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2012 New Research Products Summary

(As of November 30, 2012)


2012 Summary of Research Products Issued*

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

U4R08: Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Stock No. U4R08 Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) combine anaerobic wastewater treatment and membrane filtration into one process and offer the possibility of improved sustainability, while producing an effluent with a quality similar to that obtained with conventional domestic wastewater treatment (DWW). The goal of this study was to address questions regarding AnMBRs when applied to DWW treatment. The research findings indicate that there are inherent benefits to AnMBR treatment of DWW, but they must be quantitatively compared relative to conventional DWW treatment to determine under what conditions AnMBRs can be successfully applied. 66 pages. Online PDF.

Water Reuse
06-CTS-1CO: Long-Term Study on Landscape Irrigation Using Household Graywater Experimental Study Stock No. 06CTS1CO As water supply becomes more limited throughout the world, there is an interest in innovative approaches to water resources sustainability. One approach gaining popularity is household graywater reuse for residential landscape irrigation. While some states have begun to legalize and regulate graywater reuse, little guidance based on scientific data has been provided for the safe operation of graywater irrigation systems. The objective of this research was to examine the fate and occurrence of graywater constituents and their potential impacts on soil and groundwater quality and plant and human health as a result of its use for residential landscape irrigation. Published by WERF and the American Cleaning Institute. 164 pages. Online PDF. WERF1C08: Attenuation of PPCPs through Golf Courses Using Recycled Water Stock No. WERF1C08 This research project investigated the fate and transport of pharmaceuticals and personal care product chemicals (PPCPs) in turfgrass/soil systems irrigated with recycled water. The project involved laboratory adsorption and degradation experiments, controlled lysimeter experiments, field-scale controlled plot monitoring of drainage concentrations, and mass flux below fairways on four golf courses. Fourteen compounds were monitored in the irrigation and drainage waters in these studies. The results support the use of recycled water for irrigation purposes, as long as science-based irrigation management practices (e.g., cycle and soak irrigation) are implemented. The use of recycled water allows communities to extend their water resources while minimizing the discharge of such waters into aquatic systems. 190 pages. Soft cover and online PDF.

*These products are available to order on WERFs website at under Order Research Publications & Tools; by e-mail at or call Gina Street at 571-384-2112.

WERF5T10a: Demonstration of Membrane Zero Liquid Discharge for Drinking Water System: Literature Review Stock No. WERF5T10a Zero liquid discharge (ZLD) is a sustainable disposal option that may offer a long-term solution to concentrate disposal for utilities that need to implement membrane treatment to produce safe water. In order to assist in the selection of appropriate ZLD technologies for pilot testing at two sites in Colorado in a later phase of this research project, the research team performed a comprehensive literature review of existing ZLD technologies. The literature review begins with a brief overview of existing concentrate disposal options followed by an in-depth examination of various ZLD technologies that could be evaluated by pilot test. The categories of ZLD options considered by this literature review include: 1) Intermediate Treatment, 2) Thermal-Based Technologies, 3) Pressure-Driven Membrane Technologies, 4) Electric Potential Driven Membrane Technologies, and 5) Alternative Technologies. 72 pages. Online PDF.

SW1R06b: Users Guide to BMP SELECT Model: Version 1.3 (Upgrade to 2009 1.0.1 Version) Stock No. SW1R06b SELECT is a simple, planning level, spreadsheet tool that enables stormwater managers to examine the effectiveness of alternative best management practice (BMP) scenarios for controlling stormwater pollution and the whole life cost associated with each scenario. Thus, managers can make more informed decisions on which practices to permit with some confidence that they will meet imposed TMDL limits and that the costs involved in implementing BMPs are known. SELECT output includes annual pollutant loads discharged to the receiving water, pollutant load frequency curves with uncertainty estimates, and an estimate of the whole life cost of the BMPs applied in the watershed. 56 pages. Online PDF of Users Guide and Excel spreadsheet tool.

