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After going thick on the things, now time is to make a complete picture. While making a product a SKU (stock keeping unit) of the shop retailers think about the GMROI (gross margin return on investment) and they promote the brand which provides them highest. They expect return in the form of profit margin, company schemes, window display and reference of the shop. Among these, company schemes make the difference and are the highest sources of motivation after profit margin. Retailing demands a constant push from the company. Marketer needs to use advertising and brand building strategies to address the discerning buyers and retail push to in different buyers. The manufacturer should understand consumer behavior because retailers cant help quality and price. It is only up to manufacturers to deliver what consumer wants. I need to stress on it because 58% retailers said that it is demand why they sell Britannia. 61% agree that at retail shop it is brand popularity, which determine the purchase of biscuit. There is a greater need to understand the retailer behavior. Considering them as a team, working for the company may help them to be attached to the company. There should be a feeling of belonging to the company in inner of the retailers. This can be done by setting values club for retailers so that they may exchange views with the company and help in understanding consumer behavior.

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Defining Strategic Management

Strategic management consists of the analysis, decisions, and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain competitive advantages. This definition captures two main elements that go to the heart of the field of strategic management. First, the strategic management of an organization entails three ongoing processes: analysis, decisions, and actions. That is, strategic management is concerned with the analysis of strategic goals (vision, mission, and strategic objectives) along with the analysis of the internal and external environment of the organization. Next, leaders must make strategic decisions. These decisions, broadly speaking, address two basic questions: What industries should we compete in? How should we compete in those industries? These questions also often involve an organizations domestic as well as its international operations. And last are the actions that must be taken. Decisions are of little use, of course, unless they are acted on. Firms must take the necessary actions to implement their strategies. This requires leaders to allocate the necessary resources and to design the organization to bring the intended strategies to reality. As we will see in the next section, this is an ongoing, evolving process that requires a great deal of interaction among these three processes. Second, the essence of strategic management is the study of why some firms outperform others. Thus, managers need to determine how a firm is to compete so that it can obtain advantages that are sustainable over a lengthy period of time. That means focusing on two fundamental questions: How should we compete in order to create competitive advantages in the marketplace? For example, managers need to determine if the firm should position itself as the low-cost producer, or develop products and services that are unique which will enable the firm to charge premium prices-or some combination of both.
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Managers must also ask how to make such advantages sustainable, instead of highly temporary, in the marketplace. That is: How can we create competitive advantages in the marketplace that are not only unique and valuable but also difficult for competitors to copy or substitute? Ideas that work are almost always copied by rivals immediately. In the 1980s, American Airlines tried to establish a competitive advantage by introducing the frequent flyer program. Within weeks, all the airlines did the same thing. Overnight, instead of competitive advantage, frequent flyer programs became a necessary tool for competitive parity, not competitive advantage. The challenge, therefore, is to create competitive advantage that is sustainable. Michael Porter argues that sustainable competitive advantage cannot be achieved through operational effectiveness alone. Most of the popular management innovations of the last two decades-total quality, just-in-time, benchmarking, business process reengineering, outsourcing all are about operational effectiveness. Operational effectiveness means performing similar activities better than rivals. Each of these is important, but none led to sustainable competitive advantage, for the simple reason that everyone is doing them. Strategy is all about being different from everyone else. Sustainable competitive advantage is possible only through performing different activities from rivals or performing similar activities in different ways.

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Elements of Strategic Management

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(i) Strategic Analysis:

