'o. 'oes. 'i'

S D GO LA NH VY V KH TRA L OC DNG YES/ NO U
CU. NN NH RANG :
YES + POSITIVE VERB
NO + NEGATIVE VERB.
TUYT KHNG OC TRA L THEO KU CU TNG VT.
2. CU HI THNG BO
LA LOA CU DNG V MT LOAT CC A TU NGH VN
A) WHO/ WHAT LAM CH NG
+ verb + "complement# + "mo'ifier#




ho
hat
NG U CU LAM CHU NG VA QUYT NH VC CHA NG
TU. NG TU SAU N NU TH HN TA PHA CHA NG TH
3 S T.
EX: WHAT HAPPENED LAST NIGHT ?
B) WHOM/ WHAT LAM TN NG

hom
hat
au-iliary
'o. 'oes. 'i'
+ + S + ! + "mo'ifier#
47
CHNG VN NG U CU NHNG LAM TN NG CHO CU H.
NN NH RANG TRONG TNG ANH QU CHUN BT BUC PHA
DNG WHOM MAC D TRONG VAN N C TH DNG WHO THAY
CHO WHOM (LI CO BN).
EX: WHAT DID GEORGE BUY AT THE STORE.
C) CU HI NHM VAO CC B NG: WHEN, WHERE, HOW VA
WHY




hen
here
ho
hy
au-iliary
+ be
'o. 'oes. 'i'
+ S + ! + complement + mo'ifier
EX: HOW DID MARIA GET TO SCHOOL TODAY ?
3. CU HI GIN TIP
LA LOA CU MANG NHNG AC TNH NH SAU:
CU C HA THANH PHN N V NHAU BANG MT A TU NGH
VN.
NG TU MNH HA PHA AT XU THEO CHU NG, KHNG
OC CU TAO CU H.
A TU NGH VN KHNG CH LA 1 TU MA CN BAO GM 2 HOAC 3
TU.

S + ! "phrase# + +uestion or' + S + !
EX: THE AUTHORITIES CAN'T FIGURE OUT WHY THE PLANE LANDED
AT THE WRONG AIRPORT.

au-iliary + S + ! + +uestion or' + S + !

EX: DO YOU KNOW WHERE HE WENT ?.
QUESTION WORD C TH LA MT PHRASE: WHOSE + NOUN, HOW
MANY, HOW MUCH, HOW LONG, HOW OFTEN, WHAT TIME, WHAT
KIND.
EX: I HAVE NO IDEA HOW LONG THE INTERVIEW WILL TAKE.
4. CU HI C UI
CU CHA LAM HA THANH PHN TCH BT NHAU B DU PHY.
48
NU NG TU THANH PHN CHNH CHA TH KHNG NH TH
NG TU PHN U CHA TH PHU NH VA NGOC LA.
TH CUA NG TU U PHA THEO TH CUA NG TU MNH
CHNH.
NG TU THNG DNG V TRO NG TU TO DO. CC NG TU
TH KP DNG V CHNH TRO NG TU CUA N. NG TU TO BE
OC PHP DNG TRUC TP.
CC THANH NG THERE IS, THERE ARE VA IT IS OC DNG LA
PHN U.
TRONG TNG ANH CUA NG M, TO HAVE LA NG TU THNG,
DO VY N PHA DNG V TRO NG TU TO DO.
EX1: YOU HAVE TWO CHILDREN, DON'T YOU ?
EX2: HE SHOULD STAY IN BED, SHOULDN'T HE ?
EX3: SHE HAS BEEN STUDYING ENGLISH FOR TWO YEARS, HASN'T
SHE ?
LU Y: KH SU DUNG LOA CU H NAY NN NH RANG NG H CH
NHAM KHNG NH Y KN CUA MNH BT CH KHNG NHAM
H. DO KH CHM CU HU TRONG TOEFL, PHA DUA VAO TH
NG TU CUA MNH CHNH CH KHNG DUA VAO TH NG TU
PHN U.
Ex: JOHN CAN GET MARY TO PLAY THIS, CAN'T HE?
CORRECT ANSWER: JOHN BELIEVES THAT MARY WILL PLAY
THIS FOR US.
49
LI NI PHU HA KHNG |NH VA
PH |NH
1. KHNG |NH
LA L N PHU HOA LA Y KHNG NH CUA NG KHC TONG -
ONG V CU TRC TNG VT CNG TH.
CU TRC OC DNG S LA SO, TOO.
NG TU TO BE OC PHP DNG TRUC TP, NG TU THNG
DNG V TRO NG TU TO DO. CC NG TU TH KP
(FUTURE, PERFECT, PROGRESSVE) DNG V CHNH TRO NG
TU CUA N.


affirmative statement "be# + and +


S + ! "be) + too
so + ! "be) + S
EX: I AM HAPPY, AND YOU ARE TOO
I AM HAPPY, AND SO ARE YOU.

affirmative statement + and +
"compoun' verb#

S + au-iliary only + too
so + au-iliary only + S
EX: THEY WILL WORK IN THE LAB TOMORROW, AND YOU WILL TOO .
THEY WILL WORK IN THE LAB TOMORROW, AND SO WILL YOU .


affirmative statement + and +
"single verb e-cept be)


S + do, does, or did + too
so + do, does, or did + S
EX: JANE GOES TO THAT SCHOOL, AND MY SISTER DOES TOO .
JANE GOES TO THAT SCHOOL, AND SO DOES MY SISTER.
2. PH |NH
PHU HOA LA Y PHU NH CUA NG KHC, TONG ONG V CU
TRC TNG VT CNG KHNG.
50
THANH NG OC SU DUNG S LA EITHER VA NEITHER. NN NH
RANG:
EITHER + NEGATIVE VERB
NEITHER + POSITIVE VERB
SU DUNG GNG L N PHU HOA KHNG NH V 3 LOA: TO BE,
NG TU THNG VA CC NG TU TH KP.

