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Anekntavda:JAINPHILOSOPHY

1. Whatdoesanekntavdamean?
a. eka(singular)+anta(aspect)=eknta(onesided,absolutist)
b. na(non)+eknta(absolutist)=aneknta(nonabsolutist)
c. aneknta(nonabsolutist)+vda(doctrine)=anekntavda(doctrineofnon
absolutism)
d. a.k.a.doctrineofmanifoldaspects,equivocality,doctrineofrelativeviews.
e. Anekntavda,orTheDoctrineofNonAbsolutismisthesynthesisofpartialand
inadequatetruthsintendedtograsptruthnonpartially,i.e.asrevealedin
scripture.
f. Italsofunctionstoidentifyviewswhich,althoughonlypartiallytrue,claimtobe
absolutelytrue.

2. AnekntavdaContextualized
a. JainismasIntellectualMiddleGround
i. Upanisads Realityispermanent,unchanging.
ii. Buddhism Realityismomentary,changing.
iii. Jainism
Realityispermanencewithchange.TS5.30
b. Parmenides,Heraclitus,Plato:Solidphilosophicalground![Thephilosopher]has
torefusetoaccepttheclaimthateverythingisatrestInadditionhehasto
refusetolistentopeoplewhosaythatwhichischangesineveryway.Hehasto
belikeachildbeggingforboth,andsaythatthatwhichiseverythingis
boththeunchangingandthatwhichchanges.Sophist249cd
c. But:AsaJainphilosophicalmethod,anekntavdaisinseparablefromrevealed
metaphysics(itisnotthesameasthisstatementfromPlato)anditfunctionsto
protectJainmetaphysics.Itdoessobyrelegatingalternateviewstothestatusof
eitherfallaciousorpartiallytrue.


3. Jainism
a. When?Jainismisoneoftheoldestsurvivingreligions.
b. Where?ItispracticedprimarilyinwesternandsouthernIndia,butalsoinparts
ofEuropeandNorthAmerica.
c. NocreatorGodandtheuniversehasexistedfrombeginningless,cyclicaltime
i. 24fordmakers,teachtheJainpathduringeachtimecycle
ii. #23Parsvanath,ca.870BCE;#24Mahavira,599527BCE
d. TheUniverse
e. Siddhaloka
f. ThreeJewels
Rightfaith,rightknowledge,andrightconductconstitutethepathtoliberation.TS1.1
g. FourPillarsmonastic/lay
h. Swastika:FourRealmsofRebirth,Heaven/Hell,Human,Plant,Animal
i. Ahimsanonviolence

4. JainMetaphysics
Dualist(soul/nonsoul)Realism
1.Soul(jiva)

omniscient(liberated)ornonomniscient(inbondage)
infiniteinnumber
infiniteintuition,energy,bliss,andknowledge
infinitelyinfinite
includeskarma
infinite
beginningless,cyclical

2.Matter(pugdala)

3.Space(akasa)

4.Time(kala)

5.PrinciplesofMotion(dharma)
6.PrinciplesofRest(adharma)
5. NayavdaandSydvda
a. NayavdaTheDoctrineofStandpoints

i. naya(standpoint)+vda(doctrine)=nayavda(doctrineofstandpoints)
ii. Nayavdaisthesystematicdivisionofpossiblestandpointsforanon
omniscientsoul.
1. dravyrthikanayasubstantial,permanentview
2. paryyrthikanayamodal,changingview
Thereisnothirdnaya.Moreover,itcannotbesaidthattruthcannotbeadequatelyexpressed
bythesetwonayas,forifwecombineboththesestandpointsintheirparticularaspectswecan
certainlyarriveatthetruthbythemethodofaneknta(theversatility[plurality]ofaspects).
SanmatiTarka1.14
b. thing=substantialfeature+infinitemodifications
Omniscientsoul:
Allsubstances+allmodificationsTS1.29
NonOmniscient:
Substances+notallmodificationsTS1.26
Theabsolutetruthisavailableonlytoomniscientsouls,andasnonomniscientsoulsweare
requiredtoqualifyourlanguagetoavoidproblems.ThisistheoriginofanotherJain
philosophicaltheory.
c. SydvdaandSaptabhangi
i. syt(maybe,somehow)+vda(doctrine)=sydvda(doctrineof
somehow)
ii. sapta(seven)+bhangi(predication)[+eva(indeed)]=saptabhangi
(sevenfoldpredication):
1. SydevstiInacertainsenseitis.
2. SydevanstiInacertainsenseitisnot.
3. SydevsticanstiInacertainsenseitisandisnot.
4. SydevvaktavyaInacertainsenseitisinexpressible
5. SydevsticvaktavyaInacertainsenseitisandisinexpressible.
6. SydevansticvaktavyaInacertainsenseitisnotandisinexpressible.
7. SydevstinsticvaktavyaInacertainsenseitisandisnot,andis
inexpressible.
Athingmayonlybesaidtobeselfidenticalinanonabsolute(aneknta)sense.