Strategic analysis is concerned with understanding the strategic position of the organization. What changes are going on in the environment, and how will they affect the organization and its activities? What is the resource strength of the organization in the context of these changes? What is it that those people and groups associated with the organization -- managers, shareholders or owners, unions and so on -- aspire to, and how do these affect the present position and what could happen in the future? The aim of strategic analysis is, then, to form a view of the key influences on the present and future well-being of the organization and therefore on the choice of strategy. These influences are discussed briefly below. Understanding these influences is an important part of the wider aspects of strategic management. (a) The environment: The organization exists in the context of a complex commercial, economic, political, technological, cultural, and social world. This environment changes and is more complex for some organizations than for others. Since strategy is concerned with the position a business takes in relation to its environment, an understanding of the environments effects on a business is of central importance to strategic analysis. The historical and environmental effects on the business must be considered, as well as the present effects and the expected changes in environmental variables. This is a major task because the range of environmental variables is so great. Many of those variables will give rise to opportunities of some sort, and many will exert threats upon the firm. The two main problems that have to be faced are, first, to distil out of this complexity a view of the main or overall environmental impacts for the
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purpose of strategic choice; and second, the fact that the range of variables is likely to be so great that it may not be possible or realistic to identify and analyses each one. (b) The resources of the organization: just as there are outside influences on the firm and its choice of strategies, so there are internal influences. One way of thinking about the strategic capability of an organization is to consider its strengths and weaknesses (what it is good or not so good at doing, or where it is at a competitive advantage or disadvantage, for example). These strengths and weaknesses may be identified by considering the resource areas of a business such as its physical plant, its management, its financial structure, and its products. Again, the aim is to form a view of the internal influences -- and constraints -- on strategic choice.

(c) The expectations of different stakeholders: The expectations are important because they will affect what will be seen as acceptable in terms of the strategies advanced by management. However, the beliefs and assumptions that make up the culture of an organization, though less explicit, will also have an important influence. The environmental and resource influences on an organization will be interpreted through these beliefs and assumptions; so two groups of managers, perhaps working in different divisions of an organization, may come to different conclusions about strategy, although they are faced with similar environmental and resource implications. Which influence prevails is likely to depend on which group has the greatest power, and understanding this can be of great importance in recognizing why an organization follows or is likely to follow, the strategy it does.
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Together, a consideration of the environment, the resources, the expectations, and the objectives within the cultural and political framework of the organization provides the basis of the strategic analysis of an organization. However, to understand the strategic position an organization is in, it is also necessary to examine the extent to which the direction and implications of the current strategy and objectives being followed by the organization are in line with and can cope with the implications of the strategic analysis. In this sense, such analysis must take place with the future in mind. Is the current strategy capable of dealing with the changes taking place in the organizations environment or not? If so, in what respects and, if not, why not? It is unlikely that there will be a complete match between current strategy and the picture which emerges from the strategic analysis. The extent to which there is a mismatch here is the extent of the strategic problem facing the strategist. It may be that the adjustment that is required is marginal, or it may be that there is a need for a fundamental realignment of strategy.

(ii) Strategic Choice:

Strategic analysis provides a basis for strategic choice. This aspect of strategic management can be conceived of as having three parts. (a) Generation of strategic options: There may be several possible courses of action. At a given time a company might face a decision about the extent to which it has to become a multinational firm. But, at a later time, the international scope of the company's operations might bring up other choices: which areas of the world
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are now the most important to concentrate on; is it possible to maintain a common basis of trading across all the different countries? Is it necessary to introduce variations by market focus? All of these considerations are important and need careful consideration: indeed, in developing strategies, a potential danger is that managers do not consider any but the most obvious course of action -- and the most obvious is not necessarily the best. A helpful step in strategic choice can be to generate strategic options.

(b) Evaluation of strategic options:

Strategic options can be examined in the context of the strategic analysis to assess their relative merits. In deciding any of the options a company might ask a series of questions. First, which of these options built upon strengths, overcame weaknesses and took advantage of opportunities, while minimizing or circumventing the threats the business faced? This is called the search for strategic fit or suitability of the strategy. However, a second set of questions is important. To what extent could a chosen strategy be put into effect? Could the required finance be raised, sufficient stock be made available at the right time and in the right place, staff be recruited and trained to reflect the sort of image the company wants to project? These are questions of feasibility. Even if these criteria could be met, would the choice be acceptable to the stakeholders? (c) Selection of strategy: This is the process of selecting those options which the organization will pursue. There could be just one strategy chosen or several. There is unlikely to be a clear-cut right or wrong choice because any strategy must inevitably have some dangers or disadvantages. So in the end, choice is likely
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to be a matter of management judgment. It is important to understand that the selection process cannot always be viewed or understood as a purely objective, logical act. It is strongly influenced by the values of managers and other groups with interest in the organization, and ultimately may very much reflect the power structure in the organization.

