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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014 ISSN 2319 - 4847

PERFORMANCE OF THE GRID CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM


NEERAJ1, DWARKA PRASAD2 MEMBER IEEE, MR.DIGAMBAR SINGH3
M.Tech., Research Scholar, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota (Rajasthan) Assistant Professor, EE Engg. Department, HMRITM, Hamidpur, Delhi-110036 2 Associate Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, LIET, Alwar (Rajasthan)-301028 3 Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, LIET, Alwar (Rajasthan)-301028
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ABSTRACT
This paper presents the ecofriendly power generation obtained by sunlight energy through photovoltaic cells. The experimental model where the energy is fed by traditional means to a 3- phase load has been used. Efforts have been made to replace the source for load on one of the three phase by a photovoltaic source. This is going to space the source from feeding 200 KW every day. A synchronizer has been developed enable the parallel operation of photovoltaic cells with the existing A/C power source. This ensures equal voltages and equal frequencies of both the sources before putting loads. It could be understood that after deducting the fixed cost of photovoltaic system, the advantage of Rs.131.4 crore is assured by the use of the system only 5 years. The survival of the system beyond five years is a thorough royalty of the work. The method of synchronizing the photovoltaic system and the existing power supply system has been carried out using MATLAB modeling.

Key words: Renewable Energy System, Grid Integration, Photovoltaic System, Distributed Generation, Inverters, Grid Connected PV System.

1. INTRODUCTION:
As green house effects and environmental issues becomes the most concern, renewable energy is one of the options in reducing pollution. Furthermore, natural resources used in the production of power are dwindling and becoming more expensive. There are various types of renewable energies; one of this is the photovoltaic (PV) system. PV modules used to be expensive, but in recent years, their price has been slowly dropping, and the payback period also reduces, as they become increasingly economical, they will be used in more applications. PV modules output efficiency has also increased in recent years about 24 to 30%, and with these growths in photovoltaic technology, there is no doubt that PV will have a good stand in the future. Over the last 20 years or so the price of PVs has fallen dramatically and developments are constantly making them ever more efficient and reliable. Globally, solar power is a fast growing market expanding at about 20% a year with increasing numbers of countries implementing ambitious solar programmers to try and stimulate the market further.

2. PROPOSED SOLUTION:
There are many experimental models in the market currently on grid-connected photovoltaic systems. Simulation models of embedded and distributed generation into the utility can be widely found. In this paper, an experimental model that studies the effects of irradiation and cell temperature on the PV modules is introduced. The PV modules will be connected to the grid and therefore its interaction with the grid. A DC to AC converter will be connected to PV system to convert the DC power to AC and a controller is added before it is connected to the grid. This paper will discuss and examine the interactions of PV systems with the utility system. The experimental model will simulate an ideal PV array system that will generate power to the grid system. It will also study the effects of the controller in the presence of frequency and voltage deviations from the grid, and study the effects of varied irradiation and cell temperature from the PV system. The controller will act as a protection device for the PV system from any harmful deviations. This paper will also look into the PV systems, and how the model was implemented. The basic things that need to be considered when connecting a PV array system to the grid will also be discussed. It will also try to answer some of the issues that come with irradiation and cell temperature, and how it affects the power that is produced by the modules or array systems.

3. PV SYSTEM MODELING: Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014 Page 381

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Figure 1: Grid Connected PV Model

Figure 2: Flow Chart of Grid Connected PV System

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014 ISSN 2319 - 4847
3.1. PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM BLOCK: It represents the detailed Simulink implementation of the Matlab model of the PV system. A combination of PV system and MPPT are modelled with PVmpp01 block. This is a level-2M-file S-function block, which basically means it is Matlab code represented as a simulink block. The first output from the PV mpp01 block is the arrays current, and the second output from the block is the arrays voltage.

Scop 25 PVmpp01 1 Ia 37 Temperature Tac M-file (level 2) S- Function1 2 Va

Fig. 3. PV System Structure Scop 3.2. DC TO AC BLOCK (INVERTER): PV arrays produce DC power and before it could be connected to the grid, which produces AC power, it must first be converted to AC power.An inverter is characterized by a power dependent efficiency . The role of the inverter is to keep the AC side voltage constant at the rated voltage of 1 p.u . Therefore, the inverter is modelled using the efficiency. =Pout/Pin=(Vac*Iac*cos)/(Vdc*Idc) Idc=(Vac*Iac* cos)/( *Vdc)

3.3. THREE-PHASE SOURCE BLOCK: The 3-phase source represents the 3-phase generator .PV systems are connected to one of the lines of the grid. The lines that come out from the 3-phase source represent the lines on the grid.