U3R09: The Effect of Wet Weather Driven Dissolved Oxygen Sags on Fishes in Urban Systems Stock No. U3R09 This study is the first known field deployment of externally mounted dissolved oxygen (DO) transmitters on fish. The transmitters were used to track fish movement in response to changes in DO levels, in particular as relates to CSO discharges in the Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS). DO-sensing transmitters attached to fish permit the generation of data that have the potential to demonstrate the DO concentration in which the fish inhabits. Concentrations of DO within the CAWS appeared to exert only a moderate influence on the movement or habitat choice of largemouth bass. The fish (largemouth bass) were quite tolerant of low DO. Data from this study will provide a benchmark for data quality review and analysis that can be referenced by future studies and will provide improved understanding of how fish respond to and are impacted by wet weather CSO events and associated low DO. 124 pages. Online PDF.

*These products are available to order on WERFs website at under Order Research Publications & Tools; by e-mail at or call Gina Street at 571-384-2112.

Operations Optimization
OWSO4R07h: Life Cycle Assessment Manager for Energy Recovery (LCAMER) Spreadsheet Users Manual: Version 2 Stock No. OWSO4R07h This comprehensive users manual provides step-by-step instructions for working with the updated LCAMER spreadsheet tool OWSO4R07T). It accompanies the spreadsheet model, guiding users through the cells in which data may be entered. Detailed annotation is provided for all cell entries, so users can understand the intent of the entries. Several tutorial examples illustrate the use of the spreadsheet tool. For a detailed discussion of the theory behind the calculations being conducted, please see the project report OWSO4R07i. 110 pages. Online PDF. OWSO4R07i: LCAMER: An Assessment Tool for Managing Cost-Effective Energy Recovery from Anaerobically Digested Wastewater Solids Stock No. OWSO4R07i LCAMER (Life Cycle Assessment Manager for Energy Recovery) is a spreadsheet-based tool developed for comparing the benefits and costs of onsite energy recovery alternatives throughout the lifetime of a wastewater treatment facility. LCAMER was updated to focus on new technical and economical information related to the use of fuel cell and Stirling engine technology operating with anaerobic digester gas from wastewater treatment plants. This document includes the background material and derivation of the cost algorithms included in the updated tool. 56 pages. Online PDF. OWSO5R07e: Sustainable Food Waste Evaluation Stock No. OWSO5R07e Nationwide, people generate over 34 million tons of food waste annually with most of this organic waste going to landfills. This research estimated the economic, environmental, and operational costs and benefits of different food waste management alternatives. It examined two common alternatives which use wastewater facilities with anaerobic digestion and co-generation of heat and power and compared these practices to other food waste management alternatives including landfilling, composting and mixed waste recovery operations. 118 pages. Soft cover and online PDF. OWSO6R07c: Green Energy Life Cycle Assessment Tool (GELCAT) and User Manual Stock No. OWSO6R07c The Green Energy Life Cycle Assessment Tool (GELCAT) is a Microsoft Excel-based screening tool that can be used to determine the economic viability and energy and environmental benefits/costs of selected renewable energy technologies at wastewater treatment facilities. In its current version, three renewable electric technologies are represented: photovoltaic systems, wind turbine generators, and hydro-turbine generators. The users manual provides information on how to use the GELCAT software. 58 pages. Online PDF and Microsoft Excel-based screening tool.

*These products are available to order on WERFs website at under Order Research Publications & Tools; by e-mail at or call Gina Street at 571-384-2112.