(iii) Strategy Implementation:

Strategy implementation is concerned with the translation of strategy into action. Implementation can be thought of as having several parts.

(a) Planning and allocating resources:

Strategy implementation is likely to involve resource planning, including the logistics of implementation. What do the key tasks need to be carried out? What changes need to be made in the resource mix of the organization? By when? And who is to be responsible for the change? (b) Organization structure and design:

It is also likely that changes in organizational structure will be needed to carry through the strategy. There is also likely to be a need to adapt the systems used to manage the organization. What will different departments are held responsible for? What sorts of information system are needed to monitor the progress of the strategy?

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(c) Managing strategic change: The implementation of strategy also requires managing of strategic change and this requires action on the part of managers in terms of the way they manage change processes, and the mechanisms they use for it. These mechanisms are likely to be concerned not only with organizational redesign, but with changing day-to-day routines and cultural aspects of the organization, and overcoming political blockages to change.

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Apple Inc.
Introduction Apple Inc. was previously known as Apple Computers Inc. is an American based multinational company. It designs and manufactures software products. The founders of Apple were Steve Jobs, Stephen Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. This giant American conglomerate was established in Cupertino, California in the middle of the Silicon Valley on April 1 st, 1976 and incorporated on January 3; 1977. This organization is among the Fortune 500 companies. (Young & Simon, 2005)


The nature and scope of this organization is to create innovative and tech savvy hardware and software which are unique, stylish and very functional at the same time. The companys best known hardware products are Macintosh computers, ipod and the latest one iphone. In software segment MAC OS X operating system, iTunes media, life a suite of multimedia and creativity software, Final cut studio for audio and film industry. It has more than 200 retail stores in eight countries and an online store where all apple hardware and software are sold online. (Cruikshank, 2005)

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This project on Apple Inc is highlighting the founders, foundation, products of the company, Its PESTEL and SWOT analysis and some other. It will show the success of this company and about its strategies adapted to overcome tough competition.

1. Vision and Mission statement:

In real sense apple has no real vision and mission statement but there are certain commitments which they make like At Apple they believe in their responsibility to minimize the environmental impacts of our operations and products.

There are some authors who have compiled a mission statement for apple like Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings. (Freiberger & Swaine, 2000)

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2. Apple value:
Empathy for customers and users, Achievement and aggressiveness, Positive social contribution, Innovation and vision, Individual performance, Team spirit, Quality and excellence, Individual reward and Good management. (Wozniak, Smith, 2006)

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[Type the document title] 3. Current and past strategies:

Apple Inc has adopted many strategies in the past to stimulate its sales, and it has been doing the same in the present. 1989-90 the strategy was based on a new generation of input devices: the keyboards, mice and scanners that will allow users to transmit data or control the computer. John Sculley announced this that time. (The New York Times, 1988) During recent times apple has extensively adopted viral marketing during Beijing Olympics, 2008 for there much hyped product iphone where mouth word selling was the fulcrum set for the marketing of the product. Apple did little spending for the marketing in fact before arrival it was on every ones lips. It was done via IMs, messengers, blogs and other online publicity stunts. (Weber, 2007)

12 effective strategies adopted by Apple inc. to create loyal customers.


A store just for apple:

Previously the staff of apple were ill-informed about there products so, in order to eliminate this they created stores strictly for apple products. By doing this they have created a platform for apple products lover to assemble and look into detail manner about the products. The dcor of the store is very friendly where they can experience apple products and
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learn about its latest and coming soon products.

