You are on page 1of 453

No.

1914

THE

JOURNAL
OF THE

INSTITUTE
VOLUME

OF
XII

METALS

EDITED

BY

G.

SHAW

SCOTT,
Secretary

M.Sc.

{Right of Publication

and

Translation

is

reserved)

LONDON

PUBLISHED
CAXTON

BY

THE

INSTITUTE

OF

METALS
S.W.

HOUSE,

WESTMINSTER,
1914

Copyright]

[Entered

at

Stationers'

Hall

MAY

I.ECTURERS

(See

Frontispiece)

Professor

W.

GowLAND,

A.R.S.M.,

F.R.S.,

"The

Art

of

Working

Metals

in

Japan."

{Journal

of

the

Institute

of

Metals,

No.

2,

1910,

vol.

iv.)

Dr.

G.

T.

Beilby,

F.R.S.,

"The

Hard

and

Soft

States

in

Metals."

[Journal

of

the

Institute

of

Metals,

No,

2,

1911,

vol.

vi.)

Sir

J.

Alfked

Ewing,

KC.B.,

F.R.S.
,

"

The

Inner

ture Struc-

of

Simple

Metals."

{Journal

of

the

Institute

of

Metals,

No.

2,

1912,

vol.

viii.)

1^

THE

INSTITUTE

OF

METALS

President.

Engineer

Vice-Admiral

Sir

H.

J.

Oram,

K.C.B., F.R.S.,

London.

Past=Presiden

ts.

Sir W.

H.

White,
Sir Professor

K.C.B., LL.D., D.Eng., Sc.D., F.B.S., London


Gerard W.
A.

(deceased).

A.

Muntz,

Bart., Birmingham,

Gowland,
K.

F.R.S., A.R.S.M., London. A.R.S.M.,


London.

Professor

Huntington,

Honorary
T. A.

Treasurer. Norton.

Bayliss, King's
Vice-Presidents.

G. G.

T. A.

Beilby,
Boeddicker H.

LL.D.,

F.R.S.
. . .

'

Glasgow.
Birmingham.
London.

Professor

C.

H.

Carpenter,

M.A.,

Ph.D.

Summers J. T.

Hunter

Tynemouth.
London.

Milton
T.

Professor

Turner,

M.Sc,

A.R.S.M.
.

Birmingham,

Members

of

Council.

L.

Archbutt A.

Derby..
Barr,
D.Sc.

Professor A. G. R. W. The
Arnold

Glasgow. Glasgow.
Horwich.

Cleghorn
Hughes
.

S. HUTTON, Murray
Hon.

D.Sc.
.

Sheffield. London.

Morrison

Sir

C.

A.

Parsons,
A.R.S.M.

K.O.B.,

F.R.S

Newcastle-on-Tyn"
Portsmouth. London.

Philip, B.Sc,
K.

Sir
W. A. Sir

T.

Rose,

D.Sc.

ROSENHAIN,
E. W. Seaton E.

D.Sc,

F.R.S.

Teddington.
London. London. Manchester.
Sheffield.

Smith,
M.Sc.
Wilson

C.B.

L.

Sumner,
H.

Cecil

Hon. G.

Auditor.

Secretary.
G. Shaw

G.

Poppleton,
Address"
"

C.A., Birmingham.
Instomet,
Vic. London."

Scott, M.Sc.
"

Telegraphic
The

Telephone

Victoria,

IZiO.

Institute Caxton

of

Metals, Westminster,
S.W. December 1914.

House,

CONTENTS.

SECTION

I."

MINUTES

OF

PROCEEDINGS.
PAGE

May
Vote

Lecture
.......

1
to

of Thanks

Professor
......

Heyn

1
....

Election
"

of Members Strains in 1914

Internal

Cold-wrought
May
Lecture.

Metals,

and

some

Troubles

caused
3

thereby."
Statutory
Council Vote

By

Professor

E.

Heyn

Meeting
for 1915
.

38 39

of Thanks

to

retiring

Treasurer

40 41 43

Election

of Members of Papers of

Acceptance

Expression

Sympathy

with

Belgium
conteibutkd
by

43

Papers
"

Members. and Metals."

The

Widmanstatten N. T. Belaiew

Structure
.......

in various

Alloys

By Captain
46

Communications
"

on

Captain
of Hanson

Belaiew's
at
.....

paper

50

The

Tensile

Properties
and D.
on

Copper

High
and

Temperatures."
Hanson's

By

G.

D
56

Bengough
Communications
"

Messrs. 460" C.

Bengough
in Zinc-copper paper

paper

77 F. Hudson 89 101 111 115

The

Critical

Point

at
on

Alloys."
....

By

O.

Communications
"

Mr.

Hudson's of Brass."

Note

on

the

Annealing
on

By
paper
.....

F. Johnson
....

Communications
"

Mr. R.
on

Johnson's K. Morcom the

Metal The

Spraying."
Effect of

By

116 of Gold."
....

"

Hydrogen
on

Annealing
paper of Corrosion. Arnold

By

John

Phelps
Condenser

125 131

Communications "Contributions
to

Mr.

Phelps'
By

the

History
Mr.

Part

III.

"

Coke,

Tubes,

and

Corrosion."
on

Philip
....

133 154

Communications
"

Philip's paper
Metals." paper when

The

Surface

Tension
on

of Molten Mr.

By
....

Sydney
in

W.

Smith
.

168
210

Communications
'"

Smith's

Behaviour

of

Copper-zinc
and
on

Alloys

heated
....

Vacuum."

By

W 214

Thorneycroft
Communications

Thomas Messrs.

Turner

Thorneycroft
by

and

Turner's

paper

226
.

Notes
"

contributed

Members. Lake

The

Extraction H. C. H. of

of

Native

Copper
.......

at

Calumet,

Superior,

U.S.A."

By
230

Carpenter Temperatures
and its A.

"

The

Elf ect

higher
and
a

than

Atmospheric
with

on

Tensile

Tests

of and 234

Copper
Steel." "The Heat

Alloys,
K. of

Comparison
......

Wrought
H. S. Primrose

Iron

By

Huntington Admiralty
.......

Treatment
to

Gun-metal."

By

254 257 260

Additions

the

Library

Obituary

..........

VI

Contents

SECTION FERROUS

II."

ABSTRACTS METALS

OF AND

PAPERS THE

RELATING INDUSTRIES

TO

THE CONNECTED

NON-

THEREWITH.

The

Propeeties

of

Metals

and

Alloys

I. Properties of metals

Absorption

of of

lightby

copper

films
.

AUotropy Annealing
Atomic

common

metals copper

cold-rolled and

homology Capacity of bare copper conductors Catalytic influence of gold surfaces Cobalt and its possibilities Colouring aluminium Complexity of lead
.

heat

molecular

Conductors Contact

without

resistance of

differences
curves

potential

Cooling
Corrosion

of metal

of zinc selenium of copper

Crystallineform of Crystallinestructure of copper Elasticity


Electrical Hall conduction effect at low

at

high temperatures
and chromium

temperatures
manganese

Magnetic propertiesof Melting point of arsenic


Metals under
and stress

Palladium

hydrogen
rare

Passivity of metals Preparation of


Production of elements
vacua

high

by

means

of copper

Pyrophoric
Reduction Resistance Resistance Solutions

metals

of oxides
of

by carbon
in
a

antimony
in

of nickel of metals
at

magnetic field magnetic field


a
.

in acids

Specific heats

low

temperatures
deformation

of resistance Temperature-coefficient Thermo-electric forces produced by Tungsten preparation


....

Volatilization II.

of metals

at

very

high temperatures

Properties of alloys

....

Admiralty gun-metal, high temperature Ageing of silver-tin alloys


Aluminium

tests

alloys alloys after quenching


and and arsenic cadmium for alloy
.

Annealing
Bismuth Bismuth Calcium

carbide

preparation

Contents

Vll

PAGE

alloys amalgams Conductivity of sodium brass Cracking of drawn Electrical conductivity of liquidalloyis and its dangers Ferro-silicon
....
.

Cobalt

285 285 285 287 288 288

Growth Hall

of eutectics effect in Heusler's and

Hardness

Intermetallic Lead Modern Potassium Silver and and

alloys of copper-nickelalloys elasticity compounds in the state of vapour


of non-ferrous rubidium

289 289 290 291

arsenic

views and

alloys

291
.

alloys
and intermetallic

292 293

silver

sulphide compounds

Specificheat Specificheat
Thermo-electric Titanium

of metals

293 294

of solid solutions power of selenides


.

294 294

alloys
oxidation
.

Type

metal

294 295 295 295 295 296 surface

Zinc-silver-lead III. Industrial Aluminium Aluminium Aluminium

alloys

applications and steel ingots in automobile industry


.

network of
a

feeders

Application
Babbitt and

protective metal

by spraying

296 297 299 299 299 300 300 300 300 300 301 301 302

bearing metals and alloys of metals Bronzing and cast iron bearings Bronze machine Cold striprolling Copper-coil forming machine holes in glass Copper for drilling brass cup circular a Drawing
other
. .

Firebox Gas-heated Hand Hot

riveting device

soldering iron tool for curling aluminium galvanizing


boiler tubes
a

Locomotive

Making
Metals

the

dies for

drawn

copper

shell

303 304 304 30(5 306 307

Manufacture
and

of seamless

tubes

alloys for die


mixtures

Making

half-round

castings polished brass moulding


.

Non-ferrous

Schoop processes of Separation of bismuth


Standard Standard Steam

metallization from copper


.

308 308 309 309 310 310 310 311

specifications for bearings in railway waggons specification for copper unions


turbine blades
.

tubes Straightening aluminium uses Tungsten Useful annealing device Wire rings for leaky stuffing-boxes
. .

Vlll

Contents

ELECTRO-METALLURGy I.

AND

ElECTRO-CHEMISTRY

Electro-metallurgy Deposition
Electrical Nickel of nickel
treatment
on

aluminium of copper
ores

Electrolytic

soldering electro-deposit
.

Plating in Stripping
Treatment Zinc II.

colours of

plated goods
ores

of tin

by electricity

electro-metallurgy

Electro-chemistry
Alaska
as

site for electro-chemical

industries

preparation of Alloys,electrolytic
of Brass, electro-deposition

Bronze, electrolytic preparation of Cadmium,


Device Nickel for of electro-deposition cleaning silver

solutions

Nickelling of aluminium
Power for

deposition electrolytic

of Zinc, electro-deposition

Analysis,
I.

Testing,
....

and

Pyrometry

Analysis

Aluminium,

detection

of

Antimony, qualitative recognition of of antimony sulphide Composition for nickel Dimethylglyoxime method
Electrode for zinc estimation
. .

of nickel Electro-deposition

Electrolytic analysisof copper and brass methods Electrolytic micro-chemical Electrolytic separation of copper
Free Iron and arsenic

cyanide
and

estimation

in

plating solutions separation


.

manganese

groups

Metallography
New

in three

dimensions

colorimetric

process

Phosphorus in phosphor bronze Pyrophoric alloys analysis Titanium separation from iron, aluminium, Tinplate sampling and analysis Tungsten metal analysis in coinage bronze Zinc estimation
II. Testing Brinell
....

and

phosphorus

hardness limits

tests

Fatigue
Density
Effect

of metals
in metals

Crystal formation
of molten of

metals
zinc

impurities in

Contents

IX

PAGE

Hardness

determination sclerometer
.

333 334 metal foil 334 335 335

Improved Lead-copper bearing


Manufacture

of aluminium

Testing Testing
III.

of metals metallic

coatings
using
resistance thermometers

335 336

Pyrometry
Combination and

portable testing set


pyrometers
thermometer
.

336 33G
.

Recording pyrometers
Resistance Furnaces I.

338 339 339

and

Foundry

Methods

Furnaces Aluminium

nitride

as

furnace

lining

339 339 340


341

metals Annealing furnace for non-ferrous non-ferrous metals and casting Melting Melting points of refractory materials New lead furnace

341 furnace 341 342 342 furnace


.

Portable

lead-melting
combustion

Refractory materials
Sui-face

Tilting reverberatory
Zirconia II.
as a

343 343 344

refractory material

Foundry
Abrasives
Accurate

....

grinding wheels patternmaking flask Adjustable aluminium snap Brass foundry difficulties Brass foundry losses metal Elastic and vulcanite cutting Electro-magnetic
hammer

and

344 344 345 345 345 wheels


346

346 347
347

Graphite High-pot die-casting machine High-speed cold saw Improved tube cutter Magnetic separator
.
.

347 347 347 348


.

Making
Method Neutral

heavy
of coke

bronze

valves

making phosphor-tin
Diehl-Faber process
.

349 349 350

Polishing
Problems Sound Tin

aluminium in the

castings

manufacture
.

of copper

alloy;

350 351 351

copper

castings

recoi'ery of metals
care

Treatment Use III. and

by compression

351 352 353

of crucibles

Electric Cascade Electric

Furnaces attachment for

graphite

furnace

353 354

annealing

furnace

Contents

page

Electric

furnace

efficiency
furnace furnaces

355 355 355


357

Laboratory Large

crucible

electrical

smelting
for

Protective Small Statistics Aluminium American American Canada's Colorado German Metal Mineral
Utah

coating
arc

electrodes for

electric

furnace

melting

and

refining

357 359

......

in

India
....

359

aluminium
"

output
metals trade

359
.

secondary"

360 360

aluminium metal

production,
of

1913

360

exports
output
resources

composition
Dakota,
the 1913 non-ferrous world

metal,
1912 and

"c.
.

360 1913 361 361 362

of

South of

Belgian

Congo

metal

output,
of the

World's Zinc Bibliography

output output
.

metals

362 363 364

of

Subject Name

Index
.

372 383

Index

LIST

OF

PLATES.

Frontispiece:

May

Lectukers,

1910,

1911,

1912.
PAGE

Plate

I., Professor

T.

Turner,
1914

M.Sc,
......

A.R.S.M,,

Honorary

Treasurer,

190840

Plates Plate Plates

II. to

III., illustrating paper


discussion
on

by Captain Captain by
Messrs.

N.

T.

Belaiew

48 52 Hanson 72 96 112
.

IV.,
V.

illustrating
to

Belaiew's

paper and

VII.,
to

illustrating

paper

Bengough
0. F. A. F. Hudson

VIII. XIII.
,,

XII.,

illustrating illustrating

paper paper paper

by
by

Mr. Mr. Mr.

to to

XV., XVII.,
to

Johnson

XVI. XVIII.
"

illustrating

by by

Philip

152
.

XXI.,

illustrating note

Professor

Huntington

240

THE

INSTITUTE

OF

METALS

SECTION

I.

MINUTES

OF

PROCEEDINGS.

MAY

LECTURE.

At

General of

Meeting

of

the

Institute

held

at

the

tion Institu-

Mechanical

Engineers, Storey's Gate, Westminster,


12, 1914,

S.W.,

on

Tuesday, May
Oram, K.C.B.,
delivered

Engineer
President,

Vicein

Admiral
the

Sir

Henry

J,
E.

F.R.S.,
the

chair.

Professor

Heyn

fourth

May

Lecture.

The London
were

Minutes
on

of
17

the and

Annual

General

Meeting,
taken
as

held

in

March the

18,

1914,

were

read, and

signed by

Chairman.

Professor
of
"

E.

Heyn Strains

then
in

delivered

his

lecture

on

the
and

subject
Some will
be

Internal

Cold-wrought
a

Metals of

Troubles found
on

Caused pages

Thereby,"
3-37.

full

report

which

Vote The President


and it

of

Thanks

to

Professor

Heyn.

proposed,
was

and

Dr.

W.

Rosenhain,
that
his
a

F.R.S.,
vote

seconded,
of thanks

carried
to

unanimously,
E.

hearty

be

given

Professor

Heyn

for

lecture.

Election

of

Members.

The
who

Secretary
been

read

the

following list
Members of

of the

names

of candidates
:
"

had

duly

elected

Institute

Election

of

Members

The

proceedings

terminated

at

1 0

o'clock

p.m.

1914

May

Lecture

1914

MAY

LECTURE.*

INTERNAL

STRAINS

IN AND

COLD SOME

WROUGHT TROUBLES

METALS,
CAUSED

THEREBY.
By Professor E. HEYN
and

(Royal

Technical

Institute,
for

Charlottenburg,
Testing

Director

of

the

Royal

Prussian

Institute

Materials,

Berlin"

Lichterfelde).

In

the

first

place
the

desire
has

to

express

my upon

thanks
me

for

the

privilege your
me

Council

conferred

by inviting
I avail
to
some

to

deliver of the

myself
work

May lecture opportunity to


has been

before this Institute. direct


out

your

attention years

which

carried

in

recent

in

the

Gr, Lichterfelde, by my friend Konigl.Materialprlifungsamt, Bauer and Professor some myself with a view to clearing up of cold-wrought metals, peculiareffects in the behaviour which came to our knowledge and which caused much trouble to the practical engineer. deal The about to come phenomena with which I am internal strains." If portions of a solid under the heading of of solids formingtogether of a number or one are rigidmass from hindered which assuming the natural length, they would
"

assume

in the

absence

of

number

of solids is said may be

any load to be under

or

hindrance, this solid


The
strained forces

or

strain.

dition con-

brought about
any

(1) by

actingon

the solid

from the

outside
solid

(external forces); but


action
strains

strains

(2) without
external
"

observable has
"

also exist in may action from outside, or These latter strains I


to
"

after the define


as

ceased. the
solid

internal

is, so
secured

say,

self-

strained."
For bolts
as or

instance, all structural


rivets
as are

members

togetherby
or

selfstrained,since the bolts, nuts,


on

rivets,

well

the

surfaces
same

which
true

they
for

press,

are

elastically
members of

deformed.
which have

The been
*

holds

structural

coupled togetherby
Delivered

the process

shrinking

May

12, 1914,

at

Westminster.

1914

May

Lecture
strains have and been

on.

In

all these in the

cases

internal

intentionally
to possible

produced
estimate

structural

members,
for

it is

approximate amount be made designing provisionmay


internal external
power On

the

of these strains ;

besides, in

strains
loads

by

the

external

ones

during service, thus

partlybalancing the set up by the action of increasingthe resisting


set

of the the

member. is hand, if selfstraining

other

up

in structural

and without being provided for,and unintentionally if it so happens that the internal strains are added to the the member is strains caused by the external load which designed to bear in service, failure may be caused suddenly after repeatedloadingand unloading. It may even or happen

members

that

the

uncontrollable
come so

internal
to
a

strains

in

the of the

structural

member
that
to

close

the

tensile limit

material,

additional

strains of
I

give rise to fracture. affected by severe castings


insf, to
dished
from

suffice amount trifling may of need only refer to the explosion due to unequal coolself-straining very of boiler

the
or

sudden
in

failure
an

ends, which
and
so

have
on.

been Seen

treated

unsuitable

manner,

of point of view, internal strains appear as a source serious danger,or at least of serious troubles. of internal In order to illustrate more clearlythe nature The first of these shows strains,I refer to Figs. 1 and 2. helical springs, three unloaded I, V and II, with the respective and I and I') II). On lengths l^ (for springs l^(spring in connecting these springs by two cross-heads,Q, as shown the common /,which Fig. 2, they are forced to assume length, the springs I and V exceeds l^ and is less than l^. Hence in length elastically, giving rise to internal strain in grow and is tension, whereas spring II is compressed elastically, model thus subjectedto internal The compression strain. The of a self-strained system. illustrated by Fig. 2 is typical two springs I and V tend to bring the two cross-heads, QQ, each the to other with force P^,the spring II, on nearer a

this

other with
we
a

hand, tends
force

to

increase

the

distance

between

Q and

must

Pg. In order that equilibrium may have P^ + P^ Pg 0.


"

be established,

By closely consideringFig. 2

method

can

be

found

for

Internal

Strains

in Cohi-ivrouQ'htMetals
under internal

a system distinguishing

strains from

an

strained un-

one.

(")
initial

If in

the

model

strained

solid)the
distance
/ amount

Fig. 2 (model of a selftwo springsI and V are cut through,the cross-heads of the two Q will instantly
illustrated in

iThcrease to the

l^"l.
reversed
in

Fig. 2, that is to say, if the is in which unloaded springs I and I' be of equal length l^, selfof the length /.,of the unloaded springII, a new excess strained system will exist with the springs I and I' under through compressionand springII under tension. On cutting
(h) If things be
the
will

springs I and I' the the decrease,attaining

distance value

I of

the

two

cross-heads

less than /.^

/.

Z'6

Fig.

1.

Fig.

2.

(c) We
unloaded

have

to

consider

third
are

case,

in which

the

three After
cross-

springs I, V, combining them in the


heads,
a

and
manner

II

of

shown internal

equal length /. in Fig. 2 by two


is
no

model

free the

from
two

strains and

obtained.

On

cutting through
distance
The
I of the

springs I
will
ensue.

change of the
be

cross-heads made

appliedto of a rod of circular section illustrated in Fig. 3. the case as If the rod is free from internal strains the length / of the remain portion II must unchanged after the outer layerI is turned off on This would lathe. a correspondto the case (c). It is obvious that the measuring and re-measuring of the carried be out at length before and after turning must identical temperatures. Since in turning heat is generated,
(a)
to

deductions

under

(c) may

1914

May

Lechtre

sufficient time
assume

must

be

left after
as

turning for
the

the

piece II

to

the

same

temperature

before.

layer I the remaining portion II of the rod increases in length,the existence of case Then, in the originalbar, the portion I (a) is established. under tension, the portion II under was compression strains. after turning off the layer I, the portion II is If, finally, shortened, this corresponds to case ("); that is to say, in the under originalbar the layer I was compression and the core
If, however, after

taking

away

II under These been

tension. considerations
in
a

devised whether

the bar

give the key to a method, which has for ascertaining Konigl. Materialprlifungsamt,
or some

other

structural
idea

member of the

is self-

strained

or

not, and
of
as

also for

obtaining an
The

order

of

magnitude
in

the

internal
for

strains.

method
the in the

is illustrated

Figf.4
may

it is used be

determining
a

internal direction
on

strains,
of
two

which axis.

present in
a

round

bar

its
posite opare

The

distances

and

"/6' of marks

made

lines of the generating measured


/ between

surface cylindrical Over


.

of the

bar

by
the

the

aid

of

comparator.

definite
.

length
off
ah

marks

thin
each

successively. After
and
bar

f\ layers f\,f'^, is removed, layer


If

are

turned

the

distances

a%'
was

are

re-measured.
from

these

remain

unchanged,

the

free

they change, the


and
conclusions
:

longitudinalinternal strains. If,however, bar had been subjected to internal strains, be drawn to their magnitude in the as may
in the

followingway
Let

X^ be the average change after turning off" the respectively


of these
on,

distances

b and

a'b^

first

layer /'^, X^

the

change

the

is removed, and so layer/'., and moval X^^ the corresponding change after the refinally, of the layer /'",let E be the modulus of elasticity of material of the bar, /'" the sectional area of the "th layer distances after the

second

taken

off
of

f^'J), /',, and (A-^(f?\_i


-

/'"_i
after

the

sectional
the

areas

the
the

nth. and

remaining portion of the bar [n" l)th layerrespectively

turning off

1914

May
as

Lecture
absorbs and moisture from

made the

of

material

such
to
a

wood, which

air,giving rise
then

straining may
absorb

be

change of volume brought about, if


of moisture. the bar
a

length.
different

Self-

the

layers

different

amounts

(c) By transformation. If
consist of
a

(Fig. 3)

is

supposed to
of
a

material, which, within


transformation
if the
at

definite range
in the

perature, tem-

undergoes a
of volume, and does
not

accompaniedby

change
II

transformation
same

portionsI and
set

go

on

the
case

time, self-straining may


of

in, as

for instance clinker.

in the

cement swellingor disintegrating

Summarizing, we
in all
cases

may where

say

that

must self-straining
a

be
a

duced proof
a

portionsof
by
any
cause

solid

or

of
are

set

connected rigidly

solids

whatever

given

and when different lengths, by cohesive tendency to assume this tendency and are from forces they are hindered following to a common forced to length by elastic adapt themselves deformation. The latter is
an

essential feature.

If

we

could

of undergoing elastic solid incapable plastic imaginea perfectly

deformation,

the

differences

in
cause

length
would

induced
be

in

various

by any portionsof its mass leaving the yielding, plastic reached If the plastic yielding total fracture or limit,partial

equalized by
strains.

solid
a

free from

internal

degree exceedingthe cohesive would be brought about. filling Most of the materials used by the engineerare far from fuland cannot the condition of such perfect undergo plasticity,
without
are

deformation
when

concomitant

elastic deformation.
above of
a

Thus,

they

subjectedto
these

deformations
are

their elastic

range, and
in different

when

deformations

different

degree

of their mass by cohesive coupledtogether portions arise between forces, differences in length must neighbouring which can ing, yieldby plastic only partlybe equalized portions, by elastic deformation, leavinga remainder to be equalized
so

that internal strains


amount

must

be

the

unavoidable with

The

of

increases selfstraining
a

consequence. of the amount

elastic

equalizing. As

rule (not

the ratio of elastic deformation


of

quite without exception), accompanying a definite amount


increase of the

decreases yielding plastic


amount

with

temperature.

The

of internal

strains

therefore

will,other conditions

Internal

Strains

in Cold-ivronzlitMetals ^"

generallyincrease with decrease of temperature and will which flow is be more at unequal brought about, than in hot- working.* pronounced in cold-working It is the questionof internal strains caused hy cold work which I propose somewhat at length, to discuss more giving only occasional references to phenomena produced by hotsome working. Let the springs in Fig. 1 be replacedby three metallic bars of equal initial length, and which by different degreesof coldI the lengths /^(bars to working are permanently stretched and I')and /., of l^. Suppose the (bar II),l^ bemg in excess three bars coupled as in Fig. 2, so that they are forced to to the same equalize length /. A system with internal strains

being the

same,

will result.
A
out

similar
in the

eftect

can

be

obtained
as

on

unequally stretching

Fig. 3 so that the core II, the influence of a stronger degree of cold-stretching, under tends to assume the greater length l^, the outer layer whereas is inclined to I, subjectedto a less degree of cold-stretching, of the two take the length /^less than l^. On account tions porI and II being coupled togetherby cohesive forces,they must one common length /, thus giving rise to agree upon will be the case, the plastic internal strains,if,as generally of the is accompanied by a bar yielding of the substance In the case under concertain degree of elastic deformation. sideration, II the outer layer I is under tension, the core under compression strains. If,on the contrary, the portionI is subjected to more than the core II, severe cold-stretching is reversed ; compression strains result in the surface the case and tension strains in the core. layer,
cold
a

bar

such

in

The

former
work

case

is,as

far

as

can

be

deduced

from

the

perimental ex-

at

hand, realized by

the cold-drawing,

latter

and cold-hammering. In the process of drawing by cold-rolling the superficial layersof the metal are kept back by friction is stretched in a higher whereas in the drawing-die, the core however, the superficial degree. In cold-hammering, parts of
exception is, for instance, to be noted in the case of steel, for which the due to critical range for producing self-straining unequal flow is at the so-called
*

An

most
"

blue

heat," viz. about

200"

to

350" C.

10

1914

May

Lectmx effect of the

the the of

metal
core an

are

subjectedto
substance Thus the

the immediate
a

blows, part

of the

playingto
flow is

certain

degree

the

anvil.
in the

stronger in the surface


fact,that

layers

than

core. means a

It is

by

no

hitherto unknown strains in metallic

cold-working
Various this
bars say been

may

induce

internal made

substances.

observations

in

direction ; for instance in on being machined that the


wants question

practicalengineering pointed to metal the warping of cold-drawn


a

certain
much

way.

But

I venture

to

more

elucidation and
been been

than

has

brought

about

by occasional
causes

observations
have have
not
even

frequentserious
examined

troubles, the
and
as

of

which

and thoroughly, be

systematically misunderstood,
need

far

as

can

concluded

from

publications.I

only

Fig.

4.

make the

reference so-called
"

to

the various

theories
"

proposed with regard to


brass
to

season-cracking of
ascribed

and

other

copper

which alloys,

often has been

tion mysterious crystallizacertain persons. the results of real


be

phenomena, existing only in


I, therefore, am
measurements
to

the

fancy of
that
not

inclined of internal

to

think

strains

will

without

interest

those The

concerned
first case,

in the manufacture which gave the

of cold- worked
to

metals.
in

impetus

the

researches

the cracking of steam-turbine of blades made was question, high per cent, nickel steel (about 25 per cent.). The blades in Fig. 5, with rather fine edges on were shaped as shown both sides. not They were subjectedto external forces which

could

account

for

the
in

serious

crackinsr

on

the

side A

of

the
and

blades, as

illustrated

Fig. 5, nor
as

could
cause

microstructure of the

analysisgive

any

clue

to

the

failure.

The

Internal
blades had

Strains

in

Metals Cold-ivrought

11

received
In order

their final
to

shape by
idea
of bars

the

process

of

coldof

drawing.
of this

get

some

of

the

magnitude

internal strains in cold-drawn

alloywas
Nickel Carbon Silicon

procured with

the

nickel steel, a high: following analysis


Per
cent.

rod

25-1

0"3
0"2("
.......

Manganese Phosphorus Sulphur


Copper
........

0"73
0-012

0-022 0"070

The

hot

bar cylindrical forged in diameter


to

had

been

reduced

from

34

metres milli-

3 1 millimetres

without by cold-drawing
in section is

reheating ; intervening
2 0

the

reduction

per

the

jected portionA of the bar was subto the measuring method described above, in the diagram Fig.6. In results beingplotted
cent.

One

this the

ordinates, measured zero-line, indicate

on

both

sides of the
of

horizontal
the

the

magnitude
0-,^

longitudinalinternal
per square
in
a

stresses,

(in

grammes kilo-

in the centimetre)prevailing

bar original diameter in

layern cylindrical
internal
seem

of

external

and d,^_ ^
and f^,,_i/2

diameter

d^^(as shown
take
the
Fig.
5.

Fig.4).

It would

adequate,to

radii
the

as d^^j'2

abscissa?, defining
the bar. this the

position of the ?tth layer within diagram Fig. 6, however, the abscissie f
w

In

the
are

for

layer

and of the

,t_i
'

-"ri-i,
O

that

is

half

sectional and
n"

area

cores respective

left after the

layer n

have

been

turned

oK ^hc

Since
basis

/'" the
cd of cach

section

of the nth

'^^ f'n=fn-i"f"n
measures

half
ac
=

the

section

/'"
manner

of

the

ahcd rectangle n\\\ layer, and


stress

layer 6) (Fig.
the

ordinate

'bd

represents the internal


This

in this

layer.

prevailed of proceedingaffords the alh'cd'


the
stress

o-,^ which

and alcd areas advantage that the shaded diagram,representing together the product of of the ?ith layer in f',^ immediately indicate the internal

in

the

the

area

which forces

this

stress
=

by prevails,
o-,,

^n

^n'f'n-

The

12

1914

May
horizontal

Lecture
zero-Hne

shaded

areas

above

the

forces,those
the
must must

beneath

that

represent tension line compression forces. Since, in


tension and
area

state

of

the equilibrium,
one

compression
above
the

forces

balance be

another, the shaded


the

zero-line
sum

equal to
areas

shaded

area

below

this line.

The

of

the shaded
up in the

gives some

idea of the

potential energy
severe

stored

in consequence As will be seen from the bar

of its internal strains.

diagram Fig.6, very


bar in the

internal of its

strains

existed

in

the

cold-drawn

direction

((

Fig.
Portion

6. A.

"

Cold-drawn
"

Nickel

Steel Bar. Strains.

Distribntion

of Internal

axis, tension
the
to

strains in

the

outer

layers, compressive ones


tension centimetre
stress

in

central
3500

portions. The kilogrammes per


inch), the
per

maximum

amounted

per

square

square maximum

(about 50,000
to

lb.

compressive stress
(about 54,000

3810

kilogrammes
square
In

square the

centimetre

lb. per

inch).
order
to

check

employed, another
hour
at
a

of the measuring method accuracy bar Avas heated one portion B of the same
of

temperature
must

850"

C, and

left

to

cool

slowly.
result

Internal

strains

be

removed

by

this process.

The

Internal
of

Strains

in

Cold-wroughtMetals

13

subsequent measurements
that

is
areas

shows

the

shaded

given in diagram Fig. 7, which correspondingto the forces in


the of
bar
errors

of equilibriumwithin the mass small, indicatingthe magnitude method the assumption that no on left in the annealed
of

have

become

involved

by
have

very the been

strains whatever
none

bar, and

that

have

been

produced
in

by
the

the

manner

cooling.
to

It is obvious direction

that in addition
of

the

strains longitudinal

the

axis

of the

cold-drawn
In

bar, there
order
bar
to

must

also exist transverse

internal necessary
to

strains.
bore
out

measure

these, it would

be

the

from

within,
of the

taking off
outer

successive after

diameter

layersand measuring the removing each layer.

variation

Fig.

7." Cold-drawn
of Internal in

Nickel Strains

Steel Bar.
in the Bar per square after

Portion
at

B.

"

Distribution
C. per
(T"

850"

stresses

kilogrammes
14,200
lb. per

centimetre

annealing grammes (1000 kilo-

centimetre^

inch).

In the above-mentioned steel


measurements

turbine-blades internal the

of 25

per

cent,

nickelwere

of the that
A

strains longitudinal of internal of

made, which
stresses stresses

showed

maximum maximum

tension

at prevailed

(Fig.5), the
the
of
an

compressive
The internal
to

in the
stresses

neighbourhoodof
were

sharp edges.
not

tension ultimate

amount

much

inferior
that

the
even

tensile

strength of the steel.


stresses

It is obvious

additional trifling other


so

due

to

external
to

forces, or

to

any

cause,

may
to

raise

these

stresses

the

tensile limit and

giverise
It would
that

the cracks
erroneous

shown
to

in draw

Fig. 5.
the
was

be

conclusion unsuited

from

the

above

high per
it is the

cent,

nickel-steel

for turbine-

blading,since
material way without in which

to possible

manufacture

blades
Later
to.

of this
on

serious be

strains mentioned.
will be

the

this may

achieved

referred

14

1914

May

Lecture
be

ing given as to the meanof the strain diagrams,such as Figs.6 and 7. The stress ac (Fig.6) need not be constant throughout the layerccl, "T^ would from the staircase-like as shape of the shaded appear value of all the stresses areas, cr.^ indicates only the average in the layerccl. For instance,the curve ABA' in Fig.8 might

Some

additional

information

may

be assumed
the bar

to

represent the
consideration.

true

distribution

of stresses

within

under

This

true

curve

could

only

be

Fig.

8.

found removed these

if experimentally

the

number

of the the

successive

la3'ers
of be

by turning were

infinite and

thickness which

of each
cannot

layers infinitesimal,a

requirement

of the met. If, for instance, the sectional area practically outer layer I be f\, as shown in Fig. 8, the average value of EH of the be found stress equal to the ordinate CG (Tj would bution erected on the base CH=/'i/2. In fact the distrirectangle
=

of stresses

within

the

sectional
in the in

area

/'i2
film of the

is the

represented

by
CA

the may

curve

ADF.

Thus,

surface
excess

high

stress

exist,which

is much

average

value

16

1914 The the

May

Lecture

the press

core.
on

outer
core

boring portionsof

layerI of the section of the bar must like a ring shrunk on (Fig. 10). If by the core removed, the outer are ring I can

t"

Fig.

10.

yield to its tendency involvinga decrease of


the
measurements
are

to

assume

smaller

diameter, thus
results of

the

outer

diameter

d^^. The

tabulated

below

Since diameter been

after
the

boring

out

greater part relieved,it may be concluded


no

of millimetres 16 to up of the internal strains must that the

inner have

would cylinder
mercury
case.

solution. For similar

remaining hollow dipped in a longer develop cracks when The experiment proved this to be the bar reasons a portion of the cold-drawn

Internal
no

Strains

in

Cold-wroughtMetals
after the

1 7

longer splitup in the solution surface layerby turning down to an


millimetres.
It
was

removal diameter

of of

outside

15

also of interest
in the cold-drawn

to

determine
bar

the

internal longitudinal
above. The

strains is

mentioned

result

As was to be expected, plottedin the diagram Fig. 11. the outer layers proved to be subjectedto tension,the central to compression. It must be noted core here that the maxi-

1500

Fig.

11.
;

"

Round

Bar,

Cold-drawn.
cent. ;

Copper, 57
Distribution

8 per cent.