OWSO11C10: Barriers to Biogas Use for Renewable Energy Stock No. OWSO11C10 Not all wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic digestion beneficially use their biogas beyond process heating. Knowing this, there must be actual or perceived barriers to broader use of biogas to produce combined heat and power (CHP). This study documented these barriers so that actions can be taken to reduce or remove the barriers that promote energy recovery using proven technology anaerobic digestion with combined heat and power generation. Includes case studies and biogas factsheet and other materials. Published by WERF. 156 pages. Online PDF. OWSO11C10a: Reframing the Economics of CHP Projects: Fact Sheet Stock No. OWSO11C10a This fact sheet addresses the financial metrics that can be used to overcome the economic barriers to combined heat and power (CHP) projects. It provides a breakdown of payback period, net present value, benefit cost ratio, internal rate of return, and equivalent uniform annual net value and how they apply to CHP project analysis. Also considers the time value of money, risk analysis, and long-term sustainability. 8 pages. Printed fact sheet and online PDF. OWSO11C10b: Comparison of Alternative Economic Methodologies for Biogas Use Evaluations: Technical Memorandum Stock No. OWSO11C10b This technical memorandum addresses different approaches that can be used to overcome the economic barriers to combined heat and power (CHP) projects. The approaches discussed include payback period, net present value, benefit cost ratio, internal rate of return, and equivalent uniform annual net value. The report includes a case study to better explain the different approaches. Published by Brown and Caldwell and WERF. 40 pages. Online PDF.

Climate Change
U2R08a: Methane Evolution from Wastewater Conveyance Stock No. U2R08a Wastewater collection systems could be a significant source of methane (CH4) emissions with readily biodegradable organic waste conveying through predominantly anoxic and anaerobic conditions in well-insulated, below ground infrastructure. However, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories which states that In most developed countries and in high-income urban areas in other countries, sewers are usually closed and underground. Wastewater in closed underground sewers is not believed to be a significant source of CH4. This project attempts to understand CH4 evolution by measuring and modeling methane emissions from a few collections systems to confirm or refute the hypothesis supported by the IPCC. The report documents the research methodology, data collection effort, and results of the study. 194 pages. Online PDF. U4R07: Greenhouse Nitrogen Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Operation: Phase I Molecular Level through Whole Reactor Level Characterization Stock No. U4R07 This project is one of the first attempts to characterize nitrogenous greenhouse gas (N-GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment plants using a standard analytical approach to collect fullscale plant data from BNR facilities in the U.S. The results of this study will be integrated into
*These products are available to order on WERFs website at under Order Research Publications & Tools; by e-mail at or call Gina Street at 571-384-2112.

mechanistic activated sludge process models, which will be refined by the addition of autotrophic pathways for N2O and NO emissions. The refined mechanistic models will allow the wastewater industry to mitigate N2O and NO emissions from a range of wastewater treatment processes by understanding the pathways leading to N2O generation and emissions. With this understanding, the wastewater sector will be able to engineer strategies for wastewater treatment that minimize gaseous nitrogen oxide emissions. 170 pages. Soft cover, online PDF, and data file.

08-HHE-5PP: Pilot Testing: Surveillance and Investigation of the Illness Reported by Neighbors of Biosolids Land Application and Other Soil Amendments Stock No. 08-HHE-5PP This project (Phase II) field-tested and refined the Phase I draft protocol (Stock no. 06-HHE5PP) which was the highest ranked priority at the 2003 Biosolids Research Summit. Consequently, this project helps to lay the groundwork and framework for a surveillance and timely response investigation system implemented by multiple jurisdictions throughout the U.S. using a standardized investigation protocol which will benefit future stakeholders. The final protocol includes questionnaires administered to neighbors of land application, biosolids generators, and appliers. 430 pages. Online PDF. 08-HHE-5PP-p: Protocol for the Surveillance and Investigation of the Concerns Reported by Neighbors of Land Application (Biosolids and Other Soil Amendments) Stock No. 08-HHE-5PP-p This field-tested protocol includes a public health questionnaire that can be used to collect data on complaints of alleged health symptoms, nuisance odors, or quality of life effects from neighbors of sites where biosolids, manure, and other materials are land applied. The protocol includes a generator questionnaire to characterize biosolids that were land applied and an appliers questionnaire to document methods of application. Additionally, two site investigation reports that can be used to locate, describe, and characterize the land application sites of concern are included.64 pages. Soft cover and online PDF. SRSK3R08a: Calibrating the SMART Biosolids Model and Applying it to Fault Scenarios Stock No. SRSK3R08a This report calibrates the groundwater transport pathway of the Spreadsheet Microbial Assessment of Risk: Tool for Biosolids (SMART Biosolids) to data obtained from field monitoring of wet weather events. The calibrated model is then applied to a wide variety of fault scenarios including, for example, Class B treatment failure. The estimated risks associated with these scenarios are compared with estimated frequencies of occurrence found by a survey of biosolids land application practitioners to identify the scenarios of greatest concern. This provides validation of the model against field data for improved parameter estimates that more accurately reflect the broad range of conditions found in the field. The report identifies and prioritizes potential faults for land application allowing training and quality assurance programs to focus on the high-priority scenarios. A revised version of the model incorporates this additional information. 112 pages. Online PDF.