negative statement + and +

S + negative au-iliary or be + either
neither + positive au-iliary or be + S
EX: I DIDN'T SEE MARY THIS MORNING, AND JOHN DIDN'T EITHER
I DIDN'T SEE MARY THIS MORNING, AND NEITHER DID JOHN.
LU Y: CC LI NOI ME TOO V ME NEITHER CH OC DNG TRONG
VAN NOI, TUYT I KHNG OC DNG TRONG VAN VIT.
51
CU PH |NH
CU TAO CU PH |NH T NOT SAU:
NG TU TO BE - TRO NG TU TO DO CUA NG TU THNG - CC TRO
NG TU TH KP.
AT ANY ANG TRC DANH TU NHN MANH TRONG PHU NH. NN
NH RANG TRONG TNG ANH CUA NG M TH NOT ANY + NOUN = NOT
.... A SINGLE NOUN.
EX: HE DIDN'T SELL A SINGLE MAGAZINE YESTERDAY.
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP NHN MANH VAO PHU NH CUA DANH
TU. NG TA NG TU DANG KHNG NH VA AT NO TRC DANH
TU. LC NO = NOT ... AT ALL.
MT S CC CU HI DANG PH |NH S MANG HAI NGHA:
NHN MANH CHO SU KHNG NH CUA NG N.
EX: SHOULDN'T YOU PUT ON YOUR HAT, TOO! : TH TH ANH CNG I
LUN M VO I.
EX: DIDN'T YOU SAY THAT YOU WOULD COME TO THE PARTY TONIGHT:
TH ANH CHNG NOI L ANH I DU TIC TI NAY HAY SAO.
DNG TN DONG
EX: WASN'T THE WEATHER WONDERFUL YESTERDAY: THI TIT HM
QUA P TUYT VI.
EX: WOULDN'T IT BE NICE THAT WE DIDN'T HAVE TO WORK ON FRIDAY:
THT L TUYT VI KHI CHNG TA KHNG PHI LM VIC NGY THU .
NEGATIVE + NEGATIVE = POSITIVE.(EMPHASIZING - NHN MANH)
EX: IT'S UNBELIEVEABLE HE IS NOT RICH.
NEGATIVE + COMPARATIVE (MORE/ LESS) = SUPERLATIVE
EX: I COULDN'T AGREE WITH YOU LESS = ABSOLUTELY DISAGREE.
EX: YOU COULDN'T HAVE GONE TO THE BEACH ON A BETTER DAY = THE
BEST DAY TO GO TO THE BEACH.
NHNG PHA HT SC CN THN V :
EX: HE COULDN'T HAVE BEEN MORE UNFRIENDLY (THE MOST UNFRIENDLY)
WHEN I MET HIM FIRST.
52
EX: THE SURGERY COULDN'T HAVE BEEN MORE UNNECESSARY
(ABSOLUTELY UNNECESSARY).
NEGATIVE... EVEN/STILL LESS/MUCH LESS + NOUN/ VERB IN
SIMPLE FORM: KHNG ... MA LA CANG KHNG.
EX: THESE STUDENTS DON'T LIKE READING NOVEL, MUCH LESS TEXTBOOK.
EX: IT'S UNBELIEVEABLE HOW HE COULD HAVE SURVIVED SUCH A
FREEFALL, MUCH LESS LIVE TO TELL ABOUT IT ON TELEVISION
MT S CC PH TU TRONG TNG ANH MANG NGHA PHU NH, KH
DNG N TRONG CU KHNG OC CU TAO TH PHU NH CUA NG
TU NA.
HARDLY, BARELY, SCARCELY = ALMOST NO = HU NH KHNG.
HARDLYEVER, SELDOM, RARELY = ALMOST NEVER = HU NH KHNG
BAO GIO.
subject + negative adverb + positive verb
subject + to be + negative adverb
*LU Y RANG CC PH TU NAY KHNG MANG NGHA PHU NH HOAN
TOAN MA MANG NGHA GN NH PHU NH. AC BT LA NHNG TU NH
BARELY VA SCARCELY KH V NHNG TU NH ENOUGH VA ONLY
HOAC NHNG THANH NG CH SU CHNH XC.
EX: SHE BARELY MAKE IT TO CLASS ON TIME: C TA N LP VA
VN NG GI.
EX: DO YOU HAVE ENOUGH MONEY FOR THE TUTION FEE? ONLY
BARELY (SCARCELY ENOUGH):VA U.
V NHNG NG TU NH TO THINK, TO BELIEVE, TO SUPPOSE,
TO IMAGINE + THAT + SENTENSE. PHA CU TAO PHU NH CC
NG TU , KHNG OC CU TAO PHU NH MNH TH HA.
EX: I DON'T THINK YOU CAME TO CLASS YESTERDAY.
EX: I DON'T BELIEVE SHE STAYS AT HOME NOW.
TRONG DANG NFORMAL STANDARD ENGLSH (TNG ANH QU
CHUN DNG THNG NGAY) MT CU TRC PHU NH NGNG
KHNG MANG NGHA PHU NH KH OC SU DUNG SAU NHNG
Y CH SU NGH NG HOAC KHNG CHC CHN, AC BT LA PHU
NH KP.
53
Ex: I SHOULDN'T BE SUPRISED IF THEY DIDN'T GET MARRIED SOON
(IF THEY GOT MARRIED SOON).
TI S KHNG LY LM NGAC NHIN NU H LY NHAU SM.
Ex: I WONDER WHETHER I OUGHTN'T TO GO AND SEE A DOCTOR. I'M
FEELING A BIT FUNNY.
TI TU HI XEM L LIU TI CO NN I KHM BC S KHNG.
TI...
NO MATTER + WHO/WHAT/WHICH/WHERE/WHEN/HOW + SUBECT +
VERB N PRESENT: D C... CHANG NA... TH
Ex: NO MATTER WHO TELEPHONES, SAY I'M OUT.
CHO D L AI GI N TH H Y BO L TI I VNG.
Ex: NO MATTER WHERE YOU GO, YOU WILL FIND COCA-COLA
CHO D ANH CO I N U, ANH CNG S TM THY NC
COCA-COLA
*LU Y 1: NO MATTER WHO = WHOEVER/ NO MATTER WHAT =
WHATEVER
Ex: NO MATTER WHAT (WHATEVER) YOU SAY, I WON'T BELIEVE YOU.
CHO D L MY CO NOI G I CHANG NA, TAO CNG KHNG
TIN.
*LU Y 2: CC CU TRC NAY C TH NG CU CU MA KHNG CN
C MNH THEO SAU:
Ex: I WILL ALWAYS LOVE YOU, NO MATTER WHAT.
54
MNH LNH THC
CHA LAM 2 LOA: TRUC TP VA GN TP.
MNH LNH THC TRUC TP
EX: CLOSE THE DOOR
EX: PLEASE DON'T TURN OFF THE LIGHT.
MNH LNH THC GN TP DNG V MT S NG TU TO
ORDER/ ASK/ SAY/ TELL SB/ DO/ NOT TO DO SMT.
EX: JOHN ASKED JILL TO TURN OFF THE LIGHT.
EX: PLEASE TELL JAIME NOT TO LEAVE THE ROOM.
CH Y : LET'S KHC LET US
EX: LET'S GO: MNH I NO
EX: LET US GO: CHNG TI I I
CU H C U CUA LET'S LA SHALL WE
EX: LET'S GO OUT FOR DINNER, SHALL WE
55
NG T KHIM KHUYT
LA NHNG NG TU BANG SAU VA MANG NHNG AC M
PRESENT TENSE PAST TENSE
WLL
CAN
MAY
SHALL
MUST (HAVE TO)
WOULD (USED TO)
COULD
MGHT
SHOULD (OUGHT TO) (HAD
BETTER)
(HAD TO)
KHNG C TU TU "TO" ANG TRC.
NG TU NAO SAU N PHA B "TO".
KHNG CN DNG V TRO NG TU MA DNG V CHNH BAN
THN N TRONG CC DANG CU NGH VN VA CU PHU NH.
KHNG BAO G HA NG TU KHM KHUYT CNG NHAU, NU
C TH NG TU TH HA PHA BN SANG MT DANG KHC.
WILL HAVE TO (MUST), WILL BE ABLE TO (CAN), WILL BE ALLOWED
TO (MAY)
56
CU IU KIN
1. IU KIN C TH THUC HIN C HIN TAI
IF + S + SIMPLE PRESENT - S + WILL (CAN, SHALL, MAY) + VERB IN
SIMPLE FORM.
EX: IF HE TRIES MUCH MORE, HE WILL IMPROVE HIS ENGLISH.
2. IU KIN KHNG TH THUC HIN C HIN TAI
IF + S + SIMPLE PAST - S + WOULD (COULD, SHOULD, MIGHT) + VERB
IN SIMPLE FORM
EX: IF I HAD ENOUGH MONEY NOW, I WOULD BUY THIS HOUSE .
NG TU TO BE PHA CHA LA WERE TT CA CC NG.
EX: IF I WERE YOU , I WOULDN'T DO SUCH A THING.
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP, NG TA B IF VA AO WERE LN
TRN CHU NG (WERE I YOU ... LI CO BN).
3. IU KIN KHNG TH THUC HIN C QU KH
IF + S + HAD + P
2
- S + WOULD(COULD, SHOULT,MIGHT) + HAVE + P
2
EX: IF HE HAD STUDIED HARDER FOR THAT TEST, HE WOULD HAVE
PASSED IT.
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP NG TA B IF VA AO HAD LN PHA
TRC.
LU Y: CU U KN KHNG PHA LC NAO CNG TUN THEO QU
LUT TRN. TRONG MT S TRNG HOP MT V CUA U KN S
LA QU KH NHNG V CN LA HN TA DO TH GAN QU NH.
EX: IF SHE HAD CAUGHT THE TRAIN, SHE WOULD BE HERE BY NOW .
57
CCH S DUNG CC NG T
WILL, WOULD, COULD, SHOULD
SAU IF
THNG THNG CC NG TU NAY KHNG OC SU DUNG V F
TRONG CU U KN, TUY NHN VN C NGOA L.
IF YOU WILL/WOULD : NU ..... VUI LNG. THNG OC DNG
TRONG CC YU CU LCH SU. WOULD LCH SU HON WLL.
EX: IF YOU WILL/WOULD WAIT FOR A MOMENT, I WILL GO AND SEE IF
MR CONNER IS HERE.
IF + SUBJECT + WILL/WOULD : NU ..... CH|U. DN AT Y TU
NGUYN.
EX: IF HE WILL LISTENT TO ME, I CAN HELP HIM.
WILL CN OC DNG THEO MU CU NAY DN AT SU NGOAN
C: NU ..... NHT |NH, NU ..... C.
EX: IF YOU WILL TURN ON THE MUSIC LOUDLY LATE THE NIGHT, NO
WONDER WHY YOUR NEIGHBOUR COMPLAIN.
IF YOU COULD: IN VUI LNG. DN AT LCH SU 1 YU CU MA NG-
N CHO RANG NG KA S NG Y NH LA MT L ONG NHN.
EX: IF YOU COULD OPEN YOUR BOOK, PLEASE.
IF + SUBJECT + SHOULD + ..... + IMPERATIVE (MNH LNH THC): V
PHNG NH. DN AT MT TNH HUNG D C TH XAY RA OC
SONG RT KH.
EX: IF YOU SHOULD FIND ANY DIFICULTY IN USING THAT TV, PLEASE
CALL ME THIS NUMBER.
58
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP NG TA B IF VA AO SHOULD LN
TRN CHU NG (SHOULD YOU FIND)
59
MT S CCH DNG THM CA IF
1. IF... THEN: NU... TH
Ex: IF SHE CAN'T COME TO US, THEN WE WILL HAVE TO GO AND SEE
HER.
2. IF DNG TRONG DANG CU KHNG PHI CU IU
KIN: NG T CC MNH DIN BIN BNH TH-
ONG THEO THOI GIAN CA CHNH N.
Ex: IF YOU WANT TO LEARN A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT, YOU HAVE TO
PRACTICE.
Ex: IF YOU DID NOT DO MUCH MATHS AT SCHOOL, YOU WILL FIND
ECONOMICS DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND.
Ex: IF THAT WAS MARRY, WHY DIDN'T SHE STOP AND SAY HELLO.
3. IF... SHOULD = IF... HAPPEN TO... = IF... SHOULD
HAPPEN TO... DIN AT SU KHNG CHC CHN (EM
THM PHN S DUNG SHOULD TRONG MT S TR-
ONG HP CU TH)
EX: IF YOU SHOULD HAPPEN TO PASS A SUPERMARKET, PERHAPS
YOU COULD GET SOME EGGS. (NG NH MA ANH C TNH C GH
QUA CHO C L MUA CHO EM T TRNG)
4. IF.. WAS/WERE TO...
DN AT U KN KHNG C THT HOAC TNG TONG TONG
LA.
Ex: IF THE BOSS WAS/WERE TO COME IN NOW (= IF THE BOSS CAME
IN NOW), WE WOULD BE IN REAL TROUBLE.
Ex: WHAT WOULD WE DO IF I WAS/WERE TO LOSE MY JOB.
HOAC C TH DN AT MT Y LCH SU KH A RA NGH
60
Ex: IF YOU WERE TO TO MOVE YOUR CHAIR A BIT, WE COULD ALL SIT
DOWN.
(NU ANH VU LNG DCH GH CUA ANH RA MT CHT TH CHNG TA
C TH CNG NG OC)
NOTE: CU TRC NAY TUYT I KHNG C DNG VI CC
NG T TNH HOC CH TRANG THI T DUY
Ex: CORRECT: IF I KNEW HER NAME, I WOULD TELL YOU.
INCORRECT: IF I WAS/WERE TO KNOW...
5. IF IT + TO BE + NOT + FOR: NU KHNG V, NU
KHNG NHO VAO.
TH HN TA:
Ex: EX: IF IT WASN'T/WEREN'T FOR THE CHILDREN, THAT COUPLE
WOULDN'T HAVE ANY THING TO TALK ABOUT.
(NU KHNG V NHNG A CON TH VO CHNG NHA Y CHA C
CHUYN G MA N)
TH QU KH:
Ex: EX: IF IT HADN'T BEEN FOR YOUR HELP, I DON'T KNOW WHAT WE
WOULD HAVE DONE.
(NU KHNG NH VO SU GIP CUA ANH TH TI CNG
KHNG BIT L CHNG TI S LM G Y)
6. NOT I KHI C THM VAO NHNG NG T SAU IF
BAY T SU NGHI NGO, KHNG CHC CHN.
Ex: EX: I WONDER IF WE SHOULDN 'T ASK THE DOCTOR TO LOOK AT
MARY.
7. IT WOULD... IF + SUBJECT + WOULD... (S LA... NU
KHNG C DNG TRONG VN VIT)
Ex: EX: IT WOULD BE BETTER IF THEY WOULD TELL EVERY BODY IN
ADVANCE.
(S L TT HON NU H K CHO MI NGI T TRC)
Ex: EX: HOW WOULD WE FEEL IF THIS WOULD HAPPEN TO OUR
FAMILY.
61
(TA S CM THY TH NO NU IU NY XY RA I VI GIA
NH CHNG TA.)
8. IF... D HAVE... HAVE: DNG TRONG VN NI, KHNG
DNG TRONG VN VIT, DIN AT IU KIN KHNG
TH XY RA QU KH
Ex: EX: IF I'D HAVE KNOWN, I'D HAVE TOLD YOU.
Ex: EX: IF SHE'D HAVE RECOGNIZED HIM IT WOULD HAVE BEEN
FUNNY.
9. IF + PREPOSITION + NOUN/VERB... (SUBJECT + BE B| L-
C B)
Ex: EX: IF IN DOUBT, ASK FOR HELP (=F YOU ARE N DOUBT)
Ex: EX: IF ABOUT TO GO ON A LONG JOURNEY, TRY TO HAVE A GOOD
NIGHTS SLEEP
(= IF YOU ARE ABOUT TO GO ON... )
10. IF DNG KH PH BIN VI MT S T NH
ANY/ANYTHING/EVER/NOT DIN AT PH |NH
Ex: THERE IS LITTLE IF ANY GOOD EVIDENCE FOR FLYING SAUCERS.
(=THERE IS LITTLE EVIDENCE IF THER IS ANY AT ALL, FOR
FLYING SAUCERS)
(CO RT T BNG CHUNG V A BAY, NU QU L CO MT
CHT)
Ex: I'M NOT ANGRY. IF ANYTHING, I FEEL A LITTLE SURPRISED.
(TI KHNG GIN D G U. M TRI LAI TI CM THY HOI
NGAC NHIN)
THANH NG NAY CN DN AT Y KN M THU: NU C...
Ex: I'D SAY HE WAS MORE LIKE A FATHER, IF ANYTHING
(TI XIN NOI RNG NG Y CN HON C MT NGI CHA, NU
CO TH NOI TH.)
Ex: HE SELDOM IF EVER TRAVEL ABROAD.
(ANH TA CH MY KHI I RA NC NGOI)
Ex: USUALLY, IF NOT ALWAYS , WE WRITE CANNOT AS ONE WORD
(THNG THNG, NHNG KHNG PHA LA LUN LUN... )
62
11. IF + ADJECTIVE = ALTHOUGH (CHO D LA)
NGHA KHNG MANH BANG ALTHOUGH - DNG DN AT QUAN
M RNG HOAC VN G KHNG QUAN TRONG.
Ex: HIS STYLE, IF SIMPLE , IS PLEASANT TO READ.
(VAN PHONG CUA NG TA, CHO D L ON GIN, TH C CNG
TH)
Ex: THE PROFITS, IF LITTLE LOWER THAN LAST YEAR'S, ARE STILL
EXTREMELY WEALTHY
(LOI NHUN, CHO D L CO THP HON NAM QUA MT CHT, TH
VN L RT LN.)
CU TRC NAY C TH THAY BANG MAY..., BUT
Ex: HIS STYLE MAY BE SIMPLE, BUT IT IS PLEASANT TO READ.
63
CCH S DUNG TO HOPE, TO
WISH.
HA NG TU NAY TUY CNG NGHA NHNG KHC NHAU V CCH SU
DUNG VA BAN CHT NG PHP.
NG TU CUA MNH SAU HOPE (H VONG RANG) S DN BN
BNH THNG THEO TH GAN CUA CHNH MNH .
NG TU MNH SAU WISH BT BUC PHA DANG U KN
KHNG TH THUC HN OC. U KN CHA LAM 3 TH:
1. IU KIN KHNG C THT TONG LAI
NG TU MNH SAU WSH S C DANG WOULD/COULD + VERB
HOC WERE + VERB + ING.
EX: WE WISH THAT YOU COULD COME TO THE PARTY TONIGHT. (YOU
CAN'T COME)
2. IU KIN KHNG TH THUC HIN C HIN TAI
NG TU MNH SAU WISH S CHA SIMPLE PAST, TO BE PHA
CHA LA WERE TT CA CC NG.
EX: I WISH THAT I HAD ENOUGH TIME TO FINISH MY HOMEWORK.
3. IU KIN KHNG TH THUC HIN C QU KH
NG TU MNH SAU WISH S CHA PAST PERFECT HOC
COULD HAVE + P
2
.
EX: I WISH THAT I HAD WASHED THE CLOTHES YESTERDAY.
SHE WISHES THAT SHE COULD HAVE BEEN THERE.
*LU Y 1: NG TU MNH SAU WISH CH C TH B ANH HNG
CUA WISH LA BT BUC PHA DANG U KN KHNG TH THUC
HN OC NHNG U KN Y TH NAO LA PHU THUC VAO
CHNH TH GAN CUA BAN THN MNH CH KHNG VAO WISH.
64
EX: SHE WISHES THAT SHE COULD HAVE GONE EARLIER YESTERDAY.
(PAST)
EX: HE WISHED THAT HE WOULD COME TO VISIT ME NEXT WEEK.
(FUTURE)
EX: THE PHOTOGRAPHER WISHED WE STOOD CLOTHER THAN WE
ARE STANDING NOW. (PRESENT).
*LU Y 2: CN PHN BT WISH (C G/ MONG G) V WISH MANG
NGHA "CHC"TRONG MU CU: TO WISH SB SMT
EX: I WISH YOU A HAPPY BIRTHDAY.
*LU Y 3: VA WSH MANG NGHA "MUN": TO WISH TO DO SMT (MUN
LAM G)
TO WISH SMB TO DO SMT (MUN A
LAM G)
Ex: WHY DO YOU WISH TO SEE THE MANAGER
Ex: I WISH TO MAKE A COMPLAINT.
Ex: THE GOVERNMENT DOES NOT WISH DR.JEKYLL HYDE TO ACCEPT
A PROFESSORSHIP AT A FOREIGN UNIVERSITY.
WISH (LCH SU/ TRANG TRONG NHT) = WOULD LIKE (LCH SU) =
WANT (THN MT)
65
CCH S DUNG THANH NG AS IF,
AS THOUGH (GN NH LA, NH TH
LA)
MNH ANG SAU HA THANH NG NAY THNG XUYN DANG
U KN KHNG TH THUC HN OC. U KN NAY CHA LAM 2
TH:
TH HN TA: NU NG TU MNH TRC CHA TH HN
TA ON GAN TH NG TU MNH SAU CHA QU KH ON
GAN. TO BE PHA CHA LA WERE TT CA CC NG.
EX: THE OLD LADY DRESSES AS IF IT WERE WINTER EVEN IN THE
SUMMER. (IT IS NOT WINTER)
TH QU KH: NU NG TU MNH TRC CHA QU KH
ON GAN TH NG TU MNH SAU CHA QU KH HOAN
THANH.
EX: JEFF LOOKED AS THOUGH HE HAD SEEN A GHOST. (HE DIDN'T
SEE A GHOST)
LU Y: MNH SAU AS IF, AS THOUGH KHNG PHA LC NAO CNG
TUN THEO QU LUT TRN. NU U KN TRONG CU LA C THT
HOAC THEO QUAN NM CUA NG N, NG VT LA C THT TH HA
CNG THC TRN KHNG OC SU DUNG. NG TU MNH SAU
DN BN BNH THNG THEO M QUAN H MNH CHNH.
EX: HE LOOKS AS IF HE HAS FINISHED THE TEST.
66
USED TO, TO BE/GET USED TO
USED TO + VERB: THNG HAY TUNG. CH MT TH QUEN, MT
HANH NG THNG XUYN XAY RA TRONG QU KH.
EX: WHEN DAVID WAS YOUNG, HE USED TO SWIM ONCE A DAY. (PAST
TIME HABIT)
NGHI VN: DID + S + USED TO + VERB = USED + S + TO + V.
PH |NH: S + DIDN'T + USED TO + VERB = S + USED NOT TO + V.
TO BE/ TO GET USED TO + V-ING/ NOUN: TR NN QUEN V.
EX: HE IS USED TO SWIMMING EVERY DAY.
EX: HE GOT USED TO AMERICAN FOOD
*LU Y: USED TO + V C TH THAY BANG WOULD NHNG T KH V D
NHM LN.
67
CCH S DUNG THANH NG
WOULD RATHER
WOULD RATHER .... THAN = PREFER .... TO = THCH HON LA.
ANG SAU WOULD RATHER BT BUC PHA LA MT NG TU B
TO NHNG SAU PREFER LA MT V-ING VA C TH B OC.
KH WOULD RATHER .... THAN MANG NGHA THA .... CN HON LA
TH PREFER .... TO KHNG TH THAY TH OC.
EX: THEY WOULD RATHER DIE IN FREEDOM THAN LIVE IN SLAVERY.
EX: HE PREFERS DOGS TO CAT (ANH TA THCH CHO HON MO)
EX: HE WOULD RATHER HAVE DOGS THAN CATS (ANH TA TH NUI
CHO HON MO)
VC SU DUNG WOULD RATHER CN TY THUC VAO S CN VA
NGHA CUA CU.
1. LOAI CU C MT CH NG
CU TRC SU DUNG CHO LOA CU NAY LA WOULD RATHER ... THAN
LA LOA CU U KN KHNG THUC HN OC VA CHA LAM 2 TH:
THOI HIN TAI: SAU WOULD RATHER LA NGUYN TH B TO. NU
MUN THANH LP TH PHU NH AT NOT TRC NGUYN TH B
TO.
EX: JIM WOULD RATHER GO TO CLASS TOMORROW THAN TODAY.
THOI QU KH: NG TU SAU WOULD RATHER PHA LA HAVE + P
2
,
NU MUN THANH LP TH PHU NH AT NOT TRC HAVE.
EX: JIM WOULD RATHER HAVE GONE TO CLASS YESTERDAY THAN
TODAY.
2. LOAI CU C HAI CH NG
LOA CU NAY DNG THANH NG WOULD RATHER THAT (C G,
MONG G) VA DNG TRONG MT S TRNG HOP SAU:
68
A) LOAI CU GI |NH HIN TAI
LA LOA CU NG TH NHT MUN NG TH HA LAM VC G NH-
NG LAM HAY KHNG CN PHU THUC VAO NG TH HA. TRONG
TRNG HOP NAY NG TU MNG HA DANG NGUYN
TH B TO. NU MUN THANH LP TH PHU NH AT NOT TRC
NGUYN TH B TO.
EX: I WOULD RATHER THAT YOU CALL ME TOMORROW.
NG PHP HN A NGAY NAY AC BT LA NG PHP M CHO
PHP B THAT TRONG CU TRC NAY MA VN G NGUYN HNH
THC GA NH.
EX: HE WOULD RATHER (THAT) HE NOT TAKE THIS TRAIN.
B) LOAI CU KHNG TH THUC HIN C HIN TAI
NG TU SAU CHU NG HA S CHA SIMPLE PAST, TO BE PHA
CHA LA WERE TT CA CC NG.
EX: HENRY WOULD RATHER THAT HIS GIRLFRIEND WORKED IN THE
SAME DEPARTMENT AS HE DOES.
EX: JANE WOULD RATHER THAT IT WERE WINTER NOW.
NU MUN THANH LP TH PHU NH DNG DIDN'T + VERB HOAC
WERE NOT SAU CHU NG HA.
C) LOAI CU KHNG TH THUC HIN C QU KH
NG TU SAU CHU NG HA S CHA DANG PAST PERFECT.
NU MUN THANH LP TH PHU NH DNG HADN'T + P
2
.
EX: JIM WOULD RATHER THAT JILL HAD GONE TO CLASS YESTERDAY.
LU Y: TRONG L N BNH THNG HANG NGAY NG TA DNG WISH
THAY CHO WOULD RATHER THAT.
69
CCH S DUNG THANH NG
WOULD LIKE
DN AT MT CCH LCH SU L M MOC HOAC Y MNH MUN G.
EX: WOULD YOU LIKE TO DANCE WITH ME.
KHNG DNG DO YOU WANT KH M MOC NG KHC.
TRONG TNG ANH CUA NG ANH, NU DN AT SU A THCH
CUA CHU NG TH SAU LIKE LA MT V-ING.
EX: HE DOES LIKE READING NOVEL. (ENOYMENT)
NHNG DN AT SU LUA CHON HOAC TH QUEN TH SAU LIKE
PHA LA MT NG TU NGUYN TH.
EX: BETWEEN THE SOCCER AND TENIS, I LIKE TO SEE THE FORMER.
(CHOCE)
EX: WHEN MAKING TEA, HE USUALLY LIKES TO PUT SOME SUGAR AND
A SLICE OF LEMON IN FIRST. (HABT)
NHNG TRONG TNG ANH NG M KHNG C SU PHN BT NAY:
TT CA SAU LIKE U LA NG TU NGUYN TH.
WOULDN'T LIKE = KHNG A TRONG KH DON'T WANT = KHNG
MUN.
EX: WOULD YOU LIKE SOMEMORE COFFEE ?
POLITE: NO, THANKS/ NO, I DON'T WANT ANY MORE.
IMPOLITE: I WOULDN'T LIKE (THM VO)
LU Y RANG KH LIKE OC DNG V NGHA "CHO LA NG" HOAC
"CHO LA HAY/ KHN NGOAN" TH BAO G THEO SAU CNG LA
MT NGUYN TH C TO (INFINITIVE)
EX: SHE LIKES THE CHILDREN TO PLAY IN THE GARDEN (SHE THINK
THEY ARE SAFE PLAYING THERE)
(C Y MUN BN TR CON CHOI TRONG VN CHO CHC/ CHO
AN TON)
EX: I LIKE TO GO TO THE DENTIST TWICE A YEAR
70
(TI MUN N BC S NHA KHOA 2 LN NAM CHO CHC).
WOULD LIKE = WOULD CARE /LOVE/ HATE/ PREFER + TO + VERB
KH DN AT U KN CHO MT HANH NG CU TH TONG
LA.
EX: WOULD YOU LIKE/ CARE TO COME WITH ME? I'D LOVE TO
WOULD LIKE/ WOULD CARE FOR/ WOULD ENJOY + VERB-ING KH
DN AT KHU V, Y THCH N CHUNG CUA CHU NG.
EX: SHE WOULD LIKE/ WOULD ENJOY RIDING IF SHE COULD RIDE
BETTER.
EX: I WONDER IF TOM WOULD CARE FOR/ WOULD ENJOY HANG-
GLIDING.
71
CCH S DUNG CC NG T
KHIM KHUYT DIN AT CC
TRANG THI HIN TAI
1. COULD, MAY, MIGHT + VERB IN SIMPLE FORM = C L,
C TH.
CH KHA NANG C TH XAY RA HN TA NHNG NG N KHNG
DM CHC. (CA 3 NG TU U C G TR NH NHAU).
EX: IT MIGHT RAIN TOMORROW.
2. SHOULD + VERB IN SIMPLE FORM
NN : DN AT MT L KHUYN, SU GO Y, SU BT BUC NHNG
KHNG MANH LM.
C KHI, C L : DN AT NG N MONG MUN U S XAY
RA. (EXPECT)
CC THANH NG HAD BETTER, OUGHT TO, BE SUPPOSED TO U
MANG NGHA TONG ONG V SHOULD V U KN NG TU TO
BE TRONG THANH NG BE SUPPOSED TO PHA CHA TH HN
TA.
EX: JOHN OUGHT TO STUDY TONIGHT.
EX: JOHN IS SUPPOSED TO STUDY TONIGHT.
LU Y: THANH NG BE SUPPOSED TO NGOA RA CN MANG NGHA: QUI
|NH PHI, BT BUC PHI.
EX: WE ARE SUPPOSED TO HAVE A SCIENCE TEST THIS AFTERNOON,
BUT IT WAS POSTPONED BECAUSE THE TEACHER HAD TO ATTEND A
CONFERENCE.
3. MUST + VERB IN SIMPLE FORM
PHI: MANG NGHA BT BUC RT MANH.
EX: GEORGE MUST CALL HIS INSURANCE AGENT TODAY.
HN LA: CH SU SUY LUN LOGC DUA TRN NHNG HN TONG C
THT HN TA.
72
EX: JOHN'S LIGHTS ARE OUT. HE MUST BE ASLEEP.
NG TA DNG HAVE TO THAY CHO MUST TRONG CC TRNG HOP
SAU
U KH = HAD TO.
EX: MRS.KINSEY HAD TO PASS AN EXAMINATION BEFORE SHE
COULD PRACTICE LAW.
TONG LA = WILL HAVE TO.
EX: WE WILL HAVE TO TAKE AN EXAM NEXT WEEK.
HN TA: HAVE TO OC DNG THAY CHO MUST H XEM BAN
THN MNH BT BUC PHA LAM G HOAC DN AT SU BT
BUC DO KHCH QUAN EM LA. GAM NHE TNH BT BUC CUA
MUST.
EX: GUEST: DO I HAVE TO LEAVE A DEPOSIT.
RECEPTIONIST: NO, YOU NEEDN'T. BUT YOU HAVE TO LEAVE YOUR
I.D CARD NUMBER WRITTEN DOWN IN THIS REGISTER. I'M SORRY
BUT THAT'S THE WAY IT IS.
LU Y: HAVE GOT TO + VERB = MUST
EX: HE HAS GOT TO GO TO THE OFFICE TONIGHT. (THNG DNG
NHIU TRONG VAN NOI).
V THNG XUYN DNG CHO NHNG HNH NG ON L, TCH
BIT.
EX: I HAVE TO WORK EVERYDAY EXCEPT SUNDAY. BUT I DON'T HAVE
GOT TO WORK A FULL DAY ON SATURDAY.
73
CCH S DUNG CC NG T
KHIM KHUYT DIN AT CC
TRANG THI QU KH
,. COULD, MAY, MIGHT + HAVE + P
2
= C L
DN AT MT KHA NANG C TH QU KH SONG NG N
KHNG DM CHC.
EX: IT MAY HAVE RAINED LAST NIGHT, BUT I'M NOT SURE.
/. COULD HAVE + P
2
= L RA C TH (TRN THUC T
LA KHNG)
EX: HE COULD HAVE GOTTEN THE TICKET FOR THE CONCERT LAST
NIGHT.
3. MIGHT HAVE BEEN + V-ING = C L LC Y ANG
EX: I DIDN'T HEAR THE TELEPHONE RING, I MIGHT HAVE BEEN
SLEEPING AT THAT TIME.
0. SHOULD HAVE + P
2
= L RA PHI, L RA NN
CH MT VC L RA PHA XAY RA TRONG QU KH NHNG TRN
THUC T LA KHNG.
SHOULD HAVE + P
2
= WAS/ WERE SUPPOSED TO
EX: MARIA SHOULDN'T HAVE CALLED JOHN LAST NIGHT. (SHE DID
CALL HIM)
1. MUST HAVE + P
2
= HN LA
CH SU SUY ON LOGC DUA TRN NHNG HN TONG C THT
QU KH.
EX: THE GRASS IS WET. IT MUST HAVE RAINED LAST NIGHT.
6. MUST HAVE BEEN V-ING = HN LC Y ANG
EX: I DIDN'T HEAR YOU KNOCK, I MUST HAVE BEEN SLEEPING AT THAT
TIME.
74
75
CC VN S DUNG SHOULD
TRONG MT S TRONG HP CU
TH
DN AT KT QUA CUA MT YU T TNG TONG: S
EX: IF I WAS ASKED TO WORK ON SUNDAY I SHOULD RESIGN.
DNG TRONG MNH C THAT SAU NHNG TNH TU CH TRANG
TH NH ANXIOUS/ SORRY/ CONCERNED/ HAPPY/ DELIGHTED... :
LY LAM/ RNG/ V...
EX: I'M ANXIOUS THAT SHE SHOULD BE WELL CARED FOR
(TI LO LNG RNG LIU C Y CO OC SAN SOC TT KHNG)
EX: WE ARE SORRY THAT YOU SHOULD FEEL UNCOMFORTABLE
(CHNG TI LY LM TIC V ANH KHNG THY OC THOI MI)
EX: THAT YOU SHOULD SPEAK TO HIM LIKE THAT IS QUITE
ASTONISHING
(CI IU M ANH Y NOI VI ANH NH VY QU L NG NGAC
NHIN).
DNG V IF/ IN CASE CH MT U KH C TH XAY RA/ NG
TA A RA Y KN CH PHNG NGUA.
EX: IF YOU SHOULD CHANGE YOUR MIND = SHOULD YOU CHANGE
YOUR MIND, PLEASE LET ME KNOW.
EX: IN CASE HE SHOULD HAVE FORGOTTEN TO GO TO THE AIRPORT,
NOBODY WILL BE THERE TO MEET HER.(NG NH/ NU CHNG MAY
NG Y QUN MT RA SN BAY, TH S KHNG CO AI O ON C
TA MT)
DNG SAO SO THAT/ IN ORDER THAT CH MUC CH (THAY CHO
WOULD/ COULD)
EX: HE PUT THE CASES IN THE CAR SO THAT HE SHOULD BE ABLE TO
MAKE AN EARLY START.
EX: SHE REPEATED THE INSTRUCTIONS SLOWLY IN ORDER THAT HE
SHOULD UNDERSTAND.
76
DNG TRONG L YU CU LCH SU
EX: I SHOULD LIKE TO MAKE A PHONE CALL, IF POSSIBLE (TI XIN
PHEP GI IN THOAI NU TI CO TH)
DNG V IMAGINE/ SAY/ THINK... A RA L NGH: THT T-
NG, CHO LA
EX: I SHOULD IMAGINE IT WILL TAKE ABOUT 3 HOURS (TI THIT T-
NG CNG VIC S TN MT 3 GI NG H Y).
EX: I SHOULD SAY SHE'S OVER 0 (TI CHO L B TA NGOI 0)
DNG TRONG CU H DN TA SU NGH NG, THU QUAN TM
EX: HOW SHOULD I KNOW (LM SAO TI BIT OC KIA CHU)
EX: WHY SHOULD HE THINKS THAT (SAO NO LAI NGH NH VY CHU)
DNG V CC A TU NGH VN NH WHAT/ WHERE/ WHO DN
TA SU NGAC NHN, THNG DNG V "BUT".
EX: I WAS THINKING OF GOING TO SEE JOHN WHEN WHO SHOULD
APPEAR BUT JOHN HIMSELF (TI ANG TNH L N THAM JOHN TH
NGI XUT HIN LAI CHNH L ANH Y)
EX: WHAT SHOULD I FIND BUT AN ENORMOUS SPIDER (CI M TI
NHN THY LAI CHNH L MT CON NHN KHNG L)
77
TNH T VA PH T
MT TNH TU LUN B NGHA CHO MT DANH TU VA CH MT
DANH TU, N LUN NG TRC DANH TU OC B NGHA.
TRONG TNG ANH, C DUY NHT MT TNH TU NG SAU DANH
TU:
GALORE = NHIU, PHONG PH, DI DAO
EX: THERE WERE ERRORS GALORE IN THE FINAL TEST.
TNH TU CNG NG SAU CC A TU PHM CH (SOMETHING,
ANYTHING, ANYBODY...)
EX: ITS SOMETHING STRANGE.
EX: HE IS SB QUITE UNKNOWN.
MT PH TU LUN B NGHA CHO MT NG TU, MT TNH TU
HOAC MT PH TU KHC.
EX: RITA DRANK TOO MUCH.
EX: I DON'T PLAY TENIS VERY WELL.
ADJ + LY = ADV. NHNG PHA CN THN, V MT S TNH TU CNG
C TN CNG LA U LY (LOVELY, FRIENDLY). PH TU CUA CC
TNH TU NAY OC CU TAO BANG CCH NH SAU:
IN A + ADJ + WAY/ MANNER
EX: HE BEHAVED ME IN A FRIENDLY WAY .
MT S CC PH TU C CU TAO AC BT: SO, VERY, ALMOST,
SOON, OFTEN, FAST, RATHER, WELL, THERE, TOO. CC PH TU
NAY TRA L CHO CU H HOW.
NGOA RA CN MT S CC CUM TU CNG OC CO LA PH TU,
N BAO GM MT G TU M U V CC DANH TU SAU
CH: A M (AT HOME), TH GAN (AT 5 PM), PHONG TN (BY
TRAIN), TNH HUNG, HANH NG (IN A VERY DIFFICULT
SITUATION). TT CA CC CUM NAY U OC XEM LA PH TU.
78
V TR CUA PH TU TRONG CU TONG THOA M VA PHC TAP,
QU LUT:
NU CHA BT AT PH TU U TH V TR THNG XUYN CUA
N CU CU, AC BT CC PH TU U LY.
CC PH TU VA CUM PH TU LAM B NG NG CU CU
THEO TH TU NH SAU: CH PHONG THC HANH NG-CH A
M-CH TH GAN-CH PHONG TN HANH NG-CH TNH
HUNG HANH NG.
KHNG BAO G MT PH TU HOAC MT CUM PH TU OC XEN
VAO GA NG TU VA TN NG.
NU TRONG CU KHNG C PH TU NAO KHC NGOA PH TU
CH TH GAN TH C TH A N LN U CU.
EX: IN 1980 , HE GRADUATED AND FOUND A JOB.
CC PH TU CH TN S NH: ALWAYS, SOMETIMES, OFTEN...
LUN NG TRC NG TU HANH NG NHNG NG SAU
NG TU TO BE.
EX: THE PRESIDENT ALWAYS COMES IN TIME.
EX: THE PRESIDENT IS ALWAYS IN TIME.
79
NG T NI
LA NHNG NG TU BANG SAU, MANG NHNG TNH CHT SAU
BE APPEAR FEEL
BECOME SEEM LOOK
REMAN SOUND SMELL
STAY
KHNG DN AT HANH NG MA DN AT TRANG TH HOAC
BAN CHT SU VC.
ANG SAU CHNG PHA LA TNH TU KHNG TH LA PH TU.
KHNG OC CHA TH TP DN D D BT C TH NAO.
LU Y: TRONG BANG C CC CAP NG TU:
TO SEEM TO HAPPEN
= = DONG NH
TO APPEAR TO CHANCE
CHNG C TH THAY TH LN CHO NHAU, NHNG KHNG TH THAY
TH NGANG HAY THAY TH CHO.
CC NG TU NAY OC DNG THEO MU CU SAU:
DNG V CHU NG GA IT
EX: IT SEEMS THAT THEY HAVE PASSED THE EXAM./ IT HAPPENS
(CHANCES THAT THEY HAVE PASSED THE TEST)
DNG V CHU NG THT
EX: THEY SEEM TO HAVE PASSED THE EXAM./ THEY HAPPENED/
CHANCED TO HAVE PASSED THE EXAM.
NGHA "TNH C", "NGU NHN", "MAY MA".
EX: SHE HAPPENED TO BE OUT/ IT HAPPENED THAT SHE WAS OUT
WHEN HE CALLED (NGU NHIN C TA KHNG CO NH KHI ANH TA
GI IN)
EX: SHE CHANCED TO BE IN/ IT HAPPENED THAT SHE WAS IN WHEN
HE CALLED. (MAY M C TA CO NH KHI ANH TA GI IN N).
80
BA NG TU: TO BE, TO BECOME, TO REMAIN TRONG MT S TR-
NG HOP C MT DANH TU HOAC NG DANH TU THEO SAU, KH
CHNG MT CHC NANG CUA MT NG TU N.
EX: CHILDREN OFTEN BECOME BORED (ADJ) AT MEETING
CHRISTINE BECAME CLASS PRESIDENT (NOUN PHRASE) AFTER A
LONG, HARD CAMPAIGN.
BN NG TU: TO FEEL, TO LOOK, TO SMELL, TO TASTE TRONG
MT S TRNG HOP C TH LA NGOA NG TU, H MT TN
NG SAU N, LC NAY N MT CHC NANG CUA MT NG
TU N, C TH C PH TU KM. CHNG THAY V MAT NG
NGHA:
Ex: TO FEEL: S NN KHM.
Ex: TO LOOK AT: NHN
Ex: TO SMELL: NGI
Ex: TO TASTE: NM
CHNG OC PHP CHA TH TP DN.
EX: THE LADY IS SMELLING THE FLOWERS GINGERLY.
81
CC DANG SO SNH CA TNH T
VA PH T
1. SO SNH BNG
CU TRC S DUNG LA AS .... AS