Zinc, 40'8 per


Five

Lead, 135
left the

per cent.

of Internal

Strain

Days

after the Bar

Drawing-plate.
at
some

mum

tension from

is not and it,

immediately at
amounts to

the surface,but
1575

distance
per

about

square

centimetre

(22,400
jBve

measurements

began
to
see

days
any

lb. per square after the bar

kilogrammes inch). The


had left the

drawing-die.
In order

whether
would be
same

internal

stresses

change in brought about


cold-drawn

the distribution
in
course was

of

of time,
re-tested
B

another

portion of

the

bar

18

1914

May
rest

Lecture
for
two

I
years.
The

after the

having
measurement

been

left at is shown

result

of

diagram Fig. 12, which that some would to indicate seem change in the distribution of tension has been having brought about, the maximum assumed somewhat a higher amount, viz. 1870 kilogrammes centimetre (26,600 lb. per square inch),and the per square
in

the

2000

Fig.

12.
;

"

Round

Bar, Cold-drawn.
40'8 per after
cent. the ;

Copper,
Distribution

57 "8 per

cent.

Zinc,

Lead,
had

1-35

per

cent.

of Internal

Strain

Two

Years

Bar

left the

Drawing-plate.

location

of The
to

this
forces
2520

maximum

layer. Fig. 11
the
at

having shifted in equilibrium, amounting kilogrammes (shaded area


decreased
to

to

the

surface
case

in the
on one

of
of

side

horizontal
the

have zero-line),
years

2290

kilogrammes

end

of two

that of

the

potential energy
I wish
to

to show (Fig.12). This would seem in course did not change materially

time.

postpone

definite conclusions
until

as

to

the the

changes brought

about

by time,

the

results

of

Internal
continued
are

Strains

in Cold-wrouQ-Jit Metals
more

19

experiments after
effect of
1500

prolonged intervals
bar
at

of time

at

hand.

The

heating the

cold-drawn

various

tem-

Fig.

1;1

"

Round

Bar, Cold-drawn.
cent.
at

Copper, 57

8 per

cent.

Zinc, 40-8 per


three hours

Lead,

1-35 per cent.

Reheated

1G0" C.

peratures
and 14.

may The

be

seen

by comparing
refers
to
a

the

Diagrams
bar
same

11, 13,
in its

former the second

to

the

cold-drawn
the

state, original
I
soo

portion of

bar

after

I
^
t

^^

I ^
I
I
^
500 3 Z
I

0/23

Fig.

14.

"

Round

Bar, Cold-drawn.
40"8 per
cent.
at ;

Copper, 57

"0 per

cent.

Zinc,

Lead, 1-35 per

cent.

Reheated

three

hours

230" C.

three

hours'

reheating at
three hours' the results

160"

C, and

the

third

to

another

portion after
summarizes
of

reheating at 230" C, Fig. 15 the temperatures obtained by plotting


as

reheating as

abscissoe,and

ordinates

the

maximum

20

1914

May

Lecture
the in

internal

tensions

(+
of

o-"^^^ ) and
areas

forces

in

kilogrammes
and
curve

by the represented side lying on one

shaded the

Diagrams 11, 13,


zero-line.

14,
P

horizontal

The

0
"

100
of

200

300

"C

"

Temperature
Round

REHEfiTtNG

Fig.

15.

"

Bar, Cold-drawn.'
cent. ;

Copper, 57 '8
Effect of three
"\

per

cent.

Zinc, 40'8 per


at

Lead,
on

1'35 per
the

cent.

hours'

Reheating
in bar. of

Various
stress

Temperatures

Internal

Strains.

Maximum = -t-(rinax. P
=

tension

Ordinates ^ Abscissas.
"

Forces the

kilogrammes,

which

(kilogrammes per square centimetre). in equilibrium within the mass are


C.

of

Temperatures

reheating. Degrees

illustrates the

decrease

in

potentialenergy
be

in

the

bar

by

reheating. From Fig. 15 may gradually relieves the internal


becomes

concluded

that that

reheating
this limit effect
at t.,.

strains, and
the

apparent

much

below

temperature

Internal
which the effect of

Strains

in Cold-ivrous'ht Metah "?"


'

2 1

cold-working(increasein
decrease of

tensile

strength,
graph (mono-

increase

and of elastic limit,

is perfectly elongation)
of Kudriumow

removed. of under The below

Accordingto the researches that limit alloys) copper-zinc


from
for about

consideration,range

would, for the t,. 200" to 400" C.


hours
at

alloy

specimens reheated
100"
C. showed

three

temperatures

cracking,when dipped in mercury solution,whereas specimens reheated three hours at 100" C. stood the dipping test without cracking. and more facts revealed by the experiments dealt with in the The of importance for the manufacturer are paragraphs preceding demand of cold-drawn metals, since often specifications high which of tensile strength, be obtained amounts can only by and the other hand, too since, on severe cold-working, high be avoided for the sake of a degree of internal strain must of the manufactured the safety products.
In order
to

corroborate

the

effect of
be

heatingon
to

cold-drawn
to

metals, as shown
made
with

above, I may
a

allowed which

refer been

ments experireduced

steel round

bar

had

millimetres in diameter to 39 by cold-drawing from 41*5 of sectional area millimetres (reduction by about 1 2 per cent.). effected for four hours at 100", 200", 300", Reheating was 400", 450", and 500" C. with subsequent slow cooling. The results of internal strain-measurements somewhat are irregular, bar evidently had been straightened since the cold-drawn in unknown some Avay, which gave additional strains arranged
to the axis of the bar, and varying over its unsymmetrically the general effect length. Notwithstanding this irregularity,

of

reheatingmay be seen in being in equilibrium


in
some

from the
mass

Fig. 16,
of of
to

in which

the forces P

the

bar, and

ing correspondstored up with


at

way

to

the

amount

potential energy

in it,are
as

plottedas
The

ordinates internal
and

the

reheatingtemperatures
gradually decrease
a

abscissae.

strains reach

increasing temperature
500"

very

low

amount

C,

the

temperature
may be

limit

t, for
to

removing

the

effect of

cold-working.
Some

remarks

devoted

the

of the spontaneous cracking of cold- worked without often occurs any perceptible cause,

very serious question metals. This cracking


in especially

22

1914

May

Lecture
tin-bronze,

cold-worked
cent,
severe

brass, aluminium-bronze,
so

high
affected
after

per

and nickel-steel, internal


been
;
a
"

on,

if these

metals

are

strains.

have

subjected to phenomenon

Cracking may occur long wards cold- working,sometimes years afteris generally which, in the literature,

by they

termed

season-crackinsf,"
10000
o

6000

f^9
6000

9000

^_^

2000

/OO
"""

zoo

300 OF

900

500'C

TeMPafif\TUR"
Steel Round per
;

ReHEATINC

Fig.

16.
;

"

Bar, Cold-drawn.

Carbon,

0'29

per

cent.

Silicon, 008

Phosphorus,
Effect of four hours'

0"03i per
the

cent.
at

Manganese, 0*98 Sulphur, 0"04g per cent.


cent. ;

per

cent.

Reheating
which
are

the

Temperatures

as

Abscisste

on

Internal in

Strains.

Forces

in

kilogrammes

equilibrium within

the

mass

of the bar.

Thus, for instance, a cold-worked


is shown in

bar

of aluminium-bronze the

Figs.17

and

18.

The

composition of

alloy

is the

followino^ :

The

internal time

strains of

were

of

such

an

amount

that, after

certain

cracks storingthe bar, transverse developed in Fig. 18. to a depth shown spontaneously, penetrating of such cracking? What be the cause may

24

1914

May
If

Lecture

sectional

area

of

tliis

layer.
the

by local scratchingat
area

some

point of the by the amount

surface
we "^,

the

sectional

of

layerI

be diminished

have

equation

/"!
where
o-

(/, -'^K
"

is the

stress

in the

section f\ injured

(p\consequently

Relief of strains will

length /,over which removed strains the are by the scratchingeffect, is only On above the infinitesimal. contrary, according to the in the injuredsection Avillbe increased. equation the stress In addition to this the scratch acts like a notch, thus causing in the depth local increase of stress considerable intensity
not occur,
a-

since

the

of

the

scratch.*

If

by

this

increase
start

the from

ultimate
the scratch,

tensile

strengthis reached,
A very

similar

fracture may effect maj^ be

actingon
not

the surface
or

of cold- worked

produced by corroding ageiits metals and givingrise to


attack of the surface

local attack
involve

pitting. (Uniform
since it effect,
decreases
acts

does

this

like removine: the

surface action

layerby turning and

internal certain

strains.) The
In the the

and its solutions of mercury on internal strains has alreadybeen

alloyshaving strong
case

mentioned. in

of
as

cold- worked carbonic acid


of

brass in

substances

contained

air, such

periodsof
It is have
no

conjunctionwith moisture, sulphurous acid, and so on, may, action, cause cracking.
rare occurrence

of ammonia, vapours after sufficient

that condenser

tubes

of

brass,which

yard,without having been in service, illustrated for instance in as suddenly show severe cracking, Their liability to crackingcould be revealed Fig. 19. by the fact that portions of the tubes still free from cracks split up after being dipped in mercury solution. The corrodingeffect may sometimes be a very unexpected For instance, a person paintingbrass tubes with cinnabar one. of the fact that he is therebyendangering will not be aware
been
*

stored

in the

Notching effect:

see

Marlens-Heyn, Handbuch

der

Maierialietikwide, IIa, ""339-349

Internal

Strains

in

Cold-wroughtMetals

"zo

Fig.

I'J.

Fig.

20.

Fig.

21.

26

X'^W

May

Lecture
a

Gold-driiwn illustrate and had


at

brass

or

bronze

in objects
were cases

most

serious

way.

To

this,cartridge cases
mouths of these

made rather

of cold-worked
severe

brass,

the

internal strains After

been

produced by intentionally
with
a

cold-work.
and

ing paint-

them
and the after
cases

mixture
to

of cinnabar

ordinaryvarnish,

exposingthem

split up at sulphide(cinnabar)in mercury brass produced a slow chemical


copper and cold-worked
free mercury. brass

the air in the presence of moisture, The the mouth. moisture actingon the
contact

with

the copper
its effect if the
cases

of the

reaction

forming sulphide of
on

The
the

latter exerted
same

the
were

just in

way

as

dipped in

produced paint. Without impossible. A phenomenon


must

The time in which this effect is solutions. mercury is shorter the less the proportionof varnish in the the presence of

moisture

the

reaction

is

observed

in

cold-rolled
to

aluminium

sheets In weeks'

be

recorded
kinds of

here, since it is due


water

similar

causes. some

certain
exposure,

these

sheets

show, after

covered with white bulging and blistering efflorescences,and they finally split parts of their up at some The edges like a pack of cards, as may be seen in Fig. 20. water has, in this case, played the part of the corrodingagent, which mechanical by local attack and perhaps besides by some effect of the products of corrosion, produces strains in addition strains brought about to the initial internal by the process of that local destruction The so occurs. cold-rolling, finally kind of water after having sheets, exposed to the same same the detrimental been annealed, no effect just longer showed

local

described, since the


been

internal strains is shown

due

to

had cold-working

removed. the

This

by Fig. 21.
internal have strains
in

Touching
luorked

questionof removing
characteristic

cold-

metals, some

features

alreadybeen
t..,which

mentioned.

(a) Reheating
removes

at

temperatures
time

above

the the

limit

all effects of the


at

on cold-working

strengthproperties,
strains. As

the

same

eliminates

the

internal

mentioned the

remarkable previously, internal strains


can

eft'ects towards
even

degree of

be limit.

diminishing brought about at

below temperatures considerabl}^

that

Internal
the very of the formation {") In

St7'ains in

Metals Cold-ivrozight

27

inoecss

it is possible to avoid of cold-ivorhing

dangerous internal

strains

the by regulating

reduction

For different parts of the sectional area. in Fig, 5, it would of the turbine-blades instance, in the case

in the

be

necessary through the Since

to

give a stronger
at

reduction in the

die

than

passes of the neighbourhood

between

two

edges. cold-hammering are apt to produce coldwhereas of the worked tension strains in the core pieces, drawing,on the contrary, brings about tension strains in the internal be possibleto diminish layers,it must superficial and cold-rolling. strains by alternate cold-drawing In forgings sometimes illustrated in Figs,22 occur as defects made of and 23. Fig. 22 refers to a hot-forgedpiston-rod
and cold-rolling malleable
a

brass short

(about 40
II
cone

per

cent,

of

zinc).
the

It

broke

after

very

period of working,one

of

fractured
broken

pieces
lines in The

showing a hollow cone the figure), the other a


two

(indicated by the

into the hollow I, fitting

II.

separated from each other by an coherent intervening space, and were only within a small annular of the thickness d. This latter being unable to area bear the working load, to which the piston-rod was subjected,
parts I and
II
were

failure

Avas even

sure

to

ensue.

There

was

in

the

the rod,

after

on finishing

the lathe, not fracture. It had


The been

of appearance the least indication


same

of the the

dangerousinternal
in Fio-. 2'A.

to applies

tensile test-bar

machined

in the

Pulled in ordinaryway, showing no sign of any irregularit3\ the testing into three it broke machine low load at a very of which in Fig.23. two are They fit into pieces, reproduced each other like a dagger into its sheath. In order to give the explanationof the phenomena stated in the precedingparagraph, attention be directed to the must well-known following experiment. A round bar of soft steel hammered in the cold under was a rapidlyacting machineits axis. the bar being uninterruptedly turned round hammer, The in Fig. 24. mutual of hammer and bar is shown position The effect was crack ?t in the axis of the bar, a longitudinal in Figs.24 and 25. shown as If we consider cross-section through the bar (Fig. 24, a

28

1914

May

Lecture

Fig.

22.

Fig.

23.

Internal

Strains
outer

in Cold-zvro2iQ;Jit Metals
a

29 the

right hand),
blows than
of the the

the
hammer

layer
and
^,

is

influenced directly stretched


an more

by

is therefore
acts

severely
Hence the

central
to

core

which
its

like

anvil.

ringa
this outward

tends

increase

diameter, whilst

the

tendency,being
direction. the degree,

itself

When
stresses

subjected the hammering


to set

radial

opposes strains in an
core

is continued the

to

sufficient
power

up

may

exceed
are

resisting

of the material. fracture

Since will

the
be

stresses

greatest in the

axis, internal

produced
line
rv

in this axis and

along the
25.
to

Figs.24 Hot-forging may


results
when
a

in

lead
the

lar simiis
too
Fig. 24.

work of

done
small

under
a

hammer

with great weightfalling when the bar was or velocity, unequallyheated before forging. in the Whilst ferred example re25 the to in Figs. 24 and ultimate tensile strength was

exhausted
to the

in

direction

wise cross-

axis of the bar, giving


is

rise also
of

to

crack, it longitudinal
consequence

that,in possible
more

of

pronounced effect in the superficial stretching


compared
effect
in with
core,

the

FiG.

25.

layers as
inferior
reach

the

the

the
must

stresses longitudinal

may

the tensile limit,which


the
assume core.
a

lead

to

internal

transverse

fractureswithin
these
fractures

hammering being continued, of the cuplikeshape on account


On

in the diff'erent layers in unequal stretching from the axis. Finally the fractures show 23. illustrated in Figs. 22 and

various the

distances

appearance
ivhat

Let

us

now

consider

the

whether question
may

and be

to

degree
all

the indications

of

the

ordinary tensile test

hy interned affected
Above
test

strains,for instance
it is
correct

by

those

due

to

cold-working.
the

important
amounts

to

know

whether
limit of

of the

gives the of the yieldproportionality,


tensile

30

1914

May
between

Lecture
stress

the correct point, piecesaffected by


Let

relation
internal

and

strain

in

test-

stresses.

/j be the sectional /ii


+ rroj be
"

area

of the
,,

outer

layerI
core

in II

Fig. 3.
,,

central
;,

,,

/
the
"

/l+/lTin (tension)
_

internal
"

stress
"

I.

crojj eoj

elastic
"

in II. (compression) elongationper unit of length

in

I,
II

brought about
"

by

stress +

croj.

eojj be

the

elastic
about

brought
E
(T
"

be

the

modulus
stress

compression per by stress crojj. of elasticity.


"

unit of

length in

reckoned

per

unit

of sectional

area.

"
,,

strain marks
stress
(T.

on

of per unit the test-bar

length, measured
under
a

between

load

producing
more was severe

Let

us

assume

that the

core

II

has

undergone
as

than cold-stretching

outer

layer I, which,
stress

stated internal

above, leads

to

internal
"

tension

+ croj in order

I, and

compression
may

stress

crojj in

II.

In

that
"

equilibrium
fOn/n, the

be established

between

and the forces o-Oj/j

equation

^"n

fi
strains and
e

Fig. 26, in which length) are plotted as


per the unit
two

In

the

(reckoned
the
stresses

per
e

unit

of

abscissae
as

(reckoned
of is

of sectional

area)

portionsI and is characterized applied,


the internal tension

state ordinates,the original II in the bar, before external load

by

the

pointsC
and

and OD

D, OC
the

indicating
com-

stress

T-o-Or,

internal

32

1914

May
=

Lecture
and
to

spoDclingstresses and II in Fig. 26


between
strain and

are are

crj

EF

crjj =

EG.

The
true

curves

assumed in the

represent the

relation

portionsI and II of the bar. On in I of elasticity of the moduhis account being the same within the elastic ranges and II,the two will be parallel curves AH and BF respectively.On the assumption that the core II is more severelycold -stretched than portion I, the yieldpoint F in the former will, according to a law generally accepted,be raised by the process of cold-workingabove the less cold-work. H of the portionI, which received yield-point the curves From I and II it is possible to find the curve
stress

giving the

relation between
/ of the

the

strains

=^

(A being
the surface

the of

change of
the

the distance
and the the load

gauge-marks
p
-

on

bar)

stresses

(t

(where
of the

is the

external

load

applied and /
Under
and the the

sectional
P
=

area

bar).
X

0, the
amount

change
of
e

of

the

gauge-distance

consequently the
curve

co-ordinates. e^ measurable
to

the
to

stress

Hence equal to zero. take rise in the origin0 of the system of must load P^,involvingthe strain A definite external gives rise by the change X^ of the gauge-length, EG in core in portion I and EF II, a-ji o-j is
= =

and

the

average

stress

o-^

in the

total

section

/ of the bar,

o"j

-.

For

equilibriumwe

must

have

(Tj is

represented by
the

the

ordinate

El

of the
so

curve

M, provided

that

point 1
The

in

Fig. 26

is located

that Fl

^-^t^FG

and

Gl

^^FG.
==

proof is

as

follows

E 1

EG

-I-Gl

EG

-f

-^^FG

Intei^nal

Strains

in Cold-'wrouzht Metals "?"

33

El

=.,^+

.""-,

consequently

El=o-j.
in the By proceeding and strains Pg P.^,
. .

same

manner

for different loads


...

P^,
of

.,

the

curve

M
curve

The

may M is the direct result of the

e^, e^, 63... the pomts 1, 2, 3 be traced as in Figs. 27 to 29.

tensile test.

The

how shows comparison of the three figures affected by the presence of internal strains.

this result will be


In

these

it figures

is assumed

that the

sum

of the internal strains eoj + eojj is


"

kept
of

and that only the ratio invariable, the

of the sectional

areas

/ii

portionsI and II varies from 1 : 1 in Fig. 2 7 to 1 : 3 in I and Fig. 28 and 3 : 1 in Fig. 29. The shape of the curves II is supposed identical in all three cases, only the position of the pointsA and B with respect to the origin 0 varies as the
ratio and
"

The
. ,

ordinates
.

of H

and

F, in which

the

curves

/n

begin to deviate from the elastic lines V and II', sent reprelimits of proportionality the respective 40 *) and crPj( I and II. o-Pjj ( 60 *) of the material in the portions Though these limits are supposed to be invariable in the in Figs.27 to 29, the corresponding shown three cases limits M found in the curves crPjj by the tensile test experimentally in the case of Fig.28 the limit o-P^^ may differ widely. Thus * in Fig. 27, and to 30 in Fig. 29. lowered to about 10 to 20
II
= =

Next
a

let

us

consider the
set
x,
or

amount

of the stresses

a-x

producing
stresses

permanent
to

to

put it in other

words, the

givingrise

I, by the abscissae of the curves and M dotted to the finely II, exceeding those corresponding lines I',II'', M' by the amount x. straight Assuming x to be 4*1 0~* (in arbitrary units) the stresses a-x in the portionsI
*

strains indicated

Expressed

in

units. arbitrary C

34

1914
*

May
o-/e
=

Lecture
69. The
curves experimental

and M

II

are

cr^i

52

and

of of fr" : in the case followingamounts 44, in Fig. 28 (/i:/ii=l:3) Fig. 27 (/i:/n=l:l) cr^M o-^,j==58-5,and in Fig. 29 (/i:/ii=3 : 1) o-,^',l 47.

will indicate

the

"^
-6

-1-20 Fig.

-tWIO

.?^ Fig. 28.

27.

From

the above
,

can

he those

seen

that

the

values

of

the

limit

of 2oro-

o^Pm,or portionality
tensile test, must
stresses

of any

other

limit, (r/e^i,as found hy the


the amount the sectional

he

highlydependenttipon
over
*

of internal
area

and

upon

their distribution
Expressed
in

of

the

arbitraryunits.

Internal
har tested.
It is
a

Strains
even

in Co/d-zvrouo-kt Metals
the limits
and crP^j o-xy[,

35

that possible

according to

laio well

are established,

tvhich, raised by cold-vjork, may

Fig.

29.
as cold-icurk,

instead of raised,because the effect of appear depressed masked be completely indicated by the tensile test,may mentioned

by

the above-

effect of internal strain.


afibrds
an

This

for explanation reference


to

the

curious

fact shown

in

Fig.30,

which

has

cold-rolled

copper-sheets.A

36

1914 of

May

Lecture
was

in thickness 7"o millimetres copper cold-rolled to 5, 3-4, 2'3, I'o, 1*0 millimetres successively sheet hot-rolled thickness ratios without the

in

f^ifof

reheating. The corresponding intervening section /^ before cold -rolling to the original
1-5, 2-21, 3*26, 5, 7'5, and
are

are section/ after cold-rolling

plotted as
ultimate
the

abscissae

tensile

The ordinates Fig. 30. represent the metre), strengtho-g (in kilogrammes per square centiin
0-^.,,o-^.^,0-0.05

limits

{stresses in kilogrammes per

tooo

3000
\o

2000

1000

Fig.

30. "Influence

of

Cold-rolling-m
=

the

Strength Propertiesof Copper Sheet.


= = =

Electrolytic Copper
Al,
traces;

Remelted"Sn

0;

Zn,

traces;
stress

Cd=0;
in

0; Bi Pb=:0; Sb 0; As Ni, traces; S"001 ; 0=010


per square centimetre
.

0;
per

Fe"0-01;
cent.

"7-B= Ultimate

tensile in

kilogrammes
per square
. .

centimetre.

I Stresses
"..

kilogrammes
set

producing I,-.._

."
p

(rOOoj
"

r,-

permanent ^

of

...

J 0*05 per
in

n.nc

cent.

PO '05=

hardness Ball-pressure
a

producing fo/f= Ratio

permanent

according to Martens- Heyn impression of 0'05 millimetre


areas

pressure
a

kilogrammes
ball.

of and

5-millimetre
after

of the sectional

of the

sheets before

cold-rclling.

square

giving rise to a permanent set of 0'2, O'l, and hardness the ball-pressure 0"05 respectively), per cent, in kilogrammes. Pq-os that with increasingamount Inspection of Fig. 30 shows the limits o-o-g,Cqi, ctoos- ^nd the hardness of cold-rolling Pqos,
first rise to
a

centimetre

maximum
latter

value, after which


behaviour the would
seem

there

is

marked

decline. if it
as
were

The
not

quite abnormal,
internal
strams

explainedby
above.

influence

of the

set forth

Internal

Strams

in

Cold-%vro7ight

Metals

37

venture

to

say

that

perhaps
with
a

good
to

deal

of

former

search re-

work
of cold-

carried the

out

view of

elucidating
materials internal

the
has strain

effect
been

work

on

properties

metallic
of

baffled
has In

by
been

that

mysterious explained.
I wish
to

influence

which

just

conclusion,
touched
to

express
this

the
lecture than

hope
may I

that
be could

the

line

of

research order the

upon
and

in

pursued
do strains

in

elucidate hidden

dissipate, dangers

more

myself,
in the

manifold
of

entailed

by

internal

mass

structural

members.

38

StatutoryMeeting
STATUTORY A General Metals
was or

MEETING. Meeting
of

Statutory
at

the

Institute

OF

held

the
on

Offices of the

Institute, Caxton

House, Westminster, S.W.,

Engineer Vice-Admiral
The Seceetary President from

Sir

Tliursday, September 10, 1914, Henry J. Oram, K.C.B., F.R.S.,

President, occupying the chair.


read
the

notice the

convening the meeting.


present
Council

The

stated

that

meeting
had
were

was

very

different

the

one

that

the
as

originally
aware,

arranged.
to

It had

been

intended,

the members

Meeting of the Institute at Portsmouth that day, September 10, and on September 11, 1914, and on details connected with for the purpose of arranging the many such a meeting a local committee, of which mander Engineer-Comand Mr. Arnold R. B. Dixon the Honorary Philipwere been formed far back Joint-Secretaries,had as as January had last. An attractive programme been arranged,which
hold

the Autumn

was

to

include

an

official welcome Portsmouth

of the members

on

behalf

of the

of Municipality J. H.

by

his

Alderman

Corke, K.L.H., J.P.,and


of the Education

Worship the Mayor, F. G. by Alderman


who had

Foster, the

chairman

Committee,

kindly arranged for the Portsmouth Municipal College to be of the Institute. to have placed at the disposal Papers were and been read both discussed on days of the meeting,and
there number the
was no

doubt

that

there
at

would

have

been
to

record

of

members

present

Portsmouth

take
events

part in
that H.M.
to

discussion
been

of those

had

arranged.
a

papers, and in the The latter included


at

social
a on

visit

Dockyard, and
whilst
on

dinner

the Queen's Hotel members


were

the

following day
of

in

the works
at

Messrs. J. Samuel

September 10, noon to spend the after" Company, White


at

Limited,
to

Cowes, after partaking of luncheon


had been

the

works

which

they
of

kindly invited
also

number
to

other

visits had

to car by motor neighbourhood. By the end of July every detail

be

made

A by the directors. been arranged,which were places of interest in the

connected

with

the

meeting

40

StatutoryMeeting
Honorary
*Mr. T. A. Treasurer. Bayliss.
Council.

Members

of
to

(Nine

be

elected).

t Mr. t
* *

A. A.

E.

Seaton.

Mr.

Cleghorn.

Mr. Dr.

J. Dewrance. G.
A.

D.

Bengough,
C.B.

M.A.

t Mr.

Philip, A.R.S.M., B.Sc.


E. Smith, K.

t
* *

Sir W.
Sir T.

Rose, Kt.
Allen.

Mr.

W.

H.

t Mr.
*

C. H.

Wilson.
for re-election. f Retires, eligible

New

nomination.

The
be

President
at

stated
the

that

the

result

of the

ballot would
be held in

declared

Annual 1915.

General
The with

Meeting,to
President
the
at

London the

in the

spring of
members

also

reminded

meeting that,in
ten
a

accordance

Articles,Section
the
those

III.,

16, any
nominate the

might also,
other than
one

present meeting,
nominated

candidate
none

of

by

Council, but

of the members

in attendance

exercised

their

rightin
Vote

this

matter.

of

Thanks reminded
the

to

Retiring the

Treasurer.

The

President

nominations, which
in that
not

meeting that the list of Secretaryhad just read, was unusual,


the
name

for the
as

first time of the

of Professor
Treasurer

Turner

did

appear
onerous

that

Honorary
Professor

of the
Mr.

Institute,

this
as

office having been

assumed

by
Turner

T. A.

Bayliss,
the

from

July 1,
Treasurer and
the

1914.

had

been

Honorary
in his

of the Institute

since its foundation


to
as
a

early
for

1908,

Institute

was

greatlyindebted
also

him

services, not
at

only
he

as

Treasurer, but
and

regular
the for

attendant

the

Council
could

Committee
be

Institute, where
debt
to

always

meetings of depended upon


was

advice. sound, practical


Professor

The for

Institute
in having,

under

further

Turner

its

earlydays,provided

Plate

Lafayette Professor T.
Honorary

TURNER,
Treasurer,

M.Sc,

A.R.S.M.

1908-1914

StatutoryMeeting
it with the
a

41 of

temporary

home

in the

Department Metallurgical

Universityof Birmingham, in which citythere existed a local section of the Institute, which was established flourishing largely owing to the labours of Professor Turner, and over the deliberations of which he had presidedfor a long period. The Chairman of thanks Turner to Professor a hearty vote proposed
for his many
services
to

the

Institute,and

this

was

carried

unanimously.
Professor

Turner,
the had

in

said reply,
to

that
Sir

he

had

had
Oram

great
had and

pleasurein doing
referred,and had

work

which
in

Henry
in

his reward

seeingthe

continuous

steady progress made by the Institute,and and pleasantfriendships. new

forming many

Election The
Secretary read been

of

Members.
of
names

the

list following

of candidates
:
"

who

had

duly

elected members

of the Institute

42

Election

of Members

StatutoryMeeting
Acceptance The been President
of

4'3

Papers. had

accepted for
Captain
G. D. N. T.

reported that the following papers reading at the Portsmouth meeting:


"

1.

Belaiew
and

on

"The

Widmanstiitten

Structure

in

Various
2. Dr.

Alloys

Metals."

Bexgough,
on

Tests 3. Mr. O. F.

M.A., and Mr. D. Hanson, Copper at High Temperatures."


on

M.Sc,
at

"

on

Tensile

Hudson, M.Sc, Copper Alloys."


F.

"The

Critical

Point

460"

C. in Zinc-

4. Mr. 5. Mr.

Johnson,
K.

M.Sc,
on

on

"A

Note

on

the

Annealing
of

of Brass."

R.

MoRCOM,

"The

Deposition
Effect

Metals

by

the

Spraying Annealing History

Process." 6. Mr. J.

Phelps, M.A.,

on

"The

of

Hydrogen
Contribution

on

the

of Gold."
7. Mr. A. of 8.

Philip, B.Sc, A.R.S.M., on Part III. Corrosion. Coke,


Smith, B.Sc, A.R.S.M.,
on

"A

to

the

Condenser
"

Tubes,
Surface

and

Corrosion."
of Molten

Mr.

S. W.

The

Tension

Metals."
9. Mr.
"

W.

E.

Thorneycroft,
of

B.Sc,

and

Professor when

T.

Turner,
in
a

M.Sc,
Vacuum."

on

The

Behaviour

Copper-Zinc Alloys
President of thanks be

heated

On
as

the

motion
a

of the

these
to

read, and

heartyvote
it

papers the authors

were was

taken

passed.

of the thought hard by some that authors they had not had an opportunity actuallyof of that meeting readingtheir papers, but the circumstances and he were thought, thoroughly were, quite exceptional, debted inthey were appreciated by the several gentlemen to whom He

agreed

that

might

for these

valuable
to

communications.
be
on

The

papers

would,

however, be
other
of the

considered
that had

papers

been be

Institute, and
as

would

exactlythe same plane as all presented at general meetings publishedand discussed in the

Journal

usual.

Expression Professor T. Turner the memory

of

Sympathy

with

Belgium.
that it would be ago held

said (Vice-President) of of all

fresh within
the first

present that just a year


Institute
of Metals
was

foreignmeeting

the

44 in

StatutoryMeeting
Belgium, and
that
a

travelled largeparty of their members Ghent. most Here via Ostend to kindly received they wore and hospitably entertained. They would all call to mind the Town Hall, and splendid municipal receptionat the Ghent
the
to

ancient

treasures

in art and

architecture
of

which

were

shown

them

under

the
Braun.

direction
A

tlie courteous

and of the

cheery
Institute
at

M. burgomaster,

party of members
Iron

of Metals

afterwards
were

joined the
at

and

Steel
Hotel

Institute de

Brussels, and
the

received Max.

the

ancient

Ville

by

They journeyed through Namur, and the Meuse where they inspected to Liege, Cockerill works the John at Seraing,under the courteous tained enterAt Liege also they were leadershipof M. Greiner. Institution of Engineers of that by the world-famed industry impressed by the peaceful city. Doubtless all were tions of that small kingdom of Belgium, and by the evident indicaof progress and be seen which to on were prosperity burgomaster,M. of up the valley
every side.
The

advance
years
was

which

had

been

made

in Brussels

itself in and

recent

evident, and particularly


their
hosts
on

the

tality hospiwould
was

kindness

of

that But

occasion
now

fresh in their memories. long remain had been changed. Cities and villages were was standing idle. A dreadful war
of

all

destroyed. Works being waged ; tens


or

thousands

of

soldiers the

had

been

killed

wounded

; and

the

of sufferings modern the

non-combatant He

was population

without
to

in parallel

warfare.

ventured

therefore

mit sub-

followingresolution,though it would be impossible sad such sentiments under their adequately to express
circumstances
"

:
"

That

this

meeting

of the Institute of Metals, bearing of the

and kindness hospitality received from the Belgian people on the occasion of the visit of the Institute to Belgium a year ago, desires to place on record its heartfelt sympathy with the brave Belgian nation in the unparalleledperiod of suffering the horror and through which it is at present passing,

gratefulremembrance

of

the

members

of

the

Institute

at

the
to

cruelties

to

which
earnest

and Belgium has been subjected, hope that the country may soon

express an be freed from

46

Belaieiv

The

WidinanstiUten

Structure

in

THE

VVIDMANSTATTEN
VARIOUS
By

STRUCTURE AND
N. T. BELAIEW St.

IN

ALLOYS
Captain

METALS.*

(Michael

Artillery

Academy,

Petersburg).

I
etchingin
under
are

The the

surface
way

of

meteoric

iron

after

and polishing

usually adopted,prior to examination characteristic figureswhich microscope, shows most or parallelograms. These part triangles
observed
for the first time of in the 1808

the
the

for

figuresAvere
de WidmanWorks
at

by M,

Alois

statten, the Vienna


on

Director the

Imperial Porcelain

although Widmanhis discoveries, himself had published statten nothing regarding a knowledge of them spreadvery quickly,and what he had known the name of under Widsoon were seen universally then generallyconsidered that manstiitten figures."It was iron and characteristic of meteoric that these figureswere found in terrestrial iron. Guillet-Laumont in not *j* they were the two varieties of 1813 an analogy between already saw for a long time were iron ; but the majority of investigators and the views of Guillet-Laumont of a different opinion, were forgotten. shown interest in meteorites The by Dr. Sorby, the founder of metallography, and the brilliant of the science especially of Osmond, attention led anew researches to being directed Thus it was of Widmanstiitten. that in 1900 to the figures the discoveryii" the head announced of a steel M. Osmond recalled, he said, "the triangleswhich ingot of equilateral which known of Widmanstatten, to belong to the are figures
"

Ilraschina

meteorite, and

octahedral regular
*

system."J
French of
not

Translated of the

from

the

the since

Meeting, London, f Cohen, X Sur


was

European September 10,

War,

quence originalMS. of Captain Belaiew, and, in conserevised read Taken as at Statutory by him.

1914.

Meteoritenkuttde,

1894, vol. i. p. 41.


p. 24, and

la

dufer, Paris, 1900, cristallographie


in 190.5

Figs.24
McWilliam

and

25.

The

same

tion observa"

made

by Professors
of Carbon

Arnold

in their and Steel

memoir,

The

Thermal No.