*These products are available to order on WERFs website at under Order Research Publications & Tools; by e-mail at or call Gina Street at 571-384-2112.

WERF2T11: Geologic Map and Permitting Roadmap for Biosolids and Brine Injection Stock No. WERF2T11 The placement of wastewater residuals into the deep subsurface offers an alternative form of biosolids and brine management to the currently used surface disposal practices. This project resulted in the creation of a user-friendly map of the U.S. and southern Canada that shows areas with geologic strata appropriate for large-scale biosolids and brine injection. The report includes a guidance document that summarizes state-by-state regulatory requirements for permitting of brine and biosolids injection, and a case study of the City of Los Angeles T.I.R.E. (Terminal Island Renewable Energy) facilitys pathway to gain public support and approval of their project. An interactive map was created using Google Earth software (required for use) and the results accompany this report in both a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file and a compressed KMZ zipped file. The map contains three layers, one that displays all major sedimentary basins, one that illustrates the locations for the top 80 WWTPs with the highest municipal daily flow rates, and one which describes state perspectives on biosolids and brine injection. 82 pages. Online PDF.

Trace Organic Compounds in Biosoilds

CEC4R08: Trace Organic Compound Indicator Removal during Conventional Wastewater Treatment Stock No. CEC4R08 Interest still remains in evaluating the occurrence and removal of trace organics compounds (TOrC) during conventional wastewater treatment due to few unanswered questions. TOrC comprise various groups of compounds including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, food additives, and other high production chemicals. Due to the number and variety of compounds present in municipal wastewater influents and effluents, guidance is needed for assessing the removal efficiencies for a wide range of TOrC in conventional treatment. The objective of this study was to identify a small number of suitable performance indicators that allow for a rapid characterization of performance efficiency of conventional wastewater treatment facilities and focused primarily on investigating the performance of activated sludge treatment processes. 358 pages. Online PDF. CEC4R08a: Actiflo Carb Process in the Removal of Pharmaceutical and PPCPs and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Within a Conventional Wastewater Treatment Line (Supplemental Report) Stock No. CEC4R08a Some trace organic compounds (TOrC) have poor removal in traditional primary and secondary treatment processes and information is limited on the fate of these compounds in the environment. In this WERF collaborative study, Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) and Veolia Water Milwaukee (VWM) partnered with University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Dr. Rebecca Klaper in 2009-10 to assess the occurrence of a large variety of TOrC at successive stages of wastewater treatment and in the environment (Lake Michigan for instance). Study findings demonstrated that the average final removal of all compounds across all treatment dates was 56%, with a wide variation in the removal rates across compounds. The researchers then evaluated the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater effluent using Actiflo Carb and found that the average PPCPs

*These products are available to order on WERFs website at under Order Research Publications & Tools; by e-mail at or call Gina Street at 571-384-2112.

removal rate across all compounds and treatment conditions reached 75%. 36 pages. Online PDF. TOBI1T11: Gathering Unpublished Data for Compounds Detected in Biosolids Stock No. TOBI1T11 Building on WERFs 2010 report, State-of-the-Science Review of Occurrence and Physical, Chemical, and Biological Processes Affecting Biosolids-borne Trace Organic Chemicals in Soils, the goal of this research was to assemble high-quality, unpublished data on specific trace organic compounds detected in biosolids. The study compiled data on physical-chemical, environmental fate, ecotoxicology, and mammalian toxicology endpoints. These findings can be used to support risk evaluations, narrow the list of compounds and data gaps for subsequent research. 154 pages. Online PDF.