S + ! + as + a'j/ a'v + as + noun/ pronoun

NU LA PHU NH, AS TH NHT C TH THAY BANG SO (CH D
OC NFORMAL ENGLSH)
SAU AS PHA LA MT A TU NHN XNG CHU NG, KHNG OC LA
MT TN NG (L CO BAN)
EX: HE IS NOT AS TALL AS HIS FATHER.
EX: HE IS NOT SO TALL AS HIS FATHER.
DANH TU CNG C TH OC DNG SO SNH TRONG TRNG
HOP NAY, NHNG NN NH TRC KH SO SANH PHA AM BAO RANG
DANH TU PHA C CC TNH TU TONG ONG.
ADECTVES NOUNS
HEAVY, LGHT WEGHT
WDE, NARROW WDTH
DEEP, SHALLOW DEPTH
LONG, SHORT LENGTH
BG, SMALL SE

S + ! + the same + "noun# + as + noun/ pronoun

EX: MY HOUSE IS AS HIGH AS HIS.
MY HOUSE IS THE SAME HEIGHT AS HIS.
THE SAME...AS >< DIFFERENT FROM...
CH Y, TRONG TNG ANH (A-E), DIFFERENT THAN... CNG C TH
OC DNG NU SAU CHNG LA MT MNH HOAN CHNH. TUY
82
NHN TRNG HOP NAY KHNG PH BN VA KHNG A VAO CC
BA TH NG PHP:
EX: HIS APPEARANCE IS DIFFERENT FROM WHAT I HAVE EXPECTED.
...THAN I HAVE EXPECTED.(A-E)
2. SO SNH HON KM
TRONG LOA SO SNH NAY NG TA CHA LAM HA DANG: TNH TU
VA PH TU NGN (OC LN CH C MT VN). TNH TU VA PH TU
DA (2 VN TR LN).
V TNH TU VA PH TU NGN CH CN CNG U ER.
V TNH TU NGN CH C MT NGUYN M KEP GA HA PHU
M TN CNG, PHA GP PHU M CU TRNH THAY
CCH OC.
V TNH TU TN CNG LA Y, D C 2 VN VN B CO LA TNH
TU NGN VA PHA THANH Y-IER (HAPPYHAPPIER
DRYDRIER PRETTYPRETTIER).
TRNG HOP AC BT: STRONGSTRONGER
FRIENDLYFRIENDLIER THAN/ MORE FRIENDLY THAN.
V TNH TU VA PH TU DA PHA DNG MORE/LESS.
SAU THAN PHA LA A TU NHN XNG CHU NG, KHNG OC LA
TN NG. CNG THC:
S + ! +
a'jective2er
a'verb2er
more + a'j/a'v
less + a'j/a'v
+ T34& + noun/ pronoun
KH SO SNH MT NG/ MT VT V TT CA NHNG NG HOAC
VT KHC PHA THM ELSE SAU ANYTHING/ANYBODY...
Ex: HE IS SMARTER THAN ANYBODY ELSE IN THE CLASS.
NHN MANH SO SNH, C TH THM MUCH/FAR TRC SO
SNH, CNG THC:
S + ! + far/much + 4'j/4'v2er + than + noun/pronoun
S + ! + far/much + more + 4'j/4'v + than + noun/pronoun
83
Ex: HARRY'S WATCH IS FAR MORE EXPENSIVE THAN MINE
Ex: HE SPEAKS ENGLISH MUCH MORE RAPIDLY THAN HE DOES
SPANISH.
DANH TU CNG C TH DNG SO SNH BANG HOAC HON KM,
NHNG TRC KH SO SNH PHA XC NH XEM LA DANH TU M
OC HAY KHNG M OC, V ANG TRC CHNG C MT S
NH NG DNG V 2 LOA DANH TU . CNG THC:
Ex: HE EARNS AS MUCH MONEY AS HIS FATHER.
Ex: FEBRUARY HAS FEWER DAY THAN MARCH.
Ex: THEIR JOBS ALLOW THEM LESS FREEDOM THAN OURS DOES.
*LU Y (QUAN TRONG): ANG SAU AS VA THAN CUA CC MNH
SO SNH C TH LOA B CHU NG NU N TRNG HOP V CHU
NG TH NHT, AC BT LA KH NG TU SAU THAN VA AS
DANG B NG. LC NAY THAN VA AS CN C THM CHC NANG
CUA MT A TU QUAN H THAY TH.
Ex: THEIR MARRIAGE WAS AS STORMY AS HAD BEEN EXPECTED
(INCORRECT: AS IT HAD BEEN EXPECTED).
Ex: ANNE IS GOING TO JOIN US , AS WAS AGREED LAST WEEK
(INCORRECT: AS IT WAS AGREE LAST WEEK).
HE WORRES MORE THAN WAS GOOD FOR HM (NCORRECT: THAN
T/WHAT S GOOD FOR HM).
*HOAC CC TN NG CNG C TH B LOA B SAU CC NG TU
MNH SAU THAN VA AS:
Ex: DON'T LOSE YOUR PASSPORT, AS I DID LAST YEAR (INCORRECT:
AS I DID IT LAST YEAR).
Ex: THEY SENT MORE THAN I HAD ORDERED (INCORRECT: THAN I
HAD ORDERED IT).
Ex: SHE GETS HER MEET FROM THE SAME BUTCHER AS I GO TO
(INCORRECT: AS I GO TO HIM).
3. SO SNH HP L
KH SO SNH NN NH: CC MUC DNG SO SNH PHA TONG -
ONG NHAU: NG-NG, VT-VT.
B VY MUC SO SNH HOP LY S LA:
S + ! + as + many/much/little/fe + noun + as + noun/pronoun
S + ! + more/feer/less + noun + than + noun/pronoun
84
S HU CCH
Ex: INCORRECT: HIS DRAWINGS ARE AS PERFECT AS HIS
INSTRUCTOR.
(CU NAY SO SNH CC BC TRANH V NG CH DN)
CORRECT: HIS DRAWINGS ARE AS PERFECT AS HIS
INSTRUCTOR 'S .
(INSTRUCTOR'S = INSTRUCTOR'S DRAWINGS)
DNG THM THAT OF CHO DANH TU S T:
Ex: INCORRECT: THE SALARY OF A PROFESSOR IS HIGHER THAN A
SECRETARY.
(CU NY SO SNH SALARY VI SECRETARY)
CORRECT: THE SALARY OF A PROFESSOR IS HIGHER THAN
THAT OF A SECRETARY.
(THAT OF = THE SALARY OF)
DNG THM THOSE OF CHO CC DANH TU S NHU:
Ex: INCORRECT: THEDUTIES OF A POLICEMAN ARE MORE
DANGEROUS THAN A TEACHER .
(CU NY SO SNH DUTES VI TEACHER)
CORRECT: THEDUTIES OF A POLICEMAN ARE MORE
DANGEROUS THAN THOSE OF A TEACHER
(THOSE OF = THE DUTIES OF)
4. SO SNH C BIT
ADJECTIVE OR
ADVERB
COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
FAR
LTTLE
MUCH
MANY
GOOD
WELL
BAD
BADLY
FARTHER
FURTHER
LESS
MORE
BETTER
WORSE
FARTHEST
FURTHEST
LEAST
MOST
BEST
WORST
LU Y: FARTHER : DNG CHO KHOANG CCH
FURTHER : DNG CHO THNG TN HOAC MT S TRNG HOP
TRUU TONG KHC
85
EX: THE DISTANCE FROM YOUR HOUSE TO SCHOOL IS FARTHER
THAN THAT OF MINE.
EX: IF YOU WANT MORE/FURTHER INFORMATION , PLEASE CALL TO
THE AGENT.
EX: NEXT YEAR HE WILL COME TO THE U.S FOR HIS FURTHER (=
MORE) EDUCATION
5. SO SNH A BI
TONG ONG CU TRC TNG VT: GP R, GP HA...
KHNG OC SU DUNG SO SNH HON KM MA SU DUNG SO SNH
BANG, KH SO SNH PHA XC NH DANH TU LA M OC HAY
KHNG M OC, V ANG TRC CHNG C MANY/MUCH
EX: THIS ENCYCLOPEDY COSTS TWICE AS MUCH AS THE OTHER ONE.
EX:JEROME HAS HALF AS MANY RECORDS NOW AS I HAD LAST YEAR.
NG PHP HN A NGAY NAY, AC BT LA NG PHP M CHO
PHP DNG SO SNH HON KM N GP 3 LN TR LN, NHNG
V GP 2 HOAC 1/2 TH TUYT KHNG.
CC L N: TWICE THAT MANY/TWICE THAT MUCH = GP NGN
Y... CH OC DNG TRONG KHU NG, KHNG OC DNG VT.
EX: WE HAVE EXPECTED 80 PEOPLE AT THAT RALLY, BUT TWICE THAT
MANY SHOWNED UP. (TWICE AS MANY AS THAT NUMBER).
6. SO SNH KP
LA LOA SO SNH V CU TRC: CANG... CANG...
CC ADJ/ADV SO SNH PHA NG U CU, TRC CHNG PHA
C THE

The + comparative + S + V + the + comparative + S + V

EX: THE HOTTER IT IS, THE MORE MISERABLE I FEEL.
NU CH MT V C AD/ADV SO SNH TH V CN LA C TH
DNG THE MORE

The more + S + V + the + coparative + S + V

EX: THE MORE YOU STUDY, THE SMARTER YOU WILL BECOME.
86
SAU THE MORE V TH NHT C TH C THAT NHNG KHNG
NHT THT.
EX: THE MORE (THAT) YOU STUDY, THE SMARTER YOU WILL BECOME.
TRONG TRNG HOP NU CA HA V U C THANH NG IT IS TH
B CHNG
EX: THE SHORTER (IT IS), THE BETTER (IT IS).
HOAC NU CA HA V U LA TO BE TH B
EX: THE CLOSER TO ONE OF THE EARTHS POLE (IS), THE GREATER
THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE (IS).
CC THANH NG: ALL THE BETTER (CANG TT HON), ALL THE
MORE (CANG... HON), NOT... ANY THE MORE... (CHNG... HON... T
NAO), NONE THE MORE... (CHNG CHT NAO) DNG NHN RT
MANH CHO CC TNH TU HOAC PH TU OC EM RA SO SNH
ANG SAU. N CH OC DNG V CC TNH T TRU TNG:
Ex: SUNDAY MORNINGS WERE NICE. I ENJOYED THEM ALL THE MORE
BECAUSE SUE USED TO COME ROUND TO BREAKFAST.
(CC SNG CHU NHT TRI THT P. TI LAI CNG THCH
NHNG SNG CHU NHT O HON NU V SUE THNG GHE QUA
AN SNG.)
Ex: HE DIDN'T SEEM TO BE ANY THE WORSE FOR HIS EXPERIENCE.
(ANH TA CNG KH HON LN V NHNG KINH NGHIM CUA
MNH.)
Ex: HE EXPLAINED IT ALL CAREFULLY, BUT I WAS STILL NONE THE
WISER.
(ANH TA GII THCH TON B IU O CN THN NHNG TI VN
KHNG SNG RA CHT NO C.)
CU TRC NAY TUYT KHNG DNG CHO CC TNH TU CU
TH:
Ex: INCORRECT: THOSE PILLS HAVE MADE HIM ALL THE SLIMMER.
7. CU TRC NO SOONER... THAN = VA MI ... TH ...
CH DNG CHO TH U KH VA TH HN TA, KHNG DNG
CHO TH TONG LA.
NO SOONER NG U MT MNH , THEO SAU N LA MT
TRO NG TU AO LN TRC CHU NG NHN MANH, THAN
NG U MNH CN LA:
87

&o sooner + auxiliary + S + V + than + S + V

EX: NO SOONER HAD WE STARTED OUT FOR CALIFORNIA THAN IT
STARTED TO RAIN. (PAST)
MT V DU TH HN TA (WILL OC LY SANG DNG CHO HN TA)
EX: NO SOONER WILL HE ARRIVE THAN HE WANT TO LEAVE.
(PRESENT)
MT CU TRC TONG ONG CU TRC NAY:
NO SOONER ... THAN ... = HARDLY/SCARELY ... WHEN
EX: SCARELY HAD THEY FELT IN LOVE EACH OTHER WHEN THEY GOT
MARIED.
LU Y: NO LONGER ... = NOT ... ANYMORE = KHNG ... NA, DNG THEO
CU TRC:

S + no longer + Positive Verb
8. SO SNH GIA 2 NGOI HOC 2 VT
KH SO SNH GA 2 NG HOAC 2 VT, CH OC DNG SO SNH
HON KM, KHNG OC DNG SO SNH BC NHT, MAC D TRONG
MT S DANG VAN N VA CA VAN VT VN CHP NHN SO SNH
BC NHT. (L CO BAN).
TRC ADJ VA ADV SO SNH PHA C THE, TRONG CU C THANH
NG OF THE TWO + NOUN THANH NG C TH NG U HOAC
CU CU.
EX: HARVEY IS THE SMARTER OF THE TWO BOYS .
EX: OF THE TWO SHIRTS , THIS ONE IS THE PRETTIER .
9. SO SNH BC NHT
DNG KH SO SNH 3 NG HOAC 3 VT TR LN:
V TNH TU VA PH TU NGN DNG U EST.
V TNH TU VA PH TU DA DNG MOST HOAC LEAST.
ANG TRC SO SNH PHA C THE.
DNG G TU IN V DANH TU S T.
EX: JOHN IS THE TALLEST BOY IN THE FAMILY
88
DNG G TU OF V DANH TU S NHU
EX: DEANA IS THE SHORTEST OF THE THREE SISTER
DO SAU THANH NG ONE OF THE + SO SNH BC NHT +
NOUN PHA AM BAO CHC CHN RANG NOUN PHA LA S NHU,
VA NG TU PHA CHA S T.
EX: ONE OF THE GREATEST TENNIS PLAYERS IN THE WORLD IS
JOHNSON.
MT S CC TNH TU HOAC PH TU MANG TNH TUYT TH
CM DNG SO SNH BC NHT, HAN CH DNG SO SNH HON
KM, NU BUC PHA DNG TH B MORE:
UNIQUE/ EXTREME/ PERFECT/ SUPREME/ TOP/ ABSOLUTE/PRIME/
PRIMARY
EX: HIS DRAWINGS ARE PERFECT THAN MINE.
PREFERABLE TO SB/STH... = OC A THCH HON...
SUPERIOR TO SB/STH... = SU VT HON...
INFERIOR TO SB/STH... = HA NG HON...

89
DANH T DNG LAM TNH T
TRONG TNG ANH C HN TONG MT DANH TU NG TRC MT
DANH TU KHC LAM NHM VU CUA MT TNH TU. LAM OC CHC
NANG NH VY, CHNG PHA BAO AM NHNG TNH CHT
NG NGAY TRC DANH TU MA N B NGHA.
KHNG OC PHP C HNH TH S NHU TRU MT S TRNG
HOP AC BT.
EX: NO FRILLS STORE = CA HNG KHNG TRANG TR MU M.
A SPORTS/SPORT CAR
SMALL-CLAIMS COURT = PHIN TO X NHNG V NO VT.
NU C HA DANH TU CNG LAM TNH TU TH GA CHNG PHA C
DU GACH N -.
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP NU DNG DANH TU LAM TNH TU TH
MANG NGHA EN:
EX: A GOLD WATCH A WATCH MADE OF GOLD.
NHNG NU DNG TNH TU GC MANG NGHA BNG:
EX: A GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY = A CHANCE THAT IT IS VERY RARE AND
PRECIOUS (QU GI).
KHNG OC DNG TNH TU B TRO CHO DANH TU KH CHO N CH
TNH CHT NGH NGHP HOAC N DUNG:
EX: MATHEMATICS TEACHER/ A BIOLOGY BOOK
90
ENOUGH
ENOUGH LUN NG ANG SAU ADJ/ADV NHNG LA PHA NG
TRC DANH TU:
EX: WELL ENOUGH...
EX:ENOUGH FOOD, ENOUGH WATER...
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP NU DANH TU OC NHC N
TRN, TH D C QUYN DNG ENOUGH NH MT A TU LA U
EX: I FORGOT MONEY. DO YOU HAVE ENOUGH?
91
MT S TRONG HP CU TH
DNG MUCH MANY
MANY/ MUCH + NOUN/ NOUN PHRASE NH MT NH NG.
Ex: EX: SHE DIDN'T EAT MUCH BREAKFAST
(C TA KHNG AN SNG NHU)
Ex: EX: THERE AREN'T MANY LARGE GLASSES LEFT
(KHNG CN LA NHU CC LN)
TUY NHN MUCH OF + PERSONAL AND GEOGRAPHC NAMES C TH
OC DNG MA KHNG CN DNH NG KM THEO DANH TU ANG
SAU:
Ex: EX: I HAVE SEEN TOO MUCH OF HOWARD RECENTLY.
(GN Y T KHNG HAY GAP HOWARD)
Ex: EX: NOT MUCH OF DENMARK IS HILLY.
(AN MACH KHNG C MY N)
MANY/MUCH OF + DETERMNER (A, THE, THS, MY... ) + NOUN.
Ex: EX: YOU CAN'T SEE MUCH OF A COUNTRY IN A WEEK.
(ANH KHNG TH BT NHU V MT NC TRONG VNG MT TUN
U.)
Ex: EX: I WON'T PASS THE EXAM. I HAVE MISSED MANY OF MY
LESSONS.
(T S KHNG THOT OC K TH NAY MT, T B QU NHU BA.)
MANY VA MUCH DNG NHU TRONG CU PHU NH VA CU NGH
VN, NHNG TRONG CU KHNG NH NN DNG CC LOA TU
KHC NH PLENTY OF, A LOT, LOTS OF... THAY TH.
Ex: EX: HOW MUCH MONEY HAVE YOU GOT? I'VE GOT PLENTY.
Ex: EX: HE GOT LOTS OF MEN FRIENDS, BUT HE DOESN'T KNOW
MANY WOMEN.
TUY NHN TRONG TNG ANH CHUN (FORMAL) MUCH VA MANY VN
OC DNG BNH THNG TRONG CU KHNG NH.
Ex: EX: MUCH HAS BEEN WRITTEN ABOUT THE CAUSES OF
UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE OPINION OF MANY ECONOMISTS.
MUCH DNG NH MT PH TU:
Ex: EX: I DON'T TRAVEL MUCH THESE DAYS.
92
MUCH C TH DNG TRC MT S NG TU DN AT SU A THCH
VA MT S Y TONG TU AC BT TRONG DANG TNG ANH QU
CHUN.
Ex: EX: I MUCH APPRECIATE YOU HELP.
Ex: EX: WE MUCH PREFER THE COUNTRY TO THE TOWN.
Ex: EX: JANET MUCH ENJOYED HER STAY WITH YOUR FAMILY.
V MT S NG TU (NH LKE/ DSLKE... ) CH NN DNG MUCH
SAU VERY VA TRONG CU TRC PHU NH.
Ex: EX: I VERY MUCH LIKE YOU BROTHER.
Ex: EX: I DON'T MUCH LIKE YOUR DOG. IT'S VERY CRUEL.
MT S CCH DNG C BIT CA MUCH VA MANY:
AC NG: MUCH TOO MUCH/ MANY SO MANY DNG C LP SAU
MNH TRC DANH TU MA N B NG.
Ex: EX: THE COST OF A THIRTY-SECOND COMMERCIAL ON A
NETWORK TELEVISION STATION IS $300,000, MUCH TOO MUCH
FOR MOST BUSINESS.
MANY A + SNGULAR NOUN + SNGULAR VERB: BT BAO NHU.
EX: MANY A STRONG MAN HAS DISHEARTENED BEFORE SUCH A
CHALLENGE.
Ex: EX: I HAVE BEEN TO THE TOP OF THE EFFEIL TOWER MANY A
TIME.
MANYS THE (BT BAO NHU) + SNGULAR VERB
Ex: EX: MANY 'S THE STUDENT WHO COULDN'T FOLLOW THE POST-
GRADUATE COURSES AT UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES UNDER
THE PRESSURE OF MONEY.
(BT BAO NHU SNH VN KHNG TH... )
EX: MANY S THE PROMISE THAT HAS BEEN BROKEN.
(BT BAO NHU L HA... )
Smb + who
Smt + that
93
PHN BIT THM V CCH DNG
ALOT/ LOTS OF/ PLENTY/ A GREAT
DEAL/ SO VI MANY/ MUCH.
CC THANH NG TRN TONG ONG V MUCH/ MANY (NHU) VA
MOST (A PHN).
A LOT OF/ LOTS OF (NFORMAL) = A GREAT DEAL/ ALARGE NUMBER
OF/ MUCH/ MANY (FORMAL)
KHNG C KHC NHAU G MY GA A LOT OF VA LOTS OF. CHU NG
CHNH SAU HA THANH NG NAY S QUYT NH VC CHA NG TU.
A LOT OF/ LOTS OF +
Ex: EX: A LOT OF TIME IS NEEDED TO LEARN A LANGUAGE.
Ex: EX: LOTS OF US THINK IT'S TIME FOR AN ELECTION.
PLENTY OF OC DNG PH BN TRONG NFORMAL ENGLSH.
Ex: EX: DON'T RUSH, THERE'S PLENTY OF TIME.
Ex: EX: PLENTY OF SHOPS TAKE CHECKS.
A LARGE A MOUNT OF = A GREAT DEAL OF + NON-COUNT NOUN
(FORMAL ENGLSH)
Ex: EX: I HAVE THROWN A LARGE AMOUNT OF ALD CLOTHING.
Ex: EX: MR LUCAS HAS SPENT A GREAT DEAL OF TIME IN THE FAR
EAST.
A LOT VA A GREAT DEAL C TH OC DNG LAM PH TU VA V TR
CUA N LA CU CU.
Ex: EX: ON HOLIDAY WE WALK AND SWIM A LOT.
Ex: EX: THE GORVERNMENT SEEMS TO CHANGE ITS MIND A GREAT
DEAL.
uncountable noun + singular verb
plural noun + plural verb
94
MT S CCH DNG CU TH CA
MORE MOST
MORE + NOUN/NOUN PHRASE: DNG NH MT NH NG
Ex: EX: WE NEED MORE TIME.
Ex: EX: MORE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ARE HAVING TO BORROW
MONEY THESE DAY.
MORE + OF + PERSONAL/GEOGRAPHC NAMES
Ex: EX: IT WOULD BI NICE TO SEE MORE OF RAY AND BARBARA.
RT HAY KHI OC GP RAY V BARBARA THNG XUYN HON.
Ex: EX: FIVE HUNDRED YEARS AGO, MUCH MORE OF BRITAIN WAS
COVERED WITH TREES.
500 NAM TRC Y, A PHN NC ANH PHU NHIU RNG
HON BY GI NHIU.
MORE OF + DETERMNER/PRONOUN (A/ THE/ MY/ THS/ HM/ THEM...)
Ex: EX: HE IS MORE OF A FOOL THAN I THOUGHT.
NO L MT THNG NGU HON TI TNG NHIU.
Ex: EX: THREE MORE OF THE MISSING CLIMBERS HAVE BEEN FOUND.
Ex: EX: COULD I HAVE SOME MORE OF THAT SMOKED FISH.
Ex: EX: I DONT THINK ANY MORE OF THEM WANT TO COME.
ONE MORE/ TWO MORE... + NOUN/ NOUN PHRASE
Ex: EX: THERE IS JUST ONE MORE RIVER TO CROSS.
NHNG PHA DNG CARDNAL NUMBER (S M) + NOUN + MORE (FVE
DOLLARS MORE) NU MORE MANG NGHA THM NA.
Ex: EX: HE HAS CONTRIBUTED $50, AND NOW HE WANTS TO
CONTRIBUTE $50 MORE.
MOST + NOUN = A PHN, A S
Ex: EX: MOST CHEESE IS MADE FROM COWS MILK.
Ex: EX: MOST SWISS PEOPLE UNDERSTAND FRENCH.
MOST + DETERMNER/ PRONOUN (A, THE, THS, MY, HM...) = HU
HT...
Ex: EX: HE HAS EATEN 2 PIZZAS AND MOST OF A COLD CHICKEN.
Ex: EX: MOST OF MY FRIEND LIVE ABROAD.
Ex: EX: SHE HAS EATEN MOST OF THAT CAKE.
95
Ex: EX: MOST OF US THOUGH HE WAS WRONG.
MOST OC DNG NH MT DANH TU, NU TRN, DANH TU HOAC CHU
NG OC NHC N.
Ex: EX: SOME PEOPLE HAD DIFFICULTY WITH THE LECTURE, BUT
MOST UNDERSTOOD.
Ex: EX: ANN AND ROBBY FOUND A LOT OF BLACKBERRIES, BUT
SUSAN FOUND THE MOST .
MOST + ADECTVE KH MANG NGHA VERY
Ex: EX: THAT IS MOST KIND OF YOU.
Ex: EX: THANK YOU FOR A MOST INTERESTING AFTERNOON.