Transformation

Steel," Journal

of

the Iron

Institute,1905,

II. p. 35.

Various
In

Alloys and
*

Metals
described

47 steel
at

previous
0*55

paper
cent,

the

author

taining con-

per

of

carbon, prepared in
with the

1908

the
the

works author.

of

Igewsky
This

in

accordance
showed

directions
mass

of

steel

throughout
were so

its

beautiful

Widmanstiitten
were

which figures,
to

developed that

they

visible perfectly between


was
a

the

naked

analogy
meteorites

the
so

structure

eye (Fig.1, Plate II.). The of this alloy and that of the considers
a

close that the author

that it may

be

regarded as
and that
manstatten

syntheticproduction of
to

meteoritic
as

structure,

it is fair
structure

refer

to

this

structure

the

Wid-

(Figs.2

and

3, Plate

II.).

be henceforth only could the meteoritic structure of iron artificially reproduced at will, but the crystallization be could well as its crystallography as easilystudied from such examples. led to the Although the question of the conditions which of this structure seemed extremely interesting, appearance

Not

nevertheless
moment
or

it was
to

considered

wise

to

leave it

on

one

side for the


a more

and

commence
"

with

what
"

might

be

termed From

less
not

detailed

morphological
see

examination.

this it

was

difficult to

that

the
in

character
a

of the Widmanstatten sometimes

changed several times figures sometimes triangles, squares,


that
would

be
whose

octahedron the four

showing the figures but they are precisely expected in different sections of a regular four systems of cleavages were to parallel
its surfaces,
case an

givenarea,

pairs of
in

arrangement
it made
was

known
was

for

long time

the

of

Thus meteorites.*!' iron which

the

hedral octa-

of crystallization the distribution


of the the

manifest the

by

structural

elements

between

age cleav-

planes during
*
"

recrystallization. J
la
structure

The

octahedral

Sur

la N.

reproduction
T.

artificielle de Revue de

de

Widmanstatten

dans

I'acier

au

carbone,"

Belaiew,

M^tallurgie, 1910, p. 510.

they are Figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 in the previously mentioned paper; Iron and in The A. Sauveur's book. Steel, Metallography of Chapter X., reproduced Figs. 7-13. solid depositssuccessively several solid phases, the secondary and When a liquid or % certain of the cleavage planes (plans lodge between tertiary deposits often preferentially thus illustrate its structure." "Sur la of the primary deposit, and cristallographiques) de Mitallurgie, 1906, p. 658. Revue Note Cristallisation et Cartaud, du Fer," Osmond
t See
also
"
"

by Editor.

48

Belaiew

The

Widmanst'dtten
iron is

Structure

in

of of alloys crystallization

greater part of the

diagrams in which Following the


iron
an

admitted,* and the generally iron-carbon diagram belongsto the type of in the solid state. there is recrystallization the alloysof brilliant theory of Osmond,
in

and

of nickel

the

case

of

meteorites

ought to

follow

analogousdiagram. Not long since this theory was

confirmed entirely
We well
as see

by
in

the
the

beautiful
two cases,

experimentsof
in that

Benedicks.
as

that

of meteorites

in that of terrestrial

iron,the
connected

of these Widmanstatten figuresis appearance facts the character of the fundamental with two
"

primary
This

octahedral

solid solution into


structure,

of the and the separation crystallization, different phases during recrystallization.

therefore, is
it

not

in

the

least confined

to

iron each

and

its

alloys ;

alloy or
throws

system, and in
solution

equallywell encountered in in the which each metal crystallizes regular solid the crystallized which, after solidification, that is to say, is out secondary deposits, might
be

there would In a pure metal subject to recrystallization. be an allotropic change in the solid state, as, for example, the the separation in an in Fig. 4, Plate III. iron shown alloy, of a new phase; and as diagrams of this kind are well known, be at all diflBcult to find examples of the to it ought not in alloys other than iron. structure Widmanstatten To this class of alloysbelong,for example, the different the brasses and bronzes. Gulliver, of copper, particularly alloys volume metallic alloys,t in his interesting on givesnumerous of SnCug in the examples of this,mentioning the separation and alloysof copper and tin, of SbCug in those of copper antimony,of the constituent beta in brasses with about 35 per cent, of zinc (see Gulliver,Fig. 200), or of delta in the alloys with 70 to 75 per cent, of zinc (seeGulliver, Figs.205 and 206). is able to reproduce in Plate III. a photograph author The 55'1 per cent, of copper (cooled (Fig.5) of a brass containing and in sand kindly sent to him by annealed),which was it shows This photograph has great interest, as M, L. Guillet. structure. the Widmanstatten on the action of reheating
"

See

also Revue

"

Sur de

Belaiew,

et crystallisation 1912, Mitallurgie, p.

la

structure

des

aciers refroidis lentement," N. T,

321.

G. H, Gqlliver. f Metallic Alloys,

Plate

II

'^V,:!^^.
'"'m^

Fig.

1.

"

Widmanstattcii

Structure 8.

in Carbon

Steel

(Carbon, 0"55 per

cent.

Alloy No.

Magnified 8 diameters.

IG.

2."

Widmanstatten

Meteorite. Surface of the 6 diameters and

in TazeStructure well Section parallelto the

Fig.

3. No.

"

Widmanstatten

Structure

in Carbon

Steel 8.

(Carbon,

Octahedron. Magnified reduced. slightly

0'55 cent.). Alloy per Magnified 9 diameters and slightly

reduced.

Plate

III

Fig.

4. of C

"

Swedish

Iron Fusion

heated

to

the

Point la 16

Fig.

5.

"

Widmanstatten

Structure
cent.

in

Incipient dii ristallographie

(Osmond, Svr Fer). Magnified

Bronze, Cooled
Les

containing o5"l per


in Sand
an

Copper.
,

and

Annealed

(L. Guillet

diameters.

Laitons and

Nickel).

Magnified

30

diameters

reduced. slightly

Fig.

6." of 90

Widmanstatten per
cent.

Structure Platinum and

in

Alloy
per

Fig.

7.
cast

"

Widm.i and cooled 50

-structure

in

Zinc,

10

slowly (G. Timotheieff).


diameters and

cent.

Aluminium

alliages du

Magnified
reduced.

(Chouriguine, Sur les I' Platine Aluminium). avec and diameters 50 slightly

Magnified
reduced.

shghtly

50

Cominunications

on

Belaieiv

Paper

COMMUNICATIONS.
Professor Belaiew this
some was

C. A. F. Benedicks

(Stockholm, Sweden) wrote


attention
toward
a more

that

rightin drawing
the left
:

detailed

Captain study of

subject. As for uncertaintywas


should
be

definition of the term it

Widmanstatten
to

structure,

might

be well

discuss
case

whether of
a

(1) this
substance
octa-

structure

considered

to exist

only

in the

which

in the crystallized the


was
were

regular (tesseral) system


as was (lamellae),

and

contained

orientated hedrically

enclosures
case

the

term, and
stiitten

as

was

with be

the meteoric
occur

structure

to

said to

iron ; or also when

if

of the use original the Widman(2) enclosures


of
a

the

regularsubstance
"

orientated
case

accordingto
in
a

other
;

planes than
or

hedral octa-

as

was

the
even

of
case

martensite
of

austenite

(3) it might
crystalloany

be used finally

in the

substance

to any belonging

graphic system, with


The author
seemed

enclosures

uniformly orientated
the

accordingto

planes. crystallographic

eightdiff'erent directions

as view, as in Fig.6 as many four to be observed,while only were were sible posthus in the case of octahedral other than octahedral planes; planes In Fig. 7, for zinc, occurred in Fig. 6. the crystalsystem was known writer had scarcely ing includto be hexagonal. The against any objection

to

adopt

last

and

in

the

term

Widmanstatten

structure,

which

thus

was

generalized. In the experiments on


executed the writer

of the meteoric iron syntheticreproduction referred and to 1910, by Captain Belaiew, by laid on the main point that nickel iron on slow cooling stress was split and stable constituents That fact was, tsenite). (kamacite up into two he thought,clearlyborne out by the photomicrographsgiven. Owing to the excellent photographsobtained especially by Captain Belaiew of time steels and carbon at that much less attention already published

the

in

"

was

paid might be

to

the

of illustrating

the
to

Widmanstatten
see

structure.

As

it

of

however, interest,
present in the

that

even

the

Widmanstatten

alloyprepared by the writer in synthetic 1910, a photomicrographwas reproduced in Fig. 8, Plate IV., which taken horizontal section of the originalingot (the an on recentlywas sections in the previous publications, photographed showing in general direction predominating, vertical ones). one were single kamacite band In the present photomicrograph the tajnite lamellae appeared dark.
structure
was
" "

The
than

examples of
iron,as

Widmanstatten
the

structures

in occurring

other substances

author, could be supplementedwith the by Widmanstatten observed structure by the though minute, very typical, writer in oxidized nickel iron alloyoccasionally obtained on slow cooling.*
Professor H. C. H.

mentioned

Carpenter,
in

M.D., Ph.D.
paper

wrote (Vice-President),
on

his expressing
*

interest
in the

Captain Belaiew's
Nov. Act.

the

Widmanstatten
10, 1910
;

Figs. 4 and

15

paper

Reff. Soc. Sci. Ups., (4) vol. 2, No.

Eevue

de M^tallurgie,7, 1084, 1910 ; 8, 85, 1911,

Cominuni
structure

cat ions

on

Bclaieivs

Paper

51

in metals

and

bearingsince,as
gave

the author

alloys. The subjecthad an importantpractical pointed out, this particular type of structure
"

and

rise to very inferior mechanical properties in the it in overheated steels." Moreover he showed as
to

case
was

of cast steels

by

no

means

confined

iron and

its

but alloys,

was

found

in

varietyof

important

certain conditions of heat treatment. alloysfollowing upon attention to writer it be The of interest if he drew thought might the fact that excellent examples of Widmanstiitten structure tained conwere in 1913. in Dr. Guertler's Handhoolc of Meiallography, published Plate 2, volume i.,facing p. 80, furnished a beautiful example of the

non-ferrous

nickel-iron alloy), of a meteorite (natural crystals than one which intersected at an more angle of 60". Such crystals, in the of the meteorites sections inch long,might be seen in polished Collection of the Natural at South Mineralogical History Museum Kensington. smaller .size, Equally perfect instances, though of considerably among prepared non-ferrous alloyscould be seen, e.g. in a nickelartificially
enormous

size of the

silicon

alloycontaining 34'6 atoms in Figs. 90 91 of Guertler's and s interestingince it showed especially


"

per cent, Handbook.

of

and silicon, The latter

reproduced figure was


be removed

that the structure

could

the clear because by suitable heat treatment, and it was particularly solid constituent solution etched very differently from the segregating it. depositing As the author showed, in however, the Widmanstatten
one

structure

could

also be observed underwent the


cause a

containingonly alloys

if they phase,particularly

transformation

of the

structure typical

in the solid state, and this presumably was exhibited by zinc in Fig. 7. A deeply
atoms

etched
cent,

specimen
of

of

24*45 gold-magnesium alloycontaining

per

a was investigations, magnesium, which, accordingto with remarkable structure one phase system, showed the Widmanstatten clearness (Fig.78, p. 208). From that the above the practical aspect the important point was vietastahle structures, to chemical were though corresponding equilibrium, in from a crystallographic fact, pseudomorphs standpoint. They were,

Urasow's

of

pre-existing systems,
That

and

could
well in

treatment.

had

been

shown

always by
an

be removed
Fraenkel and

by

suitable

heat
and

Tammann,
meteoric under

by independently
There
was
no

Benedicks

his brilliant
to

need

therefore

reject
a

synthesisof alloy because

iron. certain What

conditions
was

of
was

coolingit
a

exhibited
treatment

Widmanstatten
that

structure.

needed

heat

stability.Naturally be decided by experiment upon


Dr. C. H. Russian
of

the

graphic crystallobring treatment required had to particular any given alloy.


that

would

it into

Desch
on

(Glasgow) wrote
steel, some
structure

Captain
made
the

Belaiew's which

important
were now

memoir

of

the

illustrations of
steel

had familiar through reproduction, fairly the

relations geometrical clear. and The


essential

Widmanstatten this structure

in

quite

of identity

with

that of meteorites

also of the

alloys

52

Communications
on

on

Belaiews

Paper
an

mentioned
extension the The It

p.

48, was
term

certain, but, in the writer's view, it was


when it
was

undue
as

of the

made

to

include

such

structures

etching figuresin cast zinc,photographed by facts might perhapsbe stated as follows :


"

Timotheieff

(Fig.7).

of the fundamental of properties necessary consequence that in w hether metallic structure a physical crystal, crystal any changes directions. The of to certain or chemical,took place parallel straining
was a a

metal,

even

when

planes. Fig.
observed in

7 showed

pure, frequentlybrought about this for zinc,and the same


as

other

metals, such
to

were

(Fig. 10, clearlydue

Plate

differences of level

composition.
true

Such

IV.). twinning. The light and dark lines represented of chemical due to orientation, and not to differences structure a might be said to be of type I. In the
structure,
on

These

twinning on certain thing was readily mony bismuth (Fig.9, Plate IV.), and antiand structures appeared on etching,

Widmanstatten

the

other

hand, there

was

distinct

difference
as

of chemical
and be the

the

lines

the constituents compositionbetween appearing stituents (type III.). The conbackground respectively

ferrite and kamacite and plessite, or or an pearlite, might solution and be similar. effect would Such a a /3 solid ; the general of constituent from solid structure was produced by crystallization one solution, the separation taking place by preferencealong certain planes.
a

The
between

martensitic the
two

structure

was

probably

intermediate
It
was

in

character
a

forms the normal

just

described

(type11. ).

usually on

finer scale than

Widmanstatten
in

similar,and
and the

the

difference

structure, although geometrically " the needles " composition between

Edwards less easilyrecognized. Professors ground-mass was had and maintained, from their observations of steels and of Carpenter structure was aluminium-copper alloys,that the martensitic entirely due to repeated twinning of type I. on a very small scale.* The present writer had found himself unable to accept that view, mainly on the factorily. ground that the hardness of such alloyswould not be explainedsatishad in He martensitic obtained soft structures recently and steel after metals, includingpure zinc (Fig.11, Plate IV.), pearlitic slow Plate chemical In his view a cooling(Fig. 12, IV.). partial very

resolution

of the
of

solid

solution

was

essential to
the

the

formation

of hard Such it
was

martensite, or
resolution took

non-ferrous equivalentsamong alloys. in the and certain place along planes crystal,
Edwards'
to

its

probable from planes. It was


Mr.
A.

Professor

observations
on

that

these

were

twinning

intended

publishevidence
that

this

point elsewhere.
statten the Widman-

M.

PoRTEvix
in

wrote (Paris)

he had

observed

structure

tin,and
of
a

that he had made of copper-aluminium, alloys copperhe had examined the photomicrographs copper-zinc. Further,
of

number

authors,

and

had

been

able

to definitely

detect

this

structure

in the

: following alloys

Journal

of the Iron

and

Steel Institute,1914, No,

I. p. 138.

':^^.i^

Plate

IV

Fig.

S. Nickel Iron

SyntheticMeteoric

Iron, 12 per
Shows

cent.

(Benedicks, 1010).

structure. W'idn^anstatten 10 diameters. Magnified

Fig.

9. Bismuth.

Fig.

10.

Twinnins;

in Cast

Twinning

in Cast

Antimony.

Fig. II.
"

Fig. Zinc.
' '

12.

Martensitic

"

.Structure in Cast in

Martensitic

"

.Structure in Pearlite.

All

reduced slightlv

cation of20Q diainelers. mag)tifi !e")frcM I-'ig. reproduction [except

Communications
1.

on

Belaiew

Paper

53

Copper-tin (Baykoff). fiir MctalloZeitschrift (Carpenter and Whitelev, Internationale grafhie, 3, 162, 1912). 3. Aluminium-platinum, with 90 per cent, platinum (Chouriguine, A'/ez'^s de Metalby M. Belaiew. lurgie,i.\.881, 1912), observed 4. Silver-tin (Petrenko,Zeitschrift fiiranorganische Chemie, 53, 200, 1907). 5. Iron-molybdenum Zeitschrift fiiranorganische Chemie, (Lautsch and Tammann,
2. Silver-zinc

55, 386, 19071. 6. Nickel-silicon (Guertlerand Tammann, Zeitschrift fiir anorganische Chemie, 49, 93, 1906). 7. Nickel-tin (Voss, Zeitschrift fiiranorganische Chemie, hi, 34, 1908). 8. Cobalt-silicon Chemie, 59, 293, 1908). fiir anorgofiische (Lewkonja, Zeitschrift 9. Nickel-phosphorus (Konstantinow, Zeitschrift fiir anorganische Chemie, GO, 405,

1908). fiiranorganische Chemie, 63, 169, 1909). Gold-magnesium (Vogel, Zeitschrift 11. Silver-calcium fiiranorganische Chemie, 70, 352, 1911). (Eaar, Zeitschrift and 12. Aluminium-zinc (Lorenz Plumbridge, Zeitschrift fiir anorganische Chemie,
10.

82, 243, 1913).


13.

Copper-arsenic (Bengough 1910, vol. iii. p. 34). intended

and

Hill, Journal

of

the

Institute

of Metals, above

No.

1,

He
order

bad
to

preparing the alloys mentioned


the

in
to

the

list in

study
That

circumstances

giving
he

rise

the
to
a

Widmanstiitten

structure.

time
on

but being,

however, investigation, he trusted that others might

had

had

suspend

for

the

be in

to proceed position

these lines. Mr. H. S. Primrose

had

drawn

non-ferrous Just with with


as

(Ghent)wrote that he considered Captain Belaiew in the structure of a important matter very in regard to its industrial significance. alloys,particularly
attention
to

the Widmanstatten
defects

figureshad
the heat

come

to

be associated

in

steels

serious

in

treatment

and

consequent

physical

propertiesof

the

its lattice

metal, it appeared that the characteristic structure, in other concomitant of weakness a formation, was
was a

alloys. That this


and

of brasses containing both cases under his (Mr. Primrose's) observation /3 constituents had come but the most in ofl:' previously, pronounced instance of a serious falling similar the structure to physicalproperties being accompanied by a Widmanstatten had been encountered in examining so-called figures bronze. That in brass ing a alloywas having the followreality manganese : composition fact
a

in the

Per

Cent.

Copper
Zinc Iron

59*2 38-4
I'o
. . . . . .

Manganese
lin

0"4
.

0-3
.......

Aluminium

trace

The

material

had

been

rolled into

rods,

and

had evidently been heated proved to be defective, it On tensile an repeated tests gave average inch and of only 8 per cent, on 2 inches. an elongation square average That compared very unfavourably with the strength of similar bars of which tensile an good material properly heat treated gave average of inch and an strength of 33-6 tons per square elongation average
"
"

consignment,which to too higha temperature. strengthof 32 tons per


one

35

per

cent,

on

2 inches.

54

Communications

on

Belaiew

Paper

The the
and

microstructure
The of

of weaker these
structure.

the

j two bars all

samples
exhibited

clearly

revealed

the oriented
found

cause

of

difference.
in

distinctly
needles

crystals,
in uniform
and

each

occurred The

the

intersecting
bars
of

the

Widnianstjitten

good
absence

had both

perfectly

structure,

and

showed work.

complete

oriented

crystals

interlacing
The the
low

lattice-

accompanying
and the bad
and

photomicrographs
metal,

illustrated 13

the
the

difference material
of

between
with very
two

good

Fig.
14

representing
uniform

elongation,

Fig.

showing

distribution

the

constituents.
The

origin
without

of

the

Widmanstjitten due
or

structure,
incorrect
to too

clearly
treatment

shown
caused

in

Fig.
either

13,

was,

doubt,

to

the

heat

by
was

excessive
not

annealing possible
in

by

heating
the

high
into

temperature
the

but

it

found
shown

to

change
14

structure treatment

satisfactory
The
order heat
to

ment arrangetreatment

Fig.

by by

heat

alone.

had

to

be

accompanied

mechanical the constituents

working
in the

in

effect

factory satis-

rearrangement

of

finished

material.

56

Bengough

and

Hanson

The

Tensile

Properties of

THE

TENSILE AT HIGH
By guy
in

PROPERTIES TEMPERATURES.*
D.

OF

COPPER

bengough,
University
AND

M.A.,
of

D.Sc.

(Lecturer

Metallurgy,

Liverpool),

D.

HANSON,

M.Sc,

of

the

National

Physical

Laboratory.

experimentalwork as a designed originally


The
out

described continuation in 1911, General

in

the of

present paper
of which

was

the research

carried
was

by

one

of the authors

an

account

publishedat

the Annual

Meeting

of this Institute

in

1912.|
The discussion of that

and
to

with suggestions,

certain criticisms paper brought out the present authors now which propose levelled
at

deal.
In the

criticism first place,

was

the

special type

of
ram

machine testing

used,

on

the
to

ground that
time, and

the

friction of the with particular

from vary widely varying loads.

would

time

in

reply to this is given in Table I.,in series of comparative tests carried out in
The
Table \." Teats at

which
an

is recorded

tensile ordinary

18"

G.

Taken D.

as

t G.
Journal

Bengough,

of the

September 10, 1914. Statutory Meeting, London, A Study of the Properties of Alloys at High Institute of Metals, No. 1, 1912, vol. vii, pp. 123 et seq.
read
at
"

Temperatures,

attires Copper at High Te^nper

57
in

machine,
paper

and

in

the

machine

and fiofiired mind

described the

the

mentioned
are

above.

Bearing in
between afforded

differences
of
non-

which
ferrous
to

found ordinarily

duplicatetests

metals, the agreement


and satisfactory,
be
to out to

be

appears to the authors dispose of the criticism mentioned.


the

It

will

noticed
cover
a

that

metals
of

selected

wide

range
to

alloys have properties. The tests


paper.

and

been
were

carried For carried


to

as precisely

described be

in the former

the
out

work in the

now

described, certain
the
out

changes
a

were

design of
to

heating furnace, with

view

enablingtests
new

be carried

the

form

of

apparatus
an an

in any desired atmosphere; is shown in Fig. 1. The test-bar and

A,
to

which
a

is half

inch
inch

in diameter for
a

turned
2i

down

parallel

quarter of

length of

inches, is held
of by means ball seatingsas
asbestos sheet

in a nichrome centrally extension pieces which

wound
are

resistance furnace

provided
is wound

with
on

shown.

The

nichrome

wire

bayonet catch, and drilled for the entrance of gas and thermocouple. The thermocouple holes were lined with fibre. The water-cooled top jointwas shown this enabled at C, and the plug to be kept gas-tight as by a coatingof hot-neck grease. In view of the remarkable for recorded elongationcurve B.S. copper in the earlier paper, and now reproduced in Fig. 9, it seemed desirable to ascertain whether the high elongations
a
"

wrapped round an iron tube which At the top by a water-seal B. steel plug D provided with fitting

is closed

at

the lower

end well-

end

it is closed

by

"

observed
all

between

780"
or were

C. and

920"

C.

were

characteristic of

dependent in any degree upon such the nature matters of the atmosphere in which the test was as carried out, the past history of the specimen, thermal and and the presence of small quantities of impurities. physical, As a starting decided point for the present research, it was
to

types of copper,

carry

out

series of tests
The

on

well-annealed
this

lytic rolled electroas

copper.

analysisof
materials
used
was was

material,
in the
to

well

as

the

analyses of
Table
round

other
The

in the

research, is given in
form of

II.

copper

obtained turned

|-inch

rolled rods, and

down

i-inch

diameter

before

testing.

5 8

Bengough and

Hanson

The

Tensile

Properties of

W\
^ms:
r/z/^j^/////////////.
Gas In Jet*

^^
v/////y//y/.L-tyyM

\(

ss^.

Fig.

1.

Copper at High Temperatures


Table

59

II.

"

Afialyses of Materials

Used.

Tlie
that

the same Avas procedure in testing the rate of loading has been kept

as

formerly, except
as

constant,
former

suggested

by
rate

Dr.

Rosenhain
as

in the discussion
most

of the the

selected
ton

convenient

with minute. have

The paper. apparatus used was

0 5

per
rate

square
of

inch

per

a Strictly speaking,

definite

should straining Rosenhain with


be the and

pointedout by
be

as adopted, Humphrey,^ but this

been

has been

could

not

carried

out

apparatus used, since only the


The
to

total

final strain could


rate

measured.

adoption of
is

definite

of

loading leads, however,


treatment

useful

results, since the

defined and precisely that the shapes of the stressthough it is possible reproducible, obtained curves by this temperature and strain-temperature of testing difterent from those that would method are slightly be obtained by adopting a definite rate of straining. Previous to testing at the various temperatures, the electroannealed for two hours at 750" C. in an atmosphere copper was of COg. The results of the tensile tests are given in Table in Figs. 2 and 3. III., and are plotted
of the

mechanical

material

It will be noticed differences earlier paper. in Figs. 8 and


It will be from The
9.

at

once

that the described


been

curves

able present consider-

those

for B.S.

copper

in

the

latter have

for comparison reproduced

noticed
the

that the
same

two

maximum

stress

curves

are

approximatelyof
of

form, but
a

that the critical


in

portion
case

the

curve

occurs

at

higher temperature
at

the

Analysed

after

annealing for 2 hours

750' C. in CO.,.

t Analysed before testing. X Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 1913, No.

I. p. 244.

60 of

Bengougk
the annealed

and

Hanson

The

Tensile
and

Properties of
not
so

electrolytic copper,

is

sharply

defined.

Table

III.

"

Electro-

Copper, annealed

2 hours

at 750"

C. in CO.,.

Temperature

"C

COPPE

R-AnNEALED
Fig.

2 hours at 750''C in
2.

CO,

The

two

curves elongation

present much
The

greater differences,

in especially

the upper

parts.

recorded high elongations

Copper
in the
case

at

High Temperatures
between

61

of B.S. in the

copper
case

750"

and

950"

were

not

observed

of of the
were

the

annealed

electrolytic copper.
the maximum
stress

Moreover,
and

in the

case

latter metal
of the
same

curves elongation

critical ranges
under

at

about is not

750".

generalshape,showing at Evidently a high elongation


of all types of copper

high temperatures

characteristic

all circumstances.

100"

200"

MO"

wr

500"

tf/r
t u r e

1000"

1100"

Tempera

Copper-Annealed

2 hours atj^o'dn
Fig.

co, (Broken inco,)

3.

It

seemed

desirable
in the the

next
case

to

ascertain

whether

the

hiei^h

shown elongation
was

due

to

nature
were

of B.S. copper at high temperatures of the atmosphere (in this case, tested.
none Unfortunately a

air)in
bars

which

the bars copper


annealed

of the But
two

B.S. original

was

available for

direct

test.

of the

and The the

850",

i.e. in
are

results

tested in air at 800" were electro-copper the high elongation of the B.S. copper. range that given in Table IV., and it will be seen

in elongation

air is three

or

four times

that of the

same

62

Bengoiighand
in B.S.

Hanson:
it is not

The

Tensile

Propei^ties of
as was

metal with
to to

COg, though

nearly as high

the

case

Part of the difference may perhapsbe due copper. the rather slower rate of loadingin the older tests, and part The interesting the differences in the two types of copper.
1000

i
MAKIMVJM

10
5TPEb5

15

20 Toos

25
So.Ucio. (air

30

Fig.

8.

point about
effect of the pure copper

these

results

is the
upon
a

demonstration the

of the

great

atmosphere
bars. It is

somewhat confer

oxidizingatmosphere
neutral
; atmosphere
a

should

of commercially ductility fact that an surprising than a greater ductility be

will explanation possible

discussed

later.

64

Bengough
metal

and

Hanson:
exhibits

The
no

Tensile

Properties of

phase changes has never that it is not possible before been published, to say whether so form. the curves The experiments now presentedare of typical and of Rosenhain Humphrey on steel are not available for direct comparison,since the shapes of the curves obtained for much of allothat material modified were by the occurrence theless, Nevertropic changes,and probablyby the presence of carbon. of the theories that have in view been recently put forward in a series of papers by Rosenhain and his associates, it may be interesting to discuss the curves now publishedin the lightof those views.

annealed

which

In the former

forward
at
"

that

paper by one the mechanical

of the

authors, the view


metals for and

was

put

of properties accounted
pure substance
a

alloys

high temperatures might be in that the individual crystals


to
one

by supposing
are

metal

normally
the
"

bound

another

by
and

some

stronger than
was

themselves," crystals
in
a

that

this substance

arranged

substance layerround then supposed to be an amorphous material similar to that was but formed discovered by Beilby, lization. during the process of crystalIt was further,that it could be crystallized supposed, by long annealingat high temperatures. In the discussion thin continuous

This the crystals."

Copper at High Te})iperahires


oil

65

that
was

paper
a

Rosenhain distinct

outlined

modification

of this of

that
on

improvement
the

in

number

theory particulars

paper, and he has since developed with his views great skill upon a basis of actual experiment. For the purposes of the present paper, Rosenhain's theorymay stated as follows. be briefly Metals in

that

suggestedin

by elastic
to

consist of crystalline general aggregates surrounded of primary cement fication. formed during solidienvelopes
low in

At
stresses

temperatures the
of its At low

cement

accommodates the

itself
so

virtue

but elasticity,

do crystals
cement

deformation. by plastic

temperatures the

is

and fracture under stress crystals, passes the cement through the crystals.As the temperature rises, weakens falls and its elasticity more rapidlythan the crystals the cement is as weak as, or even weaker off. Finally than, the and its elasticity has disappeared. Fracture will then crystals, will result under and permanent elongation be intercrystalline, of the the action of very small stresses owing to the deformation to slide over another. one cement, which will allow the crystals The final elongation observed in a tensile test will depend of straining, and rapid straining will give low the rate on elongation.

stronger than

the

The
now

results

obtained
in

in

the

tests

on

annealed

copper

will

lightof this theory. Turning first that to the tensile curve given in Fig.2, it will be observed the maximum stress correspondingto the rate of loading but regularly, adopted falls off slowly, up to a temperature of
be

reviewed

the

about off
more

700" C.

Between

700" C. and

800" C. the
has

falls strength

rapidly.
800"
C. the

In this

regionit
curve

is difficult to been

get closely
dotted.

concordant

results,and
rate

the

shown

strengthwith temperature and the curve becomes line. less, approximatesto a straight On Rosenhain's be interpreted as theory this curve may follows : At all temperatures below about 700" C. the strength of the cement is greater than that of the crystals, and fracture will take place through the body of the crystals.Between 700" C. and 800" C. the strength of the cement and the crystalswill be approximatelyequal,and fracture may pass through either,though the tendency at the higher temperaE.

Above

of fall of

6 6

and BcngoiigJi
will be for

Hanson
to

The

Tensile
the

of Properties
and
at

tnres

it

pass

through

cement,

the

lower

through the crystals.In this range of temperature there of structure is a certain degree of instability throughout the of obtaining results. metal ; hence the difficulty agreeing closely 800" C. fracture should pass wholly At temperatures above weaker than the through the cement, Avhich has become in this crystals. Apparently the strength of the cement, the temperature. to proportional region of temperature, is inversely
These

could obviouslybe predictions


of the fractures of

tested

by microscopic
In order
to

observations preserve

the

test-bars.

it edge of the fractures during polishing, the edgesof the test-bars by a supporting to plate was necessary metal, as was Copperpointed out by Rosenhain. originally since it exhibited not preferential satisfactory, plating was thin coating of nickel was used, which a etching. Finally, The afterwards covered with a thick depositof copper. was method adopted was as follows. cleaned in potassium cyanide to remove fracture was The a tarnish,and covered by a coatingof nickel by electrolyzlng saturated solution of nickel-ammonium-sulphate. The men speciand a current of 0'2 ampere rotated during deposition was of nickel occupied 2 to 3 hours, and The used. deposition acid sulphate then transferred to an the specimen was of copper had been deposited. copper bath until a thick coating The specimen was then cut and polishedin the usual way. but eventuof considerable difficulty, ally Etching was a matter tion obtained with a 1 0 per cent, soluresults were satisfactory of ammonia. of ammonium-persulphate containing excess

the actual

"

"

Plates

V.

to

VII.

show

some

of

the

structures

observed. before
4

Figs.1 and both testing,

2 show

the

before and
the low

of the metal structure original after annealing. Figs.3 and

show

examples
passes

of

temperature

type

of

fracture, which

are greatly elongated through the crystals.The crystals show in the direction of fracture,though the photos do not These this quite as severely clearly as could be wished. difficult to etch, though strained structures were exceedingly

neighbouring parts

farther
up

away

from

the

fracture, but

less

severelystrained,etched

readily.

Copper
Figs.7
and and
8 show

at

High Teinpei'aturcs
broken
at

67

the fractures of bars


are

896"

C. For

719" C.

The

fractures

all temperatures between shows


between passing

inter cry stalhne. clearly 720" and the melting point the cracks
can

metal found

Aveakness,and great intercrystalline


the

be

inch much for distances as an as crystals cracks Such from the actual point of fracture. intercrystalline It is particularly to be in Figs. shown 5, 6, and 8. are clearly noticed that there is
no

distortion

in this type of of the crystals

fracture.

These
fracture

results has

are

remarkable. been observed


at

Previously this
temperatures
as

type
within

of
a

only
the
to

few
now

degreesof
been

melting pointsof metals,* whereas


occur

it has

found

at

temperature
first becomes

much

as

350" C.
where be

below
the

the

and melting point,

observable

stress-temperature curve
19, which
was a

begins to
broken
at

flatten.

It should

stated that bar in


few

719" C, showed

of fracture passing throughthe places, in the microit passes between them, as shown characteristically and clear that the strengthof cement photo. Thus it seems are slightly nearlyequal at 719" C, with the crystals crystals C. At 710" the crystals at this temperature. the stronger even plastic were decidedlyweaker than the cement, and showed deformation by slip(see Fig.3). With the exception of bars tested at about 719" C, all the bars were perfectexamples of either
one

signs, crystals, though

type of fracture
to interesting
never

or

the

other. the

It is of

fracture No.

Photo

6), thus
at
a

material

exists

intercrystalline type takes place along a twin boundary (see that no cementing proving the prediction twin boundary.
notice that low

Fig. 10
which
was

shows

the
at
a

temperature
distance
away bar

type of deformation
from

found

some

the

centre,

i.e.

the hottest part, of

highlyheated

(D. 36).
obtained that than the the up to takes
2, 1913,

Turning now
same

to

the

series of tests, it fall off


From show
and
a

elongationcurve is interesting to note


temperature

from

the

ductility
maximum 600"

beginsto
stress.

at

lower

the

the bars
*

atmospheric temperature which considerable elongation


of
the Institute

C.

place by
vol.
x.

Rosenhain

Y,-^zn,Journal

of Metals,

No.

pp.

119-140.

6 8

Bengougk

and

Hattson

The

Tensile

of Properties

in the crystals.Thereafter deformation, i.e.by slipping plastic tion the ductility falls off rapidly, though the most noticeable reducin strengthonly takes place at a temperature higher by of this phenomenon is not easy to see. 50" C. The explanation At higher temperatures the reduction in the elongation
must

be

supposed to
through
has which taken

be

due
the

to

the

loss

of

strengthof
before the any
cement.

the

cement

fracture the

passes

great
The

extension

placeby
and

of yielding that
no

(Nos. 5 photomicrographs
of the
at
occurs crystals

7) show
720"

tion deformaplastic

in this about take

regionof temperature, though


C.
At
a

temperatures
800"
to

below
can

certain

amount

of above

deformation plastic
about be due C. any

place.

temperatures

the
at

that the bars may ductility of the crystals bodily over sliding

possess must another. one

Looking
Rosenhain
fit the

the

results
the

as

theory of

that the appear physical constitution of metals will


a

whole

it would

facts experimental

observed
in the

for
one

pure

annealed

metal

quite satisfactorily except

mentioned. particular that Longit is interesting to note In the last connection loss of ductility at and Campion * have bottom observed a a of Admiralty lower temperature than strength in the case bronze 87"96, tin 9*77, alloys of the composition,copper the zinc 1*94, so phenomenon probably has an important They put forward the view that the cement loses significance. its ductility before its strengthas an explanation. This to the paratively authors, since at the comsatisfactory hardly seems
" "

low

temperatures
cement

under is

consideration

the

teristic charac-

property of the

ductility. That shown by the fact


in this

the

cement

that fracture

true rather than elasticity is lose its elasticity does not still passes through the crystals

regionof temperature
itself to stresses.

the consequently

cement

can

accommodate

of Mechanical Effect
It will from but
*

Work.

now same

be

to interesting

consider

the

results obtained

of copper used in the last It rolled condition. tested in the unannealed

the

sample

experiments, was thought

Journal

of the

Institute

of Engineers

and

Shipbuilders in Scotland, July,1914.

Copper at High Temperatures


that

69

the

two

sets

of

results

might

throw

some

questionof
"

the

or identity

resemblance

between

lighton the the primary


"

cement

formed
and

of a duringthe crystallization

metal

from

the
"

molten
of

state

Beilby which
The
results and

may is formed the


tests

what

be termed

the

"

secondarycement
IV. and

by
are

"

work."

of
5.

in

Figs.4

In the in the

given in Table first place, it should


furnace
while the

plotted
that
was

be noticed

the heat

treatment

tensile

test

short too to being carried out was produce a complete, or nearly complete, annealing eftect at any temperature

"

100"

2Bd"

100"

soar

sor

wr

3iio"

mr

im

Temperature

"C

Copper

Rolled
Fig. 4.