6. Summary:
theindestructibilityoftheessentialnatureofasubstanceisdeterminedaspermanence.But
itshouldbetakenfromonepointofview.Ifitbepermanentfromallpointsofview,thenthere
canbenochangeatall.And,inthatcase,transmigrationaswellasthewaytosalvationwould
becomemeaninglessSubstanceispermanentfromthepointofviewofgeneralproperties
[(dravyrthikanaya)].Fromthepointofviewofspecificmodes[(paryyrthikanaya)]itisnot
permanent.Hencethereisnocontradiction.Thesetwo,thegeneralandtheparticular,
somehow,aredifferentaswellasidentical.Thustheseformthecauseofworldlyintercourse.

Jainphilosophybeginsinscripture.Thatis,itbeginsinanomniscientlyrevealedsynthesisof
permanenceandchange(anekntavda),fromwhichthedelineationofnonomniscient
ontology(nayavda)necessarilyfollows,andthatfinallyresultsinaconcretesystemof
qualifiedlogicalpredication(sydvdaandsaptabhangi).

Inacertainsense,thiswoodinfrontofmeatthepresentmomentandinthisparticular
arrangement,orthistable,exists.

Inacertainsense,inrespectofthatwhichisnotthiswood,notinfrontofmeatthis
particulartime,ornotinthisparticulararrangement,thistabledoesnotexist.

Inacertainsense,thistablebothexistsanddoesnotexist.Thistableonlyexistsinthis
certainwayaswoodinfrontmeatthepresentmomentinthisparticulararrangementin
relationtoallsubstantialfeatures,places,times,andnaturesinwhichitdoesnotexist.

Inacertainsense,thesimultaneousexistenceandnonexistenceofthetableisits
reality,butsincethiscannotbeexpressedsimultaneouslywiththemediumoflanguage,
theexistenceofthetableis,infact,inexpressible.

Inacertainsense,thisofwoodinfrontofmeatthepresentmomentandinthis
particulararrangement,orthistable,exists.Yet,inacertainsense,itsexistenceis
inexpressible.

Theabsoluteisavailableonlytoomniscientsouls,andasnonomniscientsoulsweare
requiredtoqualifyourlanguagesoasnottoclaimabsolutetruthfromanonlypartial
pointofvieworonlyapartofreality.

Thelawofnoncontradictionstillholdsonthisview.Inotherwords,thelogical
propositionxandnotxremainsafalsityunderthissystem.However,asidefromstrict
logicalcontradiction,thereisnofalsityinthisconception,onlyprivation.


MakingthesevereausteritiesoftheJainpathofpurificationjustoneofmanyequallyviable
pathscoulddetractfromthegoodreasonsfortheirausterities,liketherealityofkarmaandits
elimination.
W.J.Johnsonnotesthatifthesoulwerenotsubjecttorealchangeormodificationitwould
notreallybeboundbykarmaandtherewouldbenoneedforasceticpractice.Johnsonargues,
therefore,thatanekntavda,asthemediatingphilosophicalmethodbetweentheVedntin
andBuddhistviews,workstopreservetheasceticemblemsof[Jain]identity.

ReadTattvarthadhigamaSutra(ThatWhichIs)
Chapter1Verses13,2933(pp252254)
ChapterVAll

Thinkofsomerealworldexamplesofasubstanceandhowitispermanent,arising,and
decaying.Whatisliberationlike?
SanmatiTarka269271

Whatisanaya?Howmanyarethere?Whyaretheyimportant?