96
CCH DNG LONG (FOR) A
LONG TIME
LONG OC DNG TRONG CU H VA CU PHU NH.
Ex: EX: HAVE YOU BEEN WAITING LONG?
Ex: EX: IT DOES NOT TAKE LONG TO GET HER HOUSE.
Ex: EX: SHE SELDOM STAYS LONG.
(FOR) A LONG TME DNG TRONG CU KHNG NH
Ex: EX: I WAITED FOR A LONG TIME, BUT SHE DIDNT ARRIVE.
Ex: EX: IT TAKES A LONG TIME TO GET TO HER HOUSE.
LONG CNG OC DNG TRONG CU KHNG NH KH V: TOO,
ENOUGH, AS, SO
Ex: EX: THE MEETING WENT ON MUCH TOO LONG .
Ex: EX: I HAVE BEEN WORKING HERE LONG ENOUGH . TIME TO GET A
NEW JOB.
Ex: EX: YOU CAN STAY AS LONG AS YOU WANT.
Ex: EX: SORRY! I TOOK SO LONG .
LONG BEFORE (LU TRC KH)/ LONG AFTER (M SAU KH)/ LONG AGO
(CCH Y LU)
Ex: EX: WE USED TO LIVE IN PARIS, BUT THAT WAS LONG BEFORE
YOU WERE BORN.
Ex: EX: LONG AFTER THE ACCIDENT HE USED TO DREAM THAT HE
WAS DYING.
Ex: EX: LONG AGO , IN A DISTANT COUNTRY, THERE LIVED A
BEUTIFUL PRINCESS.
LONG PHA AT SAU TRO NG TU: THS S A PROBLEM THAT HAS
LONG BEEN RECOGNED.
ALL DAY/ NGHT/ WEEK/ YEAR LONG = SUT CA...
Ex: EX: SHE SITS DREAMING ALL DAY LONG
(C TA NG MO MNG SUT CA NGAY).
BEFORE + LONG = NGAY BY G, CHNG BAO LU NA
Ex: EX: I WILL BE BACK BEFORE LONG
(T S QUAY LA NGAY BY G).
97
TRONG CU PHU NH FOR A LONG TME ( LU, TRONG MT TH
GAN DA) FOR LONG (NGN, KHNG DA, CHC LT)
Ex: EX: SHE DIDN T SPEAK FOR LONG . (= SHE ONLY SPOKE FOR A
SHORT TIME)
Ex: EX: SHE DIDN T SPEAK FOR A LONG TIME . (= SHE WAS SILENT
FOR A LONG TIME)
HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN HERE FOR = ANH S Y LU CH
(BAO GM HOAC CP N CA TONG LA).
Ex: EX:
HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN HERE FOR?
UNTIL THE END OF NEXT WEEK.
Ex: EX:
HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN HERE FOR? (ANH Y CHO
N GI L BAO LU RI?)
SINCE LAST MONDAY.
T NI
1. BECAUSE, BECAUSE OF
ANG SAU BECAUSE PHA DNG 1 CU HOAN CHNH NHNG ANG SAU
BECAUSE OF PHA DNG 1 NG DANH TU.
BECAUSE OF = ON ACCOUNT OF = DUE TO
NHNG NN DNG DUE TO SAU NG TU TO BE CHO CHUN.
EX: THE ACCIDENT WAS DUE TO THE HEAVY RAIN.
DNG AS A RESULT OF NHN MANH HU QUA CUA HANH NG
HOAC SU VT, SU VC.
EX: HE WAS BLINDED AS A RESULT OF A TERRIBLE ACCIDENT.
2. T NI CH MUC CH VA KT QU
TRONG CU TRC NAY NG TA DNG THANH NG SO THAT (SAO
CHO, CHO). NG TU MNH SAU SO THAT PHA TH
TONG LA SO V TH CUA NG TU MNH CHNH.
EX: HE STUDIED VERY HARD SO THAT HE COULD PASS THE TEST.
98
PHA PHN BT SO THAT TRONG CU TRC NAY V SO THAT
MANG NGHA DO (THEREFORE). CCH PHN BT DUY NHT LA
NG TU ANG SAU SO THAT MANG NGHA DO DN BN BNH
THNG SO V TH CUA NG TU MNH ANG TRC.
EX: WE HEARD NOTHING FROM HIM SO THAT ( = THEREFORE) WE
WONDERED IF HE MOVED AWAY.
3. T NI CH NGUYN NHN VA KT QU.
TRONG LOA TU N NAY NG TA DNG CU TRC SO/SUCH ....
THAT = QU, N NI MA VA CHA LAM NHU LOA SU DUNG.
DNG V TNH TU VA PH TU : CU TRC LA SO ..... THAT.
EX: TERRY RAN SO FAST THAT HE BROKE THE PREVIOUS SPEED
RECORD.
EX: JUDY WORKED SO DILIGENTLY THAT SHE RECEIVED AN
INCREASE IN SALARY.
DNG V DANH TU S NHU: CU TRC VN LA SO ... THAT NH-
NG PHA DNG MANY HOAC FEW TRC DANH TU .
EX: I HAD SO FEW JOB OFFERS THAT IT WASN'T DIFFICULT TO SELECT
ONE.
DNG V DANH TU KHNG M OC : CU TRC VN LA SO ...
THAT NHNG PHA DNG MUCH HOAC LITTLE TRC DANH TU .
EX: HE HAS INVESTED SO MUCH MONEY IN THE PROJECT THAT HE
CAN'T ABANDON IT NOW.
DNG V TNH TU + DANH TU S T: SUCH A ... THAT. C TH
DNG SO THEO CU TRC : SO + ADJ + A + NOUN ... THAT. (T PH
BIN HON)
EX: IT WAS SUCH A HOT DAY THAT WE DECIDED TO STAY INDOORS.
EX: IT WAS SO HOT A DAY THAT WE DECIDED TO STAY INDOORS.
DNG V TNH TU + DANH TU S NHU/KHNG M OC: SUCH ...
THAT. TUYT KHNG OC DNG SO.
EX: THEY ARE SUCH BEAUTIFUL PICTURES THAT EVERYBODY WILL
WANT ONE.
99
EX: THIS IS SUCH DIFFICULT HOMEWORK THAT I WILL NEVER FINISH
IT.
4. MT S CC T NI MANG TNH IU KIN KHC.
EVEN IF + NEGATIVE VERB: CHO D.
EX: YOU MUST GO TOMORROW EVEN IF YOU AREN'T READY.
WHETHER OR NOT + POSITIVE VERB: D C HAY KHNG.
EX: YOU MUST GO TOMORROW WHETHER OR NOT YOU ARE READY.
CC A TU NGH VN NG U CU CNG DNG LAM TU N VA
NG TU THEO SAU CHNG PHA CHA NG TH 3 S T.
EX: WHETHER HE GOES OUT TONIGHT DEPENDS ON HIS
GIRLDFRIEND.
WHY THESE PUPILS CAN NOT SOLVE THIS PROBLEMS MAKES THE
TEACHERS CONFUSED.
MT S CC TU N C QUY LUT RNG CUA CHNG NU KT
HOP V NHAU
AND MOREOVER AND IN ADDTIONAND THUS OR
OTHERWISE
AND FURTHERMORE AND THEREFORE BUT
NEVERTHELESS BUT ... ANYWAY
NU N GA HA MNH , ANG TRC CHNG PHA C DU
PHY
EX: HE WAS EXHAUSTED, AND THEREFORE HIS JUDGEMENT WAS NOT
VERY GOOD.
NHNG NU N GA HA TU ON TH KHNG
EX: THE MISSING PIECE IS SMALL BUT SIGNIFICANT.
UNLESS + POSITIVE = IF ... NOT: TRU PH, NU KHNG.
EX: YOU WILL BE LATE UNLESS YOU START AT ONCE.
BUT FOR THAT + UNREAL CONDITION: NU KHNG TH
HN TA
EX: MY FATHER PAYS MY FEE, BUT FOR THAT I COULDN'T BE
HERE(BUT HE IS HERE LEARNING)
100
U KH
EX: MY CAR BROKEN DOWN, BUT FOR THAT WE WOULD HAVE
BEEN HERE IN TIME (BUT THEY WERE LATE)
OTHERWISE + REAL CONDITION: KO, NU KHNG TH.
EX: WE MUST BE BACK BEFORE MIDNIGHT OTHERWISE I WILL BE
LOCKED OUT.
OTHERWISE + UNREAL CONDITION: KO, NU KHNG TH NHNG
SAU N PHA LA U KN KHNG TH THUC HN OC
HN TA
EX: HER FATHER SUPPORTS HER FINANCE OTHERWISE SHE
COULDN'T CONDUCT THESE EXPERIMENTS (BUT SHE CAN WITH HER
FATHER'S).
U KH:
EX: I USED A COMPUTER, OTHERWISE I WOULD HAVE TAKEN LONGER
WITH THESE CALCULATIONS (BUT HE DIDN'T TAKE ANY LONGER).
*LU Y: TRONG TNG ANH THNG TUC (COLLOQUAL ENGLSH) NG
TA DNG OR ELSE THAY TH CHO OTHERWISE.
PROVIDED/PROVIDING THAT: V U KN LA, MN LA = AS LONG
AS
EX: YOU CAN CAMP HERE PROVIDING THAT YOU LEAVE NO MESS.
SUPPOSE/SUPPOSING = WHAT ... IF : GA SU .... TH SAU, NU .....
TH SAO.
EX: SUPPOSE THE PLANE IS LATE = WHAT (WILL HAPPEN) IF THE
PLANE IS LATE.
LU Y:
* SUPPOSE CN C TH OC DNG A RA L GO Y.
EX: SUPPOSE YOU ASK HIM = WHY DON'T YOU ASK HIM.
* LU Y THANH NG: WHAT F AM: TAO TH TH SAO NAO (MANG
TNH THCH THC)
IF ONLY + S + SIMPLE PRESENT/WILL + VERB = HOPE THAT: H
VONG RANG
101
EX : IF ONLY HE COMES IN TIME
EX : IF ONLY HE WILL LEARN HARDER FOR THE TEST NEXT MONTH.
IF ONLY + S + SIMPLE PAST/PAST PERFECT = WISH THAT(CU /K
KHNG THUC HN OC)
EX: IF ONLY HE CAME IN TIME NOW.
EX: IF ONLY SHE HAD STUDIED HARDER FOR THAT TEST
IF ONLY + S + WOULD + V
DN AT MT HANH NG KHNG TH XAY RA HN TA
EX: IF ONLY HE WOULD DRIVE MORE SLOWLY = WE WISH HE DRIVED
MORE SLOWLY.
DN AT MT C MUN V VONG V TONG LA:
EX: IF ONLY IT WOULD STOP RAINING
IMMEDIATELY = AS SOON AS = THE MOMENT (THAT) = THE
INSTANT THAT = DIRECTLY: NGAY LP TC
Ex: TELL ME IMMEDIATLY (=AS SOON AS ) YOU HAVE ANY NEWS.
Ex: PHONE ME THE MOMENT THAT YOU GET THE RESULTS.
Ex: I LOVE YOU THE INSTANT (THAT) I SAW YOU.
Ex: DIRECTLY I WALKED IN THE DOOR I SMELT SMOKE.
102
CU B| NG
NG TA DNG CU B NG NHN MANH VAO TN NG CUA
CU CHU NG.
TH CUA NG TU CU B NG PHA TUN THEO TH CUA
NG TU CU CHU NG.
NU LA LOA NG TU C 2 TN NG, MUN NHN MANH VAO TN
NG NAO NG TA A TN NG LN LAM CHU NG NHNG
THNG THNG CHU NG HOP LY CUA CU B NG LA TN NG
GN TP.
EX: I GAVE YOU A BOOK = I GAVE A BOOK TO HIM = HE WAS GIVEN A
BOOK BY ME.
AT " BY + TN NG MI" ANG SAU TT CA CC TN NG KHC.
NU SAU BY LA MT A TU V NHN XNG MANG NGHA NG TA:
BY PEOPLE, BY SB TH B HN N .
SMPLE PRESENT OR SMPLE PAST
AM
S
ARE +VERB N PAST
PARTCPLE
WAS
WERE
Ex: ACTIVE: HURRICANES DESTROY A GREAT DEAL OF PROPERTY
EACH YEAR.
Ex: PASSIVE: A GREAT DEAL OF PROPERTY IS DESTROYED BY
HURRICANES EACH YEAR.
PRESENT PROGRESSVE OR PAST
PROGRESSVE
103
AM
S
ARE + BENG + VERB N PAST
PARTCPLE
WAS
WERE
Ex: ACTIVE: THE COMMITTEE IS CONSIDERING SEVERAL NEW
PROPOSALS.
Ex: PASSIVE: SEVERAL NEW PROPOSALS ARE BEING CONSIDERED
BY THE COMMITTEE.
PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST
PERFECT
HAS
HAVE + BEEN +VERB N PAST
PARTCPLE
HAD
Ex: ACTIVE: THE COMPANY HAS ORDERED SOME NEW EQUIPMENT.
Ex: PASSIVE: SOME NEW EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN ORDERED BY THE
COMPANY.
MODALS
MODAL + BEEN +VERB N PAST
PARTCPLE

Ex: ACTIVE: THE MANAGER SHOULD SIGN THESE CONTRACTS
TODAY.
Ex: PASSIVE: THESE CONTRACTS SHOULD BE SIGNED BY THE
MANAGER TODAY.
CC N NG TU (NG TU KHNG YU CU 1 TN NG NAO)
KHNG OC DNG B NG.
EX: MY LEG HURTS.
104
AC BT KH CHU NG CHU TRCH NHM CHNH CUA HANH
NG CNG KHNG OC CHUYN THANH CU B NG.
EX: THE AMERICA TAKES CHARGE: NC M NHN L NH TRCH NHIM
NU LA NG HOAC VT TRUC TP GY RA HANH NG TH DNG
BY NHNG NU LA VT GN TP GY RA HANH NG TH DNG
WITH.
EX: THE BIRD WAS SHOT WITH THE GUN - THE BIRD WAS SHOT BY
THE HUNTER.
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP TO BE/TO GET + P
2
HOAN TOAN
KHNG MANG NGHA B NG MA MANG 2 NGHA:
CH TRANG TH MA CHU NG ANG TRONG
EX: COULD YOU PLEASE CHECK MY MAILBOX WHILE I AM GONE .
EX: HE GOT LOST IN THE MAZE OF THE TOWN YESTERDAY.
CH VC CHU NG TU LAM LY
EX: THE LITTLE BOY GETS DRESSED VERY QUICKLY.
EX: COULD I GIVE YOU A HAND WITH THESE TIRES.
Ex: NO THANKS, I WILL BE DONE WHEN I FINISH TIGHTENING THESE
BOLTS.
MO SU BN V TH VA TH U NHAM VAO NG TU TO BE,
CN PHN TU 2 G NGUYN.
TO BE MADE OF: C LAM BNG ( CP N CHT LU LAM NN
VT)
EX: THIS TABLE IS MADE OF WOOD
TO BE MADE FROM: C LAM RA T ( CP N VC NGUYN
VT LU B BN HOAN TOAN V TRANG TH BAN U LAM
NN VT)
EX: PAPER IS MADE FROM WOOD
TO BE MADE OUT OF: C LAM BNG ( CP N QU TRNH
LAM RA VT)
EX: THIS CAKE WAS MADE OUT OF FLOUR, BUTTER, SUGAR, EGGS
AND MILK
TO BE MADE WITH: C LAM VI ( CP N CH MT TRONG S
NHU CHT LU LAM NN VT)
105
EX: THIS SOUP TASTES GOOD BECAUSE IT WAS MADE A LOT OF
SPICES.
PHN BT THM V CCH DNG MARRY VA DIVORCE TRONG 2 TH:
CHU NG VA B NG
KH KHNG C TN NG TH NG ANH A DNG GET MARIED VA
GET DIVORCED TRONG DANG INFORMAL ENGLISH.
EX: LULU AND JOE GOT MARIED LAST WEEK. (INFORMAL)
EX: LULU AND JOE MARRIED LAST WEEK. (FORMAL)
EX: AFTER 3 VERY UNHAPPY YEARS THEY GOT DIVORCED.
(INFORMAL)
EX: AFTER 3 VERY UNHAPPY YEARS THEY DOVORCED. (FORMAL)
SAU MARRY VA DIVORCE LA MT TN NG TRUC TP KHNG C
G TU: TO MARY / DIVORCE SMB
EX: SHE MARRIED A BUILDER.
EX: ANDREW IS GOING TO DIVORCE CAROLA
TO BE/ GET MARRIED/ TO SMB (GII T TO LA BT BUC)
EX: SHE GOT MARRIED TO HER CHILDHOOD SWEETHEART.
EX: HE HAS BEEN MARRIED TO LOUISA FOR 1 YEARS AND HE STILL
DOESN'T UNDERSTAND HER.
106
NG T GY NGUYN NHN
LA NHNG NG TU DN AT TONG TH NHT GY CHO
TONG TH HA MT U G V MT S MU CU NH SAU:
1. TO HAVE SB DO STH = TO GET SB TO DO STH = SAI AI,
KHIN AI, BO AI LAM G