(Broken

/n

coj

below

1000"

C. ; in other

words, the
same curve

tensile

curve

for rolled copper.

copper lies This would

wholly above
seem

the

for annealed
cement

has secondary considerable of persistenceat high temperatures, powers it cannot survive 2 hours though annealing at 750" C. The of the curves are general forms similar, though the the most of rapid diminution range of temperature in which is apparentlyslightly strength occurs of higher in the case the

to

indicate

that

the

rolled copper. The most and interesting

important

differences

are

seen

70
when

Bengough
the
two

and

Hanson

The

Tensile

of Properties

examined. curves are elongation-temperature In the case of the rolled metal there is a rapid diminution in at quitelow ductility temperatures, which is not observable in of the annealed the case metal. Previous workers, including Le Chatelier,Huntington, and one of the authors have observed in copper loss of ductility at low temperatures. a Except in the case of Huntington's experiments,* the drop has only been in unannealed observed metal. rolled or worked Huntington observed it in annealed The electrolytic temperature copper. it occurs minimum at which but to seems vary considerably,

nor

/m"

Temperature

"C

Copper-

Rolled
Fig.

(Broken
5.

co^).

between is usually observed ductility 450" C. Looking at the results as that naturally suggests itself is that

the
a

limits

300"

C.

to

whole, the explanation

is observed ductility which the amorphous material in the temperature range over is recrystallizing most formed actively. There are by work The first is that a region of low to this view. two objections of annealed found was ductility by Huntington in the case ments electro-copper. Since, however, at the date of his experi" "

low

(1906)

annealing was
*

that drastic suppose specially important, it may be suggested that

there

was

no

reason

to

Journal

of the

Institute

of Metals, No.

2, 1912, vol. viii. pp.

126-144.

72

Bengough
Turning
now

and
to

Hanson
the

The

Tensile
arsenic
of
two
on

Properties of
the
sets

effect of the results

mechanical
of
tests
on

propertiesof
arsenical

copper,

copper
V.

(of the
Arsenical

compositiongiven
Copper (asrolled).

in

Table

II.) are

Table

"

Tested

in Air.

Table

VI.

"

Arsenical

Copper (asrolled).Tested

in

Hydrogeii.

Plate

:^:^

c*3

Fig.

1.

"

Copper (as rolled) Electrolytic


Magnified 200
diameters.

Fig.

2."

Copper, annealed Electrolytic


2 hours
at

for

750" C.

Magnified 200 diameters.

Fig.

3.

"

Rolled
at

broken

Electro-copperBar (D. 33) Shows 710" C. elongation


at

Fig.

4."

Annealed
at

Bar (D. 24) Electro-copper Shows

broken

350" C.

elongation of

of crystals Magnified 400 All

fracture. diameters.
a

crystalsat fracture.

Magnified of Ammonium
been added.

400

diameters.
ichich

specimens etched with


a?!

10 per cef/t. solution

Persulphate,to

excess

of Ammonia

had

Plate

VI

Fig. 5.

"

Bar (as rolled) (D. 36) Electro-copper


at

Fig.

6.

Annealed
at

Electro-copperBar
719" C.
near

broken

896" C.

Shows

inter-

(D.

19) broken Magnified

"

Shows fracture.

cracks. crystalline Magnified 600

ciacks intercrystalline 600

diameters.

diameters.

if.

Fig.

7.

"

Annealed
at

Electro-copperBar
719" C.
Shows

Fig.

8.

"

Rolled
at

Electro-copper Lar
896" C. Shows fracture.

\\J. o(i/

(D. 19) broken

broken

crystalline inter-

fracture. intercrystalline

Magnified 000 diameters.


All

Magnified
solutioti

600

diameters. jvhich

specimensetched

with
an

\Q per cent,

of Ammonium
been added.

Persulphate,to

excess

of Ammonia

had

Plate

VII

Fig.

9.

"

Annealed cracks and

Shows intercrystalline Electro-copperBar (U. 2U) broken at 918" C. The white liningto fissures is deposited nickel. fissures.

Magnified

GOO

diameters.

Fig.

10.

"

Rolled Shows

Electro-copper

Bar

(D. o(J)broken

at

S9G" (.'.

Xot

near

fracture.

blip-bands, i.e. low temperature

type of deformation,
the bar.

owing

to

fall of temperature

along

Magnified
All

1000

diameters.

specimensetched

with
an

If)per cent,

solution

of Aiiniioiiium
been added.

Persulphate,

to which

excess

of Ammonia

had

74

Bengottghand

Hanson
lie

The
an

Tensile
extension

Properties of
of the

in carbon
curve

dioxide, which
720"
at

on

hydrogen
air
as
a

above

C.
set

Looking
whole
from

the

of

curves

for of

bars

tested

in

the

point of
in

view

Rosenhain's
the

theory,the

planation ex-

that
arsenic
or

occurs naturally

is that
causes a

presence

of either

oxygen

copper

softeningof the cement,

2Br

ior

m"

500"

m'

Temperature

"C

Arsenical
(Above

CoPPE

R OLLED
records in carbon Fig.
tests

(Broken
in dioxide.

in
;

Hydrogen)
the full

590" C. the dotted


curve

curve

hydrogen )

tests

7.

and

that

the

effect of the than


a

appreciably greater
cement

of both presence either singly. The tensile

together is softeningof
It would this also

not

the be

results
to

in

low
a

expected
verified

lead
the

to
case

strength. and high ductility,


the B.S.

in

of

copper,

which

predictionis has a high


except C, which

over ductility

the whole
zone

temperature range

of the tests, of

in has

the

narrow

in the

neighbourhood
copper

300"

alreadybeen
In the
case

discussed.
arsenical

of

this range

of

low

ductility

Copper at High Temperatures


is much
a

75 which

more

extensive, and

extends

to

500"

C, above

of considerable ductility and the arsenical bars occurs range bars show greater elongationthan the rolled electro-copper broken Thus in

COg.
that both
cement curves,

the view

oxygen
affords with
case are
a

and

arsenic

cause

ing soften-

of the the

primary
series of

whole

the

of explanation satisfactory of low exceptionof a zone all the

which ductility
"

occurs

in the
tests

of

unannealed

"

pure im-

bars.

Further

meaning
The

of the results obtained

determine to necessary in this region.


been

the

main

conclusions
may

that

have

reached

as

result

of this research
1.

2.

stated as follows : briefly The the tests were nature of the atmosphere in which carried out has most a important effect upon the results obtained. An oxidizingatmosphere at high temperatures giveshigh ductility. its superior Pure maintains unannealed rolled copper strengthover annealed copper at all temperatures from atmospheric to 1000" C. Annealed preserves copper its superiorductility peratures. temto approximately the same be These results
were

obtained

in

neutral

atmosphere.
3. In

the

case

of the At

pure

annealed
all

copper, above

fracture below

passes
about

through
700"
C.

at crystals

temperatures

all temperatures
the take

about

750"

C.

it passes between it may it is

crystals. At
either
course,

intermediate

peratures tem-

tially though preferen-

4.

The
in

intercrystalline. existence of a range of low ductility at temperatures the neighbourhood of 250" C. to 450" C. is confirmed.
effect of

5. The

arsenic in or introducing either oxygen small into copper is to lower the tensile quantities tility strength at high temperatures. An increase in ducis also observed.

6. The

results of the tensile tests,

as

whole,

can

be

factorily satis-

explained on
of

the existence
cement

of is

which

theory a cement surroundingthe crystals, at low stronger than the crystals


the

basis of Rosenhain's

76

Tensile

Properties

of

Copper

at

High

Temperatures

temperatures,

but interest
at

weaker
must,

at

high
be

temperatures.

Two

points
statement

of

however,

excepted

from

this

present,

7.

Bars

tested

in

hydrogen
weaker than

at

temperatures
bars tested in

above

about

720"
or

C. neutral

are

an

oxidizing
per square

atmosphere
is
due

by

about
to

half

ton

inch. which
the

This

probably
in

reduction
and

of

copper

oxide,

may bars.

result

weakening

finally

cracking

The

authors of for the the

desire National

to

express

their

indebtedness for
work for for

to

the

Director facilities

Physical
out

Laboratory

granting
in the

carrying
his
to

of
to

the

microscopic
Rosenhain

laboratory suggestions
some

under and
tests

charge
Mr. T.
G.

Dr.

numerous

Bamford,
copper.

M.Sc,

carrying

out

of

the

on

arsenical

Communications

on

Bengougk

and

Hansons

Paper

77

COMMUNICATIONS.
Professor
wrote

A.

Campion

and

Professor

J.

G.

Longbottom

(Glasgow)

that

of the of

they noted with pleasurethat in the main the conclusions authors agreed with those arrived at by the writers as the result

which had been in progress for some investigations years in the Royal College. the test-piece and furnace They thought that an arrangement Avhereby in horizontal that to a was were on position placed preferable figured that it not possible to obtain perfectequality was They believed p. 58. of temperature throughoutthe specimensby means of a vertical arrangement, the hotter than the lower. as portionwas always slightly upper of only the ultimate elongation Apparently the authors had measured that they had made gations investithe specimens,and it was to be regretted no of the materials. of the elastic properties They (thewriters) thought that it would have conduced to clearness, had all the curves and facilitated comparison, been plottedin the same In maximum 2 stress a was on Fig. vertically plotted temperature way. stress base. a on base, whilst in Fig. 8 temperature was plottedvertically and Hanson remarked Messrs. Bengough (p. 67) on crystalline fractures and intercrystalline that, in regard to the latter, previously Technical
"

this type of fracture has only been observed at temperatures within a few been degrees of the melting points of metals,whereas it has now found

melting the paper point." presented by the writers to the Institution of in Scotland in the month of July 1914, and to Engineersand Shipbuilders made which reference was by the authors, they recorded the fact that
to
occur

at

temperature

as

much

as

350"

C. below

the

In

of 260"

this type of fracture occurred in Admiralty gun metal at a temperature 350" than C. below the melting more C, which was considerably the material.

pointof

Further,it was
detect

not

necessary

to

resort

to

scopic micro-

to phenomenon was in the photographs of the actual fractures of the specimens seen clearly which of only two they have given in that paper at a magnification diameters. observed the same They had also previously phenomenon in

examination

the line of fracture.

The

rolled bronzes The

at

about

the

same
on

temperature.
pp. 67
follow and regardingelasticity have to fused con; they appeared and ductility, elasticity or, at all and 68

authors'

arguments

were strength the independent properties of

extremely difficult to
no

events, submitted
of the cement"
It
was

evidence

that

"

is the characteristic property elasticity


the

low temperatures." "comparatively discuss properlythat portionof knowing exactly Messrs. Bengough and Hanson's and "ductility." The writers stillbelieved "elasticity"
at

difficult to

paper the

out with-

conception of
that

they put forward

in the
the

paper

referred of

to

offered

full and
at

theory complete
peratures, tem-

explanationof
and

mechanism
in accordance

failure of with the

materials

various

to be

results of experimental

their

investigations, published and unpublished.


Professor
H.

C. H.

Carpenter,

M.A., Ph.D.

wrote (Vice-President),

78
that

Communications
of the

on

Bengough
was

and

Hansons
the

Paper
had

shown
the

clearly intercrystalline type of fracture, with no distortion of 350" C. below the melting point. took place as much as crystals,
that the the the evidence tending to show point of great importance was of Rosenhain's which had nothing cement "primary" theory
the
"

highestinterest

the fact which

authors

Another that
to
"

do

with

results of

of

mechanical

work

was

different

from

the

was definitely produced regarded it as probable (thewriter)had never that these were and was interested in the evidence identical, especially now being brought forward which indicated there might be important them. He hoped the authors would follow up this differences between which of theoretical was importance,and would institute high jjoint,

secondary by mechanical

cement

theory,which Beilby's

work.

He

experiments of
The had
statement

decisive character.
on

p.

66
"

that
was

"severely strained
one

structures

were

difficult to exceedingly
He found

etch

that he could

thoroughlyconfirm.
which had been
to

the

same

in etchingsteel chains difficulty

punched
develop
area

in the
any the

cold.

Moreover, it
at

was

in impossible certain
a

this instance
of

punched preliminary annealing. Such ferrite and difference in etchingbetween led to the normal a treatment in the cold punched specimen neither constituent would whereas pearlite, certain distance of the fracture, etch within tained a although the steel constructure
a

all within

distance

the

unless

were sjiecimens

given

0 44

per

cent,

of carbon.

agreed that amorphous very strong cement theory. There was, however, one part of the author's explanation which the writer was not quite clear. Above about 750" C they upon due of the opinionthat the elongation observed was to the sliding were each in of crystals other the of the of bodily over softening consequence assumed that this If, as he understood, it was amorphous cement. the existed thin between cement merely as an infinitely crystals, layer the only cause of the elongahe found it difficult to accept suoh sliding as tion In view of the size and these at irregular shape of temperatures. for the crystals the crystals he could not quitesee how it was to possible
O. F. Hudson,
Avrote

Mr.

M.Sc.

(Birmingham)
confirmation

that

he

the results aflbrded

of

Rosenhain's

slide

bodily over
unless

one

another

to

any

but

minute them

extent
was

without
of

formatio de-

the

material plastic
there
were

between
other

appreciable

thickness. the the

He

thought

three

750 C. and above at about elongation cracks development of inter-crystalline


of

to which possiblecauses be might due, namely: (1)

and be

spaces;

amount

distortion which crystal


after the
test

would
very

not

observed

(2) a certain on examining


these temperatures
of material
to

the metal

owing
of

to
a

rapidcrystal growth at
the

(3)
as

the presence
a

comparativelylarge amount
between it
was

that

behaved

the

presence forms rounded crystalline


ease,

of

substance plastic impurities. Thus

crystals, possiblydue
that the

conceivable

small

of many

eutectics
an

with

although separatedonly by
cement

amorphous

in

soft condition.

The

might slide over one another exceedinglythin layer of comparativelyhigh ductility

Communications

on

BengougJiand

Hansons

Paper

79

of electrolytic of arsenical copper above 750 C. and tested in air copper be in to the third of at the due, least, causes might part suggested. Professor
A.

K,

Huntington,

A.R.S.M.

wrote (Past-President),

that
to

from his in order to discuss the paper curves plotthe author's and his own This had
on

points
to

of view
same

it

was

necessary

the

scale and

together.

been
same on

done
data

the

discussion

the

AA^ were based (p.80). The curves those given by him (Professor as Huntington) in the the Eighth Eeport to Alloys Research Committee.*

in

Figs.1

and

in his paper also included in the curves The Effects of on They were than of Temperatures Higher Atmospheric on Tensile Tests Copper and its Alloys,"c.," read before the Institute of Metals, f Curves BB^ were from Dr. Bengough'spaper read before this institution in 1912,J replotted
"

and under ]i. 60

reproducedon
discussion. and
pp.

pp. 62 Curves

and

63 of and

Bengough
DD^
were

and

Hanson's

CC

replottedfrom

paper now data on


curves

69 and

70 of these

authors"

paper.

[See also
Effect of
of

cluded in-

in Professor

Higher
contained
In

than

Huntington'sNote, "The Atmospheric on the Tensile Tests


"

Temperatures Copper (No. II.),"


curves

in the present volume.

Ed.]
of 1912 for

his

(Professor Huntington's) paper


of

the

of various It
was

were compared with the copper alloys and reduction that a fall in elongation

curve area

copper. be
due

shown 1.50" to

commencing
to

about
.some

250"

C. occurred he had
curve

in

them
copper

all,and
unless

that

it must

change

taking place
which If A^
a

in the

all these
not.

metals
that

had

similar curves, taken the B^ About

satisfied himself
were

they had
it would

examined

be

seen

change had
been A^
cut

place after
a causing

1-50" to 200" C. had temj^erature of about in the elongation.The falling reduction curve had

reached,

curve,

which

dropped
curve

A^ began to ptoint 450". about at being that until about


It used
was

very in the

little from

0" at about

350"

C.

On

the

other

650"

was

reached, when
from much in fact rather the
more
'"

the lowest point direction, opposite B^ hand, dropped but very little it curved upwards. AA^ "on and BB' that
the copper

quite

obvious

curves

for the latter had


rod
was

work The

it than

the former.
wa.s,

The

copper annealed at 600" for which this


was were

"A"

suppliedas
"
low,
showed

soft,and
that it

in

addition,
and soft,

C. for two

hours.
than

yield-point curve, " the figures


was

high

very A
"

by the elongation curve. all of the the broken nearly test-pieces Fortunately
An

confirmed

"

stillin existence.
on

examination

of them

showed
was

that

copper the tested


at

were

either side of the actual below about 316" C.


"

complete fracture
of two
not
"

not
one

cracked showed

part temperature
on

tests

at at to

316" C.
the

cracks

the surface,the other

did

whilst

higher temperatures
last test been
this

the

test-

showed cracks increasingly pieces up (1000"F.). Many other series of hot jn 1897.
*

made

at

523" the

C.

tests

had

made, commencing

All the copper

and

their

alloysshowed

change in

con-

t Journal

Proceedingsof the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, No. 1, 1907, of the Institute of Metals, No. 2, 1912, vol. viii.pp.134-142.
1, 1912, vol. vii. pp. 143-4.

p. 320.

J Ibid., No.

" 1912 paper,

loc. cit.

80

Communications
at

on

Bengough

and

Hansons

Paper
curves

dition of the metal the writer's 1912

to the temperatures corresponding

given in
were

paper.* A of Tips of test-pieces


"

"

cut

off close
were

to

the made

fractures

broken copper and embedded the

at

various

temperatures
examined

in low fracture

meltingwhite
and

metal. micro-

Sections T/o'
20
13 16

to perpendicular

If
A?

"^

10

"3

WO

200

300

900

SOO

600

700

800

300

WOO'C

Temperature.
Fig. 1.

100

50

^
^

90
:-"-.

Cj Ji7-=^^-=-=

zo\ "-u
10

loo

loo

lob

m)

'sob
Temperature
Fig. 2.

eoo

roo

eoo

ooo

looo'c

graphically.It
in the
case

was

seen

that the fracture followed showed did which

of the

which test-pieces

boundaries crystal cracks, and passed superficial the

through

the

crystalsin those

not.

[See also
"

Note

on

this

subjectby Professor Huntington in the present volume. Dr. Bengough had not stated at what temperature the
*

Ed.]
copper

of

curve

Loc.

cit.

8 2

Communications
and alloys, had

on

Bengough
adhered
It
to ever
was

and

Hansons

Paper
of
that
com*

certain

been

since for purposes intended


to

parisonfor a great deal of length of annealing should


To demonstrate

work. be that

not

imply

that

given in
the

Avorks. referred to

further

cojDpers
were,

by

the authors

as

possibly not
an

completely annealed

in
as

fact, completelyannealed,
arsenical (0"234

untested 1912

pieceof
paper

the
was

writer's

copper examined

described

As)

in the

It microscopically.

showed

sign of
bands be had
two not

with

being magnifications up
of that

thoroughlyannealed.
to

There 1000

were

no

indications There

every of slip
to

diameters.
at 600" at 750"

happened
hours
two

test-bars

metal
were

annealed

C. for two C.for

which
and

been

used.

Those

reannealed

hours

tested.

The metal

tests

were

given for comparison


at

with

those

made

on

the

same

annealed

600"

C.

for

two

hours.
not

It would

be

seen

that the become

higher temperature of annealinghad showed The examination microscopic


much
coarser.

altered the test for the better. had crystal grains


and interesting

that the

On

p.

69
are

the

authors

said the the

"

The

differences examined. in
case

seen

when
case

two

In

the

of

rolled That The

important are elongation-temperature there is a rapid diminution metal


most
curves

at quite low ductility

temperatures which
sudden

is not

observable

in the
on

of the the
as

annealed
was

metal."

way
curve

curve

plotted.
D^

seemed, however, to depend dip did not appear


workers, includingLe
have observed
case a

the

in the

plottedat
authors
and

in

Fig. 2.
"

The

continued
one

Previous

Huntington,
copper
at low

of the authors

temperatures.

Except in

the

of

Chatelier, in ductility Huntington's experiments


loss of

rolled or worked drop has only been observed in unannealed observed it in annealed Huntington electrolytic copper." The tions authors, if they referred to the writer's paper, would find that the condiof annealing hours 600" two at were definitely stated,viz., C, and the

metal.

reference
was

to

pure

Chatelier's paper annealed. As electrolytic


Andre Le the

disclosed the

the

fact that his copper

writer

had

also

done, he

necessityfor annealing before making such series of emphasized Le Chatelier curve tests.* The Fig. 2 of Prof. Huntington's Note in [see similar the presentvolume. to those published was Ed.] by the writer. very that of a soft copper, not of a cold- worked The elongationwas copper. writer where The not Dr. Bengough had was aware published his observation of a loss of ductility in copper at low temperatures. It was shown in Fig. 9, p. 63 of the authors' paper, and it was stantiated subnot not in the same by the data on which Fig.5 was plotted paper.
"

Congrds hiternatiofiales

des Mi!thodes

D'Essai,

tome

ii.

Communications

on

Bengottghand
more

Hansons
tliat copper

Paper
which cold

83
had

Probably
not

it would worked
even more

be

correct

to

say

been

cold

showed

the

fall in

and elongation,

worked

did not copper It would throw


rods and but of the
same

if annealed.

That that

been pointhad already

discussed.
from
two

lighton
one

point
had

if tests

were

made

copper,

of which

been
and

cold rolled and then

the
not
a

other
at too

rolled without

cold

working
been

annealed, similarly annealed,


a
"

high

temperature.
there had

By
in

coincidence
of

just
"

* published

Annealing
abstract considered which
to

Cold-Kolled in 1100" the


F.

Copper

by

Bardwell. of the the

It

paper would

on

The

be

found

form
that

present number

Journal.

Bardwell

(about 600"
and he

C.) was

anneal

copper,

quotes Grard

ideal temperature at of the same who was

thus opinion, existed in his


years.
at

of the had practice which confirmingthe desirability (ProfessorHuntington's) laboratory during the last fifteen
to

According
C. from

Bardwell

copper

would

be

overheated

if annealed

750"

It followed low

the

discussion foregoing

that the

regionof relatively

by
and

in cop])er and its alloysto which attention first drawn was ductility in completelyannealed the writer in his 1912 paper rf/ri occur copper, that the authors' authors therefore suggested explanation
and

did not
It

hold
was

good.
open
to

The

annealed
at

tested in carbon

dioxide.
carbon H.

questionwhether
a

the

neutral

atmosphere.
1200"
C. In

On

higher temperatures of the authority


into
the presence

dioxide

constituted

Sain te- Claire


and oxygen

Deville,
between

carbon

dioxide and

partially decomposes

carbon

1100" formed

of carbon

carbonic

oxide

might
be well

be

at still lower

carbonic be
on

oxide

temperatures, the oxygen going to form also diffuse into the It would might copper.
for

CuoO.

The
to

the

lookout

oxide

might
a

exist in

oxide,having a
as existing
"

Cu.^O,COo, and carbonic possibilities. the outside and equilibrium yet carbonic copper, different diffusion rate to CO^, might reduce the CugO
of the copper, and so render the copper cally mechaniwhat was appeared to be the condition of the and
"

all such

constituent
"

rotten,"which
"

authors' coppers The writer had


of
an

C
an

"

at

temperatures above
mind
on

about

700"

C.

entirely open
between
metal

amorphous
in
a

cement

the

question of the existence to him crystal grains. It ai^peared


be

the

that
to

worked

be the

formed

between
low
cement

Beilby'samorphous metal would the crystal grainsas well as between


A
and
was

likely
the of the

the lamellie
about

of

crystalsthemselves.
temperatures
which it the

great deal
weakness

had
at

been

said

strengthat amorphous
metal

high temperatures
even
a

suggested
Was

existed

in

un

worked

between

crystalgrains.
the writer had
to

it not

rather

question of

rigidityand
Some of
and
a

.? pZas^u'zY?/ ago

years
car.

examine

fractured

motor

The been
way

fi-acture had brittle. On

passed through the thin

steering pillar case-hardening

the

soft interior of the in

steel

itself had pillar bent pillar


*

that showed
American

in a direct line, just as if the pillar the the grinding case-hardening away that it was made of very tough material. of Mining Engineers, August
1914.

Bulletin

of the

Institute

84
When
the

Coinmunications
tlie case-hardened

on

Bengough
been

and

Hanson

Paper
result that that

had pillar less

to subjected

bending moment,
the

case-hardeningfractured
metal

first at

some

point, with
at

the the

beneath

was

supported than
it

all other

pointswhere
followed

remained intact, and case-hardening this fracture took in tough metal place fractured.
"

naturally
the

tough metal adhering to straight-jacket


"

The

became

concentrated

at

the

casing had had been prevented from bending by the and the efiect of the bending moment it, had point at which the case-hardening

where

brittle

fractured.
It
"

was

suggestedthat
assuming
the
cement

the
"

it to exist

temperatures

was

between aries boundcrystal amorphous cement similar in behave At low a manner. might fracture took place through the and rigid, the cement became and the plastic

crystal grains. At

high temperatures

pulled apart. crystal grains The authors expressed their astonishment


at occurring
as

at

inter-crystalline cracking
It
was

much
be
a

as

350"

below

the

melting point.

feared
occur

that
more

it would

than
Mr. F.

another

greater shock to them to find that it could 350" 0. lower still in normal ! copper
the would

at

Table

that Johnson, M.Sc. (Birmingham), wrote he of b ut interest, II., p. 59, were particular
to
see

analyses in
have
ferred pre-

materials

used

which

lent themselves
the

to

fairer

comparisons.
that
"

It

was

not

he thought, to fair,

compare

influence of arsenic with

of oxygen 1. There 2. There

by using materials which


was was

sufi"ered in the

following respects :
in the

oxygen and

present.
oxygen

considerablymore
its
in the latter.

present than
was

electrotained con-

copper, 3. There 4. The

physicalcondition
lead
as

different from

that

was
was

nearly as much
tin wished

arsenic. into consideration

There
writer

present.
to ask

if the

authors

had

taken

the diS^erence in of lead alone must


In be

condition physical

in combination

of the oxygen and the probable presence The with oxygen. influence of the lead

but appreciable, that influence. they recognized

nowhere

had

the

authors

indicated

that

view authors
"

of these

the writer felt that the conclusion facts,

drawn

by

the that
An

(No. 5,

the effect of

as They yet, not justifiable. p. 75) was, in small e ither arsenic or introducing oxygen

stated
tities quan-

the tensile into copper is to lower increase in ductility is also observed." He


to

strength at high temperatures.


how

(Mr. Johnson) was


gauge of the

at

loss to

see or on

the authors deoxidized

were

in

tion posicase

influence of oxygen

arsenic
a

alone, since in
standard
he

the

of oxygen

they had

published no
was

tests

for the

purpose had alreadypointed out, there


more

whilst in the comparison, materials.


very
at

case

not

as arsenic, (Mr. Johnson) only oxygen present, but actually

of

than He

in the other

an

(Mr. Johnson) was atmosphere oxidizing


strange that
a

much

impressedwith

the

statement

that

high temperatiu-es gave


the (cuprous oxide),

high ductility. It
influence of which

seemed

constituent

Authors'
in the cold
was

Reply
to

Bengough

and

Hanson

Paper

85

just au
as

the

at high temperatures have should impair ductility, facts such in keeping with known effect. Yet this was opposite peratures and at ductility high temhigh degree of malleability relatively of cuprous oxide as such a proportion of copper containing

would On

render Plate

it unserviceable

for

or drawing rolling

in the cold.

a micrograph of rolled published electro-copper showing slip-bands.They also stated that the specimen those slip-bauds whether He would be glad to know had been etched. visible before etching. were

VII., Fig. 10,

the

authors

Mr.
were

Hanson

wrote, in
note

replyto
the

the

communications, that

the authors

to gratified

that

they
and pp. and

had

drawn, agreed in
68
were

results of their work, and the conclusions the main with those of Professors Campion their
to

that Long-bottom. They regretted


67 and
not

clear
to

Professors

(theauthors') arguments on Campion and Longbottom,


their views
were

they would
more

refer

them

p.

65,

on

which

stated

somewhat
to

themselves

jected opinionthat metals, when subin the crystals stresses at low temperatures, stretched by slipping along the cleavageplanes. This caused an alteration in the

fully. They

were

of the

shape of
imply
and

the to which crystal, itself by virtue of its extreme

the

cement

envelope was
This did
and

able
not

to

modate accom-

thinness.
the

that

the

cement

did
and it,

not

associated

with

possess it must be

hardness

necessarily strengthgenerally
many

borne

in mind

that

hard

could not be distorted in large masses, brittle substances, which to a of very thin sheets, be bent in the form elastically could, when this view evidence in of considerable support degree. Experimental very had
shown been

by Humfrey,* published
when

and

by Rosenhain,t and
that
it then
treatment. cement

it had

been

that
was

steel
a

was

subjected to stresses
of

than gi-eater

its elastic

limit it
lower

left in

condition

strain, so
it did

possessed a
That

strength in
to to

compressionthan
of the

before

is

ascribed
to
were

the

tendency
than

stretched elastically
The

return

their

original shape.
of Rosenhain in

view

that

the cement is

rather elastic,
of the

ductile,in

this

range,
was

envelopes envelopes supportedby the


ment moveover

observations published

that there relation to

no practically

boundaries crystal As the the

one

another the

this low-

temperature
cement
or ductility

range. and decreased

temperature increased

and plasticity, of the

fell off, to be elasticity in the metal stretched,

of the strength by a type of replaced


this range,

by

the

movement

the relative

each other, with a considerable over change in crystals of interand o f the with the positions boundaries, production cracks and spaces. crystalline He (Mr. Hanson) would point out to Professors Longbottom and

Campion that
was

the method

of direct metal

photographyof
on

the fractures of the

themselves

impossiblewith
that the method
more

the
of

used

account

small

structure,

and
was

to likely
*

platingthe fracture,though somewhat yieldgood results.


and Steel Institute, Carnegie Memoirs, Reports, Section B, 1913. 1913.

laborious,

Jourfial of the Iron


British Association

86
He

Authors^
noted

Repcy: Bengough
interest that Professor
"

and

Hansons

Paper

Carpenter could confirm their strained structures difficult that statement were severely exceedingly had been of considerable a to etch," as this experimental source difficulty in obtainingphotomicrographs of the highly trouble to them, especially
with strained In
not

fractures. Mr.

reply to
at

Hudson's intention

communication, he
to

would
the

state

that

it

was

the

authors'

imply
a
:

that

when

slid crystals

over was

one

another

high temperatures
the
which

continuous the
an

layerof the cement


was

served pre-

between
All the bars

boundaries broke
a

evidence

all to the

contrary.

with

microscopicexamination,
spaces
over

fracture, showed, on intercrystalline of intercrystalline cracks and largenumber


down

the

whole

of

the turned

portion.

These

were

shown

VI. and VII.). clearlyin photomicrographs (5 and 9 (Plates especially Mr. In regard to the other two Hudson, possiblecauses suggestedby he (Mr. Hanson) did not consider that either playedany very important
of any rate in the case 0*1 per cent, of say, about eutectic of amount present in

part, at

pure the

metal.

In

impurity,there
metals

pure be would

metal
no

ing, containit

appreciable
since
was

well-annealed would

metal,
absolute
of

known
to
some
was

that, on

theoretical

all grounds,
no

dissolve

impurities
metals the
a

He

There was extent. slight quite prepared to admit of in impurities


on

such
thin

thing as
case

insolubility.
confer

that

in the

impure
films

presence

the

form
at

of

eutectic

might
manner

high ductility by Mr. Hudson.


He

the

metal

high

temperatures, in the

gested sug-

wished that low


a

contribution
to hear at
as

Huntington for his long and interesting interested He (Mr. Hanson) was to the discussion. greatly Professor Huntington had observed intercrystalline cracking
to thank

Professor

temperature would, however, point out


far
as

as

316" that
aware.

C. in the

case

of his copper

bars.

He used

this observation
He

had

not

been previously

so published,

he
case

was

that regretted whether

the
not

material

by
.so

the authors that


it
was

in the
now

of copper

tested in air had


say

impossible to

the

fractures

He thought it was intercrystalline. fracture however, that the change to intercrystalline which the maximum of that at temperature neighbourhood
were curve

preserved, high-temperature probable, very took placein the


been
perature stress-tem-

became of the

line,viz. approximately a straight

about

650"

C.

In
this the

the
of

case

type

fracture

bars the change to the intercrystalline rolled copper 710" C. and 760" C., but occurred somewhere between 710" in C.

determined not more accurately. At change point was fracture to be seen as was passed through the crystals, No. 3
a

(PlateV.), while comparisonof


to
was a

at

760"

C.

it

He

thought,from
very

the two

curves

photomicrograp was intercrystalline 2 and 4),that it (Figs.


ington, Huntcurves

occurred

close

the

temperature suggested by Professor


that the

750" occurred
than in

C.

It

to be noted

change pointsin
case

the

throughoutat
the
case

higher temperature in the


copper. This

of rolled copper
due
to

of

annealed

be might possibly

difi'erences in He
was

size. crystal

greatlyinterested in the suggestionmade Huntington to explainthe differences between the two

by
sets

Professor
of
curves

Authors
AA^
made and

Reply: Bengougliand
It
was

Hanson

Paper
Guillet
*

87
had

BB.^

worthy
pure copper which

of

note, however, that


and had
on

experimentson
between
the
same

copper-zinc alloysto
cold-rolled
and

detect

differences and

material

been

annealed,
and

material

after

being
tests

rolled without
the cold

cold-work
no

then

annealed. similarly
between He
two

Tensile

in

showed

differences

the

materials.
was

thought it
curves

that quite possible


due

the

differences
manner

between

the

might
BB^ after

be
were

to differences in the at

of

testing. The
took could

bars of
all
cases

curves

loaded

such
same

rate

that

fracture

placein
Professor

approximatelythe
AA^ of the
of
were

time
so

under far
as
no

load.
he

Huntington's
from

curves

determined,
of
of

gather
It

the

account

method

under testing,

defined definitely
load. influence and
or

conditions
was on now

of rate known

rate loading,
manner

that the
a

of

time under or straining, had a very marked testing


elevated

the

of properties of

metal,

at especially

temperatures,
to take

that
an

greatly varyingresults
uneven

could

be obtained

by adopting a
advisable

different

rate

testing.
when with

It would

surelybe

these
of

facts into consideration He could


not

making comparisons.
Professor

agree

Huntington that
drastic.
an
were

the conditions

annealingof
the authors'
those

the bars

test-bars
were

were

too

He

would

point out
carbon air.
be

that

annealed the

in

atmosphere of
annealed
in

dioxide,
Professor formed
He
at

while

of Professor
"

Huntington
presence oxygen

Huntington said,
still lower
went
on

In

of

coj)pei' CO
to

might

temperatures, the to say that " the CO


CO

going

form

Cu.,0."

then

CO.,, and

also diffuse into the copper. Cu.^O, exist in and the outside vet CO.,, equilibrium might copper,

might
to

having
as a

different diffusion rate


in the

CO, might reduce

constituent

copper."

He

existing (Mr. Hanson) thought that it was


+

the CU2O

extremely improbablethat

the reaction
2Cu-hCOo-"CuoO CO.

should

also take
He in

temperature.
been detected

placein the reverse thought that if


the
annealed would

direction in the copper at the that had been the case it would
were

same

have
at

bars which

kept

for

two

hours
He

750" the the

C.
cold

in COo. had such

They

reactions

been

have shown surely proceedingin

signsof
the metal. carbon
of the either

weakness
was

in

of
took

opinion that no appreciabledissociation of the placein the presence of copper under the conditions
Had
of

dioxide

such oxide
in
on

been the

the

case or

it would

have

been
He

detected
the

bars

by

weakening of
cold.
for two

mechanical
not

experiments. by a coating of properties


that annealing
too

the

annealed
an

metal

when

tested

could
at

agree
was

The
1 and

atmosphere of CO2 as growth of the crystals,


2 under
a

hours be
seen

750" C.
from
not

drastic.

could
200

photomicrographs
excessive.

of magnification
had somewhat

diameters,was
the

Mr.
on

Johnson

misunderstood

authors'
were

experiments
made
on

the effect of oxygen. The analysesgiven in Table II. the material before the tests were In the case carried out.
*

of those

bars

Bulletin

de la Sociiti

Encouragement

July 1914.

88

Aiithors

Reply:

Befigoitgh

and

Hansons

Paper

which
at

were

tested
of

in
test.