INFR2SG09: Web-Based Decision Support Tools for Selection of Condition Assessment and Rehabilitation Methods for Laterals Stock No. INFR2SG09 This project developed an informative web-based portal that provides sewer agencies and property owners with current information on sewer lateral condition assessment and inspection techniques, repair and rehabilitation methods, legal and financial issues, and a forum for resolving related issues. The report serves as a descriptive guidance manual for the laterals decision support tool web portal (available at 62 pages. Online PDF and web-based portal. INFR3SG09: Stormwater Non-Potable Beneficial Uses and Effects on Urban Infrastructure Stock No. INFR3SG09 This project shows that lessons learned from international stormwater beneficial use projects cover a range of conditions that can be found in the U.S. The research examined case studies from developing countries in arid and wet climates, from developed countries in areas where future water conservation is necessary to support continued growth, and from developed countries where sustainable use of natural resources is a priority. Water quality degradation associated with different storage options was reviewed, along with different water treatment options to meet the needed finished water quality before use. The report provides guidance on how to determine the amount of supplemental landscape irrigation needed from stored stormwater, and how to calculate needed tankage volumes for locations in the U.S. The report calculates the beneficial use opportunities of stormwater, especially landscaping irrigation, in different areas of the country, along with continuous modeling results for the development of production functions for tankage volume alternatives. 244 pages. Online PDF. INFR4SG09c: Development of the Integrated Urban Water Management Tool Stock No. INFR4SG09c The Integrated Urban Water Management Tool (IUWM) is a mass balance model that provides a tool for water managers to forecast water demand, waste, and associated costs for different water management scenarios. This report serves as a users manual for the IUWM desktop application model. It includes details of the how the model carries out computations and also includes a short tutorial and more detailed instructions for use of the model. The short tutorial mirrors the Quickstart walkthrough utility which is included in the application and acts as a guide

*These products are available to order on WERFs website at under Order Research Publications & Tools; by e-mail at or call Gina Street at 571-384-2112.

to helping a new user to become acquainted with the process of creating a project, making adjustments, and running simulations. The detailed portion of the manual explores more advanced features of the model. 112 pages. Online PDF and web-based model. INFR4SG09d: A Review of Advanced Sewer System Designs and Technologies Stock No. INFR4SG09d This report provides a comprehensive summary of advanced sewerage system design and technology. It contains information on how the various designs and technologies work, their cost and performance, advantages and disadvantages, locations where the design or technology is in use, and identification of manufacturers of the various technologies. 164 pages. Online PDF. INFR5SG09a: 21st Century Water Municipal Issues and Concerns Stock No. INFR5SG09a Communities are looking to green infrastructure as a means of meeting not only stormwater management objectives, but multiple environmental, social, and economic goals. This report includes a discussion of low impact development, green infrastructure, and the materials available to guide officials, regulators, and managers. It includes information gathered from a Clean Water America Alliance (CWAA) Urban Water Sustainability Council (UWSC) meeting and provides the perspectives of the challenges faced by six municipalities on the forefront of implementing green infrastructure for wet weather management. The report reviews the criteria, metrics, and protocols being used to measure integrated systems. 38 pages. Online PDF. INFR5SG09b: Tools for Evaluating the Benefits of Green Infrastructure for Urban Water Management: Informational Brief Stock No. INFR5SG09b Communities are looking to green infrastructure as a means of not only meeting stormwater management objectives, but multiple environmental, social, and economic goals. Rather than viewing water infrastructure in isolation or as an after-the-fact means of responding to a flooding or public health crisis, todays urban planners are striving to integrate water treatment into their sustainable development goals. This informational brief reviews the criteria, metrics, and protocols being used to measure such integrated systems. It provides overviews for two analysis methods gaining popularity in the urban planning field life cycle cost analysis and triple bottom line as they apply to stormwater and urban water management and outlines some of the practical challenges encountered when collecting data and measuring for performance. 46 pages. Online PDF. INFR6SG09: Demonstrating Advanced Oxidation with Biodegradation for Removal of Carbamazepine Stock No. INFR6SG09 This study evaluated the combination of ultraviolet plus hydrogen peroxide (UV-H2O2)-based advanced oxidation and biodegradation to enable carbamazepine removal; specifically, to determine whether the products of the advanced oxidation of carbamazepine can be further biodegraded by activated sludge microbial communities. The research indicates that AOP treatment followed by a biological degradation process at wastewater treatment plants (either via engineered processes such as biofiltration or through constructed wetlands downstream of the effluent) may be able to achieve a significant level of CBZ mineralization. 38 pages. Online PDF.