3.4. CONTROLLER BLOCK:

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Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014 ISSN 2319 - 4847
This controller is used to protect the PV system from detrimental effects of such elements from the grid.

Figure 7: Flowchart of the Controller Block

4. PROGRAMMING AND SIMULATION FOR PV SYSTEM:


A MATLAB Program for calculating the model current,model voltage and characteristics between current and voltage for different value of G, Tac . A MATLAB Program for calculating the maximum power point condition and simulating the MPPT Block .

5. TESTING AND RESULTS:


The objective of this paper is to evaluate the experimental model that represents a grid connected PV system. In this experimental model, the PV system is assumed to be a power generator connected to the utility grid. The purpose of using

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014 ISSN 2319 - 4847
this experimental model is to introduce the idea of using the PV system as a form of secondary generator that is connected to the grid, which overall represents the grid-connected PV system. The model is built to evaluate and understand the nature of the PV system output with respect to varied irradiation from the sun. The model also evaluates what happens to the PV system whenever there are deviations of frequency and voltage on the grid. The resulting responses form the core of this paper and fulfil the purpose in determining the overall system when it is grid-connected. An ideal system was designed to monitor the power that is produced by both the grid and the PV arrays are defined in this report. 5.1. PV MODEL VALIDATIONS:

Figure 8: PV Module I-V Curve Characteristics with Varying Irradiation

Figure 9: PV Module I-V Curve Characteristics With Varying Cell Temperature,TC 5.2.VALIDATION OF THE GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM MODEL:

Figure 10: 3-Phase Output from the Source Block

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Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Figure 11: 3-Phase Outputs after Power from the PV System is Injected into one of the lines

Figure 12: DC Outputs from the PV System

Figure 13: Converted DC Output to AC after the Inverter Block

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5.3. VARIED IRRADIATION AND CELL TEMPERATURE FROM THE PV SYSTEM:

Figure 14: Output of the Single-Phase line that is connected to the PV System with Varying Irradiation

Figure15: Output of the Single-phase line that is connected to the PV System with Varying Cell Temperature 5.4. SIMULATED RESULTS OF DEVIATIONS IN FREQUENCY AND VOLTAGE FROM THE GRID

Figure 16: Voltage Deviations on the Grid

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)


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Figure 17: Frequency Deviations on the Grid

6. CONCLUSION:
The objective of this paper is study an experimental model of grid-connected photovoltaic system. The experimental model consists of the main element PV system, and other elements such as the inverter, the controller, the 3-phase source and the load. Photovoltaic grid system has been tested for its role as complimentary source of power. A MATLAB based programming has been done to obtain the simulink. It shows the working of photovoltaic system in synchronization with existing power system. The out comes have great impacts on eco-friendly power generation.Its survival time is as large as 20 years and therefore the cost of photovoltaic system is recorded in about 10 years of working. If the rest of the life of PV system is up to 25 years leads to free power generation with non pollution of environments. REFERENCES: [1] A. Braunstein, and A. Kornfeld, The Development of the Solar Photovoltaic and Thermal Collector, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.-6, no.-12, Dec. 1986. [2] K.C. Kalaitzakis, and G.J.Vachtsevanos, Control and Stability of Grid Connected PV Sources, IEEE Transaction on Power System, vol.-2, no.-4, Dec. 1987. [3] Clin Lashway, PV System Testing Techniques and Results,IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.-3, no.3, pp. 503-506, Sep.1988. [4] I.H. Atlas, Turkey, and A.M. Sharaf, Canada, A Novel On-Line MPP search Algorithm for PV Arrays, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.-11, no.-4, pp. 748-754, Dec. 1996. [5] J.Samin, Optimalsizing of PV Systems in Varied Climates,IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.-6, no.2, pp. 97-107, 1997. [6] A.R.Oliva, J.C.Balda, D.W. McNabb, and R.D. Richardson, Power Quality Monitoring of a PV Generator, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.-13, no.-2, pp. 188-193, June 1998. [7] I.M.Abdel-Halim, H.G. Named, and M.A. Al-Ahmar, Effect of Cell Temperature of the Performance of a PV Generator and DC Motor System, Sixth Middle East Power System Conference, pp.706-710, Dec. 1998. [8] G.B.Shrestha, and L.Goel, A Study on Optimal Sizing of Stand alone PV Stations IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion, vol.-13, no.-4, pp. 373-378, 1998. [9] D.Hansen and Poul Surensen, Model for a Stand alone PV System, IEEE Transaction on Power System, Dec. 2000. [10] Eftichios Koutroulis and Kostas Kalaitzakis, Development of a Microcontroller-Based, Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Control System, IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, vol.-16, no.-1, pp.46-54, January 2001. [11] K. K. Tse, and H.S.H. Chung, A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Panels Using Switching Frequency Modulation,IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, vol.-17, no.-6, pp. 980-989, Nov. 2002. [12] Achim Woyte, and Ronnie Belmans , Testing The Islanding Protection Function of Photovoltaic Inverters, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion,vol.-18 , no.-1, pp. 157-162, March 2003. [13] F. Z. Peng, Z-Source Inverter, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.-39, no.-2, pp. 504-510, March/April 2003. [14] P.Boulanger, P. Malbranche, Photovoltaic System Performance Statistical Analysis, 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, vol.-2, pp.2098 2101, May 2003.