CO.,

there
Those

was

no

increase
were

in heated the
the 0*24

the

oxygen

content

the

end
a

the

bars

which
content

in
of

air,
the
content

however,
test.

showed
one

very

considerable
of
a

oxygen tested
at

at

end

In in

case,

that

bar
the

800" found

C.

in
to

air,
be for

oxygen per
cent.

the

part
was

surrounding
considerably regard
in
to

fracture than

was

That
copper

value
bars. of

higher

that

given
10,
he
had

the
not

arsenical

With

photomicrograph
unetched
material.

noticed

any

signs

the

slip-bands

the

90

Hudson

The
on

Critical
tlie paper

Point
several

at

460"

C.
tributors, con-

In

tlie discussion

speakers and
that
to

including the
did
not

present author, indicated

consider the

the

eutectoid

proved by

evidence

explanation Indeed brought forward.

be

they conclusively
Dr. Desch
"^

"

stated that he would definitely preferto adopt the alternative of a polymorphic change in the /3, and explanation suggested Fig. 2 as the diagram in the /S region. To meet these objections Professor Carpenter started an

in
fresh entirely given to the
set

Zinc-CopperAlloys
the experiments,
of Metals
at

91

of

results of which

were

January meeting of 1912.* Three were alloys prepared: (1) a pure ^ alloy;(2) with a little a; and (3) an with a an alloyof /3, alloyof /5, little 7. sealed in glasstubes were Specimens of these alloys ing and annealed at 445" C. (B.P, of sulphur). Six weeks' annealof the pure ^ alloy showed that (p. 76) Broadly speaking had resolution of the original occurred." no apparent /3 areas With the two other alloys pronounced increase in the amounts,
"

Institute

the

oc

/3

"f/O'

ex

./3'

/?'

/3'^y

S5

5^

S3

62
Fig.

5/
2.t

50

and served, obwere together with coalescence, of 7 respectively, after eight and nine weeks, they both and eventually, penter's and stated to consist of were Accepting Professor Car7. of the structures, it seemed that the interpretation and structural resolution of Q into proved beyond 7 was the graphs question. But, later,considering publishedphotomicroProfessor the Carpenter'sinterpretation, apart from author's did not to the evidence complete conviction carry
a a a

mind.

Thus
no

from

the

photographsalone, e.g. No.


for
Critical the No. Point
at

and

No.

17, there is
*

clear
on

reason

saying they represent a+7,


470" C.
in

"Further

Experiments
the

Copper-Zinc Alloys,"
has
now

ournal

of th; Institute of Metals,

1, 1912, vol. viii. p. 70.


curve

t A

slip in
"

drawing

of the

minor

of

the

originaldiagram

been

corrected.

Ed,

92

Hudson:
a-\-^

The

Critical

Point at 460"

C.
a

rather than
of

(No. 9), or /S+y (No. 17).


shown
a,

Again

series

was photographs

annealing of
structure
as was

the

succeeded
first

the earlier stages in the illustrating in which shown /3 alloy, a was pearlitic by a finely granularone, and interpreted resolution
had

the

stages in the
that the
a

of

/3.

That

is

to

say, it

implied

mixture followed
of further

structurally changed into a and of visible however, Carpenter, -y. Professor these photographs by one (No. 6) showing the effect he said the structure in which annealing(ten days),
out crystallizing

/3

shows

"

of

apparent ,8 areas."

In

these

circumstances,
confirm

thought it desirable to attempt to Professor Carpenter's periments observations, and annealing exstarted. were consequently Owing, however, to a
the author of
causes

number

the

work

was

much could

hindered, and
be reached.

it

was

long before definite conclusions


Professor

Meanwhile which
he

gave other metals


to

(a)

Carpenterpublishedtwo further papers, in the results of his investigation into the


on

effect of

the structural that pure


7.

resolution

of

claimed ^, and (")"j" into papers


the of the

have

proved
a

/3 could

be resolved
to

structurally
the
same

distinct
doubt

and

With the

regard

these
as

existed

in

author's

mind

to

correctness
structures

of

Professor

of Carpenter's interpretation This

some

by the results of the author's own although annealings had not experiments, as yet been carried on as long as those of Professor Carpenter. found that not only did So far as the experiments went, it was and 7, but resolved into structurally ^ not become separate there was no sign of any such tendency. positions however, several specimens of different comEventually, the critical point for periods below annealed were up
illustrated. doubt
was now

intensified

to

eleven
Two
1.

weeks.

methods The

were glass tubes which in the vapour of boiling immersed sulphur (445" C). entirely used method This was by Professor Carpenter,and details Further were Experiments on given by him in his paper, the Critical Point at 470" C. in Copper-Zinc Alloys." J

annealingwere sealed specimens Avere

of

used, viz. :
in

"

Journal

of the
51.

Institute

of Metals,

No.

2, 1912, vol. viii. p. 59.

t Ibid., p.

X Ibid., No.

1, 1912, vol. vii. p. 74.

in Zinc2.

Copper Alloys

93

sealed in small glass annealed tubes, were specimens, in electrically heated tube furnaces, the temperatures of which controlled unctions the glass were by thermo-j placedalongside All the photographs of annealed tubes. structures given in the plates were of specimens treated by this method, no * differences being observed in the structures of specimens annealed Two furnaces were by the sulphur vapour method.

The

used
made

for

this work,

"

one

Nichrome the
was

"

wound
a

tube

furnace
wound

in the

laboratory,and
The former
run

other used

platinum

Heraeus and

furnace.
was

for the

ings, longeranneal-

continuouslyoff the battery circuit,the temperatures during the night being checked by a thread The used for the shorter annealings, recorder. and latter was off the lightingcircuit and was run during the day only. An intermittent annealing is,of course, allowable here since the annealingtemperatures are helow the critical point. The available in either case current and it not absolutely was steady, difficult to keep the temperature quiteconstant, even for a was It was, however, found few hours. to be possible to avoid a variation than C. 10" In the notes over long periods. greater of annealingtemperatures included in the descriptions of the -where the photographs,the upper limit is given in cases
actual

temperature variation is
results may
on alloys slightly

not

recorded.
as

The

be summarized

follows

1, In

the
a

side of pure

^
a

very

decided

increase in the
short
to

amount
a

of
few

was

annealingof
no

hours.

be

further
in the

increase
of the

increase with
2. .3.
to
a

size

comparatively appeared in the amount of a, but only an crystals by coalescence,together Subsequentlythere

observed, after

forms. rounding of sharp,angular Pure /3 showed of breaking down. no sign whatever In alloys the y side of pure /3 there appeared on slightly
some,
no

be

but further

not

increase in y change,except coalescence


a

decided

at

and first,

wards after-

and

rounding.
there
any

In

no

singleinstance
breakdown
the
these in

sign
Dunn
*

of the and
of

any of /3 into

in

of the
a

was alloys

and

author
have been

in "j")
given of the
in

the
a

presence

(as shown by of vanadium, which


even Dunn and the author
on

Some

"

Vanadium

Brass," Journal
Institute

Institute

previous paper of Metals,

by
No.

1, 1914, vol. xi. p. 151.

t Journal

of the

of Metals, No.

1, 1914, vol. xi. p. 151.

94 Professor

Hudson

The

Critical Point
assisted

at

460"

C.

Carpenter
then
as

stated

very

powerfully the
were

structural inversion.
As far the author's
own

results

concerned,

they could be perfectlywell explained by a polymorphic direct evidence no change in ^ at 460" C., but there was againstthe eutectoid explanationof the transformation which It remained, therefore, to find some proof positive occurs. that /8 (or rather /3i)could exist as a stable phase below this object the two With 460" C. ments followingsets of experiwere

carried

out

A.

An

was inhomogeneous alloy

made

by pouringa

molten

alloy (y), containing40


zinc, on
melted
to

per

in

copper which crucible. a


The

had
The

and 60 per cent, copper just solidified after having been


cent,

whole

was

allowed

to

cool

disturbed. un-

to

consist

of

the

top, with
The

then cut through, and found specimen was and y at bottom at the practically pure copper composition layers of alloys of intermediate

between.

thin
a

layer of
+

and
in
a

some

on

,5,with some pure the other side,was


460"
C.

/3-f y
cut out

on

one

side

and

annealed

specimen was the /3 layer found that it was examined at intervals,and days had graduallyincreased in width, and after thirty-two from inch in width to 0*075 inch, with correspond0-05 ing grown
closed tube below decrease in
a

(435" C).

The

and

y.

The

increase

in

amount

of
3

below

460"C.is illustrated
all of which It thus
were

Nos. byphotographs
at
a

1, 2, and

(PlateVIIL),
diameters.

taken

of twenty magnification

appears

that,even

7, the ^ does not break when annealed at temperatures

in the presence of nuclei of both a and of these two phases up into a mixture below

460"

C, but

on

the

other hand
of indicate both

the
a

increases /3 actually and y.


must

in amount alone

by
seems

the

tion absorp460"
C.

This
be
a

result
stable

clearlyto
"

that

there

,8 phase below

the large photographs also show that /3 recrystallizes Avhich then slowlygrow break crystals up into smaller ones, also points to a polymorphic change in the ^. a fact which This recrystallization of /3 has been observed by the author in other cases, and also by Professor Carpenter.* The
"

Journal

of the

Institute

of Metals,

No.

2, 1912, vol. viii. p. 52.

in
B. A

Zinc-Copper Alloys

95

in molten zinc piece of copper was immersed which was just above its melting point (but below 450" C) The whole hours. and kept at this temperature for thirty-six

small

was

then

allowed
In

to centre

cool,a section
was
a

cut, and

the

structure

amined. ex-

the

core

of unaltered

was

surrounded
the

by layers of
centre

definite

order, from
of
a

outwards:

alloysin (1) Copper core;

copper, which the following

(2) layer

bluish-white yellow alloy ; (3) a layer of a hard, brittle, is evidently which of alloys richer in zinc. The alloy, 7; (4) layers is illustrated by photo No. 4 (PlateIX.). At first sight structure it would seem that the yellowalloy be a, and that /3was not must

formed

at

all.
the

careful visual

cated examination, however, india

was yellowlayermight be /3 and that the be missing. Also if the yellow layer were really it would expected that it would gradually into the copper, merge it was whereas sharply divided from it. The explanation of ^ from copper and 7 keeps probably is that the formation

that

pace
no
a

with

diffusion of zinc (or ^) into the copper. Hence be present. To test this explanationthe layer would
the
a

repeated, using brass (70-3 0) in zinc instead of After annealing the specimen for fifty-six hours copper in zinc. 450" C, a layerof ^ was found at a temperature not exceeding been formed between and sharplydivided from the a and to have in photo No. 5, Plate IX. This experiment was tried 7, as shown repeatedly, using various annealingtemperatures from 400" C. upwards, and it was found that in every case a layer of ,8 was between the and form of test specimen The formed 7. finally adopted for these experiments consisted of a small of 70-30 inch brass, | inch in diameter and about cylinder in which a hole 1 inch in diameter drilled. This hole was long, experimentwas
a
'\

was

then

filled with
in to the
an

inch
a

hammered
zinc result i.c,well

form

which pure zinc Avire, between perfectly good contact diameter


No.
6

was

the

and
of

below

the (Plate IX.), shows experiment at 420" C. to 430" C. (three days), the critical temperature, and the layerof /3 is
to

brass.

Photo

distinct. The seems fact, which perfectly and proved,that /8 is produced from 7 be the that only explained on assumption phase below the critical point.
a

be

definitely
C.
can
a

below

460"

there is

stable

/3

96

Hudson:
The evidence the
in

The

Critical Point
view

at

4:60" C.
at

support of the

that

460"

C. the

zinc-copperalloysundergoes an eutectoid change into a and almost observations the of on entirely y rests Professor Carpenter that (3 in the presence of nuclei of either
a

/3

of

or

y
a

becomes mixture the

converted

into

of

below long annealing of and y.* These largecrystals


a

after

460"

C.

tions observahas

author, after
in any obtained C. It way

prolonged and
to

repeated attempts,
On the is
a

been author

unable has

confirm.
that

other stable

hand

the

evidence
seems

there

(3 phase
therma^l

below

460"

probable,then,

that

the

460" C. in those at about change which undoubtedly occurs which contain be due to /3 must a zinc-copper alloys morphic polyand that the modification change of ^ into (3^, in Shepherd'sequilibrium which be introduced must diagram is similar to that suggestedby Dr. Desch "fin the discussion the original The accurate on paper of Carpenterand Edwards. determination of the form of the new will and position curves of considerable doubtless be a matter A difiiculty. purely
thermal
does investigation
not

promising,as the temperature in probablyonly very small, and likely by undercoolingeffects. So far the
definite
can

be very at present to appear diflferences to be detected are any


case

to

be

obscured
no

author

has
no

obtained

results drawn

from
a

work

on

these

and lines,
of
curves

conclusions
A

be

until

largernumber
of the
structure

is available.

careful
known

examination

of

alloysof accurately

compositionannealed at different temperatures would, however, probablygive sufficient data to enable the approximate form of the diagram in the /3 region to be determined. Thus some preliminaryexperiments which are about to be is decidedlyless soluble described appear to indicate that in ,8^ of the y seems than in (3, while the change in solubility to be only slight. In the course of the annealingexperiments carried for on it was of various compositions, always long periodswith alloys
a

occurs

weight should not be given to the analogy of the eutectoid change which it as /3of the tin-copper, aluminium-copper, and other alloys,particularly has been shown that in the case of the antimony-copper alloys (H. C. H. Carpenter, International Zeitschrift fiir Metallographie, Bd. iv.,Heft 4, 301) the corresponding at about 430" C. undergoes /3phase polymorphic transformation Institute Xo. vol. the Journal v. t 1, 1911, of of Metals, p. 172.
Too much in the

Plate

IX

A=

Unaltered

B C

Copper. Layer of /3. Layer of 7. Layers of richer Alloys


=

D, E

in Zinc.

No. 4. Copper annealed in contact with Zinc 10 diameters. Vertical Illumination. Magnified
"

for 36 hours at 450^ C. Etched with Ammonia.

".

'^
^"^
No...')."I ij
.;"I

y
^. "-vv
w

I'aass annealed ill cunt. iLt Vertical Illumination. Magnified100 diameters.

Zinc 1' .n, itli Etched with Ammonium


'

iTid" C.

Persulphate.

No. 6.
MnanifipH

"

70-30 Brass annealed


Hinniffpr^ Vpitirnl

in

contact

with Zinc for 3 davs


V,^U^^
...uu

inn

Tlliiminat,V.n

aL

at

490"-49fi"
"

""

V"

Plate

Jo. 7"
+ /3

Alloy G (3a). Copper Annealed for 8 hours 7. and then quenched.

501
at

per

cent.

No.

480"-490" C.

Allov G (S/-).Copper 501 per cent. Annealed for 8 hours at 480'-4;iO- C. Quenched and then re-annealed for 15 hours at 425" C.
S." + 7.

"^^f'-

'^'

"^/

"?"".-

;^V-"^^^'
No.
a

9.
+

"

AlloyH (3a). Copper 55'4 per cent. No. 7. as 13. Treatment the same

No.

10."
a

AlloyH (3i^). Copper 55-4 per cent No. 8. the same as /3. Treatment

^^

so.

11. "Alloy H (3f).Copper 55*4 per cent. No. 12." Alloy KIO, containing 3 per cent, of for 8 hours at 480"-490" C. tin. Consists of a and /3with the 5 (clear + p. Annealed Quenched, re-annealed 15 hours at 425" C. white) of the tin-copper series. Annealed and then again annealed for 2 hours at 490" C. 8 days at 450" C. and quenched,
a
,

of all the photographs, lagnification 100 diameters. which


was

Vertical Illumination.

etched

with Ammonium

attack Persulphate) by a polish

Etched (except No. with Ammonia.

10,

Plate

XI

^"""^:. -:^-i.-

.'

'^-P:^-.^^^^\\H^-i^ '^t?'?:'^j^

No.

13.

"

Alloy H. Copper 55'4 per As cast. /3with a little a.

cent.

No.
a

14.
+

"

Alloy

(la). Copper 554


for 2 hours
at

per

cent.

p.

Annealed

440" C.

15.
.

"

Alloy H
Annealed
at

(Ih). Copper 55'4


for 2 hours
at

per

cent.

No.

16.
a

"

Alloy

{\c). Copper
for 3

55'4
at

per

cent.

ji.

440" C.+14

|3.

Annealed

days

425" C.

hours

425" C.

No.

17." Alloy H2.


Annealed

Copper
for 12

days

55'4 per at 440"

cent.

ji. No.

18."

Alloy H8.
Annealed

Copper
for 8 weeks

C.

55 '4 per cent. at 440" C.

/3.

of Magnification and

all the
were

17, which

Vertical Illumination. Etched photographs, 100 diameters. (exceptNos. etched with Ammonium Persulphate) by a polishattack with Ammonia.

15

in Zinc
noted showed that
a

-Copper Alloys
were

97 the
a

those marked short

which alloys increase in

just
amount

within of
case

/3 field
a

the

after those

paratively com-

while annealing,

in

the

of

alloys
less

just within
noticeable.

the In be

/3+

field
case

the the

increase result of

of

either

7 was further of

far

annealing
the

small appeared to into larger rounded masses. angularcrystals Any conclusions, however, which might be drawn from such observations may to which be vitiated by the varyingextents /? can be possibly with and 7. Professor Carpenter is of the supersaturated with opinion that /3 is more readily supersaturated 7 than with a,* although the author has generally found the reverse confined
to

the

coalescence

to

be the
an

field

it is easy to obtain well within of pure /3, but an alloy practically consisting
case.

Thus

the

j8

justwithin
of 7
even

the

/3+
19

7 field

when

shows usually cooled. fairly rapidly


two

distinct

alloy only tion crystalliza13

Nos, Photographs
cast alloys
seen

(Plate
with

XI.)and

(PlateXII.) show
of

under the

cisely pre-

similar conditions,and
5 5 "4 per cent,
amount

it will be

that

in

alloy

range) the
other

of

copper (2 per cent, outside is smaller than the amount


cent,

the pure ^ of 7 in the


side outextent

50'1 containing

per

of copper
to

(only1

per cent,
some

the pure
errors possible the alloysH

^ range).
due
to

In

order

eliminate

to

effects, undercooling specimens of contained and G, which 55'4 respectively per and of for cent, annealed 50"1 cent, eight per copper, were hours at a temperature between 480" C. and 490" C, i.e.just above the critical point, and then quenched. The structures and photographed examined Nos. 7 and 9,Plate X.). were (photos The specimenswere then annealed for fifteen hours at 425" C, and the structures and photographed(photos again examined that in alloy Nos. 8 and 1 0, Plate X.). It will be seen H the extra annealingbelow the critical point has resulted in a further of a, while the in alloy G growth of very small crystals in of 7 is practically the extra That amount unaltered. and above specimen H3 is due to the difference in solubility below the critical pointis demonstrated by photo No. 11 (Plate which after again annealing shows the structure the speciX.),
such
a
*

"The

Structural

Resolution

of the No.

pure

Copper-Zinc /3 Constituent
G

into

+7,'

Journal

of the

Institute

of Metals,

2, 1912, vol. viii.p. 51.

98

Hudson:
at
a

The
two

Critical

Point

at

460"

C.
The

men

490"
has

C. for been

hours, and

quenching

in water.

extra

redissolved.
occurs

In
at

support of his explanationof the change which 460" C, Professor Carpenter was compelled to assume

that

and that exhibited abnormal alloys zinc-copper properties, ever, Adopting,howunique in its structural stability. pure /3 was the alternative explanationsupported in this paper, the all becomes behaviour of these alloys quitenormal, and, in fact, the author's experiments point to the fact that structural equilibrium The is reached with comparativeease. series of photographs of is (Nos. 13-18, Plate XL) show that the separation paratively apparentlycompleted after a few days,or possibly only a comof takes hours few annealing. The separation excess y Nos. 1 9-22, Plate XIL). It may be placewith equalease (photos of interest here to draw attention to the changes which occur in the shape, size, and distribution the of the or as 7 crystals At first these are small and angular, and appear be. case may remain in this condition until their separation to is almost is more and more completed. Then, as equilibrium completely and the rounding of the small crystals reached, the coalescence of their anglesbecome noticeable. all the when and Finally, has from j6, these constituents respectively crystallized 7 forms well illustrated rounded the massive so assume steadily It may here be sugby Professor Carpenter in his papers. gested that in this and similar cases pronounced segregation which and rounding of crystals have ing during annealseparated be taken indication that equilibriumhas been as an may reached. This tion by the absorpstage is probably also marked boundaries into the larger of of small crystals the at ones the original of /3 crystals, large areas leaving comparatively in photo No. 17 (Plate XI.). pure j8. This is very noticeable Exact measurements would, however, be requiredto determine the point at which is reached. definitely complete equilibrium the
a a a

General
1. The author the 7 at has
not

Conclusions. been able


to

obtain
into

any
an

evidence

that
of
a

/^ of
and

breaks zinc-copperalloys 460" C.

down

eutectoid

in Zinc
2.

-Copper Alloys

99

take has observed to the author Every change which be satisfactorily the /3constituent can containing placein alloys the assumption that at 460" C, /3 undergoes a on explained,

polymorphic change to /^^.


3.

Evidence

is

brought
C.

forward

that

there

is

stable

j8

phase
4.

below

460"

series in the equilibrium diagram of the zinc-copper in Fig. 2. /3 regionprobably has a form similar to that shown
The
5.

It

does

not

appear

from

the

author's results that

any

unusuallylengthy periodof annealing is required to produce in alloys containingthe /3 constituent. equilibrium

APPENDIX.
On Effect S.
at

the

of

Tin

on

the

Zinc-Copper
"

Alloys.

In

Professor

L.

Hoyt's

paper

On

the

Copper
was

Rich

Kalchoids," * read
that with

the Ghent

meeting

of 1913, it

shown
and
at
a

of tin (4 per cent, large amounts comparatively and upwards), the ^ undergoes inversion into 7 but 500" of brasses in the C, neighbourhood temperature
a

with

small

percentages
the

of

tin that

were

not

dealt

with.

Professor
to

has Carpenter"j*
cause

stated

1 per

cent,

of tin is sufficient
into

structural Johnson
1 per

inversion

of that

while alloy, than


about

\
cent,

considers
causes

tin to

+ 7 in the of the extent


a

cast
more as
a

the

of Cu^Sn separation

separate constituent.
and
structure
so

The

author

into the effect of small

in progress an investigation of tin on the constitution quantities


a

has

of the

brasses, and
may that
60

note

of

one

or

two

of

the

results
It

far obtained been


55

be in

of interest at this the


case

stage.

has

found and

of

a-j-/3alloyswith

between, say,

per

cent,

least 1 per cent, has apparently no after prolonged annealing below


*

of copper, the tin up to at effect on the structure, even the

critical
x.

point. When,
of

Journal
"

of the
Effect

Institute

of Metals,
on

No. the

2, 1913, vol.
Structure of

p. 235.

t
Zinc

1 he

of other

Metals

the

/3 Constituent

the

Copper-

No. Alloys,"/(^2^^"a^ o/M^ /wj/zVw/^ (/yl/e/rt/5, % Journal of the Institute of Metals, No. 1, 1912,

2, 1912, vol. viii. p. (j.5. vol. vii. p. 201.

100

Hudson:

The

Critical

Point

at

460"

C.

however,

the

tm

approaches
appears
bhie
amount

about under

per

cent.,

third makes

stituent, con-

which
but

the

microscope,
appear
In in is
to

its

appearance,

its

does

not

alter other

to

any
a,

great

extent, the

even

after constituent

prolonged
are

annealing. apparently
constituent

words,
beloAv

/3, and
the

blue

equilibrium
more

critical

point.
as

This
similar

blue
to

conveniently
series,
12

regarded
as

being
the

the

of

the

tin-copper
No.

than

the

of 7

zinc-copper
structure

series.

Photo
of this

(Plate
about

X.)
3

illustrates
cent,

the
of The

of
after it

an

alloy
been

type
for

with

per

tin,

and

has

annealed

eight
and,

days although

at

450"

C.

three

constituents have

are

clearly
amounts

seen,

individual
the

crystals
as

grown, after

their

are

apparently
The

same

they
in

were

only

few

hours' thus of be the

annealing.
of

ternary interest,
necessary

diagram

this the the

region

should

considerable of termed
tin

particularly
to
cause

determination

amount

change
to

from the

what

may bronze

be

the

typically
i.e.

brass

constitution
from the

typically
to

constitution,
inversion

the the

change

polymorphic

the

eutectoid

of

/3 constituent.

Coimmmications

on

H^idson

Paper

101

COMMUNICATIONS.
Professor
that
as
a

H.

C.

H.

Carpenter,

M.A., Ph.D.
Hudson

wrote (Vice-President),

result of his

Mr investigations

had

arrived

at

ent differ-

C. in copper-zinc of the critical point at 460"-470" interpretation in him what someCarpenter) his now (Professor alloysfrom that adopted by that subject. Mr. Hudson's tion interpretaon numerous publications himself in and Edwards Professor been considered had indeed by their first paper,*but it had been rejectedafter weighing the evidence. to the writer desired particularly the present paper Before discussing it had been written, and to of the tone in which his appreciation express difference of of how model it furnished a a say that in his opinion opinionon a scientific matter should be voiced. reached (pp. 98 From the "general conclusions" by Mr. Hudson to regard the critical pointat and 99) it would be seen that he preferred 460"-47U" C. as a polymorphic change from )8 to /3jrather than an The eutectoid inversion from ^ to a-f y. experimentsdescribed by him and the writer would now in support of this view proceed to examine clear a point of to make it was But at the outset discuss. necessary fundamental
Mr.

importance,viz. that
and

Hudson

himself

the

scientific controversy between equilibrium diagram must be the final court


in

the

of
of

appeal.
the

The

difference between

them
had
no

must to

be examined be
in that he

in

the

light
its
have

diagram, and the settlement requirements. He thought there was


Mr.

accordance

with

doubt

but

should

Hudson's
first

agreement in takinguj* this position.


out

The

experiments described
at

experimentscarried annealing
the inversion Hudson differ
of the

in the paper by the writer results


"

were

of repetition paper

the
on

in

his second the fact


a
"

470"
no

C.,t

and

the

apart
of

from

that

^\\\

observed

sign of the breakdown

markedly from his, except in the in Mr. Hudson's was alloys crystals
writer's.
of
a

did not and /^into y respect: The mobility following


"

of the
excess

This

could
No.

be

seen

manifestlyless than in those of alloys containing in the case


No.

by comparing
between

18, Plate XI., with


for

9, Plate

X., in

the paper could be

alluded made

to, whereas

alloyswith
22,
any

excess

Plate XII., No.

and

of y the comparison Plate XII., No. 17, of

the writer's paper. at of the inversion coalesced


and rounded

Quite apart from

theory and the interpretation 460"-470" alloys C, the crystalsin Mr. Hudson's the writer's in than with less rapidity alloys. In
difference
"

considering how
of and

this

could would

be

accounted

for

two

possible cooling ;
used
for

themselves suggested explanations

tion (1) Possible differences in the condicause

castingthe

which alloys,

different the
to

rates

of

differences in the (2) possible the alloys. Correspondence with making between
were alloys
*

compositionof
regard
which
"

metals
1 had

No.

passed
the

Mr.

Hudson under

and

the

from writer,

it

that transpired
were

cast Journal

almost

identical conditions

viz. they
v.

poured

of the
No.

t Ibid.,

Instiiute of Metals, No. 1, 1912, vol. vii. pp. 73-82.

1, 1011, vol.

pp.

137-146.

102

Coinruunicatioiis
of

on

Htidson

Paper

into iron moulds

This gave a rapid rate of ^-inch internal diameter. but thus reducing segregation the liquidus, to a minimum, from cooling either with extent of course, or alloysto some supersaturated yielding, of this In in non-eutectoid mixtures. the case spite be, might y, as attained nealing was more easily by anhowever, equilibrium supersaturation, the because molecules than in other in this condition, alloys any to travel. had the smallest distances Probably therefore the differences in the two series of alloyswere observed in the mobilityof the crystals
".

compositioncaused by the slightly The writer's in preparingthem. varying and zinc each of from made electrolytic electrolytic alloyswere copper Hudson's Mr. and doubt 99-98 cent, no alloys purity, approximately per
due
to

slightdifferences
quality of
the

in

their

metals

used

were

equally
that

remained

pure. the

Whatever

the

cause

of

the

difference,the
less

fact
on

crystals of

his

alloys

exhibited

mobility

annealing at temperatures just below the critical point than did clear that this of the writer's alloys. It was important to make obvious of theory, but it was not of fact and not was one
if any, bearing, in the nature
it had
a on

those

ence differwhat

nothing and y. /3into Hudson's Mr. experimentshaving given negativeresults as to the his next step was to find some eutectoid inversion, proof that positive 450" below could exist as a stable phase C," and with \i (or rather /i,) A and B under this object the further experimentsdescribed (pp.94 and 95) were undertaken.
the fact that Mr. of
a

Hudson

had

observed

of

breakdown

"

"

"

"

"

Experimeni
"

'"'"

A!'

"

This

was

conducted
and

so

as

to

containing pure copper at the bottom y at between." After of intermediate composition alloys in that the ft layer graduallyincreased found two days ]\Ir. Hudson in width from 0-05 inch to 0-075 width inch, with corresponding in the presence of nuclei that and y," and concluded in decrease even of these two the ft does break up into a mixture of both and not y phaseswhen annealed at temperatures below 460" C, but, on the other and of both increases in amount hand, the ftactually by the absorption there must to indicate that this result alone seems clearly y," and that have been It would of course below 460" C." be a stable ^S-phase pretation interwhatever since for /?, if Mr. Hudson had written ft^ correct more below critical the stable not was point. adopted ftwas in drawing the above conclusion It appearedto the writer that Mr. Hudson
"
. . .

the

specimen layers of annealing for thirtyproduce


a

top, with

"

"

had from his

omitted

to take

into consideration

fact

which

was

obvious

Nos. 1, 2, and 3,and which had photomicrographson Plate \'III., The most photomicrographs a important bearing on that conclusion. after thirty-two those of a material which even days'annealinghad were increased not reached equilibrium. It was quite true that the area of ft^ of the adjacent areas, viz. fti and that it grew in size, at the expense + y what would The at all. and ft., hut that not mas + a, question once arose, had been carried still further until equihave happened if the annealing librium the doubted be that could It growth of scarcely was complete. of the adjacent /3jwould have proceeded still further at the expense have would fields until finally disappeared altogether.In other they

104
Hudson
was

Comimmications
had sJionm

on

Httdsori

Paper
one

present done, that Fig. 2


results
were

in No. 5, Plate IX., only in the clearest way How hetiveeii a and y. then could lie conclude, as
was

field
had

he

applied to
was

His probable in harmony with it. Exactly the same not argument if the his photomicrographsNos. 4 and 6 (Plate IX.), and
most

the

form

of

the

diagram ?

writer's attempt at
correct,
to him

harmonizingthe
to Nos.

results of the
3

"

A
as

"

and

"

B It

"

ments experiof
some

1, 2, and

(PlateVIII.)

well.

appeared

that Mr.

such
But

diagram
that
was
"

as

the existence Hudson, so far from establishing it its death blow. had reallygiven Fig. 2,
not

-and no doubt to Mr. Hudson interesting" harmonized with the paradoxical thing was entirely requirements of the diagram reproduced in Fig.1, p. 90, which had been and the writer in 1911.* That diagram proposed by Professor Edwards ivhat Mr. had found, viz. that between the a Hudson required"precAsely and should that So his /3 was viz. a + y. field exist, y fieldsonly one that

all.

The

his results

no

other
not

than

and other

in the

form it

of

what

the

Avriter has
that

called Mr.
a

"

parent ap-

f:i."In
had

words,

appeared
eutectoid had

to the writer

Hudson
and y at

460"

only not disproved the but that he C. on cooling,


a

inversion
a

of

/?into

proofof it and
Moreover,
showed that writer could
he admitted and the

vindication

of the Mr.

completely unconscious diagram representedin Fig. 1.


his pajjer point of
"

furnished

appendix to
difference with
down

Hudson's

brief view
a

though it was
and that

"

the

between
to

of the

be narrowed
that
"

what

was

after all

small

issue,since

comparatively largeamounts
into
a

of tin

(4 per
necessary the

cent,

upwards) the ,3undergoes inversion


be

and

y," and
of

stated that
to

it would
cause

of interest to
from what

determine
may be

the termed

amount

tin

"

the

change
to

the

brass constitution typically


from

to the

bronze typically
the

i.e. the change constitution,

morphic polythe the


"

eutectoid
"

inversion

of

the

/S constituent."
substitute
not
see
"

If for

word writer

"

constitution
agree of tin

Mi'. Hudson
the
or

would

structure

could

with
"

but he did quotation,


added vice
was

how
a

variation

in the amount into


an

any
or

metal
versa,

"

could
he

convert

polymorphic
glad if
to

eutectoid would

change

and

would

be

Mr.

Hudson
In

shov/ how

this

possible.
writer
had the

the

foregoingremarks
to him

the

confined

himself
under

what

appeared
If his
correct
a

the fundamental

aspects of
the

problem
Mr.
at

discussion. results
was

of and interpretation the eutectoid which

reasoningfrom
inversion
none

Hudson's

theory of
was

470"

had

received
been
on

fresh vindication The

the less

powerful because

it had
page

unconscious.
the
extent

take
not

remaining experiments (described on of with supersaturation "apparent" /3 in no way affected the main place, though interesting,
to which

97)

a or y could issue and did

call for discussion.

Dr.

C. H.

Desch

(Glasgow) wrote
he
at

that after

the

later papers Carpenter's

(thewriter)had
470".
He
No.

appearance accepted the been


v.

fessor of Pro-

hypothesis
by the

.of

eutectoid
*

transformation of the
histitute

had

convinced
p. 13S.

jQurnal

of Metals,

1, 1911, vol.

Communications
evidence, microscopical
the non-resolution
reason
"

on

Hudson

Paper

105

to

lamellar

Professor
this

spiteof the serious difficulty presentedby He had since some seen /^-constituent. pure For doubt of the evidence. some example, turning to the shown in Figs. 2 and structure 3, Plates IV. and V. of that second to the conclusion Carpenter's paper,*he had come
of the
"

iu

structure

was

not

due

to

the presence

of two

constituents, but
structure

to

the

developmentof
of

y6'-cleavages by etching. In the course of quenched /3-alloys copper and zinc,a similar

of examination

had

occasionally presented itself. It had proved very elusive, having been hitherto only by chance, and obtained it could not be reproduced at and a will, even by re-polishing re-etching specimen which had once it. He shown was now engaged with Mr. R. Hay in investigating of its production. Its character the conditions was usually clear on
examination
was so coarse

under
that

high
the

power,

and of

in

one

instance

the

structure

presence He

and cleavages,

the
a

absence

of

any

second of

were constituent, 300 diameters. only as

determinable clearly had felt the

under
same

tion magnificaas

doubts-

Mr.

of some of the other photomicrointerpretation graphs, be attached Professor to Carpenter's great weight must that an statement + y structure, for example,could be distinguished by tinguishable indisan -i-/3 structure, although the two were a practised eye from in the photograjjlis. The contrasts of colour produced on etching these duplex alloyswere highlyvariable with small variations in
to

Hudson

the

but

the internal without The

and conditions,

definite decision fact in the


at
a

could

not

be

arrived

at

long experience. important new of /3from and formation y


most
a

the direct present pajjer was temperature below the transformation


"

point,
would

which

appeared
be necessary

to

be

established

at

least
be

he

was

unable

to

perceive any
then

fallacy.The
to

fact,
find

if true, would
some

conclusive, and
that

it

other
He

of explanation add

Professor

observations. microscopical Carpenter's

sharp boundary
had been

between

ft and
by

its

might perfectly neighboursin diffusion experiments


the The when a-constituent,

repeatedlyobserved

him.

present,
periments ex-

into the copper, to be expected. His was as merged continuously conducted at were usually temperatures above 500" C, did therefore show the very not fact observed by interesting

and Mr.

Hudson.

Mr.

F.

Johnson,
as

with

the author's he been

Much
never

(Birmingham) wrote that he was in agreement polymorphictheory. had admired earlier work, he had Professor Carpenter's
of the

M.Sc.

completely convinced

existence
to

of C.

an

-fy

eutectoid,
of

in face of Mr. particularly resolution of the


None of the

Hudson's

failure

produce
460"

any

semblance

/3-phase by annealing below


evidence
a

produced by
The

Professor

Carpenterregardingthe
metals had

resolution of
to

the WTiter
*

and y by the /5into as being infallible.

addition

of other of

appealed

method
No.

etching employed by
vii. p. 70.