2. TO HAVE/TO GET STH DONE = A CI G I LAM
THEO KHUYNH HNG NAY NG TU TO WANT VA WOULD LIKE
CNG C TH DNG V MU CU NH VY: TO WANT/ WOULD LIKE
STH DONE.
CU H DNG CHO LOA MU CU NAY LA: WHAT DO YOU WANT
DONE TO
EX: WHAT DO YOU WANT DONE TO YOUR CAR ?
I WANT/ WOULD LIKE IT WASHED.
3. TO MAKE SB DO STH = TO FORCE SB TO DO STH
ANG SAU TN NG CUA MAKE CN C TH DNG 1 TNH TU: TO
MAKE SB/STH + ADJ
EX: WEARING FLOWERS MADE HER MORE BEAUTIFUL .
0. TO MAKE SB + P
2
= LAM CHO AI B| LAM SAO
EX: WORKING ALL NIGHT ON FRIDAY MADE ME TIRED ON SATURDAY.
1. TO CAUSE STH + P
2
= LAM CHO CI G B| LAM SAO
EX: THE BIG THUNDER STORM CAUSED MANY WATERFRONT HOUSES
DAMAGED.
107
NU TN NG CUA MAKE LA MT NG TU NGUYN TH TH PHA
AT IT GA MAKE VA TNH TU, AT NG TU RA PHA ANG SAU:
MAKE IT + ADJ + V AS OBJECT.
EX: THE WIRE SERVICE MADE IT POSSIBLE TO COLLECT AND
DISTRIBUTE NEWS FASTER AND CHEAPER.
TUY NHN NU TN NG CUA MAKE LA 1 DANH TU HAY 1 NG
DANH TU TH KHNG OC AT IT GA MAKE VA TNH TU: MAKE +
ADJ + NOUN/ NOUN PHRASE.
EX: THE WIRE SERVICE MADE POSSIBLE MUCH SPEEDIER
COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF NEWS.
6. TO LET SB DO STH = TO PERMIT/ALLOW SB TO DO STH
= AI, CHO PHP AI LAM G
7. TO HELP SB TO DO STH/DO STH = GIP AI LAM G
NU TN NG CUA HELP LA MT A TU V NHN XNG MANG
NGHA NG TA TH KHNG CN PHA NHC N TN NG VA
B LUN CA TO CUA NG TU ANG SAUL
EX: THIS WONDER DRUG WILL HELP (PEOPLE TO ) RECOVER MORE
QUICKLY.
NU TN NG CUA HELP VA TN NG CUA NG TU SAU N
TRNG HOP V NHAU, NG TA S B TN NG SAU HELP VA B
LUN CA TO CUA NG TU ANG SAU.
EX:THE BODY FAT OF THE BEAR WILL HELP (HIM TO ) KEEP HIM ALIVE
DURING HIBERNATION.
8. 3 NG T C BIT
LA NHNG NG TU MA NG NGHA CUA CHNG S THAY
CHT KH NG TU SAU TN NG CUA CHNG CC DANG KHC
NHAU.
TO SEE/TO WATCH/ TO HEAR SB/STH DO STH (HANH NG CHNG
KN TU U N CU)
EX: I HEAR THE TELEPHONE RING.
108
TO SEE/TO WATCH/ TO HEAR SB/STH DOING STH (HANH NG
KHNG CHNG KN TRON VEN MA CH NHT TH)
109
CU PHC HP VA AI T QUAN
H THAY TH
TNG ANH C 2 LOA CU
CU ON GAN: LA CU C 1 THANH PHN VA CH CN VY CU
CNG U NGHA.
CU PHC HOP: LA LOA CU C 2 THANH PHN CHNH/PHU N
V NHAU BANG 1 TU GO LA A TU QUAN H.
1. THAT VA WHICH LAM CH NG CA CU PHU
N NG U CU PHU, THAY TH CHO DANH TU BT NG
VT NG TRC N VA LAM CHU NG CUA CU PHU. DO N
KHNG TH NAO B OC.
EX: WE BOUGHT THE STEREO THAT HAD BEEN ADVERTISED AT
A REDUCED PRICE.
2. THAT VA WHICH LAM TN NG CA CU PHU
N THAY TH CHO DANH TU BT NG VT NG TRC N, M
U CU PHU NHNG LAM TN NG. DO N C TH B -
OC.
EX: GEORGE IS GOING TO BUY THE HOUSE (THAT) WE HAVE
BEEN THINKING OF BUYING
NG TA DNG THAT CH KHNG DNG WHICH KH:
NG TRC N LA MT TNH TU SO SNH BC NHT + DANH
TU
EX: THAT IS THE BEST NOVEL THAT HAS BEEN WRITTEN BY
THIS AUTHOR.
KH ANG TRC N LA MT S CC A TU PHM CH NH
ALL, SOME, ANY, ANYTHING, EVERYTHING, MUCH, LITTLE,
NOTHING V.V..
EX1: I WANT TO SEE ALL THAT HE POSSESSES.
110
EX2: ALL THE APPLES THAT FALL ARE EATEN BY PIG.
3. WHO LAM CH NG CA CU PHU
N THAY TH CHO DANH TU CH NG HOAC NG VT TRC
N, LAM CHU NG CUA CU PHU. DO N KHNG TH B
OC.
EX: THE MAN (WHO) IS IN THIS ROOM IS ANGRY.
4. WHOM LAM TN NG CA CU PHU
N THAY TH CHO DANH TU CH NG HOAC NG VT TRC
N VA LAM TN NG CUA CU PHU, N C TH B OC.
EX: THE MEN (WHOM) I DON'T LIKE ARE ANGRY.
NU WHOM LAM TN NG CUA MT NG NG TU BAO GM 1
VERB + 1 GII T TH L VT CHUN NHT LA A G TU
LN TRC WHOM.
EX: THE MAN TO WHOM YOU HAVE JUST TALKED IS THE
CHAIRMAN OF THE COMPANY.
TUY NHN NU WHOM LA TN NG CUA MT NG NG TU
BAO GM 1 NG T + 2 GII T TH 2 G TU VN PHA
NG ANG SAU NG TU.
EX: THE MAN WHOM YOU ARE LOOKING FORWARD TO IS THE
CHAIRMAN OF THE COMPANY.
KHNG OC DNG WHO THAY CHO WHOM TRONG VAN VT D
N OC CHP NHN TRONG VAN N.
5. MNH PHU BT BUC VA KHNG BT BUC.
1) MNH PHU BT BUC.
LA LOA MNH BT BUC PHA C MAT TRONG CU, NU
B CU S MT Y NGHA BAN U.
NN DNG THAT LAM CHU NG CHO LOA CU NAY MAC D
WHICH VN OC CHP NHN
111
CU PHU THNG NG XEN VAO GA CU CHNH HOAC N
LN V CU CHNH VA KHNG TCH R KH N B BT C
DU PHAY NAO.
EX: WEEDS THAT FLOAT TO THE SURFACE SHOULD BE
REMOVED BEFORE THEY DECAY.
2) MNH PHU KHNG BT BUC
LA LOA MNH MANG THNG TN PHU TRONG CU, NU B
N CU KHNG MT NGHA BAN U.
KHNG OC DNG THAT LM CHU NG M PHI DNG WHICH ,
CHO D WHICH CO L TN NG CUA MNH PH CNG
KHNG OC PHEP B NO I.
CU PHU THNG NG CHEN VAO GA CU CHNH VA BT
BUC PHA TCH KH CU CHNH BANG 2 DU PHY.
EX1: MY CAR, WHICH IS VERY LARGE, USES TOO MUCH
GASOLINE.
EX2: THIS RUM, WHICH I BOUGHT IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS, IS
VERY SMOOTH.
6. TM QUAN TRNG CA VIC S DUNG DU PHY I
VI MNH PHU
NHNG MNH PHU BT BUC, KH KHNG DNG DU PHY
TC LA C SU G HAN CUA MNH PHU V DANH TU ANG
TRC (TRONG TNG VT: CH C)
EX: THE TRAVELERS WHO KNEW ABOUT THE FLOOD TOOK ANOTHER
ROAD.
(CH CO CC L KHCH NO M...)
EX: THE WINE THAT WAS STORED IN THE CELLAR WAS RUINED.
(CH CO ROU VANG DI HM MI BI...)
V NHNG MNH PHU KHNG BT BUC, KH C DU
PHY NGAN CCH TH N KHNG XC NH HOAC G HAN DANH
TU NG TRC N. (TRONG TNG VT: TT C).
EX: THE TRAVELERS, WHO KNEW ABOUT THE FLOOD, TOOK ANOTHER
ROAD.
(TT C L KHCH...)
EX: THE WINE, WHICH WAS STORED IN THE CELLAR, WAS RUINED.
(TT C ROU VANG...)
112
CC NGUYN TC TRN Y CH DNG TRONG VAN VT, KHNG
DNG TRONG VAN N.
7. CCH S DUNG ALL, BOTH, SOME, SEVERAL, MOST,
FEW + OF + WHOM/ WHICH
TUYT KHNG OC DNG A TU NHN XNG TN NG: THEM,
US TRONG TRNG HOP NAY.
EX1: THEIR SONS , BOTH OF WHOM (KHNG OC NOI BOTH OF THEM)
ARE WORKING ABROAD, RING HER UP EVERY WEEK.
EX2: THE BUSES , MOST OF WHICH WERE FULL OF PASSENGERS,
BEGAN TO PULL OUT.
WHAT = THE THING/ THE THINGS THAT C TH LAM TN NG CHO
MNH PHU CNG LC LAM CHU NG CHO MNH CHNH/
HOAC LAM CHU NG CUA CA 2 MNH CHNH, PHU.
EX1: WHAT WE HAVE EXPECTED IS THE RESULT OF THE TEST.
EX2: WHAT HAPPENED TO HIM YESTERDAY MIGHT HAPPEN TO US
TOMORROW.
8. WHOSE = CA NGOI MA, CA CON MA.
N THAY TH CHO DANH TU CH NG HOAC NGVT TRC N
VA CH SU S HU CUA NG HOAC NG VT V DANH
TU SAU.
EX: JAMES, WHOSE FATHER IS THE PRESIDENT OF THE COMPANY,
HAS RECEIVED A PROMOTION.
TRONG L VAN VT QUAN TRONG NN DNG OF WHICH THAY
TH CHO DANH TU BT NG VT MAC D WHOSE VN OC CHP
NHN.
EX: SAVING ACCOUNT, OF WHICH (= WHOSE) INTEREST RATE IS
QUITE HIGHT, IS VERY COMMON NOW.
HOAC DNG WITH + NOUN/ NOUN PHRASE THAY CHO WHOSE
EX: THE HOUSE WHOSE WALLS WERE MADE OF GLASS = THE HOUSE
WITH THE GLASS WALLS .
113
9. CCH LOAI B MNH PHU
V NHNG MNH PHU BT BUC NG TA C TH LOA B
A TU QUAN H VA NG TU TO BE (CNG V CC TRO NG TU
CUA N) TRONG MT S TRNG HOP SAU:
TRC MT MNH PHU MA CU TRC NG TU TH B NG.
EX: THIS IS THE Z VALUE (WHICH WAS ) OBTAINED FROM THE TABLE
AREAS UNDER THE NORMAL CURVE.
TRC MT MNH PHU MA SAU N LA MT NG G TU.
EX: THE BEAKER (THAT IS ) ON THE COUNTER CONTAINS A SOLUTION.
TRC MT CU TRC NG TU TH TP DN.
EX: THE GIRL (WHO IS) RUNNING DOWN THE STREET MIGHT BE IN
TROUBLE.
NGOA RA TRONG MT S TRNG HOP KH A TU QUAN H
TRONG MNH PHU BT BUC GN LN V CHU NG NG TR-
C N VA MNH PHU Y DN AT QU LUT HOAC SU KN
DN AT THEO TN S, NG TA C TH B A TU QUAN H VA
NG TU CHNH THAY VAO BANG MT VERB-ING.
EX: THE TRAVELERS TAKING (= WHO TAKE) THIS BUS ON A DAILY
BASIS BUY THEIR TICKET IN BOOKING.
TRONG NHNG MNH PHU KHNG BT BUC NG TA CNG
C TH LOA B A TU QUAN H VA NG TU TO BE KH N NG
TRC MT NG DANH TU. TUY NHN PHN NG DANH TU CN LA
VN PHA NG GA 2 DU PHY.
EX: MR JACKSON, (WHO IS) A PROFESSOR, IS TRAVELING IN THE
MIDEAST THIS YEAR.
LOA B A TU QUAN H VA NG TU CHNH, THAY VAO BANG
1 VERB-ING KH MNH PHU NAY B NGHA CHO MT TN NG
(L VT NAY RT PH BN).
EX: THE PRESIDENT MADE A SPEECH FOR THE FAMOUS MAN VISITING
(WHO VISITED ) HIM.
114
CCH S DUNG P
1
TRONG MT S
TRONG HP
10. DNG VI MT S CC CU TRC NG T.
HAVE SB/STH + DOING = CAUSE: LAM CHO .
EX: HE HAD US LAUGHING ALL THROUGH THE MEAL.
S + WON'T HAVE SB + DOING = S + WON'T ALLOW SB TO DO STH:
KHNG CHO PHP A LAM G
EX: I WON'T HAVE HIM TELLING ME WHAT TO DO.
CC CUM HN TA PHN TU: ADDING, POINTING OUT, REMINDING,
WARNING, REASONING THAT U C TH M U CHO MT MNH
PHU GN TP.
EX1: HE TOLD ME TO START EARLY, REMINDING ME THAT THE
ROAD WOULD BE CROWDED.
EX2: REASONING THAT HE COULD ONLY GET TO THE LAKE, WE
FOLLOWED THAT WAY.
TO CATCH SB DOING STH: BT GAP A ANG (HANH NG CUA TN
NG LAM PHT LNG CHU NG).
EX: IF SHE CATCHES YOU READING HER DIARY,SHE WILL BE
FURIOUS.
TO FIND SB/STH DOING STH: THY A/ C G ANG
EX: I FOUND HIM STANDING AT THE DOORWAY
EX: HE FOUND A TREE LYING ACROSS THE ROAD.
TO LEAVE SB DOING STH: AI LM G
EX: I LEFT BOB TALKING TO THE DIRECTOR AFTER THE
INTRODUCTION.
GO/COME DOING STH (DNG CHO TH THAO VA MUA SM)
115
EX: GO SKIING/ GO SWIMMING/ GO SHOPPING/ COME DANCING
TO SPEND TIME DOING STH: B TH GAN LAM G
EX: HE USUALLY SPENDS MUCH TIME PREPARING HIS LESSONS.
TO WASTE TIME DOING: HAO PH TH GAN LAM G
EX: SHE WASTED ALL THE AFTERNOON HAVING SMALL TALKS
WITH HER FRIENDS.
TO HAVE A HARD TIME/TROUBLE DOING STH: GAP KH KHAN KH
LAM G
EX: HE HAS TROUBLE LISTENING ENGLISH.
TO BE WORTH DOING STH: NG LAM G
EX: THIS PROJECT IS WORTH SPENDING TIME AND MONEY ON.
TO BE BUSY DOING SOMETHING: BN LAM G
Ex: SHE IS BUSY PACKING NOW.
BE NO/ NOT MUCH/ ANY/ SOME GOOD DOING SMT: KHNG C CH,
T KH C CH (LAM G)
EX: IT'S NO GOOD MY TALKING TO HIM: NOI CHUYN VI ANH TA
TI CH THY CO CH G.
EX: WHAT GOOD IS IT ASKING HER: HI C TA TH CO CH G CO
CHU
,,. P
1
C S DUNG RT NGN NHNG CU DAI
HA HANH NG XAY RA SONG SONG CNG MT LC: HANH NG
TH HA DANG V-ING, HA HANH NG KHNG TCH R KH
NHAU B BT K DU PHAY NAO.
EX: HE DRIVES AWAY AND WHISTLES = HE DRIVES AWAY WHISTLING.
KH HANH NG TH HA HOAC CC HANH NG TP SAU THEO
N LA MT PHN TRONG QU TRNH DN BN CUA HANH NG
TH NHT TH HANH NG TH HA HOAC CC HANH NG TP
THEO SAU N DANG V-ING. GA HA HANH NG C NGAN
CCH NHAU B DU PHY.
EX: SHE WENT OUT AND SLAMMED THE DOOR -> SHE WENT OUT ,
SLAMMING THE DOOR.
116
KH HANH NG TH 2 HOAC CC HANH NG SAU N LA KT QUA
CUA HANH NG TH NHT TH HANH NG TH 2 VA CC HANH
NG TP THEO S DANG V-ING. N S NGAN CCH V HANH
NG CHNH BANG MT DU PHY.
EX: HE FIRED TWO SHOTS, KILLLING A ROBBER AND WOUNDING THE
OTHER.
HANH NG TH 2 KHNG CN CHUNG CHU NG V HANH NG
TH NHT MA CH CN LA KT QUA CNG C TH DANG V-
ING.
EX: THE PLANE CRASHED , ITS BOMBS EXPLODING WHEN IT HIT THE
GROUND.
117
CCH S DUNG NGUYN MU
HOAN THANH (TO HAVE + P
2
)
WHOULD (SHOULD) LIKE + TO HAVE + P
2
: DIN AT MT C MUN
KHNG THANH.
EX: HE WOULD LIKE TO HAVE SEEN THE PHOTOS = HE WOULD
HAVE LIKED TO SEE THE PHOTOS (BUT HE COULDN'T).
DNG V MT S NG TU: TO APPEAR
TO SEEM
TO HAPPEN
TO PRETEND
NN NH RANG HANH NG CUA NGUYN MU HOAN THANH XAY
RA TRC HANH NG CUA MNH CHNH.
EX: HE SEEMS TO HAVE PASSED THE EXAM -> IT SEEMS THAT HE HAS
PASSED THE EXAM.
EX: SHE PRETENDED TO HAVE READ THE MATERIAL -> SHE
PRETENDED THAT SHE HAD READ THE MATERIAL.
DNG V SORRY, TO BE SORRY + TO HAVE + P
2
: HANH NG CUA
NGUYN MU HOAN THANH XAY RA TRC TRANG TH SORRY.
EX: THE GIRLS WERE SORRY TO HAVE MISSED THE ROCK CONCERT
-> THE GIRLS WERE SORRY THAT THEY HAD MISSED THE ROCK
CONCERT.
DNG V MT S CC NG TU SAU Y TH B NG: TO
ACKOWLEDGE. BELIEVE, CONSIDER, FIND, KNOW, REPORT, SAY,
SUPPOSE, THINK, UNDERSTAND. HANH NG CUA NGUYN MU
HOAN THANH XAY RA TRC HANH NG CUA MNH CHNH.
EX: HE WAS BELIEVED TO HAVE GONE OUT OF THE COUNTRY -> IT
WAS BELIEVED THAT HE HAD GONE OUT OF THE COUNTRY.
+ to have + P
/
118
DNG V MT S CC NG TU KHC NH TO CLAIM, EXPECT,
HOPE, PROMISE. AC BT LU Y RANG HANH NG CUA NGUYN
MU HOAN THANH S FUTURE PERFECT SO V TH CUA NG
TU MNH CHNH.
EX: HE EXPECTS TO HAVE GRADUATED BY JUNE -> HE EXPECTS THAT
HE WILL HAVE GRADUATED BY JUNE.
EX: HE PROMISED TO HAVE TOLD ME THE SECRET BY THE END OF
THIS WEEK -> HE PROMISED THAT HE WOULD HAVE TOLD ME THE
SECRET BY THE END OF THIS WEEK.
119
NHNG CCH S DUNG KHC CA
THAT
1. THAT DNG VI T CCH LA MT LIN T (RNG)
ANG SAU 4 NG TU SAY, TELL, THINK, BELIEVE TH THAT C
TH B OC.
EX: JOHN SAID (THAT) HE WAS LEAVING NEXT WEEK.
ANG SAU 4 NG TU MENTION, DECLARE, REPORT, STATE TH
THAT BT BUC PHA C MAT.
EX: GEORGE MENTIONED THAT HE WAS GOING TO FRANCE NEXT
YEAR.
THAT VN BT BUC PHA DNG MNH TH 2 TRONG CU
SAU DU PHY NU VN CNG CHUNG MT MNH ANG SAU 4
NG TU TRN.
EX: THE MAJOR DECLARED THAT OR JUNE THE FIRST HE WOULD
ANNOUNCE THE RESULT OF THE SEARCH AND THAT HE WOULD
NEVER OVER LOOK THE CRIME PUNISHMENT.
2. MNH THAT
LA LOA MNH C HA THANH PHN VA BT BUC PHA C THAT
TRONG CU.
DNG V CHU NG GA IT VA TNH TU.
IT + TO BE + ADJ + THAT + S + V = THAT + S + V ... TO BE + ADJ
EX: IT IS WELL KNOWN THAT MANY RESIDENTS OF THIRD WORLD
COUNTRIES ARE DYING.
OR
THAT MANY RESIDENTS OF THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES ARE DYING IS
WELL KNOWN.
DNG V NG TU TAO THANH MT MNH C LP.
IT + VERB + COMPLEMENT + THAT + S + V = THAT + S + V + ... +V +
COMPLEMENT
120
EX: IT SURPRISES ME THAT JOHN WOULD DO SUCH A THING
OR
THAT JOHN WOULD DO SUCH A THING SURPRISES ME.
NG TA DNG CHU NG GA IT TRONG VAN N D NHN BT
VA THAT LAM CHU NG THT TRONG VAN VT.
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP NG TA AO NG G TU LN U
CU, NG TU N HOAC NG TU TNH AO LN TRN THAT VA
SAU M LA CHU NG THT. CNG THC SU DUNG NH SAU:
Ex: AMONG THE SURPRISING DISCOVERIES WERE THAT T.REX WAS A
FAR SLEEKER BUT MORE POWERFUL CARNIVORE THAN
PREVIOUS THOUGHT, PERHAPS WEIGHING LESS THAN .5 TONS
MORE THAN A BULL ELEPHANT, AND THAT T.REX HABITAT WAS
FOREST, NOT SWAMP OR PLAIN AS PREVIOUSLY BELIEVED.
(MT TRONG S NHNG PHT HIN NGAC NHIN L CH LOI
KHUNG LONG BAO CHA L MT LOAI AN THIT CO THN HNH M-
OT M HON NHIU, SONG CNG L LOI DNG M NH HON NGI
TA TNG NGH TRC Y, CO L CN NNG CHA N TN
RI-TUC L KHNG LN HON MT CON VOI UC, V TNG MI
TRNG SNG CUA LOI KHUNG LONG NY L RNG CHU
KHNG PHI L M LY HAY NG BNG NH NGI TA VN TH-
NG TIN.)
THE FACT THAT + SENTENCE/ THE FACT REMAINS THAT +
SENTENCE/ THE FACT OF THE MATTER IS THAT = THUC T LA.../SU
THUC LA...
Ex: THE FACT THAT SIMON HAD NOT BEEN HOME FOR 3 DAYS DIDN'T
SEEM TO WORRY ANYBODY.
Prepositional phrase + link verb/stative verb-THT-sentence as real
sub!ect, and THT-sentence as real sub!ect"
121
CU GI |NH
LA LOA CU TONG TH NHT MUN TONG TH HA LAM
MT VC G NHNG LAM HAY KHNG CN PHU THUC VAO NG
TH HA.
TRONG CU BT BUC PHA C THAT TRU MT S TRNG HOP.
1. DNG VI WOULD RATHER THAT
NG PHP HN A NGAY NAY AC BT LA NG PHP M CHO
PHP DNG WOULD RATHER MA KHNG CN DNG THAT TRONG
LOA CU NAY.
EX: WE WOULD RATHER (THAT) HE NOT TAKE THIS TRAIN.
2. DNG VI NG T.
BNG 1/183. LA NHNG NG TU H MNH ANG SAU N
PHA DANG GA NH VA TRONG CU BT BUC PHA C THAT
NU N DN AT Y TRN.
ADVSE DEMAND PREFER REQURE
ASK NSST PROPOSE STPULATE
COMMAND MOVE RECOMMEND SUGGEST
DECREE ORDER REQUEST URGE
NG TU SAU CHU NG 2 DANG NGUYN TH KHNG CHA B
TO.
NU MUN THANH LP TH PHU NH AT NOT SAU CHU NG 2 TR-
C NGUYN TH B TO.
EX: THE DOCTOR SUGGESTED THAT HIS PATIENT STOP SMOKING.
NU B THAT TH CHU NG 2 S TR V DANG TN NG VA
NG TU SAU N TR V DANG NGUYN TH C TO, CU MT
TNH CHT GA NH. TR THANH MT DANG MNH LNH THC
GN TP.
122
TRONG NG PHP ANH-ANH ANG TRC NG TU MNH 2
THNG C SHOULD, NG ANH CH B SHOULD KH N LA NG
TU TO BE NHNG NG PHP ANH-M KHNG DNG SHOULD CHO
TOAN B NG TU ANG SAU.
3. DNG VI TNH T.
BNG 1/184 LA MT S CC TNH TU H MNH SAU N
PHA DANG GA NH, TRONG CU BT BUC PHA C THAT VA
NG TU SAU CHU NG 2 DANG NGUYN TH B TO.
ADVSED NECESSARY RECOMMENDED URGENT
MPORTANT OBLGATORY REQURED MPERATVE
MANDATORY PROPOSED SUGGESTED
LU Y RANG TRONG BANG NAY C MT S TNH TU LA PHN TU 2
CU TAO TU CC NG TU BANG 1/183.
NU MUN CU TAO PHU NH AT NOT SAU CHU NG 2 TRC
NGUYN TH B TO.
IT + BE + ADJ + THAT + S + [VERB IN SIMPLE
FORM]
EX1: IT IS NECESSARY THAT HE FIND THE BOOKS.
EX2: IT HAS BEEN PROPROSED THAT WE CHANGE THE TOPIC.
NU B THAT TH CHU NG 2 S BN THANH TN NG SAU G
TU FOR, NG TU TR V DANG NGUYN TH C TO VA CU MT
TNH CHT GA NH TR THANH DANG MNH LNH THC GN
TP.
LU Y:
CU GA NH DNG V 2 LOA TRN THNG OC DNG TRONG
CC VAN BAN HOAC TH GAO DCH DN AT L NGH TU PHA A
-> B MA KHNG C TNH BT BUC.
KHNG CH C NG TU VA TNH TU M OC DNG THEO DANG
NAY, TT CA CC DANH TU XUT PHT TU NHNG NG TU VA
123
TNH TU TRN U BUC MNH SAU N PHA DANG GA NH,
NU NH N DN AT CC YU T TRN.
EX: THERE IS SUGGESTION FROM THE DOCTOR THAT THE PATIENT
STOP SMOKING.
EX: IT IS RECOMMENDATION THAT THE VEHICLE OWNER BE
PRESENT AT THE COURT
4. CU GI |NH DNG VI MT S TRONG HP KHC
N DNG DN AT MT C MUN HOAC MT L NGUYN RUA
THNG BAO HAM CC TH LUC SU NHN.
GOD BE WITH YOU = GOOD BYE.
CURSE THIS TOAD: CHT TIT CI CON COC NY.
DNG V NG TU MAY TRONG MT S TRNG HOP AC BT
SAU:
COME WHAT MAY = D TH NAO CHANG NA, D BT C
TRUYN G.
EX: COME WHAT MAY WE WILL STAND BY YOU.
MAY AS WELL NOT DO STH .... F .... = C TH UNG..... NU
KHNG.
EX: YOU MAY AS WELL NOT COME IF YOU CAN'T BE ON TIME: CC
ANH CO TH NG N NU KHNG N OC NG GI.
MAY/MIGHT (JUST) AS WELL DO SMT = CHNG MT G MA LA
KHNG, MT G CUA BO.
EX: SINCE NOBODY WANTS THAT JOB, WE MIGHT (JUST) AS WELL
LET HIM HAVE IT: V KHNG AI THCH VIC NY, MNH CHNG MT
G M LAI KHNG CHO HN TA LM NO
MAY DN AT MT GA NH TRONG L NGH MA NG N
CHO RANG CHA CHC N OC THUC HN:
Ex: THE SIGN ON THE LAWN SAYS CLEARLY THAT PEOPLE MAY NOT
WALK ON THE GRASS.
(KHNG DNG SHOULD TRONG TRNG HOP NY).
LINKVERB + ADJ
MAY + S + = CU CHC CHO.
VERB + COMPLEMENT
EX: MAY YOU BOTH VERY HAPPY: CHC CC BAN BCH NIN GIAI
L O.
124
EX: MAY THE CONFERENCE BE SUCCESSFUL: CHC HI NGHI
THNH CNG RUC R.
Ex: LONG MAY SHE LIVE TO ENJOY HER GOOD FORTUNE: CU CHC
CHO NNG SNG LU HNG TRN VN VN MAY CUA NNG.
F NEED BE = F NECESSARY = NU CN
EX: IF NEED BE, WE CAN TAKE ANOTHER ROAD.
DNG V NG TU TO BE, B TO SAU IF CH MT SU GA
NH CHA OC PHN NH R RANG LA NG HAY SA.
EX: IF THAT BE ALL RIGHT, THEN IT WOULD BE NO DEFENCE FOR THIS
MAN TO SAY HE'S INNOCENT.
EX: IF THAT BE ERROR AND UPON ME PROVED: NU O QU L LI
V CU NHT INH GN CHO TI.
LET IT BE ME: GA SU LA T, G PHA TAY T.
EX: HUSBAND: LET IT BE ME.
WIFE (SUDDENLY APPEARING) : IF THAT BE YOU, WHAT WOULD
YOU DO.
BE THAT AS IT MAY... = WHETHER THAT IS TRUE OR NOT... =
CHO D LA PHA TH HAY KHNG.
Ex: BE THAT AS IT MAY, YOU HAVE TO ACCEPT IT.
THEN SO BE T: C PHA VY TH.
Ex: IF WE HAVE TO PAY $2,000, THEN SO BE IT (TH CU PHI TR
THI)
5. CU GI |NH DNG VI IT + TO BE + TIME
IT'S TIME (FOR SB) TO DO SMT: N LC A PHA LAM G (TH
GAN VUA VAN KHNG MANG TNH GA NH).
EX: IT'S TIME FOR ME TO GET TO THE AIRPORT: N LC TI
PHI RA SN BAY.
IT'S TIME
HIGHTIME + S + SIMPLE PAST = N LC MA (TH GAN
TR MANG TNH
ABOUT TIME GA NH)
EX: IT'S TIME I GOT TO THE AIRPORT
125
EX: IT'S HIGHTIME THE CITY GOVERNMENT DID SMT TO STOP THE
TRAFFIC JAM.
126
LI NI BAO HAM
LA L N GP HA Y TRONG CU LA MT THNG QUA MT S
CC THANH NG.
1. NOT ONLY ..... BUT ALSO
CC THUC TH ANG SAU HA THANH NG NAY PHA TONG -
ONG V NHAU V MAT NG PHP (N - N, ADJ - ADJ).