2) Complete solutions: All the apple products compliment and complete each other. Like for an ipod the music files can be downloaded via iTunes as most of the software used is produced by apple, so in this way they have a complete control over their products and users need not hunt other places. 3) Are you a Mac? Im a Mac campaign was a huge hit. As apple is a very hip brand and through this campaign it made the apple users feel that they are young and smart as they are Mac users. 4) Varied products: As apple is an expensive brand they bring iPods and iPhone at an entry level with a bit low cost so as to attract new consumers to try apple products. If the new pool of users tries their new products then in future they will try to buy apple computers too. 5) Proprietary funds: Apple products are not much compatible with other systems if customers want to change his/her brand. As many iTunes purchased are encoded with a Fairplay DRM (digital rights management) technology. Except for a
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few files can be played in other systems. So in this case a customer is least likely to shift brands.

6) Media fodder: Media is always behind apple as apple makes it easy for them and bloggers love to write about apples leaked rumors like its iphone online store shut down, so by creating this media frenzy apple is always on its customers mind. 7) Education sales: Launching its products in schools and universities they make the classrooms into showrooms. By creating this early exposure, it captures customers before they even know that they are customers. 8) Products that deliver: Apple strictly considers its customers needs and designs all its products by a strong research process into it. This makes its customers hook back to this brand and in future buy the same brand. 9) Outsourcing unpleasantness: Using apple products involves less interaction with the company due to least problems faced while using apple products. So in case of iphone they could have made such errors so they allowed AT&T to handle the service.

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10) Consistency:

Almost all the apple products have the same basics design so the users who are already using apple have a fair idea of what the new product will be so that they can easily adapt to new products. 11) New innovations:

Apple product designs are consistent but its portfolio is not so, instead it keeps on innovating. It allows customers to install its products in there living rooms and in the pockets as well. 12) Attractiveness:

From packaging to designing they make everything look attractive, accessible and colorful with smiling icons, so as to make to its customers remind every time they use an apple product. (Kaplan & Norton, 2004)

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Apple has a tradition of felicitating scientists and mathematicians. There logo of a half bitten apple. Apple logo is for giving respect to Sir Isaac Newton for inventing the law of gravity and the half bitten apple is for the mathematicians Alan Turing who committed suicide by eating an apple which he had laced it with cyanide. He was regarded as on of the fathers of computers. The companys attire is very casual enabling employees to work in a fun environment. There culture is to be unique and to be innovative with sleek and stylish design and very functional. This culture has gained global acceptance.

5. PESTEL Analysis
Political: Apple Inc started as a start up by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak initially so they had to face a lot of problems regarding there company registration and other paper works. Today Apple lists at NASDAQ as APPL and this firm has strong rivalry partners like Microsoft, IBM and Google so there share prices clash against each other (The New York Times, May, 2007) the heavy taxes at US and UK are a major block age. Initially apple launched its much awaited iphone and then Google launched an iphone too. In political aspect apple had a lot of financial turmoil so the founder Steve Jobs was asked to resign and later on again in late 1997 was asked
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to rejoin as the CEO to handle the company and it was under Steve Jobs reign that Apple Inc was joined in the Fortune 500 companies lobby. Apple had to face a lot of problems while entering Indian market specially with their iphone as there was lot of hurdles while selecting the telecom company with the union broadcasting minister of India for entering as a company providing handsets. Then they joined hands with Vodafone Essar and Bharti Airtel later on. (Wozniak and Smith, 2006) Economic: Apple products are a bit priced higher than its competitors. The economic condition stands strong at present at the stock markets and it enjoys an overwhelming trust over its CEO Steve Jobs but due to long illness of Pancreatic Cancer has made its investors fear. By 2002 its major chunk of revenue was generated by its desktops and others by notebooks, ipods and other products. But by 2005 it has shifted its revenue generating portfolio by its diversified products which was covered in same proportion by desktops, notebooks, ipods and others but in recent times iphone has taken a major chunk of it and trying to compete with its rivalry Google with there iphone and some new rivalry like NokiaN96, Blackberry Bold, Samsung Omnia. (The Wall Street Journal, November, 2008) Social: Socially Apple has made many social gatherings to attract its customer as it made an extensive advertisement at the Beijing Olympics Games, 2008 and they set up many kiosks where they allowed customers to experience the apple products. Recently at the Wall Street Job Fair last year they made
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a booth of there own as a publicity stunt and hire employees and it was a first time online job fair where some other major companies too participated. Technological: In terms of technology apple has stayed always a step ahead against others. As in reinventing and tying up with rivalry like IBM and Microsoft. Technological up gradation has always been a target of apple. Ipod has been reinvented several times with latest players to make it consumer friendly. Environmental: Apple Inc has done in the past and is currently also contributing to save the environment. They had announced that by the end of 2008 they will eliminate Polyvinyl Chloride and brominates flames retardants in its products, and arsenic in all glass flat panel display. In June 2007 Apple upgraded the Mac book pro, replacing cold cathode lamps with mercury-free LEDs and arsenic-free LCD glass, and has since done this for all notebooks. Apple has also phased out BFRs and PVCs from various internal components. Apple also offers detailed information about the emissions, materials, and electrical usage of each product. Apple has also begun to advertise how environmentally friendly their new laptops are including television spots and magazine ads, in addition to touting these facts on their website.