Journal

of the

Institute

of Metals,

1, 1912, voL

106
Professor the

Communications

on

Hzcdsons
as

Paper

of revealing being incapable the and which /^-phases delicate methods could Thus the /3-phase do. more might readilyhave been mistaken for the a-phase. In the discussion on Professor Carpenter's * had the wTiter the referred of to question etching, having in paper mind it could the great bearing which have the results on ; and after of the photomicrographs, he entertained examination doubt to some as of Professor the accuracy doubt which a was Carpenter's conclusions, characteristic
nuances

Carpenterhad appeared

to him

of colour

between

also entertained

by
the

Mr.

Hudson. of

Referring to
suggest
that
a

summary

results

on

p.
a

93,
areas

the would

writer

would
a

determination planimetric
the stated

of the the

be

useful

guide to
forms
was

indicate
was
"

point
to

at which

Coalescence
of
not
or
a

be

ceased to deposit a. /3-phase of a accompanied by rounding the angular


to the

curious

result,not, however, unfamiliar


this of

writer.

It

with
seem

quite subsequent to
be connected

clear whether

the cessation
with

to

change shape w^as contemporaneous of deposition of a, although it would That coalescence. raised another point
that
to
was
"

regarding the chronology of events, and result of the tendency a action, evidently
take

assume
or

place

in

the

small

crystalsprior to,

in

rounding form, spherical after crystals large


the
an

did

the

coalescence. The useful been


an

method
one,

of and

producingan
proved
formation

unhomogeneous alloywas
successful in

extremely
must

had

inevitable

very of a

spiteof
oxide

what
on

have
surface

film of cuprous
the

the

of the solidified copper. On p. 94 the author

stated the

that

thin

layer of
a

pure

ji actually
"

increases in amount
seem

to

the

thickness coalescence

and y." This did not absorption of both sole })Ossible of the increase in explanation of the belt of /3, the growth might be attributable to the as of small /5crystals the boundaries of belt. the along Possibly

by

writer to be

the

the
was

growth
one

was

due

to

both

causes

; at

any

rate

the author's of the

of

the interest, fascinating


to

mechanism
the

explanation change appearing


fi zone
a

to

the writer

be

as

follows

at

top

surface thin the

of the

was

thin
there

layerdissolving y, at the lower surface a of zinc at enrichment was progressive


bottom,
a

layerdissolving ;
top
was,

thus

and

impoverishment
the maintenance

at the

and

internal

diffusion contributed such

towards

of

the original approximately composition. It

however, not
the
a

quite
author
below
not

certain that
had shown

could

be dissolved

under

conditions,as
at

the the

9 and 10, Plate X.) that (micrographs critical point prolonged annealingresulted in

temperature

the

and deposition
at

absorptionof
seem,

a.

It would

of a, it could the expense at the other surface. The

that if the therefore, only do so as


to him

zone

of

/?grew

one

surface

at

the

result

of its enrichment

in y

view attributed
1

than

caused the " per cent, should be confined to brasses of 70


*

(Mr. Johnson) that tin to the extent of more stituent," separationof Cu^Sn as a separate conper cent,

to, say, 64 per


v.

cent,

Journal

of the

histitute

of Metals,

No.

1, 1911, vol.

p. 180.

Covinmnications
copper, and

on

Hudson

Paper
the
exact content
a

107
limit of
was

in the cast
a

unannealed

condition.
of any

What

compositionof
had
amount
more

ternary solid solution


able
to

not

yet
of

been

determine.

givencopper in which Alloys,

he

considerable hold

the

/?-phase appeared, e-cj. Muntz

metal, could doubtless

than been

had

of the tin-rich phase which 1 per cent, of tin without separation termed severally(1) Cu^Sn, (2) the S-phaseof the copper-tin the

alloys, (3) the y-pliaseof


as

ternary system
had
in

the

5-phase (2)that
that that

the author coincided

believed

phase

It was copper-zinc-tin. always regardedit,having formerly compositionwith that of the alleged

compound Cu^Sn.
work the influence of other metals on the on Carpenter's of the ^-phase, had drawn from him stability (^Ir.Johnson) a suggestion * that the y-phase which Professor Carpenter claimed to have in which tin resolved from pure ft might easilyhave been in the case
"

Professor

was

the added
to

metal

"

this very

constituent

which

Mr.

Hudson
a

had

now

shown

be

in equilibriumwith both capable of existing

and

/3.

Mr.
evidence

F. C. in

A.

H.

reading
460" C.

Professor
favour

that after Lantsberry, ]\I.Sc.(Birmingham),wrote of it 1912, Carpenter'spapers appeared that the of the thermal change occurringin ft brasses at
to

being due indisputable.But


chain If the

the had

splitting up
had

of

the

was /3-phase

absolutely
spot
in the

^Ir. Hudson

seized upon

the weak

reopened the subjectfor discussion. split up at 460" C. it could onlyexist that temperature in a metastable below condition,and although its existence in that state could be ensured conceiva init Avas by undercooling, that any substance could be "synthesised outside its range of stable existence. three distinct methods, however, Mr. Hudson By able to obtain,below 460" C, a constituent which was had been neither and the conclusion that thus there a nor was compelled was a y,

of evidence, and

ftconstituent

of brass did

"

constituent

from dift'ering It

both could

the

and

ordinary temperatures. occurring in the /3-phaseat


constituents In in
one

only
C.
an

result from

460"
was

y-phaseswhich is stable at a polymorphicchange The idea of gettingthe three


since it removed
all

micro-field

excellent one,
Mr.

of confusion. possibility

touched the right weight should not be given to the and copper-zinc, copper-tin, copper-aluminium of An their respectiveequilibrium alloys. inspection diagrams would main of show that their lay in the fact that they were points similarity be much all very complicated. It would to to more justifiable appear
a

footnote

to

p. 96

he said key when the analogies between

of his paper that too much

Hudson

had

compare

but those two

equilibrium diagrams of copper with zinc and cadmium, related to each other, give very metals, althoughso closely difi"erent equilibrium diagrams with It was only right and copper. each should be that considered merits. on entirely its own system proper A subsequentcomparison of the completed diagrams was of the highest
*

the

Journal

of the

histiticte

of Metals, No. 2, 1912,

vol. viii.p. 84.

108

Author

Reply:

Hudson

Papei"
very

scientific interest and


be

were importance,but analogies

often liable to

misleading.
Mr. W. E.

Thorneycroft,
had

B.8c.

(Binniugham),wrote
460" C.

that

it seemed the
the

to

him

that the author these

the stability of conclusively fairly ^jroved

in /?-phase

alloysat
some

temperatures below
of the

He

had

had

specimens prepared by the author, notably photographs No. 4 and No. 5 (PlateIX.). conditions, Although of coui'se, those photographsdid not exhibit equilibrium that did not alter the fact that the /iJ-phase could be formed from the 460" C, as shown and y-phases in photo No. 5, at temperatures below and that apparently therefore the /3-phase stable at those temperawas tures. fact that no in The evidenced No. 4 was was photo a-phase and he that further work that in direction remarkable, thought very would As the method for further a possibly interesting. prove very of the investigation the constitution of zinc-copper alloys containing would like that the of he method of distillation to ^-phase, suggest metals in vacuum might prove productive. He had found that the rate of volatilisation of those alloyschanged abruptly at a temperature of about 460" C, but as yet no quantitive results had been obtained.
those illustrated

of examining privilege

in

Mr.

Hudson,
sent

in in

wrote reply,

that
on

he

desired

to thank

those
these

gentlemen
it

who

had

communications

his i"aper.

From

appeared

that,acceptingthe author's
of Professor
that stated with

with all, evidence, exjjerimental

the

exception
clusions. con-

Carpenter, were
for
utmost
a

jjreparedto

agree

with
was

his

general

Professor called
the

communication Carpenter's

lengthyreply.
clearness,but

Professor it seemed

only one views Carpenter's


the from

the

fore therewere

to

author

that

his

conclusions (Professor Carpenter's) author The premises. agreed with


should

were

drawn

Carpenter and that conclusions appeal, diagram in its should be accordance with portant requirements. It was, however, imdid the equilibrium did not to decide what or require. diagram with reference to Fig. 2 on Professor Carpenter stated very em])hatically this equilibrium diagram required that between p. 91 of the paper that the viz. and y fields three fields should and f3^ + fS^, + y." coexist, (i^ it appeared to the author of the diffusion experiBut that in the case ments desciibed in the paper, that was justwhat the equilibriumdiagram did ?iof require. In such experiments it was not the fieldsof the diagram that were but the phases which to be considered, stable at the temperature were of the the to diagram. Actually the experiment according of layersformed number would at the temperature of the exi)eriment not
be the final court
of
"

Professor

that

entirely false the equilibrium

be

more

than

the

number
not

of be

phases stable

at

that

temperature,

and

two-

phase
at

fields would

lower

boundaries
from

the

representedunless as the result of changes It might be stated generally that where the temperatures. of the fields of the diagram were vertical or steeply sloping of the the the stable normal, then experiment to temperature
be found in

phases would

sharplydefined layersof varying thicknesses.

Author

Reply :

Hudson

Paper

109
Professors should the be

being so, Carpenter and nothing at all


one

That

it followed

Edwards between

that,accordingto the diagram of (Fig.1, p. 90 of the paper),there


a

the

and

layers, but, as
them.

shown That

in

well-defined
a

layerwas

formed

between

could

paper, only be ^j,

the

^j
case

and

^j+y
the

fields of the

diagram being unrepresented.


the result of
a

The

photographherewith
in the
cent,

(Fig.1) showed
copper- tin series.

difi"usion

of

tin)was
be
was

immersed

in molten A
a a

tin and
was

pieceof kept at
then

cast
a

experiment gun-metal (10 per


of about and

temperature
with
a

300"

C. for twelve
seen
no

hours. that the

section

prepared

examined.

It would that

was (cored)

in contact

layer of 8, and

there

layer of

S -|-

as

there should

be if Professor

Carpenter's

Fig. Bronze

1.

(90 per
at

cent,

copper,

10 per

cent,

tin)annealed
with

in contact ammonia.

with

tin for

300" C. Etched by polish attack Vertical illumination. 100 diameters.

12 hours

Magnified

view
to
a

were

correct.

photographNo.
diffusion
not

Finally,the author 24, Plate XII., of the


at

would paper,

refer Professor which At


were

Carpenter

showed that
a,
a

the result of

was
...

experiment carried out that the fields of disputed

540"

C.

temperature it
+ + [3, /3, f3 y, y.

the

diagram

It would

and y rebe seen, however, that the layers were spectively, a, f3(or/3j) and that the two-phasefields of the diagram were not sented. repre-

remarks on Carpenter's "Experiment A," it in that that final equilibrium evident reached not was was, of course, three Plate VIII. showed, however, so experiment. The photographson in direction that it appeared which the reaction was proceeding obviously

With

regard to

Professor

to the

author

the

experiment. specimenas

unnecessary The final


a

merely tedious to proceed further with the of would depend on the composition equilibrium
and If that
were

whole.

within

the

(3-^ range

then

eventu-

110

Author
the

Reply
consist

Httdsons

Paper
otherwise
The

ally
excess

specimen
a

would
or

of
a

/3j only
distinct

there

would

be

of either
"

y,
"

probably as
that the
Professor

point
been

to

the

author upon

li^underwent
Carpenter.

layer. important very had not recrystallization,

touched

by
term

The
author's

which difficulty
use

Professor constitution Professor

of the the fact

Carpenter had in agreeing with the in the Appendix to the might paper
Carpenter
had
not

be

due

to

that

considered

what

possible constitution diagram at the ordinary temperature if the diagram Fig. 2, ternary system copper-zinc-tin, p. 91, were In such would be graduallydiminishingfields a diagram there accepted. of a-f/i^^, the from + y extending inwards ^^ and /^i copper-zinc side of the triangle. In alloys within these fields the /3 would undergo polymorphic to in w hile those eutectoid fields change /3^, an alloys beyond inversion be to author thus still felt justifiedin was expected. The the change from the polymorphic to the eutectoid inversion referringto
of the
"

would

be

the

of the

/3 constituent
would

"

on

varying
ask

the

amount

of tin
to

present
consider

in the

alloy.

The

author

also
of the in

Professor

Carpenter
series
not
an

the

ternary diagram
had

copper-autimony-tinseries.
copper-antimony
that

Professor

possible Carpenter
a

shown

that

the
and
one

the

/8 underwent

morphic polyresponding cor-

change,
to

there

was

eutectoid

inversion

copper-tin series. Surely, then, in that case he would that there be some must see boundary within the triangular of the copper-antimony- tin alloys at the diagram (of the constitution those in which ordinary temperature) between a alloys polymorphic and those alloysin which the eutectoid change in the /3 has occurred was
to

the

in the

be

found.

Professor referred
to

Carpenter,
a

in

dealing with
between the He

the

first

experiments of
of the bound

difference

mobility
cause as

the paper, in his own crystals


to confess

ex})erimentsand
that he could
were

those of the author. indicate


from any

(theauthor) was
of those
that used

not

possible
as

difference, as
Professor
were
one

his penter, Caras

alloys
similar

made

naetals

and
as

apparently possible. The


did
not
seem

the

other

pure conditions

of the
was,

by experiments
the
or

diff"erence observed
to

however,

merely
two

of

degree, and
Mr.

the author

Johnson

in his communication called for


some

had

seriouslyto aftect brought out one

final result. ing interest-

of events in the reply. The exact sequence but not to crystals was quite certain, author it the that little or appeared fairlyevident no rounding would take little or no i.e. when place until equilibrium was practically reached, from Also he saw more or capable of crystallizing ^^ no reason y was rounded should not of them why crystals coalesce,some growing at the of others. The author that the growth agreed with Mr. Johnson expense of /?^ in "Experiment A" included the of small absorption crystals. /5^ That and shown in the the were absorbed, decrease however, was by y of those two amounts phases.

pointsthat
and

rounding

coalescence

of

the

112

Johnson

Note

on

the

A^inealingof

Brass

in micrograph Fig.3 (PlateXIII.). Lantern areas dark-etching shown sKdes of micrographs 2 and 3 were by the author at the meeting at which his paper on the influence of tin and lead in then too late to allow of their incorporabrass was read, but it was tion It was in the paper. pointed out by the author that it was essential to anneal commercial 70/29/1 castingsat a temperature of about 700" C, in order that the eutectoid might be changed to the homogeneous /8 phase,which, in its turn, whilst in the paper would crystals, pass by diffusion into the of 70/29y'l the thoroughannealing before he advocated castings treatment. to mechanical being subjected He has, since the reading of that paper, had occasion to which cracked examine a badly 70/29/1 tube-casting very of the A portion which casting during the drawing process. had not passed through the die,owing to rupture having taken In photomicrocracks. with circumferential seamed was graph place, unetched surface Fig.4 (Plate XIV.) is shown the polished, crack being of a specimenfrom this portion, part of a transverse of the crack, intercrystalline visible. In the vicinity areas clearly in some of eutectoid were to be seen, placesbeing continuous their guilt with the crack (seeFig,5, Plate XIV.), thus revealing conclusive initiators of the disintegration was as ; their presence either had not been annealed at all, or had proofthat the castings which annealed. A similar been not sufficiently tube-casting scope, under the microexamined had been completelyannealed was in the is shown its structure and photomicrograph Fig. 6 (Plate XIV.). It will be seen that no intercrystalline the temperature having been sufficiently eutectoid is visible, high for its conversion to the /5phase and for the complete diffusion of No trouble was the latter into the a-crystals. experiencedin in spite of its coarsely-crystalline character. drawing the casting, The casting contained 70*61 per cent, copper and 1*03 per
a-

cent.

tin.
use

connected annealingoperations of wrought brass and other non-ferrous with the manufacture with little encouragement has met men. amongst practical alloys the prejudiceentertained be difficult to understand It may manufacturers againstthe use of the pyrometer, but by most The
of the

pyrometer

in

the

is that probability

even

the

best

of

instruments

would

fail

Plate

XIII

Fig.

1.

"

The

Tin-rich per

Eiitectoid

in

an

Annealed per
cent.

Zinc,

25'45

cent.

; Tin, 5T3

Cast Alloy of Copper, 69"42 per Etched. Magnified 220 diameters.

cent.

Fig.

2.

"

The

Eutectoid

in

an

Tin, 0'75 per cent.

Alloy of Copper, 70'0 per cent. Magnified 350 diameters.

Zinc, 29-25
Etched.

per cent.

Fig. heated

S.^The
to

Beta

Phase

in

700" C. and

quenched.

composition as Alloy of same Magnified 700 diameters.

in

Fig. 2,
Etched.

Plate

XIV

Fig.

4.

"

Unannealed

70 29 1 Tube-Casting.
Failed

by.presence
Unetched.

of eutectoid.

cracks caused intercrystalline diameters. 220 Magnified during drawing.

Shows

Fig. '5." Same

as

Fig. 4.

^:.'-

'

:=

uf eutuctui'l Lominuous ;_.:--L-nL.j

with cracks.

Magnified 500 diameters.

Liietched.

".^,.^1

L
Fig. 6."

J
Tube-Casting(70 29,1)showing absence of Magnified 100 diameters. Etched. successfully.
eutectoid.

Thoroughly
Was drawn

Annealed

Plate

XY

Fig.

7."
cent.

Alloycontaining Copper, ()6-54 per


;

cent.

Zinc, 32-14 per


at

cent. ;

Tin, 078

per

Lead, 0-54 per


coarse

cent.

Annealed lead

half-an-hour

800" C. and

slowly cooled.
Etched.

Shows

eutectoid and

(black).Magnified350diameters. particles

Fig.

8.

"

"Burnt"
;

Brass

Tube
cent.

containing Copper, 68*23


per Unetched. 0'28
cent.

cent.

Tin, 0*08

fissures.

; Lead, per Magnified1.50 diameters.

per cent.; Zinc, 31 "25 per Shows 016 Iron, ; per cent.

Fig.

9." Same

as

Fig. 8.

Shows

coincidence

of fissures with Etched.

inteicrystalline

boundaries.

Magnified150

diameters.

114

Johnson :

Note

on

the

Annealing of Brass

revealed the polishingthe surface,a microscopicexamination of numerous fissures, presumably intercrystalline presence in Fig. 8 (Plate XV.). filled with metallic oxides, as shown character of the In an etched specimen the intercrystalline fissures is plainly apparent (see Fig. 9, Plate XV.). with formed that the scabs were It is assumed by contact inflame old-fashioned the flame m the annealingfurnace an and that intense local heatingoccurred, attended possibly type crystalline and by interfusion of the brass in the locality by incipient The as oxidation. analysis of the tube was
" "

follows

Per

Cent.

Copper
Zinc Tin Lead Iron

........

68"23
31-25 0-08 0-28 0-lG

they frequently lead to rupture of the tubes during subsequent drawing operations. If rupture does not take place,the defective and in the closed become temporarily concealed areas up be anything but must finished tube, and their presence, which aftbrd an explanation of the mysterious beneficial, possibly may in condenser often occurs tubes. Moisture which so pitting
Faults
of this
nature
are

very

serious,as

and

saline,or other

corrosive

when liquids,

the

condensers

are

lyingidle,would
crevices, whence
initiated.
As

harbourage in the of the worm-hole pitting


find

minute

intercrystalline be type might readily


type of defect in
on

frequency of occurrence of and as to the possibility practice,


to

the

of this

its influence welcome.

corrosion,

the

views
The

of manufacturers invites such tubes

would

be the been

author

to replies
ever

viz, : following questions,


encountered
?
must
a

(1) Have

defects in

annealing of
other
than

closed

muflies author

If so, be
set

an

during the explanation


sion corro-

that oftered

by

the
to
a

found. of service tubes

(2) Would
tests

it be advisable
to

institute

in order

obtain

comparison between
manufacture had been in annealed

which
of the

had

been

annealed

during
those
?

furnaces

inflame of the

type and
closed

which

in muflies

type

Communications

on

Johnson

Paper

115

COMMUNICATIONS.

Mr.

0. Johnson's Johnson

F.

Hudson,
paper

M.Sc.
with
to

(Birmingham),
much interest.

wrote

that it
was

he

had

read

Mr. Mr. in

That

necessary, critical

as

found,
to

anneal

Admiralty
solution critical indicate

brass of

above the tin

the

point

order He 600"

bring
also

about

complete
that
seemed

was

an

important
550"
correct

point.
and

noted

this
to

point
that

occurred it
to
was

between
more

C.
to

C,
the

which blue than

consider

constituent the
y

as

corresponding copper-zinc

the

of

the

copper-tin

series,

rather

of

the

series.

Mr.
some

Johnson confusion

wrote,
had of the

in arisen

reply
in

to

Mr.

Hudson's mind eutectoid.

communication,
with He

that
to

the

author's
of it the

regard

the

actual

identity
in his

blue

constituent referred constituent


to

(the

author)

had,
of

first the

paper,*
hard,
it
was

as

the the

compound
eutectoid
as

Cu^Sn,
of the

meaning,
copper-tin

course,

blue

of
to

series,
It
was

which

preferable
of the

designate
;

the followed

8-constituent. Professor because

merely
lead
in

question
it

nomenclature

he
the

had

Hoyt's
Professor had
named
never

calling

y-constituent
had
view

of

ternary

system,
He
was,

Hoyt's
abandoned

designation
his if
as

passed
that the

unchallenged.
constituent with
out.

(the
whatever

author)
one

it, almost

not

entirely
Hudson

identical
now

the

5-constituent

of

the

copper-tin
*

series,
Journal

i\Ir.

pointed
ViVi,

of

the

Institute

of Metals,

No.

1.

vol.

vii.

p.

201.

116

Morcoin

Metal

Spraying

METAL
By R.

SPRAYING.*
K. MORCOM.

The

sprayingof

metals

from

the

molten

state

in order

to

produce a powder is an old idea, and the sprayingof a liquid to produce a coveringof paint, varnish, or enamel is also well The known. subjectof this paper is akin to them both, but has for its objectthe production of uniform metal deposits by of a sprayingprocess. means The exact theory of the process is complex,and at present be The not plished accomspraying may completely understood.
in various

how
purpose

apparatus

Practical experience is demonstrating ways. of increasing technical convenience for the


carried

by melting the metal in a pot, forcingit through a fine nozzle under high pressure, and then with steam surface. to or a a gas spraying it on in many The apparatus developed for this purpose was ways and the use of it was and cumbersome, troublesome practically of and low confined metals to melting point. The alloys was spraying medium kept hot by various devices, and an made to keep the metal molten rightup to the attempt was
The
were

be made. may earliest attempts

out

moment

of

application.^
was

The

fact,however,
and

observed

that

under

conditions

of

expansion of the gases such that the metal could not have been molten throughout the process, adherent These formed. sometimes experiments,and coatings were careful observations adhesion of bullets of the spreading and fired at an iron plate, suggested the next stage of development. driven Metallic poAvders at high velocity were against the of gaseous jets expanded from body to be coated by means
temperature
considerable
The pressure.

J
were
a

results

achieved

great improvement

on

the

older method.
*

Taken

as

read

at

t See
Metals,
+

British

Patent

September 10, 1914. Statutory Meeting, London, No. 5712, 1910, M. U. Schoop ; also Journal of
2, 1910, p. 307
Patent No.
;

the Institute

of

vol. iv.. No.

also No.

1, 1911, vol.

v.

p. 321.

See

Schoop,

British

21066,

1911.

Morcom
To

Metal

Spraying

117

produce the metallic powders the metal had, of course, of the known be subjected to one to pulverizmg processes, such distillation, as or grinding, spraying. The suggestion that the pulverization and deposition could be combined in then made one by the inventor Schoop ; and his apparatus was
researches resulted in the of perfecting the

apparatus covered

by

his The of

Morf in British Patent No. 2801, 1912. colleague ries steadyimprovement of this apparatus in the laborato-

Schoop and
and

his associates has

resulted

in the

machine

(Figs. 1
which The
are
a

2), the

construction, working, and


in this paper.
or
"

theory
it is

of

will be described essential combined

parts of the machine,


form
can

pistol
a

"

as

called,

melting and spraying jetand


of rod
or

feed mechanism.
to

The

metal, in the
The

wire, is fed

the

meltinsf
the
to

flame.

flame

be formed

by coal-gas, water-gas, acetylene,


or

hydrogen, "c., burning


metal used. The

in air

gases
and

are

oxygen suppliedat such


a

to according

pressures

as

flame. highly deoxidizing The be of carbon dioxide, nitrogen,air, spraying jet can to produce a suflisteam, "c. ; it is fed at such a pressure as ciently high velocityfor successful coating. The various be carefully kept constant by accurate pressures must gauges and reducingvalves. The feedingof the wire is accomplished liy small pneua matic driven the medium either in series motor, by spraying with the main or parallel jet.
to
ensure

prevent blowingout

The

dimensions the
are

of the

wire, nozzle, and metals, and


the

feed
nozzles

mechanism and

with vary mechanism For small

different
so

feed

work

designed as to be readily interchangeable. hand operation is sufficient ; but, probably,


is

when have
To metal
nature

largework
mechanical obtain is
to

undertaken, it will prove


and

convenient

to

traverse

control. surface
on

the

best
must

adhesion, the
be for the

to

which
of
an

the

sprayed
give
has
a

clean thoroughly

key

deposit.
Shot

open with Sand-blasting

and

polished a Such surface. surfaces as fabrics, ware, wood, unglazed earthenand asbestos requireonly freedom from grease, as their surfaces give a natural key.

sharp

sand

been

found

best.

gives too

118

Morconi

Metal

Spraying

Morcom
The
coat

Metal fabrics

Spraying
as

119 substances

mention

of wood of
some an

and

suitable
an

to

by
may

means cause

apparatus in which
which surprise,
even

intense flame increased


be

is

used

will be

statement

that

and celluloid,

can explosives,

by the safely
here

metal To upon
the

sprayed.
make
a

this

less remarkable of the

it will be well

to

enter

theory so far developedto explain to Fig.4 in the first instance. operation, referring

brief account

Fig.

2."

The

Spraying

Machine

or

"

Pistol."

melting jet is focused at A on the tip of the wire. cold from expansion, The sprayingjet, stronglydraws forward of its cone, and by in the centre the products of combustion of metal, either in the its draught drags off minute particles The central cone, or" molten therefore,consists state. plastic of metal cooled to solidity, molten, and some some particles, surrounded reducing by a protective some, perhaps, gaseous, ^.tmosphere.
The

120

Mo7^co7n
This is hurled

Metal

Spraying
with
on great velocity

cone

forward

to

the

objectto

be

coated, BC, by the

outer

jet.

Fig.

.;."

The

Spraying
Air

Machine

coupled

up

for Hand

Working.

Compressed

Object

TO BE

cofiTEO.

Metal OXYHYDROCEN
be
"

Part/cleP
"

"

M/XTURE

Wire

^'f^^ ^^^rs
to

C
Here

sprayep

fA)

4. .^''-Jfi^FiG. Diagrammatic

Representation

of

Melting and

.SprayingJets;in Action.

With volume
and

left

given design of jet which by the air-jet


has
a

there
can

is be

only
which

certain

filled with

flame,
be

this flame

limiting temperature

cannot

122

Morcoin
As
at
to

Metal
the

Spraying
standard

present constructed
06 cubic

pistoluses

about

0*55 air

pressure, so inch, which is a very suitable air consumption will be from The the
8
mass mass

foot per minute for every 1 lb. per square inch that with air supply at 80 lb. per square an for ordinaryspraying, the figure
45
to

50

cubic
to

feet per

minute. and about

of of

this will

bo

from

830

metal

sprayed by
case

this

grammes, air will be from


200

920

in the grammes of lead. case How the hand

of iron

to

about

grammes

in the

effective the
can

be

is readily shown coolingis, by the fact that held in the jet, to receive a coating of so as

metal, without

inconvenience.
shown

Samples are
and

of wood

and

fabrics coated

with

metal

quiteundamaged. is probably a complex one. action of deposition The The of solid metal minute driven with such force are particles cases, they fuse,but, owing to againstthe objectthat, in some relative size, their small are promptly chilled by the object If any of the particles molten to which are or they adhere. In addition, the suddenly chilled they will adhere. gaseous even or possibly, probably, in the state of particlesare Prince unstable equilibrium found in Rupert's Drops,"and minute like so act bombs, bursting on impact into many molecular almost dimensions, and penetrating the smallest cracks and fissures of the object. The in manipulation, as, by care requires some process to or nonvarying the conditions, it is possible spray porous metals, anything from a pure and, with some coatings, porous
"

metal

to

pure

oxide.

With

care,

however,

non-porous,
almost

oxide-free,adherent
metal In
on

coatingscan
solid.

be

produced,of
spray
or

any

almost

any
to

addition

metals, it is possibleto

fusible mixture

non-

metals, or, by stranded


metals The with
non-metals. is
so

wires, alloysof metals


that
to
see

of

process
But

new

its

uses

are

still partlyto be developed.

value

it may have far-reaching for ornafor protective ment, coatingsagainstweather or fire, for electrical resistance and

it is easy

that

conductors, for the production


for

of

for jointmaking, and special alloys,

many

other

purposes.

Morcom

Metal

Spraying
comes

123

Quite

in The

ditterent surface of
a

category pattern,
it is be

that
or

of

very

fine

casting.
is
most

polished

slightly produce
moulds
process is

greasy, process before


to

minutely
very in

copied,
It

and may

possible
to

to

blocks

rapidly.
a

useful

line
the

pouring

metal.
very

The
fine
or

application
coarse

of

the

production

of

metallic

powders

being

investigated.
The where
costs

of than of

the

process

are

not

prohibitive, and,
the its

even

higher

alternative
this may

processes,
and it

great

range

and of

adaptability
muffles,
A
some

apparatus,
make
and

independence
is

pots,
of
of

"c.,

preferable.
rates

table idea

gas-pressure
costs.

feed

appended
use

to
on

give
a

Experience
soon

and
the

extended
cost

commercial The bulk

scale of but

should the
the work

reduce has is

of

operation.
carried
on

hitherto

been

in in

laboratories,
the the
more

apparatus

gradually
extended

becoming

used

progressive
of
in

factories, where

facilities, and
ensure
a

knowledge

specialized requirements,
technique
and results. the

will

rapid

improvement
The

research
than them and
on

on

lower others,
be

melting
and

point

metals
the

has

been

greater
with

the
can

undoubtedly improved. acting heating,


in
are

economy

both

greatly
flames

Preheating
front of

of
the

gases
main

air, supplementary
electrical methods

jet, and
of

of

all

still

the

subject
That
uses can

experiment.
experimental
seen

the be

stage
the
this

has

been

passed samples

for

many work

from

apparatus
paper.

and

of

done,

which

accompany

[The specimens
Members'
Room
at

have Caxton

been

added
"

to

the

Institute's

^Museum

in

the

House.

Ed.]

124

Morconi

Metal

Spraying

Table

I.

"

Weight of
a

Square

Foot

of

Various inch.

Metals

coated

to

Thickness

o/OOOl

Table

II.

^"

Data

for Spraying

Various

Metals.

Blanks

in

Coal

Gas

column
are

indicate
not

that

experiments

with

these

metals

yet complete.

Phelps Effect of Hydrogen


:

on

Annealing of Gold

125

THE

EFFECT ANNEALING
By

OF

HYDROGEN
OF

ON GOLD.*
Royal

THE

JOHN

PHELPS,

M.A.

(The

Mint).

impuritieson the temperature of annealingof gold has been investigated by Rose, and described in his paper, On the Annealing of Gold," read before this Institute in August 1913.f The remarkable effect of the small proportion of hydrogen absorbed by pure gold when melted in this gas was commented on by F. Johnson.Jwho suggestedthat this point should be further investigated. Rose Sir Thomas suggestedthat I should repeat and extend his experiments,and the results obtained in recorded are
"

The

influence

of

several

this paper. The temperatures

of

annealing have

been

determined

by

of the hard-rolled metal to constant perature tema heatingportions for thirty minutes, and determining the hardness by of the scleroscope, means using the magnifier hammer. This instrument givesvery definite results for the purposes of the present Avork ; the scale readingfor the hard gold being from the annealed 30 to metal 35, while gives readings of
"

"

to

7. hard-rolled metal
was

The
of

prepared by
millimetres

the

cold-rolling
a

or castings

culots,at
0"9

least 5

thick, to

ness thick-

of 0*8 The

to

millimetre.

gold used in these experiments consisted of two samples of fine gold prepared at the Mint for use in proof" assays. the No. 8 gold used Sample No. 1 was by Rose," and Avas preparedfrom cornets obtained in the assay of fine gold,and in vacuo. was melted, and allowed to solidify, refined Sample No. 2 was electrolytically prepared from in a gas injector melted fine,and was furnace, gold,999"75
" *

Taken

as

read

t Journal
+

of the Institute

Loc.

cit. , p.

September 10, Statutory Meeting, London, No. vol. 1913, Metals, 2, x. p. 150. of cit. 160. hoc. 169. " p.
at
,

1914.

126

Phelps : Effectof Hydrogen

on

Annealing of Gold

had been exposed while molten to reducing consequently hydrogen. gases containing Sample 1 has been found equal in fineness to the best fine at the Mint. gold examined fine,takingsample Sample 2 has been found to be 999'95 No.
1
as

and

1000-00
3
was

fine.

of No. 2 by heating 62 grammes in the oxyhydrogen flame on a morganite cupel, usingexcess of and throughout, coolingin oxygen : a considerable oxygen of scum amount appeared on the molten gold, and slowly cleared off and adhered absorbed to, or was by, the cupel. The button was quite bright at the finish, and showed marked shrinkageon cooling.

SamjjleNo.

obtained

"

"

This

metal

was

found

to

be

999*98

fine,and
No. of
1.

in

annealing

was properties

identical with practically


and the method fact,

From

the latter

it would preparation,

appear

probablethat the impurity was Another portion(10 grammes) of


found
to

silver. No.
to

was

be

lOOO'OO

fine, and
1

treated similarly anneal at a slightly


2

lower

temperature.
of

Portions

gold
:

No.

and

No.

were

treated

in

the

manner following

The

metal

was

heated

on

"

morganite cupel
amount

"

in

an

hydrogen oxy-

flame,
consistent with the metal
A carbon in that The
was

using the minimum heating the gold well


to

above

the of
was

hydrogen melting point:


on a

of

allowed the

cool in
so

current

portion of
boat gas. in
a

metal of

obtained

oxygen. remelted
to

current

and hydrogen,

allowed

solidify

rolled out, buttons flat and hammered were resulting and the annealing properties tested by heating for thirty minutes either in an oil-bath or in boilingliquids of the requiredboiling point.

The

results obtained
No.
1.
"

were

Original co7idition. Assay, 1000*00 Hardness before annealing,33.

_/??ie.

Phelps: Effectof Hydrogen


No.
1.
"

on

Annealing of Gold
loitli
excess

127

Melted

in

oxyhydrogen flame
Hardness

of

oxygen.

Assay,

lOOO'OO.

beforeannealing,30.

ISTo. 1.
on

"

Melted rarhon

in

oxyhydrogen flame
in

with

excess

of oxygen,

and

remelted

boat

hydrogen.

Assay, 999'96.

Hardness

before

annealing,32.

The

results

on

sample
hardness

No. in

are

expressedas

curves

of

temperatures and

Fig. 1.

200"
TEMPERA T

250"
U

300
"

350'

Fig.

1.

No.

2.

"

Original condition.
Hardness

Assay, 999'95. 33, beforeannealing,

128

Phelps : Effectof Hydrogen


Ko.
2.
"

on

Annealing of
idtli
excess

Gold

Melted

in

oxyhydrogen flame
Hardness

of oxygen.

Assay,

1000-00.

beforeannealing,31.

No.

1."

Melted
on

in

flame oxylujdrogen
boat in
Hardness

with

excess

carbon

hydrogen.

of oxygen, Assay, 999-96.

and

remelted

beforeannealing,31.

The

results

on

sample

No.

are

shown

on

the

curves

in

Fig. 2.

^20

kj

10

100"

ZOO"
TEMPERATURE

250"

300"

350"

Fig.

2.

In but

the

case reverse

of

sample
order.