noun noun
a'jective a'jective
a'verb a'verb
prepositional phrase prepositional phrase

!



S + !erb + not only +
+ but also +
Subject + not only + verb + but also + verb
EX: ROBERT IS NOT ONLY TALENTED BUT ALSO HANDSOME.
EX: HE WRITES NOT ONLY CORRECTLY BUT ALSO NEATLY.
THANH PHN SAU BUT ALSO THNG QUYT NH THANH PHN
SAU NOT ONLY.
EX: INCORRECT: HE IS NOT ONLY FAMOUS IN ITALY BUT ALSO IN
SWITZERLAND.
CORRECT: HE IS FAMOUS NOT ONLY IN ITALY BUT ALSO IN
SWITZERLAND.
2. AS WELL AS: CNG NH
CC THANH PHN ANG TRC VA ANG SAU THANH NG NAY PHA
TONG ONG V NHAU V MAT NG PHP.
127








!
S + !erb + + as #ell as +
Subject + verb + as #ell as + verb
noun
a'jective
a'verb
prepositional phrase
noun
a'jective
a'verb
prepositional phrase
EX: ROBERT IS TALENTED AS WELL AS HANDSOME.
EX: HE WRITES CORRECTLY AS WELL AS NEATLY.
EX: PAUL PLAYS THE PIANO AS WELL AS COMPOSES MUSIC.
KHNG OC NHM THANH NG NAY V AS WELL AS CUA HN T-
ONG NG CHU NG MANG NGHA CNG V .
EX: THE TEACHER , AS WELL AS HER STUDENTS, IS GOING TO THE
CONCERT.
EX: MY COUSINS , AS WELL AS TIM, HAVE A TEST TOMORROW.
3. BOTH ..... AND
CNG THC DNG GNG HT NH NOT ONLY .... BUT ALSO.
BOTH CH OC DNG V AND, KHNG OC DNG V AS WELL
AS.
EX: ROBERT IS BOTH TALENTED AND HANDSOME .
EX: PAUL BOTH PLAYS THE PIANO AND COMPOSES MUSIC.
128
CCH S DUNG TO KNOW, TO
KNOW HOW.

S + know how + [verb in infinitive]
OR


"oun
S + #now + $repositional phrase
Sentence
EX: BILL KNOW HOW TO PLAY TENNIS WELL.
EX: JASON KNEW THE ANSWER TO THE TEACHER'S QUESTION.
EX: I DIDN'T KNOW THAT YOU WERE GOING TO FRANCE.
ANG SAU TO KNOW HOW CNG C TH DNG MT CU DN
AT KHA NANG HOAC SU BT BUC.
EX: AT A GLANCE, SHE KNEW HOW SHE COULD SOLVE THIS MATH
PROBLEM.
129
MNH NHNG B
LA LOA MNH DN AT HA Y TR NGOC TRONG CNG
MT CU.
1. DESPITE/INSPITE OF = BT CHP
ANG SAU HA THANH NG NAY PHA DNG MT NG DANH TU,
KHNG OC DNG MT CU HOAN CHNH.
EX: DESPITE HIS PHYSICAL HANDICAP, HE HAS BECOME A
SUCCESSFUL BUSINESSMAN.
EX: JANE WILL BE ADMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY IN SPITE OF HER
BAD GRADES.
2. ALTHOUGH/EVEN THOUGH/THOUGH = MC DU
ANG SAU 3 THANH NG NAY PHA DNG MT CU HOAN CHNH,
KHNG OC DNG MT NG DANH TU.
EX: ALTHOUGH HE HAS A PHYSICAL HANDICAP, HE HAS BECOME A
SUCCESSFUL BUSINESSMAN.
TUY NHN NU THOUGH NG CU CU TCH BT KH CU
CHNH B DU PHY. KH N HO DUNG LA MT CHT, LC
N MANG NGHA TUY NHIN (= HOWEVER) .
EX: HE PROMISED TO CALL ME, TILL NOW I HAVEN'T RECEIVED ANY
CALL FROM HIM, THOUGH.
3. HOWEVER + ADJ + S + LINKVERB = D C .... I
CHNG NA TH ....
EX: HOWEVER STRONG YOU ARE , YOU CAN'T MOVE THIS ROCK.
130
4. ALTHOUGH/ ALBEIT (MORE FORMAL) + ADJECTIVE/
ADVERB/ AVERBIAL MODIFIER
EX: HER APPOINTMENT WAS A SIGNIFICANT, ALTHOUGHT/ ALBEIT
TEMPORARY SUCCESS. (VIC B Y OC B NHIM L MT THNH
CNG QUAN TRNG Y, NHNG DU SAO CNG CH L NHT THI)
EX: HER PERFORMED THE TASK WELL, ALTHOUGHT/ ALBEIT SLOWLY
(ANH TA THUC HIN NHIM V O TT Y, TUY RNG CHM).
131
NHNG NG T D GY NHM
LN
NHNG NG TU BANG SAU RT D GY NHM LN V MAT NG
NGHA, CHNH TA HOAC PHT M.
N NG TU
RSE
LE
ST
ROSE
LAY
SAT
RSEN
LAN
SAT
RSN
G
LYNG
STT
NG
NGOA NG TU
RASE
LAY
SET
RASED
LAD
SET
RASE
D
LAD
SET
RAS
NG
LAYN
G
SETT
NG
TO RISE : DNG LN.
EX: THE SUN RISES EARLY IN THE SUMMER.
TO RAISE SMT/SB: NNG AI, CI G LN.
EX: THE STUDENTS RAISE THEIR HANDS IN CLASS.
TO LIE: NM, , TAI.
TO LIE IN: TAI
TO LIE DOWN: NM XUNG.
TO LIE ON: NM TRN.
EX: THE UNIVERSITY LIES IN THE WESTERN SECTION OF TOWN.
EX: DON'T DISTURB MARY, SHE HAS LAID DOWN FOR A REST.
132
*LU Y: CN PHN BT NG TU NAY V NG TU TO LIE (N D)
TRONG MU CU TO LIE TO SB ABOUT SMT (N D A V C G):
Ex: HE IS LYING TO YOU ABOUT THE TEST.
TO LAY: T,
TO LAY ON: T TRN
TO LAY IN: T VAO
TO LAY DOWN: T XUNG.
EX: DON'T LAY YOUR CLOTHES ON THE BED.
*LU Y 1: TH HN TA CUA NG TU NAY RT D NGY NHM LN
V QU KH ON GAN CUA NG TU TO LIE. CN PHA PHN BT
BANG NG CANH CU TH.
TO SIT
TO SIT IN: NGI TAI, NGI TRONG.
TO SIT ON: NGI TRN ( NGI SN).
TO SET = TO PUT, TO LAY: T, .
LU : PHT M HN TA ON GAN CUA NG TU NAY RT D LN V
SIMPLE PAST CUA TO SIT.
MT S CC THANH NG DNG VI NG T TRN:
TO SET THE TABLE FOR: BY BAN .
EX: MY MOTHER HAS SET THE TABLE FOR THE FAMILY DINNER.
TO LAY OFF (WORKERS. EMPLOYEES): CHO THI VIC, GI N TH.
EX: THE COMPANY HAD TO LAY OFF TWENTY-FIVE EMPLOYEES
BECAUSE OF A PRODUCTION SLOWDOWN.
TO SET (BROKEN BONE) IN: B NHNG CI XONG GY VAO.
EX: DR.JACOBS HAS SET MANY BROKEN BONES IN PLASTER CASTS.
TO SET ONE'S ALARM FOR: T NG H BO THC VAO LC.
EX: JOHN SET HIS ALARM FOR SIX O'CLOCK.
TO SET FIRE TO: LAM CHY
133
EX: WHILE PLAYING WITH MATCHES, THE CHILDREN SET FIRE TO
THE SOFA.
TO RAISE (ANIMALS, PLANTS) FOR A LIVING: TRNG CI G, NUI
CON G BN LY TIN.
EX: THAT FARMER RAISES CHICKENS FOR A LIVING .
134
MT S CC NG T C BIT
KHC
LA NHNG NG TU GNG HT NHAU V MAT HNH THC NHNG
KHC NHAU V MAT NG NGHA NU TRONG CC MU CU KHC
NHAU.
AGREE TO DO SMT: NG LAM G
EX: HE AGREED TO LEAVE EARLY TOMORROW MORNING.
AGREE TO ONE'S DOING SMT: NG VI VIC AI LAM G.
EX: HE AGREED TO MY LEAVING EARLY TOMORROW MORNING.
MEAN TO DO SMT: |NH LAM G.
EX: I MEAN TO GET TO THE TOP OF THE HILL BEFORE SUNRISE.
IF IT + MEAN + VERB-ING: CHO D C VIC, BAO HAM C VIC.
EX: MY NEIGHBOUR WAS DETERMINED TO GET A TICKET FOR
SATURDAY'S GAME IF IT MEANT STANDING IN LINE ALL NIGHT.
PROPOSE TO DO SMT: C |NH LAM G.
EX: I PROPOSE TO START TOMORROW.
PROPOSE DOING SMT: NGH| LAM G
EX: I PROPOSE WAITING TILL THE POLICE CAME.
GO ON DOING SMT/SMT: TIP TUC LAM G, CI G (MT VIC ANG
B| B D)
EX: HE WENT ON WRITING AFTER A BREAK
GO ON TO DO SMT: QUAY SANG TIP TUC LAM G (VN V CNG
MT VN NHNG CHUYN SANG KHA CANH KHC)
EX: HE SHOWED THE ISLAND ON THE MAP THEN WENT ON TO TELL
ABOUT ITS CLIMATE.
135
TRY TO DO SMT: C GNG LAM G
EX: HE TRY TO SOLVE THIS MATH PROBLEM.
TRY DOING SMT: TH LAM G
Ex: I TRY SENDING HER FLOWERS, WRITING HER LETTER, GIVING
HER PRESENTS, BUT SHE STILL WOULDN'T SPEAK TO ME.
136
SU PH HP V THOI NG T
TRONG MT CU TNG ANH C 2 THANH PHN C LN QUAN N
NHAU V MAT TH TH TH CUA NG TU HA THANH PHN
PHA TONG ONG V NHAU. TH CUA NG TU MNH CHNH
S QUYT NH TH CUA NG TU MNH PHU.
MAN CLAUSE DEPENDENT CLAUSE
SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
HANH NG CUA MNH PHU XAY RA CNG LC V HANH NG
CUA MNH CHNH
SIMPLE PRESENT WILL/ CAN/ MAY + VERB (HOC
NEAR FUTURE)
HANH NG CUA MNH PHU XAY RA SAU HANH NG CUA MNH
CHNH TRONG MT TONG LA KHNG OC XC NH HOAC TONG
LA GN.
SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST
HANH NG CUA MNH PHU XAY RA TRC HANH NG CUA MNH
CHNH TRONG MT QU KH OC XC NH CU TH V MAT TH
GAN.
SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT PERFECT
(PROGRESSIVE)
HANH NG CUA MNH PHU XAY RA TRC HANH NG CUA MNH
CHNH TRONG MT QU KH KHNG OC XC NH CU TH V
MAT TH GAN.
SIMPLE PAST PAST PROGRESSIVE/ SIMPLE
PAST
HANH NG CUA MNH PHU XAY RA CNG LC V HANH NG
CUA MNH CHNH TRONG QU KH.
137
SIMPLE PAST WOULD/ COULD/ MIGHT + VERB
HANH NG CUA MNH PHU XAY RA SAU HANH NG CUA MNH
CHNH TRONG MT TONG LA TRONG QU KH.
SIMPLE PAST PAST PERFECT
HANH NG CUA MNH PHU XAY RA TRC HANH NG CUA MNH
CHNH, L SU V TRONG QU KH.
LU Y: NHNG NGUYN TC TRN Y CH OC P DUNG KH CC
MNH TRONG CU C LN H V NHAU V MAT TH GAN NHNG
NU CC MNH TRONG CU C TH GAN RNG BT TH NG
TU PHA TUN THEO TH GAN CUA CHNH MNH .
EX: HE PROMISED TO TELL ME, TILL NOW I HAVEN'T RECEIVED ANY
CALL FROM HIM, THOUGH.
138
CCH S DUNG TO SAY, TO TELL
NU SAU CHU NG KHNG C MT TN NG NAO MA N LN TU
THAT NGAY TH PHA DNG TO SAY.

S + say + %that& + S + '
NHNG NU SAU CHU NG C MT TN NG GN TP R M N
LN TU THAT TH PHA DNG TO TELL.

S + tell + in(irect ob)ect + %that& + S +'
EX: HE SAYS THAT HE WILL BE BUSY TOMORROW/ HE TELL ME
THAT....
SAU TO TELL VN C TH C MT S TN NG TRUC TP D BT
K HOAN CANH NAO.