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Lawful: Apple Inc does all its operations under the US Trade Legislation guidelines. In 1986 the companies wasnt enjoying a good time due to many legislative failures. Then in 1993 the company was losing acceptance for which in 1997 Steve Jobs the founder was asked to join as the CEO of the company. There were many break downs in the corporate affairs of the company with many cases filed against the company as they refused to accept and adopt the new standards set for manufacturing software and hardware as they were creating their own products.(Simon,2007)

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SWOT Analysis

1. Customer loyalty combined with expanding closed ecosystem: While at first Apples closed ecosystem was a weakness for the business, this has now changed. First, Apple now has a full range of apps, software and products that are interlinked and support each other. Second, new products and supplements will be released soon (iTV), hence expanding the ecosystem. Third, Apple has a strong customer loyalty, which increases due to Apples closed ecosystem, which, in turn, is supported by customer

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loyalty. So the combination of Apples expanding closed ecosystem and customers loyalty increases firms competitive advantage. 2. Apple is a leading innovator in mobile device technology: Apple has been chosen as the most innovative business in the world for the 3rd time in 2012. Companys core competency of producing innovative products is the strength the company builds upon and is able to bring the most innovative products to the market. 3. Strong financial performance ($10,000,000,000 cash, gross profit margin 43.9% and no debt): Apples financial performance is one of the best among many companies. Company currently (end of 2012) holds about $10,000,000,000 in cash, which can be used for acquisitions, buying back company shares and other matters. It also has higher gross profit margin than its main competitors, which is equal to 43.9%. Company has no debt and is not directly affected by interest rates or credit markets. 4. Brand reputation: Apple has a reputation of highly innovative, well designed, and wellfunctioning products and sound business performance. Apple brand is valued at $76.5 billion and was the second most valuable brand in the world in 2012. 5. Retail stores: Apples retail stores ensure high quality customer experience; provide direct contact with knowledgeable staff and increases brand awareness. Besides, Apples stores are one of the most profitable in terms of sales/ft2. 6. Strong marketing and advertising teams: Marketing is one of the strongest functional areas Apple has. It can sell pricier products, build superior stores (they are more or less built to
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achieve marketing goals) and advertise their products in a compelling manner.

1. High price. Apples products cost much more than its competitors devices: Some critics argue that the price is not justified. When theres such a fierce competition, Apple products price becomes a weakness because consumers can easily opt for similar quality but lower price products. 2. Incompatibility with different OS: The iOS and OS X are quite different from other OS and uses software that is unlike the software used in Microsoft OS. Due to such differences, both in software and hardware, users often choose to stay with their accustomed software and hardware (Microsoft OS and Intel hardware). 3. Decreasing market share: The less market share Apple has, the less it can influence its potential customers and persuade them to jump into using Apples closed ecosystem products. 4. Patent infringements: The firm is often accused of infringing other companies patents and has even lost some trials. This damages Apple brand and its financial situation. 5. Further changes in management: Apple has lost Steve Jobs in 2012 and Tim Cook became the new CEO. Scott Forestall and John Browett (chief of retail) left the company too and this will have an impact on companys management, which, as many think, will be negative.