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Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014 ISSN 2319 - 4847
[15] D. Chenvidhya, and J. Thongporn ,A Thai national demonstration project on PV grid-interactive systems: Power quality observation, Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, vol.-3, pp. 2152 2154, May 2003. Henry Shu-Hung Chung, K..K. Tse ,S. Y. Ron Hui. Fellow IEEE, C. M. Mok, and M.T .Ho, , A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique for Solar Panels Using a SEPIC or Cuk Converter, IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, vol.-18, no.-3, pp. 717-724 May 2003. P. J. M. Heskes, and J. H. R. Eslin, Power Quality Behaviour of Different Photovoltaic Inverter Topologies,24th International Conference, Nurnberg, Germany, pp. 9, May 2003. J.M.A. Myrzik, and M.Calais, String and Module Integrated Inverter for Single- Phase Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems-A Review, Paper Accepted for Presentation at IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference, ITALY. June 2003. J. Balcells, J. Dolezal, J. Tlust, V. Valouch , Impacts of Renewable Sources on Power Quality in Distribution Systems, IEEE Traunsactions on Industry Applications, vol.-4, pp. 5- 31, March -April 2004. Gianfranco Chicco, Roberto Napoli, and Filippo Spertino, Experimental Evaluation of the Performance of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems, pp.1011-1016, IEEE MELECON 2004, May 12-15, 2004.

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AUTHORS PROFILE: Neeraj is a M.Tech., Research Scholar, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota (Rajasthan), Assistant Professor, EE Engg. Department, HMRITM, Hamidpur, Delhi-110036

Dwarka Prasad was born in Chandigarh (U.T). He can read and write English, Hindi and Panjabi very well. He received the Bachelors Degree in Electrical Engineering in 1996 from Punjab University Chandigarh (U.T), India. He received the Master s Degree in Power Engineering in 2008 from Punjab Technical University Jalandhar (Punjab), India. He has a total of 17 years (07 years industrial & 10 years teaching) experience. He has attended two Short Term Courses from NITTTR, Sector-26, Chandigarh (U.T) and three Short Term Courses from IIT, Roorkee (Uttarakhand).He is the Member of IEEE since 2012. He is the Branch Counselor of IEEE of Student s Branch at LIET Alwar. Presently, He has been working in Laxmi Devi Institute of Engineering &Technology, Alwar (Rajasthan) as an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering since March, 2011 till date. He is the M.Tech Coordinator (Power System Engineering) of the Department of Electrical Engineering. He is pursuing Ph.D in Electrical Engineering from Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India. He has published a number of research papers. His research interests are in the field of Power System Engineering. Digambar Singh was born in Mathura (UP), India. He obtained his B.Tech in Electrical Engineering from Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow (UP) and M.Tech in Electrical Engineering (Power system) from NIT Hamirpur (H.P.). Presently he is Assistant Professor in EED, LIET, Alwar, Rajasthan. his interest research area is Energy auditing conservation & Renewable energy in deregulated power sector.

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