*These products are available to order on WERFs website at under Order Research Publications & Tools; by e-mail at or call Gina Street at 571-384-2112.

INFR7SG09: Automatic Vacuum Flushing Technology for Combined Sewer Solids: Laboratory Testing and Proposed Improvements Stock No. INFR7SG09 This report summarizes the results from theoretical research and laboratory work performed to test the viability of the U.S. EPA vacuum flush system. This was an innovative design that aimed to provide a solution for automatic flushing of sewer and combined sewer overflow systems without the use of moving or submerged parts and the modifications made to improve its operation. The report includes a review of current sewer sediment flushing technologies. 62 pages. Online PDF. INFR8SG09: Treatment Processes for Removal of Wastewater Contaminants Stock No. INFR8SG09 This research investigated the degree of association of two representative emerging contaminants, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and nonylphenols, with various colloidal sizes and to determine the removal efficiency of these colloids in wastewater treatment plants. One important implication of colloid-enhanced membrane removal of ARGs, nonylphenol, and other emerging contaminants is the potential for cost and energy savings. If emerging contaminants associate with wastewater colloids, they do not require membranes with the tightness necessary to remove them were the colloids absent. Thus, any potential public and environmental health risks may be reduced using looser membranes which have a lower energy demand. 142 pages. Online PDF.

Strategic Asset Management

SAM1R06g: Towards an Economic Decision Methodology for Remaining Asset Life: Research Roadmap Stock No. SAM1R06g The objective of this research is to contribute to the development of techniques, tools, and methods for estimating performance and residual life of assets. It provides insights into an economic approach to decision making, applicable at multiple scales and in utilities of different levels of asset management sophistication. The researchers suggest a roadmap for building an asset management decision support framework based on economic principles, specifically focuses on sewers, and lays the foundation for further research into this area. Published by WERF. 70 pages. Online PDF. SAM3R06a: Predicting the Remaining Economic Life of Wastewater Pipes Phase II: Development of a Robust Wastewater Pipe Performance Index Stock No. SAM3R06a The objective of this research was to develop protocols and methods for predicting the remaining economic life of wastewater pipes. The researchers include an analysis of data from participating utilities and develop a robust wastewater pipe performance index that includes physical, operational, environmental, and other parameters for pipe segments and the entire pipe system. Two performance models were developed, a structural and a functional index. The indexes provide asset management practitioners information on remaining asset life, improving the confidence in determining the appropriate repair, rehabilitation, or replacement decisions. Published by WERF. 234 pages. Online PDF.

*These products are available to order on WERFs website at under Order Research Publications & Tools; by e-mail at or call Gina Street at 571-384-2112.

SAM5C08: Key Asset Data for Drinking Water and Wastewater Utilities Stock No. SAM5C08 This project created a list of terms and a classification system that explains key drinking water and wastewater system assets and performance indicators in order to promote continued development of asset management programs. The project focused on appropriate critical asset data necessary for asset management. In addition to the final report, the project produced Microsoft Word documents that include a generic asset hierarchy list, performance indicators for drinking water assets, performance indicators for wastewater assets, and a glossary related to key drinking water and wastewater system assets, including above and below ground assets. These templates can be modified to meet users unique asset management programs, goals, and objectives. Published by the Water Research Foundation and WERF. 175-page online PDF and templates are available at

*These products are available to order on WERFs website at under Order Research Publications & Tools; by e-mail at or call Gina Street at 571-384-2112.