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6. Defects of new products: This is not current Apple weakness but one that jumps out time to time. Some of Apples iPod and iPhone releases had clear faults and thus disturbed sales of the products and firms reputation of superior product performance. 7. Long-term gross margin decline: Current Apples gross margin is one of the highest in the tech industry but analysts fear that due to increasing component prices and competition current margins will not be sustained. Hence, glooming firms future financial performance.


1. High demand of iPad mini and iPhone 5: iPad mini sales will increase Apples market share in the tablet market and, will strengthen firms competitive advantage. 2. iTV launch: iTV launch will support Apple TV sales and the products ecosystem. 3. Emergence of the new provider of application processors: Samsung, the main Apples competitor, is also the only provider of application processors for Apples products. Apple has to find a new source for the component but could not find a suitable one yet. Nonetheless, new manufacturers with superior engineering capabilities are arising and its just a matter of time, when Apple will seize upon the opportunity of being less dependent on its direct competitors.

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4. Growth of tablet and smartphone markets: Growth of tablet and smartphone markets is a good opportunity to expand firms share in these markets. 5. Obtaining patents through acquisitions: Apple lacks of some patents to sustain its growth and the best way to acquire those patents is to acquire the firms holding them. In addition, Apple could develop new skills and competencies. 6. Damages from patent infringements: Apple patents are often infringed by its competitors. Thus, collecting the damages from the companies that do so is a viable opportunity to not only increase the cash reserves but to damage the competitors reputation and sales as well. 7. Strong growth of mobile advertising market: Apple has developed iAd advertising platform, which allows advertising on Apple iPhone, iPad and iPod touch. The growth of mobile advertising market is an opportunity which could be further seized upon. 8. Increasing demand for cloud based services: Apple could expand its range of iCloud services and software as the demand for cloud-based services is expanding.

1. Rapid technological change: One of the most severe threats Apple and the other tech companies are facing is rapid technological change. Companies are under the pressure to release new products faster and faster. The one that cannot keep up with the competition soon fails. This is especially hard when a business wants to introduce something new, innovative and successful. Apple was able to
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bring very innovative products to the market so far but for the moment, even Apple hasnt unveiled any plans for the new products (except iTV) and may lack new introductions to keep up with competition. 2. 2013 tax increases: Tax increases in USA in 2013 will negatively affect Apple. 3. Rising pay levels for Foxconn workers: Pay levels for Foxconns workers already rose 3 times from 2010 to 2012. Foxconn is the main manufacturer of Apple products and the rising pay level for Foxconns workers will likely raise the prices for Apple products. 4. Breached IP rights: The companies that breach Apple patents might not be discovered soon and may benefit from it, while weakening Apple at the same time. 5. Price pressure from Samsung over key components: Samsung has already asked Apple to pay higher price for its application processors. Due to intense competition and no viable substitutes, Apple may be asked to pay even more. 6. Strong dollar: Apple earned more than half of its revenues from outside US. Dollar appreciation against other currencies reduces potential profits from those countries. 7. Android OS growth: Android OS is the main competitor for iOS in mobile device market. The domination of Android decreases iOS power over influencing consumers to join Apple.

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8. Competitors moves in online music market:

Apple faces threat from online music stores, such as Amazon, Wal-Mart and online music subscription companies, such as Specify.

Strategic Challenge and Issue

The biggest strategic challenge and issue is cut throat competition from its rivalry partners, IBM, Microsoft, Google, Sony, HP and Dell in terms of producing the same product and apple has the highest price among all. Google has also launched there version of iphone called as G-Phone which features Android operating system. The apple iphone in India was a failure. Manufactured by HTC. Apple being a big player in US but failed to mark a strong position in the Asian market where it had many strong contenders like Sony of Japan, Philips, LG. All these companies manufacture the same products which apple manufactures and that too with low price in compared to apples high price. Apple has recently issues software 2.2 for ipod touch and iphone to solve multiple problems which could lead to leak of sensitive information as the same was with RIMs Blackberry where the encryption code was impossible to be tracked. There are some more areas where apple need to safeguard there