*ell
a stor+
a)o#e
asecret
a lie
the truth
%the& time
EX: THE LITTLE BOY WAS PUNISHED BECAUSE HE TOLD HIS MOTHER
A LIE .
139
AI T NHN XNG ONE VA YOU
CA HA A TU NAY U MANG NGHA NG TA, TUY NHN NG
PHP SU DUNG C KHC NHAU.
NU TRN SU DUNG A TU ONE TH CC A TU TONG NG
TP THEO MNH D PHA LA ONE, ONE'S, HE, HIS.
EX: IF ONE TAKES THIS EXAM WITHOUT STUDYING, ONE IS LIKELY TO
FAIL.
IF ONE TAKES THIS EXAM WITHOUT STUDYING, HE IS LIKELY TO
FAIL.
ONE SHOULD ALWAYS DO ONE'S HOMEWORK.
ONE SHOULD ALWAYS DO HIS HOMEWORK.
LU Y MT S NG DO CN THN MUN TRNH PHN BT NAM/
N DNG HE OR SHE, HIS OR HER NHNG U LA KHNG
CN THT. CC A TU CH OC SU DUNG KH NAO PHA
TRN C NHNG DANH TU CH CHUNG CHUNG NH THE SIDE, THE
PARTY.
EX: THE JUDGE WILL ASK THE DEFENDANT PARTY (CH CHUNG
CHUNG) IF HE OR SHE ADMITS THE ALLEGATIONS.
NU A TU TRN LA YOU TH CC A TU TONG NG TP THEO
D S LA YOU HOAC YOUR.
EX: IF YOU TAKE THIS EXAM WITHOUT STUDYING, YOU ARE LIKELY TO
FAIL.
YOU SHOULD ALWAYS DO YOUR HOMEWORK.
TUYT KHNG DNG LN ONE VA YOU TRONG CNG MT CU
HOAC DNG THEY THAY TH CHO HA A TU NAY.
140
T I TRC GII THIU
TRONG MT CU TNG ANH C 2 THANH PHN, NU MT TRONG
HA THANH PHN C DNG N A TU NHN XNG TH
THANH PHN CN LA PHA C MT DANH TU G THU CHO
A TU .
DANH TU G THU PHA TONG ONG V A TU NHN XNG
V MAT GNG VA S.
INCORRECT: HENRY WAS DENIED ADMISSION TO GRADUATE SCHOOL
BECAUSE THEY DID NOT BELIEVE THAT HE COULD HANDLE THE
WORK LOAD.
CORRECT: THE MEMBERS OF THE ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE DENIED
HENRY ADMISSION TO GRADUATE SCHOOL BECAUSE THEY DID NOT
BELIEVE THAT HE COULD HANDLE THE WORK LOAD.
OR
HENRY WAS DENIED ADMISSION TO GRADUATE SCHOOL
BECAUSE THE MEMBERS OF THE ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE DID NOT
BELIEVE THAT HE COULD HANDLE THE WORK LOAD.
CH C MT DANH TU OC PHP G THU CHO A TU, NU C
HA S GY NN SU LM LN DO TRNG LAP.
INCORRECT: MR. BROWN TOLD MR. ADAMS THAT HE WOULD HAVE TO
WORK ALL NIGHT IN ORDER TO FINISH THE REPORT.
CORRECT : ACCORDING TO MR. BROWN, MR. ADAMS WILL HAVE TO
WORK ALL NIGHT IN ORDER TO FINISH THE REPORT.
OR
MR. BROWN SAID THAT, IN ORDER TO FINISH THE REPORT,
MR. ADAMS WOULD HAVE TO WORK ALL NIGHT.
141
CCH S DUNG CC PHN T
U MNH PHU
TRONG MT CU TNG ANH C CHUNG MT CHU NG BAO GM 2
THANH PHN: MNH PHU C TH M U BANG MT V-ING
(CHM A S) - MT PHN TU HA (NU MANG NGHA B NG) -
MT NG TU NGUYN TH (NU CH MUC CH) VA MT NG
DANH TU HOAC MT NG G TU NU CH SU TONG NG.
KH SU DUNG LOA CU NAY CN HT SC LU Y RANG CHU NG
CUA MNH CHNH BT BUC PHA LA CHU NG HOP LY CUA
MNH PHU.
THNG THNG C G TU NG TRC MT V-ING M U CHO
MNH PHU, LA: BY (BANG CCH, B), UPON, AFTER (SAU
KH), BEFORE (TRC KH), WHILE (TRONG KH), WHEN (KH).
EX: BY WORKING A TEN-HOUR DAY FOR FOUR DAYS, WE CAN HAVE A
LONG WEEKEND.
LU Y RANG: ON + NG TU TRANG TH HOAC IN + NG TU HANH
NG TH C TH TONG ONG V WHEN HOAC WHILE.:
Ex: ON FINDING (= WHEN FINDING) THE DOOR AJAR, I AROUSED
SUSPICION.
(KHI THY CA HE M, TI NY SINH MI NGHI NG)
Ex: IN SEARCHING (=WHILE SEARCHING) FOR UNDERGROUND
DEPOSITS OF OIL, GEOLOGIST OFTEN RELY ON MAGNOMETERS.
(TRONG KHI TM CC M DU TRONG LNG T, CC NH IA
CHT THNG DUA VO T K.)
TH CUA NG TU MNH PHU PHA DO TH CUA NG TU
MNH CHNH QUYT NH, 2 HANH NG XAY RA SONG SONG
CUNG LC:
PRESENT:
Ex: PRACTING HER SWING EVERY DAY, TRICA HOPES TO GET A JOB
AS A GOLF INSTRUCTOR.
PAST:
142
Ex: WHILE REVIEWING FOR THE TEST, MARIA REALIZED THAT SHE
HAS FORGOTTEN TO STUDY THE USE OF PARTICLE PHRASES.
FUTURE:
Ex: AFTER PREPARING THE DINNER, MICHELLE WILL READ A BOOK.
NU BEING VA HAVING M U CU PHU TH ANG TRC CHNG
N G TU BECAUSE.
Ex: BEING A GOOD STUDENT, HE CAN ALWAYS PASS HIS EXAM
EASILY. (= BECAUSE HE IS...)
Ex: HAVING A TERRIBLE TOOTHACHE, PHILLIP CALLED THE DENTIST
FAR AN APPOINTMENT. (= BECAUSE HE HAD A...).
NG TU NGUYN TH CH MUC CH U CU PHU
Ex: INCORRECT: TO PREVENT CAVITIES , DENTAL FLOSS SHOULD BE
USED DAILY AFTER BRUSHING ONE'S TEETH.
CORRECT: TO PREVENT CAVITIES , ONE SHOULD USE DENTAL
FLOSS DAILY AFTER BRUSHING TEETH.
NG DANH TU HOAC NG G TU M U MNH PHU CH SU T-
ONG NG
Ex: INCORRECT: A COMPETITIVE SPORTS , GYMNASTS MUST
PERFORM BEFORE A PANEL OF JUDGES WHO USE THEIR
KNOWLEDGE OF RULES AND SKILL TO DETERMINE WHICH
PARTICIPANT WILL WIN.
CORRECT: IN A GYMNASTIC COMPETITIVE SPORTS GAME,
GYMNASTS MUST ......
PHN TU HA M U MNH PHU CH B NG:
Ex: INCORRECT: FOUND IN TANZANIA BY MARY LEAKY , SOME
ARCHEOLOGISTS ESTIMATED THAT THE THREE - MILLION - YEAR -
OLD FOSSILS WERE THE OLDEST HUMAN REMAINS THAT WERE
DISCOVERED.
CORRECT: FOUND IN TANZANIA BY MARY LEAKY , THE THREE -
MILLION - YEAR - OLD FOSSILS WERE ESTIMATED BY SOME
ARCHEOLOGISTS TO BE THE OLDEST HUMAN REMAINS THAT
HAD EVER BEEN DISCOVERED.
LU Y: CU TRC NAY CN P DUNG CHO CA CC MU CU C
MNH PHU M U BANG: ALTHOUGH + ADJ/ P
2
.
143
EX: ALTHOUGH (HE WAS) NERVOUS , HE GAVE A WONDERFUL
SPEECH.
EX: ALTHOUGH (IT HAD BEEN) DAMAGED , THE MACHINE WAS STILL
FUNCTIONING.
HOAC C TH DNG WHEN + P
2
M U MNH PHU:
Ex: WHEN (IT IS) SHOWN THROUGH A PRISM, A BEAM OF WHITE
LIGHT BREAKS INTO ALL THE COLORS OF THE RAINBOW.
NU HANH NG CUA MNH CHNH LN MNH PHU U XAY
RA TRONG QU KH MA HANH NG CUA MNH PHU L SU
HON NA VAO TRONG QU KH TH CNG THC S LA:
ANG TRC HAVING CN N CHA 2 G TU LA BECAUSE VA
AFTER, VC HU 2 G TU NAY PHU THUC VAO NG CANH CUA
CU.
AC BT LU Y RANG: CU TRC NAY CN C TH P DUNG CHO
CA MU CU MA CA 2 TH CUA NG TU S DN BN PRESENT
PERFECT-SIMPLE PRESENT. (TUY RANG RT HM)
Ex: HAVING SEEN THE CHILDREN'S WORK, MISS ADAMS APPROVES
THEIR REQUEST TO GO HOME.
(= AFTER SHE HAS SEEN ..., MISS ADAMS APPROVES...)
NU HANH NG CUA MNH PHU XAY RA TH B NG TH
CNG THC S LA:
PHA HT SC LU Y RANG: U QUAN TRONG NHT TRONG VC
SU DUNG 2 MU CU TRN VN PHA LA: CHU NG CUA MNH
CHNH PHA LA CHU NG HOP LY CUA MNH PHU.
"&ot# + having + P
/
.... S + simple past.
4fter/because + "not# + having been + P
/
.... S + simple past.
144
PHN T DNG LAM TNH T
1. PHN T 1(V-ING) C DNG LAM TNH T KHI N
P NG Y CC IU KIN SAU:
NG NGAY TRC DANH TU MA N B NGHA.
HANH NG PHA TH CHU NG.
HANH NG ANG TH TP DN.
NG TU OC SU DUNG LAM TNH TU PHA KHNG H MT
TN NG NAO (N NG TU).
EX: THE CRYING BABY WOKE MR.BINION. ( THE BABY WAS CRYING)
EX: THE BLOOMING FLOWERS IN THE MEADOW CREATED A RAINBOW
OF COLORS. (THE FLOWERS WERE BLOOMING)
2. PHN T 2 (V-ED) C DNG LAM TNH T KHI N P
NG Y CC IU KIN SAU:
NG NGAY TRC DANH TU MA N B NGHA.
HANH NG PHA TH B NG.
HANH NG XAY RA TRC HANH NG CUA MNH CHNH.
EX: THE SORTED MAIL WAS DELIVERED TO THE OFFICES BEFORE
NOON. (THE MAIL HAD BEEN SORTED).
LU Y: MT S CC NG TU NH TO INTEREST, TO BORE, TO EXCITE,
TO FRIGHTEN KH SU DUNG PHA RT CN THNV VC NHNG PHN
TU OC DNG LAM TNH TU XUT PHT TU NHNG NG TU NAY
MANG NGHA CHU NG HAY B NG.
EX: THE BORING PROFESSOR PUT THE STUDENTS TO SLEEP.
THE BORING LECTURE PUT THE STUDENTS TO SLEEP.
THE BORED STUDENTS WENT TO SLEEP DURING THE BORING
LECTURE.
145
CU THA
KH THNG TN TRONG CU B LAP LAP LA D DANG KHNG
CN THT TH N B GO LA CU THUA, CN PHA LOA B PHN
THUA .(PAGE 219)
NG ANH KHNG DNG THE REASON .... BECAUSE MA DNG THE
REASON ... THAT.
EX: THE REASON I TAKE THIS COURSE THAT IT'S NECESSARY FOR
ME.
NG ANH KHNG DNG THE TIME WHEN MA CH DNG MT
TRONG HA.
EX: IT IS THE TIME / WHEN I GOT HOME.
NG ANH KHNG DNG PLACE WHERE MA CH DNG MT TRONG
HA.
EX: IT IS THE PLACE/ WHERE I WAS BORN.
146
CU TRC CU SONG SONG
KH THNG TN TRONG MT CU OC A RA D DANG HANG LOAT
TH CC THANH PHN OC LT K PHA SONG SONG V NHAU V
MAT NG PHP (NOUN - NOUN, ADJ - ADJ).
THNG THNG TH THANH PHN U TN SAU NG TU S
QUYT NH CC THANH PHN CN LA
NOT PARALLEL: MR. HENRY IS A LAWYER, A POLITICIAN, AND HE
TEACHES.
NOUN NOUN CLAUSE
PARALLEL: MR. HENRY IS A LAWYER, A POLITICIAN, AND A
TEACHER.
NOUN NOUN NOUN
LU Y: TUY NHN NU TH GAN TRONG CU LA KHC NHAU TH
NG TU CNG PHA TUN THEO QU LUT TH GAN. LC CU
TRC CU SONG SONG KHNG TN TA
147
THNG TIN TRUC TIP VA GIN
TIP
1. CU TRUC TIP VA CU GIN TIP
TRONG CU TRUC TP THNG TN TU NG TH NHT N
THNG NG TH HA.
EX: HE SAID "I BOUGHT A NEW MOTORBIKE FOR MYSELF YESTERDAY"
TRONG CU GN TP THNG TN TU NG TH NHT QUA NG
TH HA N V NG TH BA. KH CU C BN V MAT
NG PHP.
EX: HE SAID HE HAD BOUGHT A NEW MOTORBIKE FOR HIMSELF THE
DAY BEFORE .
BN MT CU TRUC TP SANG CU GN TP CN:
CHU NG VA CC A TU NHN XNG KHC TRONG CU
TRUC TP THEO CHU NG CUA THANH PHN TH NHT.
L NG TU V TH 2 XUNG MT CP SO V V BAN U.
BN CC A TU CH TH, PH TU CH TH GAN VA A
M THEO BANG QU NH.
BNG I NG T
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
SMPLE PRESENT
PRESENT PROGRESSVE
PRESENT PERFECT
(PROGRESSVE)
SMPLE PAST
WLL/SHALL
CAN/MAY
SMPLE PAST
PAST PROGRESSVE
PAST PERFECT (PROGRESSVE)
PAST PERFECT
WOULD/ SHOULD
COULD/ MGHT
BNG I CC AI T CH TH|, PH T CH |A IM VA THOI GIAN
TODAY THAT DAY
148
ESTERDAY
THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY
TOMORROW
THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW
NEXT + TME
LAST + TME
TME + AGO
THS, THESE
HERE, OVERHERE
THE DAY BEFORE
TWO DAYS BEFORE
THE NEXT/ THE FOLLOWNG DAY
N TWO DAYS TME
THE FOLLOWNG + TME
THE PREVOUS + TME
TME + BEFORE
THAT, THOSE
THERE, OVERTHERE
NU L N VA HANH NG XAY RA CNG NGAY TH KHNG CN
PHA TH GAN.
EX: AT BREAKFAST THIS MORNING HE SAID "I WILL BE BUSY TODAY"
AT BREAKFAST THIS MORNING HE SAID HE WOULD BE BUSY
TODAY.
CC SUY LUN LOGC V MAT TH GAN TT NHN LA CN THT
KH L N OC THUT LA SAU MT HOAC HA NGAY.
EX: (ON MONDAY) HE SAID " I'LL BE LEAVING ON WEDNESDAY "
(ON TUESDAY) HE SAID HE WOULD BE LEAVING TOMORROW.
(ON WEDNESDAY) HE SAID HE WOULD BE LEAVING TODAY.
149
NG T VI HAI TN NG TRUC
TIP VA GIN TIP
MT S NG TU TRONG TNG ANH C HA LOA TN NG : 1
TRUC TP VA 1 GN TP NG TH CNG C HA CCH DNG:
L DNG GN TP: AT TN NG TRUC TP SAU NG TU R
N TN NG GN TP SAU HA G TU FOR VA TO.
EX: THE DIRECTOR'S SECRETARY SENT THE MANUSCRIPT TO THEM
LAST NIGHT.
L DNG TRUC TP: AT TN NG GN TP SAU NG TU R
N TN NG TRUC TP, HA G TU TO VA FOR B LOA B.
EX: THE DIRECTOR'S SECRETARY SENT THEM THE MANUSCRIPT LAST
NIGHT.
INCORRECT: THE DIRECTOR'S SECRETARY SENT TO THEM THE
MANUSCRIPT LAST NIGHT.
HA NG TU TO INTRODUCE VA TO MENTION PHA DNG CNG
THC GN TP, KHNG OC DNG CNG THC TRUC TP.
TO INTRODUCE SMT/SB TO SB
TO MENTION SMT TO SB.
NU CA HA TN NG TRUC TP VA GN TP U LA A TU NHN
XNG TH KHNG OC DNG CNG THC TRUC TP MA PHA DNG
CNG THC GN TP.
Ex: CORRECT: THEY GAVE IT TO US .
INCORRECT: THEY GAVE US IT .
150
SU O NGC PH T
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP CC PH TU KHNG NG V TR
BNH THNG CUA N MA AO LN NG U CU NHAM NHN
MANH VAO HANH NG CUA CHU NG.
TRONG TRNG HOP NG PHP S THAY , ANG SAU PH
TU NG U CU LA TRO NG TU R M N CHU NG VA
NG TU CHNH.

har'ly
rarely
sel'om + au-iliary + S + !
never
only...

EX: NEVER HAVE SO MANY PEOPLE BEEN UNEMPLOYED AS TODAY.
ADVEB AUXILIARY SUBJECT VERB
(SO MANY PEOPLE HAVE NEVER BEEN UNEMPLOYED AS
TODAY)
1. MT S CC DANG PH T C BIT NG U
CU
IN/ UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES: D TRONG BT C HOAN CANH
NAO CNG KHNG.
EX: UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD YOU LEND HIM THE MONEY.
ON NO ACCOUNT: D BT C LY DO G CNG KHNG
EX: ON NO ACCOUT MUST THIS SWITCH BE TOUCHED.
ONLY IN THIS WAY: CH BANG CCH NAY
EX: ONLY IN THIS WAY COULD THE PROBLEM BE SOLVED
IN NO WAY: KHNG SAO C TH
EX: IN NO WAY COULD I AGREE WITH YOU.
BY NO MEANS: HOAN TOAN KHNG
EX: BY NO MEANS DOES HE INTEND TO CRITICIZE YOUR IDEA.
151
NEGATIVE ..., NOR + AUXILIARY + S + V
EX: HE HAD NO MONEY, NOR DID HE KNOW ANYBODY FROM WHOM
HE COULD BORROW.
KH MT MNH M U BANG CC THANH NG CH NO CHN
HOAC TRT TU TH NG TU CHNH C TH AO LN CHU NG NH-
NG TUYT KHNG OC SU DUNG TRO NG TU TRONG TRNG
HOP NAY.