No,

3, similar

meltingswere
boat
so

made,
of
were

in the 20

grammes
and
a
"

were

melted grammes
"

on

carbon the
a

in

current

hydrogen,
remelted
on

10

of

metal
current

obtained
of oxygen.

morganite cupel in

130

Phelps

Effect

of

Hydrogen

on

Annealing

of
"

Gold

age the
the

on

solidification,
;
nor was

and

the

cuUts

"

were

piped

almost off

to

centre

there while noticed

any

sign

of

gas
in

being
each the

given
case a

by

molten
of

metal

cooling,
soon

but after

slight
first

evolution melted.
The of been

gas

was

metal

was

samples
"

of

gold

melted

in

hydrogen
there any

showed

no

signs
had

shrinkage
evolved

or

piping,"
the metal

nor

was

sign
heating

that

gas

from

either introduced

during by
per

or

cooling. gold
in

Although hydrogen
of is

the

impurity
from 0"02

melting
1000,
is the

pure

only
(by
about

to

0'04

temperature
from below

annealing
C.
to

thirty
300"

minutes'
C.

heating)

raised

150"
As
can

the
be

annealing
restored
it attributed the almost

properties
to

of

the

metal values

and

its

fineness

their
the

original
marked
of in

by
in

remelting properties
the

in

oxygen, be

appears
to

that

change
hydrogen
such
small

may

the
of
to

absorption
that

by

gold,

although
would The of
in be

presence difficult
of the

element

quantities

very

demonstrate marked
of

directly.
effect
of
a

explanation
on

the

small

proportion
be

hydrogen
its
low

properties

gold

may

perhaps

found

atomic

weight.

Conimwiications

on

Phelps Paper

131

COMMUNICATIONS.
ness (Birmingham),wrote to express his indebtedvindicated the having so thoroughly position Rose taken up by Sir Thomas in his paper of August 1913.* The influence wrought by so minute a extraordinary quantity of the annealingproperties of gold must be without hydrogen upon surely a parallel. There appeared no suggestionin the paper that any definite compound of gold and hydrogen might be responsible for the results ; the writer thought it highly probable that such a formed, compound was in which low of the atomic the would be thus case weight hydrogen further assisted, of its effectiveness, in altering the by the multiplication the o f metal. properties He congratulated the author vipon having so successfully amplified and Rose's discovery confirmed Sir Thomas of a phenomenon, the practical
to

Mr.

F.

Johnson,
author

M.Sc. for

the

consequences

of

which but

or

its

applicationwere

not

apparent
which

to
was

him

(Mr. Johnson),

the

theoretical

importance

of

unquestionable.
Certain

(1) Was meltingof


in excess?

questions suggestedthemselves : of hydrogen likely to absorption in the a furnace gold atmosphereof


"

occur

which

in the practice contained hydrogen

in

(2) Was the influence of hydrogen on the annealing properties capable of beingapplied to any useful purpose % the influence of hydrogen persist after a large (3) Would indefinitely number of annealings in an oxidizing atmosphere? of decomposinghydro-carbons, (4) Was molten gold capable ing precipitatcarbon and rendering ? free be dissolved to hydrogen
Sir Thomas

Rose, D.Sc.
that his
own

(Member

of

wrote Council),
on

that

he

was

gratified
been
of

to find

observations

confirmed

by
to

the 20"

careful work

hydrogen was
one

lengthen the
to
one

hydrogen had Phelps. One of the effects critical range of annealing of pure gold
of Mr.
more

the effect of

from the the

of about obtained
and

of

than

150", as
in clearly The

was

seen

alike in
2 of

results paper,

by

Mr.

shown Phelps,
own

Figs.1 and

of
re-

also in

his

results. f

purifyingeffect

and would result in the abandonment melting gold in oxygen was striking, in the course of the meltingof pure gold in vacuo of its preparation, and the adoption of melting in an of air or oxygen, excess a simpler It the that to note No. 8 was used interesting gold process. by pure himself \ and by Mr. Phelps had also been used in by Dr. Rosenhain

his

experiments
a

on

"

The

Cohesion Intercrystalline melted


the

of

which, however,
in apparently
*

he

had

gold
No.

in

vessel

Metals,"" for of pure carbon,

reducingatmosphere.
of the
p. Institute

Journal
,

of Metals,

2, 1913, vol.

x.

pp.

150-66.

t Ibid.

157, Fig. 3.

X Loc. cit.

" Ibid., p. 141.

132

Author

Reply

Phelps

Paper

Mr.

Phelps,
described

in in

reply,
his paper

wrote

that

he

did

not

regard
He

the

properties
that,
when

of the

gold

as

exceptional.
pure

thought
came

corresponding
similar
Almost effects

properties
of small

of

other

metals well
be
two

to

be

investigated,

impurities
metal

might

discovered.
to

any

other
not

containing distinguished
its

only by

four from

parts
the

of

hydrogen
chemically
to

in pure pure

100,000 metal,
metal. In

could
and

be of

analysis
be

any

properties

might

wrongly

attributed

the

reply
That

to

Mr.

Johnson's

questions
No. 2 when

he described

would in

say

"

(1)
have
in the

the
as

gold
much

sample

the
a

paper gas in

appeared
injector
pure

to

absorbed
course

hydrogen

melted
as

in

furnace

of

its

original

preparation
of the effect

when

melted
on

hydrogen. annealing
method of of

(2) gold

That

the
out

knowledge
necessary

of
in

hydrogen
Sir Thomas

the

pointed
the That

precautions
by
means

Kose's

testing (3)
removed

purity
he

of

gold

of

its

annealing
the

properties.*
to

(the

author)

would in

expect
air
at

hydrogen
1000" redness

be
did

gradually
not

by
alteration

prolonged
in

heating

(say)
to

C,

but
in

find few

any

composition

by

heating

air

for

minutes.

(4) gold
C,
he It
;

That
most

he

had

not

investigated
were

the

action
or

of

hydrocarbons
decomposed
from
that of

on

molten
at

as

hydrocarbons
not

partly
to

entirely

1100"

would
was

expect
to

their

effect

be

different

hydrogen.
a

not

possible
been

repeat

the without

annealing
remelting

experiments
it.

on

specimen

that

had

once

annealed

Journal

of

the

Institute

of Metals,

1913,

No.

2,

vol.

x.

p.

161.

Philip:

Contributions

to the

History of Corrosion

133

CONTRIBUTIONS OF

TO

THE

HISTORY

CORROSION.*
PART
III. AND CORROSION.

COKE,
By ARNOLD

CONDENSER

TUBES,
B.Sc,

PHILIP,

F.I.C., A.M.I.E.E., Chemist).

Assoc.RS.M.

(Admiralty

xovEL,

and

in the

a quiteerroneous present writer's opinion,

departurefrom
is made

the views

by

Messrs.

held generally Bengough and of the

on

the

theory of

rosion, cor-

Jones

in the Second

Report
The

to

the Corrosion

Committee

Institute of

Metals.f

experimentsobtained by Dr. Bengough whilst mittee Comacting as an Honorary Investigatorto the Corrosion led them Mr. Jones, have to discard with his colleague,
results of
the

views

which, in
had

common

with

most

other
what

students Dr.

of

rosion, cor-

they
calls
"

previouslyheld
the metal

very

fundamental

J namely, upon
in condenser
the tube in particles

Bengough sion," study of corropart as of corrosion being caused possibility with electro-negative by contact
upon

regardsthe

presence

of

sea

water.

In the whole

of their
one

the

results

of

Report the authors have only published quantitativeexperiment on the contact


presence of
sea

action of coke
of condenser

in the tube

water

upon

the

corrosion
this
as

material," and report, it


can

if the is to be

proof that
understood

stance sub-

does demonstrated

not

promote corrosion
in the

being tative quali-

basis, quantitative togetherwith that their novel experiments,


The views of the authors
on

only be upon this of some the description


conclusions corrosion
are are

slender

founded.

contact

necessarily
with

scattered
other

throughout
and
read
at

lengthy report dealing


account

many

matters,
*

on

this

and

also because

it is felt

Taken

as

t Journal

of the

Institute

September 10, Statutory Meeting, London, of Metals, No. 2, 1913, vol. x. p. 13.
VII.

1914.

% Ibid., p. 111. " Vide Report, p. 43, Table

134 that

Philip:
in
some

ContribiUions

to the

History of
been

Corrosion

respects their opinionshave


collection the in the

expressedwith
of
with fact
an

ambiguity the paragraphs in


corrosion reference
is and
as

present paper
which
would

all those
contact

Second

Report
course

deal
in

desirable.
thus

This

facilitate standing under-

assist in

of all the this subject as possible The of described by Messrs. Bengough and Jones. exigencies and the reader must space have, however, proved prohibitive Second be referred to the Report itself as published in the

arrivingat as experiments on

clear

of the Institute of Metals, No. 2, 1913, vol. x., on the followingpages: 41 to 44, 45, 49 and 50, 55 and 56, 68,
Journal

76, 78, 86, 91;


From the

and

in the 114. this

discussion

on

pages

96, 98, 102,


conclusions
may,

104, 106, 109, and


a

perusalof

Report

the

author's

on

type of corrosion dealt with in the present paper is considered, be fairly follows : summarized as
Coke in firm
contact

it

with

Admiralty
stagnant
exerts
no or

condenser
water at

tube

metal

in either

composition running seaence influor

ordinarytemperatures
the
amount
causes no

material

upon other

of

either

general
;

localized
on

corrosion, and hand,


in

dezincification

but,
the

the
of

retards general slightly


his

speed

corrosion.
In
to

summing
discussion

up
on

views

on

the

the

Second

subject in the reply Report, Dr. Bengough said

this

(p. 109):
in sympathy with a very largenumber of Personally, he had thought that carbon introduced at people, particles ordinarytemperature might set up corrosion,and he had all along thought that carbon particles might cause Until he had dezincification. the matter, investigated that carbon he was destructive were persuaded particles bound when he to tubes, but he was to modify his opinion had carried out the experiments described in the Report. He thought the experiments in question had served if they only gave negative results as even a good purpose ." of corrosion. And to the causes again on p. Ill: adhere Mr. Sumner rather seemed to stronglyto the had an injurious effect. Well, of opinionthat particles
"
.
.

"

Contributions : PJiilip
course,

to the of

History of
could

Corrosion
not

135

the
in

authors
one

the

Report

expect the
At

evidence
the
same

paper

would

convince

everybody.

formed a they thought that this matter part as regards the study of corrosion. very fundamental evidence to be able to add He hoped that they would Mr. Sumner's evidence until they managed to break down that point. It was rather difficult to know on scepticism deal with. what to particles They had dealt with all be the particles they could think of, and they would that glad to try experiments with any other particles

time,

Mr. The above the

Sumner
of

miofht suggest."
Messrs.
on

views
are

Bengough
many

and

Jones

as

set

forth
are

remarkable

grounds,amongst

which

: following 1. They are contrary

to

the

held investigators' previously


and

views.
2.

They

are

contrary
very

of the

general belief and great majority of users


to

the

experience
of almost all

manufacturers

of condenser

tubes, and
to to

also to the views

scientific investigators.
3.
4.

They They

are are

contrary contrary
in
common

accepted. theory as ordinarily


the view
with which

the authors
other

selves, themon

most

authorities

condenser

tube

corrosion, now

which hold, and, in fact,

they specifically support in Section III. of the Report, electro-positive namely, that all relatively p. 79 rf sf^-.,
metals, such
a as

aluminium, iron,steel,
over

and tubes

zinc, exert
with which
this

influence protective they are in contact. action by contact


the brass.
are

condenser

For

it is clear that in the

tive protecwith of coke

is identical

character
contact

action produced by corroding based the results of

with
5.

They
as

on

negative experiments,
"

Bengough pointed out on p. 109 : He thought the experiments in question had served a good purpose if they only gave negativeresults as to the cause of corrosion." To disprove a positivestatement by the result of experiments yieldingnegative results is and of considerable in matter a notoriously difficulty,

Dr.

13 6

Philip
any

Contributions
must

to the

History of

Corrosion
of negative

case

necessitate

very

largenumber

results.
6.

The

number

Messrs. which with which


amounts

quantitative negativeexperiments which Bengough and Jones publishin the report of coke are alleged to show that the contact
tube metal in
sea

of

condenser

water

is not

cause

promotes

corrosion,as has
one.

to precisely

This

already been stated, result is given in the

7.

Report, p. 43, on the second line of Table VII. been have This single quantitative result appears to is at any of extremely rate or wrongly interpreted, will be shown doubtful validity, later on, although as this may be due to clerical error a having possibly
Second
been

made. that localized the


this bottoms
on

8. It is
most

admitted generally marked authors


has
90

is usually pitting

along
admit

of

condenser the
in

tubes.

The writer

p.

77, and
fact that

present
his
perience ex-

recorded recently
cent,

the

he

had

per examined

of the

condenser
the

tubes

which tube the

in which

piercingof
taken
of

the
in

had

occurred,
of the
be

this

piercing had
This

place

bottom
can

tube.*

localization for if of
of
one

the

ting pitthe

accounted readily of the


at

admits

corroding effect
bodies such
a

contact

negative electrorelatively
the tubes
;

the

bottom does
not

but

if

contact

corrosion
more

take

place it
for.

becomes

good

deal

difficult to account

On

the

above

grounds
and

alone have

the

conclusions
as

at

which

Messrs.
contact water

Bengough
of coke

Jones
the

arrived
of

to

the effect of the tubes


in
sea

upon
to

corrosion

condenser

appear
than years

be

further many far

this is

to damaging criticism ; but very open the present writer's own experience over
as

diametrically opposed to these deductions In as they refer to Admiralty composition tubes. make the investigators the followingremark connection
p. 20

this
on

of their report:
"

Arnold

has Philip that

on

more

than

one

occasion

phasized em-

his view
*

of carbon, electro-negative particles


of Metals, 1911,
No.

Journal

of the

Institute

1, vol.

v.

p. 99.

Philip: Contributions
square with later foot of corroded
a

to the

Historyof Corrosion
days
can

139
to

surface form
the
some

into bring the figures

per hundred in which they

in order

be

compared
are

those
on

obtained

by

present writer,which
thirteen
cases

given
been

in this paper.

In

it has

not

to possible account
curves.

recalculate
the fact

Messrs.
that

Bengough
have
to

and

Jones'
taken

on figures

of

these

been

from

their

This

remark

refers

all the

experiments,1, 2, 3,
26.

14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, and
Out of the whole

there are twenty-sixexperiments These refer to corrosion are only three which by contact. Number numbered 15 15, 16, and 17. gives the results of the corrosion of a pieceof 70 : 30 brass by itself and without with sample any contact any other conducting body. This intended control or check test on to serve was as a ments experinumbers and 16 17, which consist of identical pieces of these of 70:30

brass, corroded

in

stagnant
clinker

sea

water

for and

the

same

periodof time in contact in experiment 16, and


17.
No

with respectively
with and

coke

graphite ment pyrites in experi-

experiments have been made by the writer of this paper the action of pyritesand with brass clinker in contact upon its corrosion further criticism in sea as water, and no affecting In the need therefore now be made experiment No. 17. upon 15 and 16 dealingwith however, of experiments numbers case, action of coke and facts the contact graphite two remarkable be pointed out. corrosion loss on the pieceof must : The Firstly
tube corroded
in
contact

luith per any

coke

for thirtyclaysin experiment

numher

16, namely, 0"25


on investigators

by
one

the

cent., is greater than the loss observed brass {with other sample of 70:30
under similar

which exception)

was

corroded

conditions, namely,

in

of normal temperatures for thirtydays ; and


stagnant
such
sea

loater

composition at
the

atmospheric
no

results of

less

than

nine

experiments
21
; and
on

are

recorded, numbers
the

1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7,
this

19, 20, and


base

test quantitative

their conclusion
to

single the action of coke that the investigators that no action takes place. The exception
yet it is upon
which is referred
to

result of

this statement,

above, is experiment

No.

15,

namely, the
contact

check of coke

to test-piece
on

the

experiment on

the

effect of the

corrosion.

140

Philip:
Secondly :

Contributions
in

to the

History of Corrosion

experiment 1 5 the authors show the corrosion brass in ordinary losses on the check pieceof 70:30 stagnant water at atmospheric temperature, without sea any aeration or other special treatment, to be 0*54 per cent, by weight in thirtydays,or 134*5 grainsper square foot per hundred days.
This any corrosion

loss is

more

than

double

the
:

loss in

thirtydays
in

on

other

similarly corroded
is

2}iece o/ 70

30

brass described

the

investigators report,and
corrosion

nearly 50
them in

per
any

cent,

greater than

the

loss observed
70:30

by

of

all the

twenty-six

on experiments

brass

which

they

have

described, even

they have accelerated the corrosion by aerating the water the water, using concentrated or sea water, circulating The next highestresults temperatures of either 40" or 50" C. Nos. 18, given in the three experiments, are, in fact,those
when

22, and
loss is

26.

In
0-39

each per

of these

three, however, the

corrosion

by weight in thirtydays. That is to vigorous corrosion which the authors have say, the most been able to obtain by means of bubbling air rapidlythrough it rapidly in experiment 1 8 ;* or sea water, as by circulating at atmospheric temperatures, as in experiment 22 ; or by heating it to 50" C. and aeratingit as in experiment 26, was two-thirds of the corrosion found less than by them to cause in the check which sample of 70:30 they found to occur only
cent,

brass

which

was

corroded beaker

in
at

stagnant

sea

water

of

normal for

strengthin an thirty days.


The above

open

atmospheric temperatures

concerning these experiments, that a it is considered, indicate the high probability very serious error, probablya clerical error, has occurred in making
statements

of fact

the

determination

of

the

corrosion

loss

on

the
case

check

test-

piecein experiment
that in any corrosion
a

15.

If this is not

the

it is evident be useless of

measurements

of this nature
as

must

arrivingat
of

conclusion

to

the

character
loss and time
a

the

real

mechanism
in
as

corrosion,for the corrosion


No. 15 is found per
more

in

thirtydays experiment experiment


conditions
15.

experiment
great
4
as

than
in the

two
same

quarter times
in

the

loss

No.

(namely, 0'24
with those

cent,

which by weight),

is nevertheless of corrosion

identical in every

respect

as

to

the

obtainingin experiment No.

Philip:
The action
one

Conti'-ibiitwiis to the
and

History of

Corrosion
the

141

onlyquantitative experimentupon
upon Jones
the

contact

of

coke and

corrosion

of

brass

which

Messrs.

Bengough
the have based
of coke

have

pubhshed
and

in the Second

Report

to

Corrosion

Committee,
new

their upon
on

upon theory of the corrosion


to

they appear to tact unimportance of the conin


sea

which

the

of brass be
one

water,

therefore
but

would

seem,

examination,
be

upon

which

little

reliance should
In the

placed.
the
sea

order

to

demonstrate

nature

of the
brass

acceleration caused

in

corrosive
of

action

contact

coke, the
out.

by the quantitative experiments have following


of
water

upon

been

carried

Admiralty composition prepared by cuttinga 10copper 70, tin 1, and zinc 29 were feet lengthof tube in half longitudinally ing by a plane containthe axis. annealed low These at a lengths of tube were
tube

of Test-pieces

condenser

of

red

heat, rolled
were

flat,and
then
to

cut

up

into
means

3 test-pieces

inches
were

long,which each finally


6 '3 2 square

cleaned the
same

by

of
a

emery, surface

and
area

filed

size,having
of analysis
of the

of

inches. this condenser


"
"

The
are

results of the chemical the first column

tube

given on

table following

The

results tube

of the
used

condenser

analysisof the Admiralty composition in the experiments made by Messrs.


and

Bengough
Second

and

Jones,

referred

to

on

p.

67 also

of

the

Committee, are Report to the Corrosion for comparison. The test-pieces described above, were as prepared,
with
sea

given

stamped

identification marks, and


water

were

submitted
:
"

to

the action of

under

the followino- conditions

142

Philip:
"

Cotitrib2itions
Six

to

the

History of Corrosion

Scries

G."

"

running sea
in contact Series
"

water

were test-pieces placed in glass tubes iD for sixty days at atmospheric temperature

with H."
"

coke. Six
were test-pieces placed in glass tubes in for sixtydays at atmospheric temperature

running
without

sea

water

contact

with

coke

or

any

other

substance

except the

walls glass Series


"

of the

tubes. Six

were test-pieces placed in glasstubes in running sea water for sixtydays at atmospheric temperature in contact with pebblesof the same size as the piecesof coke in contact the used with in the tube pieces of condenser
"

K."

in experiments Series
"

series Six

"

G." condenser
in

M."

"

of test-pieces
sea

tube
a

were

pended sus-

in

running

water

for

sixtydays

vertical

tion posi-

by
The three

means

of cotton

threads. the corrosion


"

glasstubes
series
"

in which
"

experiments
consisted

in the

G,"

H," and
are

K"

were as
"

made

of what
a

known

boilingtubes," namely,
tube. These
and each
an

largeform
about

of test inch the

tubes

are

1|
At

in diameter bottom of

7 inches
tube
a

long.
circular

hole

of about

half
means

inch of
a

meter diablowis

was Fig. sketch wooden sion tube of


a

made skctch

1.

by
of

the
One

portion
in
corro-

of

pip^shown
j^

A in

of

theso

tubes

rack

Fig. 1.
.

tank, showing
for under

glass

^^^-^^^
at

jj
,

^^^

^^.^^^

containing
corrosion,

tCSt-picceS
-t^

samples
Scale

rested
bottoms

their

lowcr

cnds
the

upon
tubes

the
tained con-

about

J. full size,

of the

tubcs, and
sea

nothing but
In

the

and test-pieces ends of the

water.

series
with

"

"

the lower

round coke

of coke pieces

of about

the

were packed test-pieces size of a split The pea.

surrounded

points. The
material
and
a

about to test-pieces up coke was prepared by breaking up retainingonly that portion which of of

the

their the

middle

ordinary
pass
pass coke
water.
not

would

through through
was

sieve
sieve

J-inchmesh, but
|-inch
the mesh.

which
use

would

Before

the
then

sieved in in
sea

well washed In
series
"

in Portsmouth K
"

tap

water

and

were test-pieces
"

packed
of

the

glass

tubes

as precisely

in series

G," but

instead

using

broken

Philip: ContribzUions

to the

Historyof Corrosmt

143

1^

?!

"2

""
3

II II II
O

O.

DO.

"

-2 S

c^
^

II II II
-s

144

Philip:
the
same

Contributions

to the

History of
with

Corrosion
were

coke

Avere test-pieces

surrounded
coke

of the the
manner.

size

as

the
to

test-pieces up
the
were

their

round and fragments, the same middle pointsin precisely


four series

pebbles which were packed

All
"

"

in test-pieces placed in the


was

the
same

"

G,"

"

H,"

"

K," and
and
3.

corrosion and
fresh

tank. 11*45
at

Figs.2
cubic
rate

This
sea

tank

made
was

of teak

contained
sea

feet of

water, and
cubic

fed with

water

the
was

of about

8'9

feet per

hour,

so

that

the

water

completely

Fig. Transverse The Section of Sea-water the


same as

3. Tank
at Portsmouth

Corrosion in

Dockyard.
full size.

is lettering

Fig. 2.

Scale

about

^V

hours. The twenty-four flowed into the tank in equal streams water through ten sea pipesarranged at equal intervals along the top of one side of Each the tank. jet of water fell through the air for a distance

changed

about

eighteentimes

in the

of

about

inch.

The

water

left the
at

tank

in

eleven

equal

streams

through openings arranged


of the

equal
and

intervals

the the
were

side opposite

tank

at

the

bottom. entered another.

The

along of positions
tank
ment arrange-

the openings by which staggeredwith regard


a

water to
one

left the this


water

By
sea

well-distributed
the
water

current

of

aerated

passed
spaces
streams

through
stagnant

tank

without

the

being formed.

of any possibility of The equality

dead the ten

of

146

Philip:

Contributions

to the

History of

Corrosion

comparison it may be noted that the sea water used by Messrs. Bengough and the results Jones, as calculated from of the Second of analysisgiven on 68 Report to the page
For Corrosion

Committee,
and

contained
a

1942-9

parts of chlorine
at

per

100,000,
This
sea

the mouth weaker The

possessed specific gravity at water, obtained Formby at a point well outside of the river Mersey,was therefore about 5 per cent,
that

17*6" C. of 1*0225.

than
test

used

at

Portsmouth. series of tests


were

-piecesin
the the
area

all the four of

weighed
At
sea

before test and

their surfaces
removed

measured.

the

completionof
at
were once

tests

they were

from

the

water,
series

rinsed

under

the tap, and all but

five of the
a

six in each nail brush.

then

scrubbed vigorously
removes a

with very

hard

This

treatment

thin

and

tightly adhering
then

layer
The
are

of

cuprous

oxide.

The

were test-pieces

finally
tests

dried and

weighed.
results obtained
in these of four the

numerical

series of
mean

given on
on

Table

II.,and

summary

results is

shown

Table

III.
results of

quantitative sixtyand with Jones Bengough by day corrosion tests condenser tube, which corded they have reAdmiralty composition in the Second Report. These results are necessarily taken from the curves given in the Report, and in each case the number of the figure and the corresponding page in the son Report are quoted. These results are of interest for comparicalculated percentage sixty-day with the similarly sion corroTable
made

IV.

(p. 151) givesall the

Messrs.

losses

given

in

column

of

Table

II. in
are

this

paper.

They
than vary

are, on

the whole,
obtained
0 27

similar,but closely
in the
cent, tests to

slightly higher
H, which
in each per
cent.

the from

results about

made

in series

It will be noticed of the series of


from each
tests
"

per that

about

0"34
were

although six
"

tests
"

made

G,"

H,"

"

K," and

M," only five results

account

II. and III. This is on series appear in the Tables of of the fact that, as stated above, in each series one
not

the

was test-pieces a

cleaned
water

after and each

corrosion,but
dried.
four The

was

merely
four
test"

rinsed in

stream

of

tap
been

then of the

piecesthus treated,one
"

from

series

"

G,"

H,"

K," and

"

M," have

preservedin stopperedglass bottles,

Philip:
Table II.
"

Contributions
Tests

to the
in

Historyof Corrosion

147

at Atmospheric imnning Sea Water Test-Pieces Admiralty Condenser Temperatures. Composition of Duration 29 Tube., Copper 70, Tin 1, Zinc of Corrosion, 60 Area 6-32 Test-Pieces, Days. Sinface of Square Inches.
"
"

Corrosion

148

Philip:
are an

Contj'ibiitions

to

the

Historyof Corrosion
this paper
is in order
to

and

exhibited ocular

during the reading of


demonstration XVI. Tables
of what

afford
the

photographson Plates numerical results given in


Table III.
"

and

partlyshown XVII., and partlyin


III.

in
the

II. and

Tubes

Summary of Means of Results of Corrosion Tests Temperatures in i-unning Sea Water on 70 : 1 : 29 in Series "G," "A"',"ff,"and ''Al," made as given on

pheric at AtmosCondenser
Table II.

in series H and G shown are test-pieces in the two photographs (PlatesXVI. and XVIL). The scale of the test-pieces and also the sharpness of their focussingis in each photograph. indicated by the postage-stamps shown Plate XVI. is a photograph of the six test-pieces used in series H the six used in series G," photographed together ; and after corrosion for sixtydays,and after they had merely been rinsed in a stream of tap water and dried on blottingpaper. The lower six test-pieces in the line marked B are test-pieces
" "

The

corroded

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

from

the series the

"

G," which

have

been

corroded

in contact

with

coke, and
to

heavy

scale of corrosion
in
a

productsis seen
incrustation.
the of six

adhering
The

the

metal underlying

thick A
are

upper coke

line
series any

of
"

marked test-pieces

from test-pieces with the


or

H," which
material

were

corroded

out

contact

other

except the

glasswalls

of

tube.

All

Philip:
these
twelve

Contributions
were test-pieces

to the

Historyof

Corrosion

149

photographed immediatelyafter

from tank the corrosion after a sixty they were Both the H G and series of test-pieces days' corrosion. the same not were conditions only corroded under precisely of support, but, except as limited by their to time and method as method also under of support, they were the same precisely of flow and aeration of sea water conditions as to velocity and also temperature, for they were all put into the corrosion tank the same all removed the same on on day and were day. Plate XVII. shows a photograph of five of each of the same H and G in Plate XVI., series of test-pieces shown are as but after having been scrubbed with a hard nail brush in water.
withdrawn
" "
" "

The

surfaces here

shown

are

the metal with entire


a

surfaces,or
of

are,

at

any

rate, the metal

surfaces

coated
The

thin and
absence

adherent tightly
of pitting

film of copper oxide. series of metal in the "H"


out

the

tests

(in the

line marked

A), corroded
; whilst

of contact

with

coke

for

seen sixtydays,is easily

which has heavy pitting G series samples in the


the
"

occurred of
test

in the

same

time

in the

corroded The Series


each
"

in contact
reason

that
and
"

(in the line marked with coke, is also clearly shown. photographs of only five samples of
are

"

B),
both
one

"

"

shown
not

in Plate XVII.

is because

of
tained re-

of these series

was

cleaned

after corrosion, but

was

for direct
from
"

in its condition inspection tank.


"

the
"

corrosion
"

All the

as removed precisely samples (fivein each series

G,"

H,"

K," and

"),after corrosion

and

bottles for preservedin stoppered A careful inspection of the photographs in Plates XVI. and XVII. and of the actual samples themselves which are now with a consideration of the numerical exhibited,together results
also been of corrosion

have cleaning, direct inspection.

losses

given on
tube
cause

Table

II.,must,
of coke
sea

it is

considered,

giveconvincingproof that
condenser composition

the contact
in

with

Admiralty
at

running
of

water

ordinary

temperatures may
of corrosive

be the

violent acceleration extraordinarily


of the summary III. shows that

action.

The Table

numerical
the
mean

corrosion
corrosion

given on velocityin contact


as

results

with
as

coke,
the
mean

as

shown

by

these

is 24-7 times results, of

great

corrosion
tubes

velocity
"

similar test-pieces of precisely

condenser

in series

K,'

150

Philip Contributions
:

to the

History of Corrosion

which

"

similar rence tubes, the only diffeprecisely being that, instead of the coke fragments used in Series size as the piecesof coke were G," small pebblesof the same the ends of the test-pieces. lower used for packing round that four series of experiments,in fact,demonstrate These
were

packed

in

when

the

condenser
in various

tube ways,

material its
mean

is corroded
corrosion

out

of contact

with
from
water

coke
1 to
can

varies velocity
which the
sea

1'7, accordingto the freedom


circulate round with coke the the

with

in

contact

test-pieces ; but when corrosion velocityat once


dozens of

corroded rises
to

nearly 25.
But

further have

than

this,many
made

qualitative experiments

fragments of coke tied on with tube to cotton Admiralty composition condenser test-pieces, in ordinary sea both which have then been immersed water stagnant and running,and both at atmospheric temperatures
also been

with

and

temperatures up to 50" C, and in every corrosion has been caused, whilst what appears
at

case

accelerated be dezincitests

to

fication has
out
as

been
water

observable
at

within

two

days

in

carried

with

sea

might
With
be

be

ordinarytemperature, but the action, is accelerated at higher temperatures. expected,


the

the

regard to
noted
that

appearance
this
occurs

of dezincification
in

areas

it

must

when

thin
a or

layers it
thin
of
a

be

doubted

whether

the

difference
cuprous
can

between

may layer of
a

thin and a copper of the two mixture

layerof

oxide,
be

layerof

discriminated. clearly As far as the present writer is able to decide, a thin layer of is always formed within forty-eight hours when coke copper is in contact with Admiralty condenser tube in sea at water ordinarytemperatures. Probably a real decision as to the difference between a thin layer of metallic copper, or a mixture of copper and cuprous oxide, and a thin layerof cuprous oxide, can only be definitely of test. reflection methods fixed by optical However, as to

substances,

whether
the

dezincification
case,

takes
not

place

or

not

is

side issue
main
contact
sea

in

present
with

and

does
be

which
coke

cannot

important doubted, namely, that the


tube

affect the

clusion, con-

of

Admiralty
corrosion

condenser
at

material

in and

water

accelerates

all

temperatures,

not

only

Philip:

Co7itributio?is (o the

Histoiy of

Co7'rosion

151

V,

-"

a.

"^

-*o

'"

1^

i
O

C
CD
^

I
3

^
"i~

S a, t:'"f^

"^
S

a, ^

"^

152

Philip: Contributions
it,but
causes

to the it far

History of
more

Corrosion
than any

accelerates of
out

accelerates of

markedly
have

the

other

acceleration
to

which

been

pointed
coke
on

in the This

Second

Report
as

the

Corrosion

Committee.
of

conclusion
is

to

the

effect accelerating

corrosion
of

nothing new ; it has been within the knowledge with the all engineers dealingwith corrosion,and especially
of condenser attained the

corrosion

tubes, for very


status

many

years,

and

in fact

long
But

ago

of

an

ancient

and

respected

truism. what
can

by
are

Messrs.
the

the

same,

results obtained explain the quite contradictory Bengough and Jones ? The temperatures and of the condenser compositionof the water
is

far as analysis the same, as practically for the the reason In the present writer's opinion, show. can discrepancymust be soughtin the fact that the result of only
tube

metal

experiment has quantitative single


the

been

used

upon

which

to

base may

authors'

conclusions. invalidated
the

This

result single quantitative clerical


this
error,

be possibly

by

some

itself be
may be

correct, and
of interest
as

of singularity
some

it may negativeresult
or

pointing to
into action

unrecorded
one

but

portant im-

factor

coming

in this

instance.

If this

is so, it may prove an whatever in any case, character of the

importantmatter
reason

for may

But investigation. be

there

for the

unusual

observation made by single quantitative Messrs. Bengough and Jones, it is negative in its character, well-confirmed in any way upset a single and it cannot positive with of coke that the contact denser demonstration Admiralty contube In metal in the
sea

water

does

accelerate

corrosion.
portance im-

conclusion of the

author

would
"

again emphasize the


in
sea-water
cause

: points following

1.

The coke

acceleration
is
a

of

corrosion
and

by

contact

with

very

real

important
decide
in

of trouble

in

condenser
2.

tubes.

Experiments
should field for of attack

made
be made

to

corrosion
no probably

point any large numbers.


a

concerning
There is

in which investigation

cautious

cal statisti-

method
3.

is

more

desirable.
from is
a

The

observations

obtained corrosion

using actually engineers


cause

the

apparatus in which

of

trouble

are

in

Plate

XVII

"

!c

Si

Si

Philip

Contributions

to

the

History

of

Corrosion

153

general
considered.

of

much Nor

importance,
should

and be

should

be

most

carefully
as

they being

hastily
to

discarded

incorrect

except

after

at

least

subjected
It

reasonably
of

detailed

experimental
to

examination.
the of

is, in
assistance

fact,

much

importance
in

enlist

interest corrosion

and

of

engineers

the

elucidation

problems.

The
to

author Mr.

has

much Killner recorded

pleasure
for in

in

recording
out

his

ness indebted-

Wycliffe
work

carrying
this paper.

the

quantitative

experimental

Admiralty

Chemists'

Department,
Portsmouth.

H.M.