hidden secrets as apple is bloogers favorites topic so they go for that extra mile to find confidential facts as recently 19 year Harvard student leaked some facts of the apple for which apple later on prosecuted the student. Since
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apple is a very big IT giant so it attracts tough competition for others so apple spends millions on marketing of the products and as it comes with a high price so if the economic condition of the market falters then it will severely affect consumers purchasing power. (Lyons, 2007) Apple needs to work on its unlocking procedures strictly as in Singapore many stores illegally were unlocking the iphones at a very cheap rate with no notification to the apple company. So Orange has been selected to distribute it. Early in 2005 when apple switched from IBM as a chip supplier to Intel, so that time industry specialists thought the swap of apple could lead to consumers getting confused so this type of shift should be done carefully. (Linzmayer, 2006)

Strategic Options and Future Strategy

For overcoming all these strategy there need to be a future strategy. The strategy applied by apple in India was a failure due to many reasons like pricing kept too high so the pricing to be kept low by cutting down unnecessary expenses. They got everything wrong from pricing, marketing communication to the sales and distribution model. There need to be a strong link as far consumer confidence is concerned. India being the worlds second largest and fastest growing telecom and handsets market by Standards and Poors survey and also by Reuters. In this way apple has lost the trust of Indian consumers by the poor failure of marketing of it s iphone and gave more space to rivals Nokia, Samsung and Blackberry. The marketing should have been done on a grand scale to make itself known to
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Indian masses too other than the educated people, though it was higher segment of class but it failed on deaf ears. Other than its CEO Steve Jobs made a global announcement that the iphone would be charged at 199$ globally. This built a false hope in the mind of consumers who wanted to buy it and turned away those Who could have actually bought it? Apple will aim to become the hub of the digital home, offering eight key products and services to connect PCs and digital content to the HDTV-stereo audio-visual infrastructure in consumers' homes. To fulfill this strategy, we predict that Apple will launch new products, re-engineer the Apple Store, and expand into in-home installation services. (Gownder, Quivey, 2008) In terms of environment keeping free apple should adopt healthy practices of keeping their products from emitting heat thus reducing the heat level to the atmosphere. Though they are doing such works but can do more like Dell computers have went further of recycling free including pickup from anywhere. Lowering the cost of products and maintaining the same quality standards can form joint ventures Knowledge Management More number of retail stores for easy access Continuous innovation to expand. Apple should fear the shift of iPod towards mobile phones as they can also play music files and videos, so careful marketing up gradation of the product is necessity for the long run where consumers are shifting the taste quiet often. (Kahney, 2008) Apple software can be made accessible in certain cases as there are many other online iTune stores too like Napster. If a subscriber is paying for downloading a
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song or game which can be easily accessed via other free downloading sites then why will a user go to apple online store? So the online store should charge a very nominal charge or a onetime payment of registering themselves and then use as in todays stiff competition scenario apple has no more monopoly in the market where many other companies have come out with the same sort of product with less price tag, so this demands innovation at regular intervals.

Implementation and Change Factors

Implementation of the strategies and changes are to be made. Pricing strategy to be worked upon again for the Indian market and re-launch it in a slow skimming strategy. The online store to be made more accessible as making it low entry cost for downloading and setting up apple store at other places also other than US and other developed nations. Change is demand of time so change management to be handled perfectly as if a company do not change itself then they wont able to survive in the long run in this fast changing environment. (Smith, 2007) Though apple is good in innovating products but being a market leader it has to increase its R&D practices in a more high level to stay afloat in this tough market and keep its market share intact and keep on growing. Apple should further work upon its marketing strategies to sell more and more products.

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Over the past 30 years Apple Inc has amplified from computer design to developing consumer electronics. The company was started by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in the 1970s. Tim Cook is the current CEO of the company. It uses different business strategy. This means that all employees & departments work together in the creation of their product. What we found to be the most interesting about Apple is how they are very innovative and early adapters. Apple is usually 1st company to come with a new product before anyone else. This is very risky but it seems to be working to apples advantage. This shows that taking risks can sometimes make or break you.

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