5lause of place/ or'er + main verb + S "no au-iliary#

EX: IN FRONT OF THE MUSEUM IS A STATUE.
EX: FIRST CAME THE AMBULANCE, THEN CAME THE POLICE.
( THOAT U L XE CUU THONG CHAY N, TIP SAU L CNH
ST.)
KH MT NG G TU LAM PH TU CH A M HOAC PHONG H-
NG NG U CU, CC N NG TU AT LN TRC CHU NG
NHNG TUYT KHNG OC SU DUNG TRO NG TU TRONG
LOA CU NAY. N RT PH BN TRONG VAN M TA KH MUN
DN AT MT CHU NG KHNG XC NH:
Ex: UNDER THE TREE WAS LYING ONE OF THE BIGGEST MAN I HAD
EVER SEEN.
Ex: DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF THEM STOOD A GREAT CASTLE.
Ex: ON THE GRASS SAT AN ENORMOUS FROG.
Ex: ALONG THE ROAD CAME A STRANGE PROCESSION.
TNH TU CNG C TH AO LN TRN U CU NHN MANH VA
SAU LA NG TU N NHNG TUYT KHNG OC SU DUNG
TRO NG TU.
Ex: SO DETERMINED WAS SHE TO TAKE THE UNIVERSITY COURSE
THAT SHE TAUGHT SCHOOL AND GAVE MUSIC LESSON FOR HER
TUITION FEES.
TRONG MT S TRNG HOP NG TA CNG C TH AO TOAN B
NG TU CHNH LN TRN CHU NG NHN MANH, NHNG
NG TU OC AO LN TRN TRONG TRNG HOP NAY PHN LN
U MANG SC TH B NG NHNG HOAN TOAN KHNG C NGHA
B NG.
152
Ex: LOST , HOWEVER, ARE THE SECRETS OF THE MAYAN
ASTRONOMERS AND THE INCA BUILDERS AS WELL AS MANY
MEDICINAL PRACTICES.
(TUY NHIN NHNG B MT .... MT I VNH VIN KHNG BAO
GI TR LAI.)
CC PH TU AWAY ( = OFF ), DOWN, IN, OFF, OUT, OVER, ROUND,
UP... C TH THEO SAU LA MT NG TU CHUYN NG VA SAU
LA MT DANH TU LAM CHU NG .
Ex: AWAY WENT THE RUNNERS/ DOWN FELL A DOZEN OF APPLES...
NHNG NU MT A TU NHN XNG LAM CHU NG TH NG TU PHA
SAU CHU NG:
Ex: AWAY THEY WENT/ ROUND AND ROUND IT FLEW.
TRONG TNG ANH VT (WRTTEN ENGLSH) CC NG G TU M
U BANG CC G TU DOWN, FROM, IN, ON, OVER, OUT OF,
ROUND, UP... C TH OC THEO SAU NGAY B NG TU CH V TR
(CROUCH, HANG, LIE, SIT, STAND...) HOAC CC DANG NG TU CH
CHUYN NG, CC NG TU NH BE BORN/ DIE/ LIVE VA MT S
DANG NG TU KHC.
Ex: FROM THE RAFTERS HUNG STRINGS OF ONIONS.
Ex: IN THE DOORWAY STOOD A MAN WITH A GUN.
Ex: ON A PERCH BESIDE HIM SAT A BLUE PARROT.
Ex: OVER THE WALL CAME A SHOWER OF STONES.
*LU Y: 3 V DU U CUA CC V DU TRN C TH DN AT BANG MT
VERB-ING M U CHO CU VA NG TU BE AO LN TRN CHU
NG:
Ex: HANGING FROM THE RAFTERS WERE STRINGS OF ONIONS.
Ex: STANDING IN THE DOORWAY WAS A MAN WITH A GUN.
Ex: SITTING ON A PERCH BESIDE HIM WAS A BLUE PARROT.
HN TONG NAY CN XAY RA KH CHU NG SAU CC PH TU SO
SNH AS/THAN QU DA:
Ex: SHE WAS VERY RELIGIOUS, AS WERE MOST OF HER FRIENDS .
Ex: CITY DWELLERS HAVE A HIGHER DEATH RATE THAN DO
COUNTRY PEOPLE .
4ay/'on/in/off/out/over/roun'/up...+ motion verb +
noun/noun phrase as a subject.
153
TN NG MANG TNH NHN MANH CNG C TH AO LN U
CU:
Ex: NOT A SINGLE WORD DID HE SAY.
HERE/THERE HOAC MT S CC PH TU KT HOP V NG TU
NG U CU CNG PHA AO NG TU LN TRN CHU NG LA
MT DANH TU, NHNG NU CHU NG LA MT A TU TH KHNG -
OC AO NG TU:
Ex: HERE COMES FREDDY.
INCORRECT: HERE COMES HE
Ex: OFF WE GO
INCORRECT: OFF GO WE
Ex: THERE GOES YOUR BROTHER
Ex: I STOPPED THE CAR , AND UP WALKED A POLICEMAN .
154
CCH LOAI B NHNG CU TR
LOI KHNG NG TRONG BAI NG
PHP
MT TRONG S HA BA TH NG PHP CUA TOEFL OC CHO D
DANG MT CU CHO SN, CN TRNG MT PHN VA D LA 4
CU N VAO. TRONG 4 CU CH C MT CU NG. GA
QUYT OC CU NG PHA THEO LN LOT CC BC SAU:
1. KIM TRA CC LI NG PHP CO BN BAO GM
A) SU HOA HOP GA CHU NG VA V NG
B) CCH SU DUNG AD VA ADV
C) V TR CUA CC ADV THEO TH TU LN LOT: CH PHONG THC
HANH NG - A M - TH GAN - PHONG TN HANH NG -
TNH HUNG HANH NG.
D) SU PH HOP GA CC TH NG TU.
E) EM XT VC SU DUNG HOP LY CC A TU TRONG CU.
F) CU TRC CU SONG SONG.
2. LOAI B NHNG CU TR LOI MANG TNH ROM RA:
A) LOA B CU TRA L BAO GM MT THANH NG DA, TUY
KHNG SA NHNG C MT TU NGN HON THAY TH.
*LU Y: NHNG PHA HT SC CN THN V MT S CC ADJ TN CNG
BANG U LY KHNG TH CU TAO PH TU BANG U LY. PH TU
CUA NHNG ADJ NAY LA IN A ADJ-LY + MANNER/WAY.
Ex: HE BEHAVES ME IN A FRIENDLY WAY/ MANNER
PHA CN THN KH DNG FRESH
IN A FRESH MANNER = MQT CACH TOI.
Ex: THIS FOOD IS ONLY DELICIOUS WHEN EATEN IN A FRESH
MANNER
FRESHLY + P
II
= VUA MI
155
Ex: FRESHLY-PICKED FRUIT
= QU VA MI HI
Ex: FRESHLY-LAID EGGS
= TRUNG G VA MI
B) PHI LOAI B NHNG T THA TRONG CU THA
EX: CAUSE A RESULT => THUA A RESULT
3. PHI CHC CHN RNG TT C CC T TRONG CU
C CHN U PHI PHC VU CHO NGHA CA BAI,
C BIT LA CC NG NG T.
4. PHI LOAI B NHNG CU TR LOI BAO HAM TING
LNG, KHNG C PHP DNG TRONG VN VIT QUI
CHUN
Ex: A BUNCH OF FLOWERS.(KHNG OC).
156
NHNG T D GY NHM LN
LA NHNG TU RT D GY NHM LN V MAT NG NGHA, CHNH
TA HOAC PHT M, CN PHA PHN BT R CHNG BANG NG CANH.
SITE (V) TRCH DN
SITE (N) KHU T XY DUNG.
SIGHT (N) KHE NGM, TM NGM.
(V) QUANG CANH, CANH TONG.
(V) QUAN ST, NHN THY
DESSERT (N) MN TRNG MNG
DESERT (N) SA MAC
DESERT (V) B, B MAC, AO NG
LATER SAU , R TH (THNG DNG V NG TU TH TONG
LA)
THE LATTER C TH 2, NG TH 2, C SAU, NG SAU. >< THE
FORMER = C TRC, NG TRC.
PRINCIPAL (N) HU TRNG (TRNG PH THNG)
(AD) CHNH, CHU YU.
PRINCIPLE (N) NGUYN TC, LUT L
AFFECT (V) TC NG N
EFFECT (N) ANH HNG, HU QUA
(V) THUC HN, EM LA
ALREADY (ADV)
ALL READY TT CA SN SANG.
AMONG (PREP) TRONG S (DNG CHO 3 NG, 3 VT TR LN)
BETWEEN...AND GA...VA (CH DNG CHO 2 NG/VT)
*LU : BETWEEN...AND CNG CN OC DNG CH V TR CHNH
XC CUA MT QUC GA NAM GA NHNG QUC GA KHC CHO D
LA > 2
Ex: VIETNAM LIES BETWEEN CHINA, LAOS AND CAMBODIA.
AMONG = ONE OF/SOME OF/INCLUDED IN (MT TRONG S/ MT S
TRONG/ K CA, BAO GM).
Ex: AMONG THE FIRST TO ARRIVE WAS THE AMBASSADOR.
(TRONG S NHNG NGI N U TIN CO NGI AI SU).
Ex: HE HAS A NUMBER OF CRIMINALS AMONG HIS FRIENDS.
157
(TRONG S NHNG BAN B CUA MNH, ANH TA CO QUEN MT
S TI PHAM).
BETWEEN CN OC DNG CHO CC QU NG CCH GA CC VT
VA CC G HAN V MAT TH GAN.
Ex: WE NEED 2 METERS BETWEEN THE WINDOWS.
Ex: I WILL BE AT THE OFFICE BETWEEN 9 AND 11.
DNG BETWEEN KH MUN CP N 2 VT HOAC 2 NHM VT
V 2 PHA.
Ex: A LITTLE VALLEY BETWEEN HIGH MOUNTAINS .
Ex: I SAW SOMETHING BETWEEN THE WHEELS OF THE CAR.
DIFFERENT + BETWEEN (NOT AMONG)
Ex: WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CROWS, ROOKS, AND
JACKDAWS.
BETWEEN EACH + NOUN (-AND THE NEXT) (MORE FORMAL)
Ex: WE NEED 2 METERS BETWEEN EACH WINDOW .
Ex: THERE SEEMS TO BE LESS AND LESS TIME BETWEEN EACH
BIRTHDAY (AND THE NEXT).
(THI GIAN NGY CNG NGN LAI GIA 2 LN SINH NHT.)
DEVIDE + BETWEEN (NOT AMONG)
Ex: HE DEVIDED HIS MONEY BETWEEN HIS WIFE, HIS DAUGHTER,
AND HIS SISTER.
SHARE + BETWEEN/AMONG
Ex: HE SHARED THE FOOD BETWEEN/AMONG ALL MY FRIEND.
CONSECUTIVE (AD) LN TUC (KHNG C TNH T QU NG)
SUCCESSIVE (AD) LN TUC (C TNH CCH QU NG)
EMIGRANT (N) NG D C,
(V) -> EMIGRATE FROM
IMMIGRANT (N) NG NHP C
(V) IMMIGRATE INTO
FORMERLY (ADV) TRC KA
FORMALLY (ADV) CHNH T (AN MAC)
(ADV) CHNH THC
HISTORIC (AD) N TNG, QUAN TRONG TRONG LCH SU
(AD) MANG TNH LCH SU.
Ex: HISTORIC TIMES
HISTORICAL (AD) THUC V LCH SU
158
Ex: HISTORICAL RESEACH, HISTORICAL MAGAZINE
(AD) C THT TRONG LCH SU
Ex: HISTORICAL PEOPLE, HISTORICAL EVENTS
HEPLESS (AD) V VONG, TUYT VONG
USELESS (AD) V DUNG
IMAGINARY = (AD) KHNG C THT, TNG TONG
IMAGINATIVE = (AD) PHONG PH, BAY BNG V TR TNG T-
ONG
159
PHU LUC: MT S NHNG T D
GY NHM LN KHC:
CLASSC (AD)
CHT LONG CAO: A CLASSC NOVEL (MT CUN TU THUYT
HAY) A CLASSC FOOTBALL MATCH (MT TRN BNG HAY).
AC TH/AC TRNG/TU BU: A CLASSC EXAMPLE (MT V DU
TU BU, N HNH).
CLASSC (NOUN): VAN NGH S, TC PHM LU DANH.
Ex: THIS NOVEL MAY WELL BECOME A CLASSIC
(TC PHM NY CO TH OC LU DANH).
CLASSCS: VAN HOC VA NGN NG C HY-LA.
CLASSCAL: C N, KNH N.
POLTC: NHN THC NG/ KHN NGOAN/ TRANG TRONG.
Ex: I DON'T THINK IT WOULD BE POLITIC TO ASK FOR LOAN JUST
NOW.
(TI CHO RNG S KHNG L KHN NGOAN NU HI VAY MT
KHON NGAY LC NY.)
POLTCAL: THUC V CHNH TR.
Ex: A POLITICAL CAREER
(MT SU NGHIP CHNH TRI).
CONTNUAL: LN TUC LAP LAP LA (HANH NG C TNH CCH
QU NG)
Ex: PLEASE STOP YOUR CONTINUAL QUESTIONS
(IN H Y THI HI LP I LP LAI M I NH TH).
CONTNOUS: LN MN/SUT (HANH NG KHNG C TNH CCH
QU NG)
Ex: A CONTINOUS FLOW OF TRAFFIC
(DNG XE C CHAY LIN MIN BT TN).
AS (LN TU) = NH + SUBECT + VERB.
Ex: WHEN IN ROMA, DO AS ROMANS DO
(NHP GIA TY TC).
160
LKE (TNH TU DNG NH MT G TU) + NOUN/NOUN PHRASE
Ex: HE FOUGHT LIKE A MAD MAN
(ANH TA CHIN U NH IN NH DAI).
ALKE (AD.): GNG NHAU, TONG TU
Ex: ALTHOUGH THEY ARE BROTHER, THEY DON'T LOOK ALIKE.
ALKE (ADVERB): NH NHAU
Ex: THE CLIMATE HERE IS ALWAYS HOT, SUMMER AND WINTER
ALIKE.
AS: NH/ V T CCH LA (DNG TRONG SO SNH KH BAN THN CHU
NG C CHC NANG NH VT/NG OC SO SNH)
Ex: LET ME SPEAK TO YOU AS A FATHER
(H Y TI NOI VI CU NH MT NGI CHA)
LKE: NH LA (DNG TRONG SO SNH KH BAN THN CHU NG VA
C/NG SO SNH KHNG PHA LA MT HOAC KHNG C CHC
NANG NG NHT)
Ex: LET ME SPEAK TO YOU LIKE A MAN ABOVE
(H Y TI NOI VI ANH NH MT NGI B TRN).
BEFORE: TRC Y/TRC (DNG KH SO SNH MT TH V
TT CA CC TH KHC CNG LOA)
Ex: SHE HAS NEVER SEEN SUCH A BEAUTIFUL PICTURE BEFORE
(C TA CHA BAO GI NHN THY MT BUC TRANH P NH TH
TRC Y).
BEFORE: TRC (CH MT SU VC XAY RA TRC MT SU VC KHC
TRONG QU KH, THNG DNG V PAST PERFECT)
Ex: HE LIVED IN FRANCE IN 1912, HE HAD LIVED IN ENGLAND YEARS
BEFORE.
AGO: TRC (TNH TU HN TA TR NGOC V QU KH, THNG
DNG V SMPLE PAST)
Ex: I WENT TO ENGLAND 3 YEARS AGO.
CERTAN: CHC CHN (BT SU THUC)
Ex: CERTAINLY/ I'M CERTAIN THAT HE DIDN'T STEAL IT
(TI CHC CHN RNG HN TA KHNG LY CI O).
SURE: TN RANG (KHNG BT CHC, N THEO CAM NHN, NGHA
LA YU HON CERTAN)
Ex: SURELY/ I AM SURE THAT HE DID NOT STEAL IT
(TI TIN RNG HN KHNG LY THU O).
161
NDEED:
VERY+NDEED (SAU MT TNH TU HOAC MT PH TU)
Ex: THANK YOU VERY MUCH INDEED.
Ex: I WAS VERY PLEASED INDEED TO HEAR FROM YOU.
NDEED DNG SAU TO BE HOAC MT TRO NG TU NHAM XC
NHN HOAC NHN MANH CHO SU NG Y (THNG DNG TRONG
CU TRA L NGN).
Ex: IT IS COLD / - IT IS INDEED.
Ex: HENNY MADE A FOOL OF HIMSELF / - HE DID INDEED.
LL (BRTSH ENGLSH) = SCK (AMERCAN ENGLSH) = M
Ex: GEORGE DIDN'T COME IN LAST WEEK BECAUSE HE WAS ILL (=HE
WAS SICK)
SCK + NOUN = M YU/ BNH TT
Ex: HE SPENT 20 YEARS LOOKING AFTER HIS SICK FATHER
(NGI CHA BNH TT)
BE SCK = FELL SCK = NN/ BUN NN/ SAY (TAU, XE...)
Ex: I WAS SICK 3 TIMES IN THE NIGHT
(TI NN 3 LN TRONG M)
Ex: I FEEL SICK. WHERE'S THE BATH ROOM?
(TI THY BUN NN, PHNG TM U?)
Ex: SHE IS NEVER SEA-SICK
(C Y CHNG BAO GI SAY SONG C)
WELCOME (ADECTVE) = OC MONG O/ OC CH O TU LU/
TH V
Ex: A WELCOME GUEST
(KHCH QU/ KHCH BY LU MONG OI)
Ex: A WELCOME GIFT
(MON QU TH VI OC CH OI T LU)
WELCOME TO + NOUN = C QUYN, OC PHP SU DUNG.
Ex: YOU ARE WELCOME TO ANY BOOK IN MY LIBRARY
(ANH CO QUYN LY BT K QUYN SCH NO TRONG TH VIN
CUA TI)
WELCOMNG (PHN TU 1 CU TAO TU NG TU WELCOME DNG
LAM TNH TU)
CHAO N/ N TP N CN
Ex: THIS COUNTRY HAVE GIVEN ME A WELCOMING FEELING.
162
(U S NY DNH CHO TI MT TNH CM CHO ON N
CN)
HOAN NGHNH/ TN NG (Y KN)
Ex: TO SHOW A WELCOMING IDEA
(BC L MT Y KIN TN NG)
BE CERTAN/ SURE OF + VERB-NG: CHC CHN LA ( CP N
TNH CAM CUA NG ANG OC N N)
Ex: BEFORE THE GAME SHE FEFT CERTAIN OF WINING , BUT AFTER A
FEW MINUTES SHE REALIZED IT WASN'T GOING TO BE EASY.
Ex: YOU SEEM VERY SURE OF PASSING THE EXAM, I HOPE YOU ARE
RIGHT.
BE CERTAN/ SURE + TO + VERB: CHC CHN S PHA ( CP N
TNH CAM CUA CHNH NG N HOAC VT CU ):
Ex: THE REPAIRS ARE CERTAIN TO COST MORE THAN YOU THINK.
Ex: ELAINE IS SURE TO WIN-THE OTHER GIRL HASN'T GOT A CHANCE.
BE NTERESTED + TO + VERB: THY THCH KH...:
Ex: I'M INTERESTED TO READ IN THE PAPER THAT SCIENTISTS HAVE
FOUND OUT HOW TO TALK TO WHALES.
(TI THY THCH/ TH VI KHI...)
BE NTERESTED N + VERB-NG/ BE NTERESTED + TO + VERB:MUN
BT/ MUN PHT HN RA/ MUN TM RA...:
Ex: I'M INTERESTED IN FINDING OUT/ TO FIND OUT WHAT SHE DID
WITH ALL THAT MONEY.
(TI MUN BIT C TA LM G VI NGN Y TIN).
BE NTERESTED N + VERB-NG: THY THCH/ THCH/ MUN...
Ex: I'M INTERESTED IN LEARNING HIGHER EDUCATION IN U.S.
GII T
163
1. DURNG = TRONG SUT (HOAT NG DN RA LN TUC)
2. FROM = TU >< TO = N
FROM ... TO ...= TU ... N... (DNG CHO TH GAN VA NO CHN)
FROM TME TO TME = KH, THNH THOANG
3. OUT OF=RA KH><NTO=VAO TRONG
OUT OF + NOUN = HT, KHNG CN
OUT OF TOWN = VNG
OUT OF DATE=C, LAC HU >< UP TO DATE = M, CP NHT
OUT OF WORK = THT NGHP, MT VC
OUT OF THE QUESTON = KHNG TH
OUT OF ORDER = HNG, KHNG HOAT NG
4. BY
NG TU CH CHUYN NG + BY = NGANG QUA (WALK BY
THE LIBRARY)
NG TU TNH + BY = GN (YOUR BOOKS ARE BY THE
WINDOW)
BY + TH GAN CU TH = TRC LC, CHO N LC (HANH NG
CHO N LC PHA XAY RA)
BY + PHONG TN GAO THNG = BANG
BY THEN = CHO N LC (DNG CHO CA K VA TL)
BY WAY OF = THEO NG... = VA
BY THE WAY = MT CCH TNH C, NGU NHN
BY THE WAY = BY THE BY = NHN Y, NHN TN
BY FAR + SO SNH (THNG LA SO SNH BC NHT)=>DNG
NHN MANH
BY ACCDENT = BY MSTAKE = TNH C, NGU NHN >< ON
PUROSE
5. N = BN TRONG
N + MONTH/YEAR
N TME FOR = N GOOD TME FOR = NG G (THNG KP LAM G,
HO SM HON G NH MT CHT)
N THE STREET = D LNG NG
N THE MORNNG/ AFTERNOON/ EVENNG
N THE PAST/FUTURE = TRC KA, TRONG QU KH/ TRONG TONG
LA
164
N FUTURE = FROM NOW ON = TU NAY TR
N THE BEGNNG/ END = AT FRST/ LAST = THOAT U/ RT CUC
N THE WAY = NGANG L, CHN L
ONCE N A WHLE = KH, THNH THOANG
N NO TME AT ALL = TRONG NHY MT, MT THONG
N THE MEAN TME = MEANWHLE = CNG LC
N THE MDDLE OF (A M)= GA
N THE ARMY/ ARFORCE/ NAVY
N + THE + STT + ROW = HANG TH...
N THE EVENT THAT = TRONG TRNG HOP MA
N CASE = PHNG KH, NG NH
GET/ BE N TOUCH/ CONTACT WTH SB = LN LAC, TP XC V A
. ON = TRN B MAT:
ON + TH TRONG TUN/ NGAY TRONG THNG
ON + A/THE + PHONG TN GAO THNG = TRN CHUYN/ LN
CHUYN...
ON + PH = A CH... (NH B.E : N + PH)
ON THE + STT + FOOR = TNG TH...
ON TME = VUA NG G (BT CHP U KN BN NGOA,
NGHA MANH HON N TME)
ON THE CORNER OF = GC PH (GA HA PH)
CH Y:
N THE CORNER = GC TRONG
AT THE CORNER = GC NGOA/ TA GC PH
ON THE SDEWALK = PAVEMENT = TRN VA H
CH Y:
ON THE PAVEMENT (A.E.)= TRN MAT NG NHUA
(DONT BRAKE QUICKLY ON THE PAVEMENT OR YOU
CAN SLICE INTO ANOTHER CAR)
ON THE WAY TO: TRN NG N >< ON THE WAY BACK TO:
TRN NG TR V
ON THE RGHT/LEFT
ON T.V./ ON THE RADO
ON THE PHONE/ TELEPHONE = GO N THOA, N CHUYN
N THOA
ON THE PHONE = NHA C MC N THOA (ARE YOU ON THE
PHONE?)
ON THE WHOLE= N CHUNG, V A TH
165
ON THE OTHER HAND = TUY NHN= HOWEVER
CH Y:
ON THE ONE HAND = MT MAT TH => ON THE
OTHER HAND = MAT KHC TH (ON THE ONE
HAND, WE MUST LEARN THE BASIC GRAMMAR,
AND ON THE OTHER HAND, WE MUST COMBINE IT
WITH LISTENING COMPREHENSION)
ON SALE = FOR SALE = C BN, BN
ON SALE (A.E.)= BN HA G = AT A DSCOUNT (B.E)
ON FOOT = B
. AT = TA
AT + S NHA
AT + TH GAN CU TH
AT HOME/ SCHOOL/ WORK
AT NGHT/NOON (A.E : AT NOON = AT TWELVE = GA TRA (SHE
WAS INVITED TO THE PARTY AT NOON, BUT SHE WAS 15
MINUTES LATE))
AT LEAST = CH T, T THU >< AT MOST = T A
AT ONCE =NGAY LP TC
AT PRESENT/ THE MOMENT = NOW
CH Y: 2 THANH NG TRN TONG ONG V PRESENTLY NHNG
PRESENTLY SE KHC NHAU V NGHA NU N NG CC V
TR KHC NHAU TRONG CU:
SENTENCE + PRESENTLY (= SOON): NGAY TC TH ( SHE
WILL BE HERE PRESENTLY/SOON)
PRESENTLY + SENTENCE (= AFTERWARD/ AND THEN) :
NGAY SAU (PRESENTLY, I HEARD HER LEAVE THE
ROOM)
S + TO BE + PRESENTLY + VNG = AT PRESENT/ AT THE
MOMENT ( HE IS PRESENTLY WORKING TOWORD HIS
PH.D. DEGREE)
AT TMES = KH, THNH THOANG
AT FRST = THOAT U >< AT LAST = CU CNG
AT THE BEGNNG OF / AT THE END OF... = U/ CU (DNG
CHO TH GAN VA A M).
AT + TN CC NGAY L : AT CHRSTMAS, AT THANKS GVNG...
NHNG ON + TN CC NGAY L + DAY = ON CHRSTMAS DAY ...
166
TRONG DANG NFORMAL E., ON TRC CC TH TRONG TUN
KH B LOC B: SHE IS GOING TO SEE HER BOSS (ON) SUN.
MORNING.
AT/N/ON THNG OC KHNG DNG TRONG CC THANH NG
CH TH GAN KH C MAT: NEXT, LAST, THS, THAT, ONE, ANY,
EACH, EVERY, SOME, ALL

AT + A M : AT THE CENTER OF THE BULDNG
AT + NHNG A M LN (KH XEM N NH MT NO TRUNG
CHUYN HOAC GAP G): THE PLANE STOPPED 1 HOUR AT
WASHINGTON D.C. BEFORE CONTINUING ON TO ATLANTA.
AT + TN CC TOA NHA LN (KH XEM NH 1 HANH NG S XAY
RA CH KHNG CP N TOA NHA) : THERE IS A
GOOD MOVIE AT THE CENTER THEATER.
AT + TN RNG CC T CHC: SHE WORKS AT LEGAL
GENERAL INSURENCE.
AT + TN RNG NO CC TRNG S HOAC KHU VUC A HOC:
SHE IS STUDYING AT THE LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS.
AT + TN CC HOAT NG QU TU THANH NHM: AT A PARTY/
LECTURE...
. MT S CC THANH NG DNG V G TU
ON THE BEACH: TRN B BN
ALONG THE BEACH: DOC THEO B BN
N PLACE OF = NSTEAD OF: THAY CHO, THAY V.
FOR THE MOST PART: CHNH LA, CHU YU LA = MANLY.
N HOPE OF + V-NG = HOPNG TO + V = HOPNG THAT + SENTENCE
= V H VONG LA.
OFF AND ON: DA DNG, T H
ALL OF A SUDDEN= SUDDENLY = BNG NHN
FOR GOOD = FOREVER: VNH VN, M M .
NG NG T
167
LA NHNG NG TU KT HOP V 1, 2 HOAC KH 3 G TU, KH
KT HOP DANG NH VY NG NGHA CUA CHNG THAY HN SO
V NGHA BAN U.
TO BREAK OFF: CHM DT, CT T, OAN TUYT.
TO BRNG UP: NU RA, A LN MT VN
TO CALL ON: YU CU
N THAM
TO CARE FOR: THCH
TRNG NOM, SAN SC (LOOK AFTER)
TO CHECK OUT (OF/FROM) A LBRARY: MON SCH TH VN V
TO CHECK OUT: U TRA, XEM XT.
TO CHECK OUT (OF): LAM THU TUC RA (KHCH SAN, SN BAY)
<> CHECK N.
TO CHECK (UP) ON: U TRA, XEM XT.
TO CLOSE N (ON): TN LA GN, CHAY LA GN
TO COME ALONG WTH: CNG V
TO COUNT ON = DEPEND ON = RELY ON
TO COME DOWN WTH: MC PHA MT CAN BNH
DO AWAY WTH = GET RD OF: TNG KH, LOA B, TRU KHU
TO DAW UP = TO DRAFT: SOAN THAO (MT K HOACH, MT HOP
NG)
TO DROP OUT OF = TO WTHDRAW FROM: B (AC BT LA B HOC
GA CHUNG)
TO FGURE OUT: HNH DUNG RA OC, HU OC.
TO FND OUT: KHM PH RA, PHT HN RA.
TO GET BY: LN H QUA NGAY, SNG ST QUA OC
TO GET THROUGH WTH: KT THC
TO GET THROUGH TO: THNG TN OC CHO A, GO OC CHO (N
THOA), TM CCH LAM CHO HU
TO GET UP: DY/ T CHC.
TO GVE UP: B, TU B
TO GO ALONG WTH: NG Y V
TO HOLD ON TO: VN G VNG, DUY TR
TO HOLD UP: CP
VN G VNG, VN DUY TR, VN SNG BNH THNG,
VN DNG OC (BT CHP SC P BN NGOA HOAC SU
DUNG LU)
TO KEEP ON DONG SMT: VN TP TUC KHNG NGUNG LAM G
168
TO LOOK AFTER: TRNG NOM, SAN SC
TO LOOK NTO: U TRA, XEM XT
TO PASS OUT = TO FANT: NGT (N NG TU, KHNG DNG B
NG)
TO PCK OUT: CHON RA, LUA RA, NHAT RA
TO PONT OUT: CH RA, VACH RA
TO PUT OFF: TR HO N, NH HO N
TO RUN ACROSS: KHM PH, PHT HN RA (TNH C)
TO RUN NTO SB: GAP A BT NG
TO SEE ABOUT TO: LO LNG, SAN SC, CHAY VAY
TO TAKE OFF: CT CNH <> TO LAND
TO TAKE OVER FOR: THAY TH CHO
TO TALK OVER: BAN SOAN, THAO LUN V
TO TRY OUT: THU NGHM, DNG THU (SAN PHM)
TO TRY OUT FOR: THU VA, THU GONG (1 V KCH, BU BU DN)
TO TURN N: GAO NP, TRNH
NGU
TO WATCH OUT FOR: CANH GC, MT, TRNG CHUNG (CA
NGHA EN LN NGHA BNG)
169
MT S NGUYN TC THUC HIN
BAI C
KHNG BAO G OC OC VAO BA OC NGAY, CN OC VA HU
CU H CAN K.
OC VA TM CHU (CHU CUA CC BA OC TRONG TOEFL
NAM CU U, 5 NAM CU CU, 5 CN LA RT RA TU
TOAN BA)
TM CCH PHN OAN (NU C) VA TM N DUNG CUA TUNG OAN
TRA L CU H, CU H TRONG TOEFL OC PHN THANH MT
S LOA NH SAU:
CU H XC NH LA (RESTATEMENT QUESTON) -> LOA CU
H D.
CU H PHU NH (NEGATVE QUESTON) -> DNG BN PHP
LOA TRU
CU H SUY LUN (NFERENCE QUESTON) -> KH NHT
CU H CP (REFERENCE QUESTON)
CU H TU VUNG (VOCABULARY QUESTON)
CU H SUY ON CHU KHA D CUA OAN OC (TRC HOAC
SAU OAN OC CHO) -> DUA VAO CU U HOAC CU CU
CUA BA OC (PREVOUS/ FOLLOWNG TOPC QUESTON).
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