Dockyard,

154

Comvtunications

on

Philip's Paper

COMMUNICATIONS.
and Mr. R. M. Jones Dr. G. D. Bengough Mr. Philip's might be divided into two paper consisted
and
some

wrote (Liverpool)

that

parts. The

of

some

ten

pages,

was

devoted

to

criticism of certain

which first, ments experi-

views

twelve

put forward pages, described

by
some

them.
new

second,which consisted of experimentalwork carried out by

The

the

author,and suggested certain


In

deductions.

the dealingwith the first part they would begin by discussing mentioned which Mr. considered on generalgrounds, Philip p. 135, upon that their views. might be directed against very damaging criticism in be them No. 1 be held must to order, Taking quiteinadmissible, since the fact that the writers had been obligedto change their views the result of certain experimental work could not possibly be regarded as evidence that their original views were correct. as
"
"

remark that to invoke a regard to No. 2, they would mere the results of "general belief" to decide upon the differences between two sets of experiments was sound unless indeed the belief was not based on work. definite experimental So far as they had been able to ascertain by enquiry this general belief was based the merely upon admitted of and Mr. more. position plausibility Philip's nothing upon As instance of the fallibility of "general belief" they would an quote the view widely held by engineers that the coppery which occurred areas in badly dezincified tubes were due to bad mixing of the copper and zinc in the manufacture of the tubes. familiar with the Anyone who was details of tube manufacture admissib that such a view was was aware quite init held and difficult to was widely by engineers extremely yet eradicate. of users and manufacturers they Regarding the experience had yet to meet and who could definite one point to satisfactory mental experievidence in support of his so-called "experience," and they had
"

With

"

"

made The

on enquiries many second of part

the
2

subject.
and

the

whole
to

of

and

might
that

be

taken

together.
scientific with the

In

brief

they
"

amounted
as

the

statement

"almost

all

investigators
fact

well

as

that

iron

and

other

ordinarily acceptedtheory,together metals chemical might be used for electrowriters' view


water.

protection, negativedthe
set

that

carbon

did

not

up The

corrosion in sea electrolytic these to was objections reply the


the action electrolytic of of

obvious.
carbon
on

The
brass

ordinarily accepted
did the
not

theory of
account

take and
over

electrical contact
to

resistance between the


at

carbon
contact

any the
a

brass. limited
and

This
area,

due resistance,

loose the

and

variable
of the

beginning high even the of layers of loosely to interposition rapidly owing of and the the basic oxide formed brass. salts, packed on layer bad of electricity, Oxides conductors and the total were notoriously thus resistance interposedinto the circuit might very probably be
would rise sufficient to

would

be

action, if any,

stop

any

current

from

flowing

under

the

action circuit.

of

the Thus

electro-motive

force set

up

by

the carbon-seawater-brass

Communications

on

Philifs Paper

155

electrolytic theory (which they freelyaccepted,as also did scientific who they had questionedmany investigators supported it, of whom wise otherindication to the possibility or as conveyed no leadingauthorities)
of the action had been of carbon determined neither
on
"

brass
a

corrosion
of

till these

contact

tances resis-

matter
nor

very

great experimental

authors' views. difficulty. Theory supported which must be left to direct It was silent on the pointat issue, absolutely experiment. In No. 4 Mr. Philip stated that the fact that the writers believed in electro-chemical protection by iron,"c., was contrary to, or incompatible

disputedthe

with, their
not was,
so.

disbelief in the electro-chemical action iron


or

of carbon.

This

was care

When
must

zinc
and

was

used the

for

and

be, taken
metals

to secure

good
brass.

protective purposes great between clean electrical contact


If this contact be broken

surfaces known
much and

of these

by
well
was

layersof oxide,or
to

those who than

at once in other ways, protection ceased, as was of protection.Obviously it used this method
a

easier to
screws

secure a

good

metal-to-metal
contact

contact

by

means

of bolts under the and


very

action of the

good gravity. In the


over

carbon-to-metal
latter
case

by

mere

touch

also oxide
areas

layerswere
and

and easily

quickly formed

the former

limited
case

contact

between formed and

the carbon

brass ; in the

they
between

would the

be

spread
any

slowlyand

graduallyover

the action

areas large

of contact. carbon for

Thus

possible
would be
case

initial electro-chemical whereas quickly stopped, of iron-brass scale latter


contacts.
an

brass

it would

continue than
in

long

in the periods

Further when

this, layers of calcium


electro-chemical
was

carbonate

played
was

important part
even no

effective also

current

would

high

prevent the electrical resistance.

attack

of

carbon

which protection, tion passing. Scale formaon brass,owing to its

The strength No. 5 very littleneed be said. regard to objection of the of a negative to the strength must case always be proportional could there discover far writers the As as case. positive corresponding of their at the time definite experimental positive extant was no case With paper, of small amount comparatively been evidence. Had the evidence now by Mr. Philip negative presented then available, additional experiments would have been carried out. No. 6 (to list was in the whole The only really importantobjection in detail full which No. 7 was discussed be This would an appendix). hence

they were

content

with

later. No. Objection evidence


corrosion 8
was
a

remarkable
a case.

example
The

of the

use

of

stantial purelycircum-

to

support

writers would of the

point out
in the this
or

that
sion corrocase

usuallyoccurred
no

committee's there
was

along the bottom experimental condenser (2nd Report).^ In


whatever
of the presence of

tubes

evidence

coke

carbon

particles lying on the bottom of the tubes. On the other hand the which consisted of ferric oxide,calcium carbonate, "c., and copper scale, As far as and zinc basic salts, of the tubes. thickest on the bottom was
any direct evidence
1

went

the increased
Institute

attack
No.

on

the bottom
x.

of

the tube

Journal

of the

of Metals,

2, 1913, vol.

p. 77.

156

ContinMnications
be attributed
to

on

Philif s Paper
any

might equally well


substances.
With pp. 136 and

secondary reactions by
"

of these

the
and

exceptionof
137 had
now

No.

6, all the
discussed.

been
to

working out with great industry and detail. On this account it was criticism, ing deservof a more elaborate replythan the matters discussed. already In the last paragraph of 139 statement made Mr. to a Philip p. he evidently which much attached it since was importance largelyin
italics. This
statement
was
"

138,

139

mainly

damaging criticisms given on Mr. Philip next devoted pp. 137, No. 6, which his was principal

"

corrosion loss on the j^iece : The Firstly of in numher for thirtydays experiment 16, namely, 0'25 per cent., is greater than the loss observed by the other sample of 70 : 30 brass {with one on investigators any exception) which under similar corroded loas conditions,namely, in stagnant sea water of normal composition at atmospheric temperatures for thirty days ; and the results of no less than nine such experiments are recorded, numbers and it and 21 is the 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 19, 20, yet ; upon result of this singlequantitativetest on the action of coke that the base their conclusion that no action takes place." investigators In the first place this statement incorrect as regardedfour of the was nine experimentsquoted, namely, Nos. 21. These periments ex1, 2, 5, and
:

tube

corroded

in

contact

with

coke

were

7iot

conducted

under

similar
with all

conditions tube

to

the

coke

experiments,
out

since
of

they

were

made
with
were

the the

instead vertically showed


34 of

and horizontally,

specimen hung experiments so carried

smaller

losses

than
There

horizontal

p.

the 2nd in these

Eeport.
Nos.

tubes, as stated on left,therefore,for comparative

purposes, recorded

experiments

4, 6, 7, 19, and
as

were experiments

follows

weight in percentages) : (expressed


20.
Per

The

losses

of

Cent.
0-24 0-21

4
6

7
19 20 i.e.
an

0-22 0-24 0-22


average of 0"23.

The
It

loss of
was

weight in

the coke these


on

clear from

experiment was 0"25 per that the coke could figures


rate

cent. not

have
A

had

any

important influence
of per cent, of weight about 5 0"02

the

of corrosion the actual


amount

of its tube.

difference

represented in
"

gained iu
any
even

the
an

process

milligrams of cleaningthe
an

case,

increased
too

loss of small here


be

weight of
to

if real, was
It

be

of

experiment a difierence in might easily be lost or tubes previousto weighing. In 0"02 per cent, during thirty days, importance in the practical any
that

problem.

might

remarked

that, in

the

writers'
"

the opinion,

loss of results in practiceadopted by Mr. Philip of stating equivalent in 100 calculated four foot to grains weight days," per square per since it clearlyamounted to an significant was figures, objectionable, of apparent and large, quite unreal,magnification accuracy, and though

hampered

correct

comparison.

158

Communications
It

on

Philip's Paper
out

dezincificatioD." the 2nd be the

might be pointed
carbon

Report,the action of by which only means


It
was

water.

shown

of publication to particles supposed dezincification could be produced in sea clearlyin the 2nd Report that dezincification and

that before

the

other

was

could

be
"

readily brought about


a

without

the

intervention

of

any

particles

great significance. the qualitative tests regarding the effect Philip ignoredaltogether dezincification publishedin the 2nd Report. In this conof carbon on nection it must again be emphasized that after dezincification had once the only tests admissible. These set in, qualitative tests tests were follows : as might be summarized
Mr.
"

whatever

pointof very

1. At

the

ordinary temperature
with 70
:

in
and made

stagnant
to

sea

water.

Coke

and

used graphite

30

Admiraltytubes.

Time, 30 days.
increased

Micrometer action took


No

measurements

ascertain whether

dezincification observable.

Number
2. At the

tied

of particles.Result negative. place in neighbourhood No sign of "copper-ring" tion formawhich would be expectedif electrolytic action took place. of separate experiments,4 ; p. 42, 2nd Report. Pieces of coke ordinary temperature in running sea water. 70 70 29 and to 6-inch of : 30, : : 1, lead-brass, on lengths

Muntz

metal.
30

Water

circulated

inside

the

half-section

tubes.

Time,
Number
3. At
a

days.

Results

negative.

of separate experiments, 4 ; pp. 45 and 46, 2nd Report. of 40" Fine graphite C. Stagnant sea water. temperature 70 In
:

used. Results
:

30

and of

70
70
:

29

1 tubes.

Time,
which

28

days.
showed
on no

case

30

tubes, dezincification which


also
same

definite relation tubes


In In
case

to

and graphite,

occurred

check

no placed in containing graphite,

beaker.

of

Admiralty tubes,
case
or

no

dezincification. in

neither beneath

could around

any

generalcorrosion be detected meter. either by eye or microareas graphite-covered


increase
2nd

Two 4.

experiments ;
50"
6

p.

55,
sea

Report.
Coal
and and

At

C.

Aerated

water.

graphiteused.
Results:
not

weeks.

Tubes,
as

70:30
case

Admiralty.
tube, but
near

Time, 70:30,

dezincification relation to No Four


Thus

in

of check

of coal. position

Admiralty tube, no
observable
2nd

in any definite dezincification.

increased

total corrosion
pp.

coal.

experiments ;

62, 63,

Report.
twelve

in the 2nd

Report thei'e were


micrometer
in not

described

supported by
i.e. thirteen in
or

measurements,
one

and

around these of the

the

in all, neighbourhood
of whom

of ivhich
under
the

ments, experiqualitative one periment, exquantitative could any special action


direct

of the carbon made

be observed.

All both
to

experimentswere
both writers,
was

observation

of

expected diflferentresults.
to

It seemed

them
so

that it

at

least
as was

that extremelyi^n^^robable

been
in

deceived entirely
case.

overlook fair to

the

action

single every action took place under

It

only

assume,

they could have they sought for that no therefore,

the conditions

of these

experiments.

Conwiunications
Mr.

on

s Paper Philip'

159
in his

Arnold

Philip had

suggested

in

number

of

passages

of by the settling writingsthat dezincification took place in practice bottom of the of tubes when the condenser was along particles coke, etc.,
out

of

work,

i.e. when

it contained above

stagnant
these
tubes
were

sea

water.

In

the

first set

of

experimentsdescribed
actual

conditions used

had

been

accurately
with coke

observed,since
and

condenser

in contact The

graphite.
these

observed

adduced, in
and
every
case

by Mr. Philip approximately. only evidence he of his insistence on quantitative work, was purelyqualitative, spite He contained in paragraph 2 on stated: "In 150. was p.
quantitativeexperiment
conditions,even
corrosion has been observable the
to he caused,and ivhat appears in carried two tests even days, ordinarytemperatures, but the action, as

No

described

accelerated

dezincification has been


out

within

with
be

sea

water

at

might
hours

expected, is accelerated
Mr.
a

According to
at
use

higher temperatures." in then,dezincification should take place Philip,


at

few

temperature
of the
as

of 50".
"

The

statement

was

of

course

weakened
"

by

the
was

expression, what
it

appears

to

be

dezincification

; but
was

if it

to be taken

stood,the

writers
own

could

only say
50" C.
was

that The
seven

it

entirely contrary
time in which either with
or

to the evidence

of their

observations.
at

shortest

dezincification had without the

been observed of coke.

days,

presence

The

shortest time at the

months, either with or without coke. seven ordinary temperature was There was here clearly direct conflict of evidence, but Mr. a Philip's than the writers', and had not apparently evidence was no more quantitative been supported by micrometer The tests regardinggeneralcorrosion. of red cuprous oxide writers suggested that Mr. Philip had mistaken areas
for copper It
areas,
as especially

he

admitted

that

he

had

tinguishin in disdifficulty

between should
passage

the two

in the earlier

stages.
term
areas

perhaps be
referred
and

remarked
to

tliat the

dezincification
of

in the

above

the action

by

which

metallic copper
not to

were penetratedprogressively through the tube, and of zinc which the purelyinitial and removal resulted superficial

formed

in the the

formation
surface

of

more

or

less continuous

film

of cuprous

oxide

over

of the

tube. statement: Philipmade the following placeor not is a side issue in the present main

"

p. 150 (near bottom) Mr. dezincification Whether takes and does


not

On

case,

afi"ect the
the

important
contact

which conclusion, with


at

cannot

be
tube
not

doubted, namely, that


material in
sea

of coke

Admiralty condenser
all temperatures, and
any of in the

water

accelerates corrosion accelerates it far which


have
more

only accelerates
other
causes

but it,

the
In

of

acceleration

markedly than been pointed out


some

Second

Report to replyto this

the Corrosion

Committee."

the writers desired to be

pointout

of the

reasons

why
if coke

the main did not

might but merely accelerated generalcorrosion, produce dezincification, then its action was side and its bearing the practical a issue, merely upon of corrosion was of secondary importance problem only, since over 90 per
of
to

conclusion

doubted, and

also to remark

that

cent, not

the

premature failures

of

tubes

were

due

to

dezincification and

generalthinning.

160

Coinmunications
the the

on

Philip's Paper
was

Moreover

quotationcited

above

in marked

contrast

to

previous

writingsof
apart from
no

electro-chemical such
of

author, in which he had always emphasized the purely action of coke, i.e. its purely dezincifying action. Indeed,
action, it
marked
was

difficult to It
was

understand
was

why

coke

should
with certain
to

accelerate directly
mention results

general corrosion.
dezincification
with
to

that therefore, significant, in connection


a

recorded

the

obtained the

coke. exerted

But of

granting for
was

moment

action dezincifying claim 2nd


that of

be

by coke,
was

it not
"

reasonable in

independent type
"

dezincification

not

the requiring the

presence

particles whose
constitute
the
a

existence much

clearlyestablished
source

Eeport,must to Turning now


that of the used

greater

of trouble % it was by Mr. Philip, widely different from


a

work experimental of his p.

described

found those

the conditions writers.


was

On

experiments were 141, paragraph 3,


of

of description
were

the
at
a

material
low
same

given.

Pieces

condenser
of was,

tube

annealed
and

red

heat, rolled flat,cleaned by means of this treatment size. The purpose


calculation.
Its

emery,

filed to the
save

to apparently,

sequent sub-

was important as phenomena was surface condition, had been shown had of that been made number by a recently experiments and elsewhere. of the surface of Mr. Philip's The nature at Liverpool of condenser-tube material, specimenscould not be regardedas typical influenced the neither was their shape, both these factors probably though

however, effect,
corrosion

unfortunate.

An

factor in connection

with

adhesion

or

removal The

of basic salts which


condition
was

set

up

secondary
In for

reactions

in

the tubes. receive


benzene
not

mechanical

also different.
than

the writers'

opinion condenser-tube
no

material
to previous to remove

should, except
For

treatment

other experiment, these

specialpurposes, washing with


the writers did

and

alcohol that Mr.

grease.

reasons

could be regarded as applying experiments Philip's tubes under conditions of practice, to condenser or quantitatively directly of did invalidate Mr. not general conclusion Philip's though, course, they consider that coke accelerated An
and All
to

the corrosion
be found
sea

of brass.
the

interesting point of
Mr.
was Philip's

difi'erence between
in the nature used

writers'

to

of the sea-water the writei-s had have


added
to

experiments samples.
been found alkaline.
sea

the
be

samples of quiteneutral.

natural Mr.

water

by

One
to

of the writers had


which

Philip's sample was stated to with been lately experimenting


bicarbonate
found

been

natural
to

water,
it

sufficient sodium had

had

been

make

and alkaline, distinctly

active in

more sea distinctly If Mr. Philip producing dezincification than neutral sea water. for his qualitative well as for his quantitative used alkaline sea water as of some of the difi'erences an here, tests,there was ixjssihltj^ explanation

such

water

be

between The these

the two writers

sets

of results from

dezincification. regarding
the

gathered
no

wording
the

of

the

photographs
be considered

that

-pronounced be so, then

dezincificationhad
of alkalinity

the and paper occurred with

specimens.
the

If that
cause

the water

could not

and results, the little bearing on

writers'

and the Philip's be considered Mr. as results must having Philip's and practical problem,though interesting important of the between divergence Mr.

Communications
iu and themselves, and from
a

on

Papei^ Philip's

161

theoretical

accepted,then it in tubes,in remained graphite very rarelyentered tubes, or at any rate for times sufficiently thinningof long to set up dangerous general practice be soughtelsewhere. of dezincitication must and the causes the tubes,
view
be

results standpoint. If jNIr. Philip's be supposed that coke and must

Turningto
were

the

exhibited photographs

in Plate

in XVI., specimens than


was

row

extremelyuniform
case

the

with

untreated

in appearance, more so indeed tubes corroded for condenser


row

usually days. The thirty


accounted the for

specimen packing of the coke but from the from alloy, falling products away Plate XVII. in The photos were enabled them to stick on to the tube. uniform in in A were row extremely more interesting. Again,specimens the heat treatment and that might perhaps be due to adopted. appearance, furrows and curious in distinct B showed longitudinal row pits Specimens The writers assumed the in of other which did not ap})ear specimens. any that that appearance to something real in the actual specimens, corresponded due be to that it it some graphic purelyphotomight though was possible it was curious that Mr. Philip effect. If those furrows real, were about marked did not refer to them.* They appearedto be most strongly of four out of the five specimens. The definite pits, the middle portions
around

of different appearance very the grounds that the close on

might perhaps be

prevented the corrosion

on

the other

hand, seemed

to

be most

stronglymarked

near

the lettered of the surfaces

end of each
to some

specimen, thoughthey occurred over the whole Mr. Philip stated that only the lower half of the specimens were packed in coke,and it was difficultto see how the pitson the could have been produced by the coke unless, top parts of the specimens of course, certain pieces floated up and touched the specimens higherup. that such loose to the writers improbable In these circumstances it seemed
extent.

and variable contact


set up, and must

could
seem

have

allowed
some

any

electro-chemical
or

action to be action action.


of the

it would been it

that
But

direct chemical

mechanical

have

at work.
was

Mr.

Philipwashed

and

his coke prepared

and carefully, Some

mechanical

action

direct chemical difficultto suggest any probable in view seemed more especially likely,

reference had already been made, and for striated ap^Dearance to which electro-chemical lines. They would which it was difficult to account on in the his coke was like to ask Mr. Philip whether packed so tightly tubes that
with
no

movement

could erosion
was

take
not

of water, and

whether

place under the action of the flow an important factor in his experiments

They
their admit
sea

were

rough prepared to

coke 1

admit

that

they were

results of Mr.
own

which were Philip's experiments, experience.But they were experimental


any

surprisedat the at variance with directly


much
not to yet prepared
on

that coke had


The

electro-chemical of Mr.

action

condenser
so

tubes in
different

water.

conditions

were Philip's experiments

those of their own, that it was as yet impossibleto say which of those conditions had affected the result. They need hardly add that a
from

further
*

of the problem would experimentalinvestigation


them
to

be made.
with
a

Inspection of the specimens showed

be

reallycovered

large number
L

of fine grooves

runningalong

the

specimensin

the direction of their length.

162
Mr. Second

Author

Paper Reply : Philip's


that Dr.

wrote Philip, in reply, to

Bengongliand
and

Mr.

Jones, in
to

the the

Report expressed views generally that they had succeeded


sea

the

Corrosion
of

Committee, had, present writer


tube in

in contradiction

the

maintained others,
in
contact
or

in

demonstratingthat
either

coke

with

Admiralty compositioncondenser
water at

running

stagnant
upon

the amount

ordinary temperatures exerted no of the either general or localized


the other

material

influence

but that,on dezincification, the

hand, in

and caused no corrosion, it retarded general, slightly Dr.

speed of

corrosion.
now

paper had two Jones, and Jones

The

under

in replyto discussion,
were

Bengough
one

and

Mr.

which objects

closely dependent upon


which referred

another, i.e.

to demonstrate firstly,

that the
prove
a

experiments upon

Messrs.

Bengough
not

relied to

the conclusion

to above

could

be

regarded as
secondly,to
had
and made

forming
show
that

all the
were

satisfactory proof of what they claimed ; and direct experiments which he (Mr. Philip)
described
on

(some of

which

Tables
and

II. and
Mr.

III.,pp.
views.

1 47

148) also

clearly disproved Dr.


to

Bengough
above

Jones'

With made
to the

regard
Corrosion
"

the

first of

the
in

stated

Dr. objects.
on

the

statement following

the

Discussion

the

Second

Bengough RejDort
the
an

Committee
50
to

"

On

p.

they (Dr. Bengough


be

and

conclusions

derived

from

the

Jones)dealt with experimentscarried out at


Mr.
:
"

ordinary temperature,and
'

they

stated

Particles

such

as

carbon
or
no

in the form
efi"ect on the

sand, "c., have


There
was
a

little

coke, coal,or graphite, speed or type of corrosion.'


of
a

slighteflfectbecause
the

they
the

afi^orded
loss
was

kind

of mechanical than

to protection

tubes, and
were

so

probablyless
by
be

if

those substances In and


that

not

there."
now

the Mr. the

detailed

written

communication
were

made
to

Dr.

Bengough

Jones,
the

investigators that they had described experiments


conclusions
agree stated the
at

these

understood

still convinced

in the Second had


as

warranted

which

they

then
both

arrived.

Report fully He (Mr.


the

could Philip)
had

not
now

with

this

and opinion, least

to parties
some

cussion dis-

their views fairest and

side by side at without


further

considerable
to

length,he
to leave

felt that

confusingcourse question.

these

juxtaposedstatements
of readers
next to

comment

pursue was for the

consideration
He

interested in this

second object of his paper, would, therefore,turn of coke with that the contact namely, the experimental demonstration in real and metal water tube a sea was Admiralty condenser very important cause of corrosion trouble. As far as he could understand, that conclusion now appeared to be acceptedby Dr. Bengough and Mr. Jones, criticisms of importance. The firstof these referred but they made two alkaline to used ; that used water to the sea by the present writer was in character used that selves to difi'erent and therefore by themwas litmus, which water at Liverpool, sea they stated was quite neutral.

the

Journal of the Institute ofMetals, No.

2, 1913.

vol.

x.

p. 94,

Author
All the i.e. if
one

Paper Reply : PJiilifs


from ditferent
sources

163
the present

samplesof
ever

sea

water

which
were

writer recollected
a

to have

tested for reaction to litmus


torn

alkaline,
half and

half

piece of purple neutral litmus paper was was placedin, say, 50 cubic centimetres
5 minutes
as

in
sea

of

the the

water, it
paper

became

blue in less than litmus

compared

with

remaining unused
litmus

half

pieceof
sea

in the The which


were,

water

paper, whilst in about 20 became of the fullest blue.

minutes

of alkalinity
was

the

sea

water

used

at

Portsmouth,

as

tested

method,
as

consisted
far

town distinctly greater than that of the Portsmouth of this class of a hard deep well chalk water, and waters alkaline an as he knew, always reported upon as possessing

by this supply

reaction. which
to the

The

of alkalinity litmus
paper

the

sea

water

tested
was

as

to the

neutral

turned
a

blue,

in fact

to litmus alkalinity

of

solution of O'OS desired

very of caustic soda grammes

with rapidity nearly ec[ual

(NaHO)
water to

per litre. this connection In


was

alkaline that

show
event at

there

that all sea definitely had been to litmus,but the present writer's experience in this the of was some case, and being probability
it
was

not

to

assert

any
water

it would

be

of much

interest

to ascertain
was

as

to whether

the

sea

used by Liverpool

Dr.

Bengough
the method
sea

reallyquite neutral
above.

to

litmus The with could

when made the


be

tested by carefully

described
used

statement

of the fact that


the

water
was

in the corrosion
to

ments experiacidity

by

present writer

alkaline
any

litmus

was

recorded

objectof clearlyrulingout

that susj^icion

free

with an present, rather than with the idea that sea water unusual. to litmus could be in any regardedas alkalinity way ing containsurrounded that in It was sea areas by igneousrocks, possible of lime, the alkalinity of only small amounts than in surrounded less those was seas markedly the
water
was

absent,

or

with
matter
were

land of
so
a

of largely

limestone

or

chalk

formations.

It

was

consisting good deal


be
out tests

of interest from

several

pointsof view
Dr.
was

that if this
be very

it should

clearly demonstrated,and
on as

the writer would

glad to
and

carry

this
far
as

point in
second

with conjunction of the Irish Sea Dr.

Bengough
concerned.

Mr.

Jones,

at least

the water

The

criticism which

the results of the author's of

Bengough and Mr. .lones had to pointout that was experiments


metal
from used

made

upon

the
not

samples
samples
a denser, con-

Admiralty condenser
tube
as

tube

in these tests

were

of the

received actually

the manufacturers

for

use

in

but

were

treated specially

by
was

and annealing, rolling,

cleaning
to

with emery described in the paper. as of fact This treatment matter a as


a

carried out whose


areas

in order

obtain

largenumber
and

of

samples for
state

corrosion whose

could
be

be

readily

measured,
examined

the

of

surfaces

could which

conveniently
corrosion

both

before
and

and

after corrosion, and Jones' criticism valid


the unless writer this

after
of

could be Dr.

cleaned. conveniently
Mr.
on

Bengough
was

method
it

preparing

the surfaces
Other treatment

undoubtedly
facts

set

aside

known

to

rendered

ment. experiby unlikelythat the


a

further

he had

given the samples could

have

so

fundamental

result

164

Atithors
to

Reply
the

Philifs Paper
which and he had based
on

as

upset in
of time and

any

way

conclusions
on

the the
for

; experimentspublished

and

this

account,

also because
the tube
as

of

shortness

available, no
further
paper. tube in

further

without

treatment,
omission
of

on experiments were completed in

factured, manu-

time

in his publication

This

good, and
use
"

two

series of results
cut contact stones

corrosion coke

had, however, now of samples of Admiralty


been

made

condenser composition whilst fir.st,

from directly

the

tube

as

for supplied

kept

with

whilst
Table

kept
V.
"

in contact

with
Tests

"Z (Series

(Series "Y,") and second, ") were given on Table V.

running Sea Water on 3-inrh long ivliole from Tubes as delivered for use ; at pieces of Atmospheric Temperatures. Composition of Test-Pieces Admiralty Condenser 29. sion, Zinc Tin Duration 1, Tube, Coppjer 70, of CorroArea 10-65 Square Inches. 48 Days. of Test-pieces,
Corrosion
in

Condenser

Tube

cut

"

166

Author

Reply : Philifs Paper

iu following Dr. Bengough difficulty present writer had found some and Ml'. Jones' argument at some and as one points in their criticism, from the top of example of this he might cite the followingstatement The
p. 161
:"
"

If Mr.

results Philip's
coke in

and

view

supposed that
rate

and

graphite very

accepted,then it must rarelyentered tubes, or at

be

be
any
set

up

for times sufficiently tubes,in practice long to of the the of and causes tubes, dangerousgeneral thinning

remained

de-

zincification must In
an

endeavour had

to

sought elsewhere." the precise meaning grasp


be
as

of this

statement, the
of coke corrosion with
and

present writer If Mr.


condenser

rearranged it
were

follows
correct

"

view Philip's
tube

that

the

contact

material

in

sea

water

caused

marked

be supposed that coke and heavy pitting,then it must graphite did for entered at rate not remain there tubes, or any very rarely times sufficiently because it was long to set up dangerous corrosion, in that known corrosion this condenser tubes was dangerous already not caused by coke, but by something else. the statement Arranged in this manner certainly appeared ludicrous, but with the most serious intention to analyze the meaning of this the present writer had only been able to arrive at the idea jjaragraph, he considered which was more clearly brought out in his attempted

re-wording. Might
between action of coke
in their
to

there Dr.
sea

be some fundamental possibly and Mr. Jones' views on Bengough


not
on

want

of

respondence cor-

the corrosive existed

and

water

condenser
in the

tubes mind ?

as

these views of what could


on

minds, and
Dr.

the

concept
some

writer's

he believed tell % The

be

above caused
In

thought by paragraph
its author their

Bengough
feel

and

]\Ir.Jones

Who

and
to

other

portions of the criticisms

his paper

dimly

that

something of this nature


and Jones

must

exist.

the

Mr. on criticism, p. 161, Dr. Bengough and t hat other the possibility pitting markings on
condenser tube

suggested

the

samples of
row
,

corroded
were

shown

in the

photographsin
action due

Plate XVII.
to

B,

by some floating up embedded In piecesof coke in which they were during the test. be considered without must the writer's opinion this suggestion as being coke the not foundation in was fact, intentionally for, although any it shaken and into did not float down was tightlypacked, only position, in the current of sea water move flowingthrough the tubes up or visibly
caused

mechanical

erosive

the

of the

during the
The
was

test.

action

observed

was
no

considered doubt
some

to

with electrochemical, The


fact that

mechanical,but superimposedordinary chemical


be
no

in

sense

action.
of only Tr^th

the amount metal


under

of corrosion

occurred

on

similar
in

samples
sea

of condenser the

tube

the
were
a

same

conditions

of test

water, when

of particles considered any


to

coke form

replaced by
to

similar-sized evidence erosion. and

of stone, was particles

of fairly strong piece

the action being in against The longitudinal grooves

way

attributable
to

mechanical
Dr.

and

furrows

which

Bengough

Authors

Reply:

Philifs

Paper

167

Mr.

Jones

had

referi'ed
shown

as

being
in
row

noticeable
B
on

on

the

photographs
and

of

the had G

corrosion also
had

samples

Plate

XVII.,

which

they
"

subsequently escaped
Since his

observed notice.
Dr. had

on

the

actual

samples

themselves

(Series

"),

reading
he

Bengough
unfortunately
to

and
not

Mr. been

Jones' able had with


"

remarks
to

on

this
the

grooved

appearance,

examine forwarded the


"

samples
to

themselves,
Institute of
used

owing
Metals

the for

fact

that

they

been all
and

the

inspection,
series
"

together
G,"
"

other

corrosion described

samples
in his As able

in

the

four

K,"

H,"

M,"

as

paper. far
to
as

the

photographs
the

were

concerned,
referred

however,
even

he

had assisted

not

been

perceive
of

markings
TS
to

to,

when
means

by ordinary
that

magnification reading appeared


glass.
to

from The

diameters

by

of
so

an

prints
to

of

the examine

photographs
them

were

clear under

it

be

possible

satisfactorily

this

magnification.
In

conclusion,
corrosion
of

he

desired
tests

to

accentuate

the in Tables
were

fact

that and
in
sea

out

of

all

the

forty-eight
all
with

described tube which

II.

V.
water

in

his
in

paper
contact

the

samples coke,
all but

condenser in

kept

eighteen
the
w^ere

all,

were

deeply
thirty
with
same

pitted
in

within which

forty-eight
were

days,
in
sea

whilst

remaining
not

samples,
in
contact

all,
were

kept
free from

water,
appearance the

coke,
and

quite
this

any

of

pitting
coke,
conditions
of

in all

the
these

period, forty-eight

although,
were

except
under
sea

for

contact

with similar character

samples
rate

corroded
flow of

precisely
and the

as

to

temperature,
used.

of

water,

the

sea

water

168

Smith:

The.

Surface

Tension

of Molten

Metals

THE

SURFACE

TENSION METALS*

OF

MOLTEN

By

SYDNEY

W.

SMITH,

B.Sc,

A.R.S.M.

Measurements
were

of
so

the
as

surface
1868

tensions

of

molten

metals

by Qaincke, whose sustained in scientific work is happilymade evident by a recent activity contribution to the Proceedingsof this Institute, j* Whatever lurgical developments may subsequentlyarise in this branch of metalwork, the
to
'

made

long ago

name

of
to

Quincke will be
follow his lead.
"

an

honoured

one

all who In
an

may

attempt
"

important paper on the Worthington has said, Perhaps


researches of which

Surface it
was

Forces

in Fluids,"% the
one a

impossiblebefore
realize that the

Qaincke
alone

that anyone
we can

should

quantity
surface

measure

experimentallyis

tension."

which have been found to exist important relationships the surface between tensions of ordinaryliquidsand certain other of their properties it highly probable that deterrender minations of the values of this physicalconstant for molten and metals alloysmay afford another approach to the study
of their constitution. The

The

stimulus
of

which

of Ramsay and the work liquidsand of Shields " in 1893, who said that "it affords the only means of information regardingthe complexity of liquidmolecules," has led to so much with liquids important work in connection that a study of the surface tension of molten metals generally and alloys which may to offer a field for investigation appears and useful results. be expected to give interesting With the notable exceptions of the classical work of Quincke
and
*

tension

given to solutions by
was

the

study of

the

surface

of certain
Taken
as

other

German

workers

in

more

recent

years,

read at Statutory Meeting, London, September 10, 1914. of the Institute of Metals, No. 1, 1914, vol. xi. p. 114. + No. 2, 1884, p. 334. PhilosophicalMagazme, Transactions Ti'ansactions 1893, A. p. 647, and " Philosophical of 1893, p. 1089. Society,

t Journal

the

Chemical

Smith:
very

The

Surface
seems

Tension
have

of Molten
been
to

Metals

169

little attention The


work of

to

given to
from

this determination.
in the

of this

those

referred

will be reviewed their work, from

later

section

only metal which has point of view of surface tension that it is the only metal probably,
temperatures.
The

paper. received

Apart
serious

attention

the

is mercury,

for the

reason,

which

is

liquid

at

ordinary

the existence of a simplest method of demonstrating surface tension in a liquid is,of course, the familiar capillary rise or fall of a liquid in a tube of narrow bore placedvertically in it the liquid risingabove the generallevel if it rods the walls of the tube, or being depressed below the general level
" "
"

if it does

not

vjd

the tube.
"

Since

the

earliest observations
to

of

phenomena capillary
da
of

attributed known

by Poggendorf
that
a

Leonardo surface when


labour

Vinci
mercury

"

it has is is

been

the

level of the of
narrow

the have

tube
been

within depressed in placed vertically

tube

bore and

it.

Much

time

devoted

of this of other

by various Avorkers to the careful the to its calculation from or depression, capillary phenomena.
to

ment measure-

tion observa-

The the

work

be

described

in this paper

has

resulted

from in the bore

observation of

that

occur correspondingdepressions

surfaces
are

molten

metals

when them. metal tube


of

suitable
These
or

tubes

of

fine

into plunged vertically be


constant

to

for the and


within other

same
a

found are depressions alloyat any particular


same

temperature
to

of

the

diameter.
are

The

in depressions be

tubes

different diameters

found

to inversely proportional

their diameters, in accordance

Avith the Jurin* The

law

formulated

for

ordinary liquids by
to
are

Dr.

James

in 1718. work in

this paper is directed capillary phenomena in molten metals


to

showing

that

the

analogous strictly

those

of the

The
surface

ordinary liquidswhich do not wet the surfaces bodies with which they are in contact. various aspects of the problem of determining the the case of molten tension, so far as they bear on
under the

of

metals, will be considered

followingsections
and

PhilosophicalTransactions

1718 of the Royal Society,

1719.

170

Smith:

The

Surface

Tension

of Molten
the

Metals
and

I. Fundamental of

conceptionsof liquids.
of
a

cohesion

larity capil-

II. Surface
III.

tension.

Brief review
of Adoption

previouswork.
method. the

IV.
V.

Apparatus employed and


Statement of results

required. manipulations
work

VI. VII.

obtained.

Brief

VIII.

bearing of the possible on metallurgical practice. Bibliographyof work bearing on the subject.
discussion
of the Conceptions Capillarity
of of the

Fundamental

Cohesion

and

Liquids.

It may

be ideas

mental well,before proceedingfurther,to recall the funda-

underlyingthe conceptionof the cohesive forces cules molein liquids which or are regarded as holding the particles together. In relation to these forces the fact of surface of from which all the phenomena tension is a secondary one action may borne be deduced, but it must be clearly capillary the in mind that the prime causes of these phenomena are cohesive forces within the liquids, of which surface tension is
a

manifestation.
A

discussion time
to

of

the
to

theories

which

have of

been

advanced the the

from

time

phenomena
scope
more

of

explain the cohesion is regarded as capillarity,


A

liquidsand being outside


some

of the

present paper.

of Bibliography

of the
is

important of the papers appended for the guidance of


the theoretical and The
been James first accurate mathematical

dealing with
those who work of

these

matters

wish to pursue may in closer detail.


to

observations

capillarity appear
He
to
was

have Dr.

made

by

Francis

Hawksbee.*

followed

by

Jurin.t who

formulated

the law

which

reference
or

has
a

rise already been made, viz. that the capillary the to liquidin a tube is inverselyproportional
the tube. The idea in

fall of

diameter

of

of

surface

tension

was

introduced the

by
first

Von

Segner +
*

1751, while
1719.

Leslie,in

1802, gave
and

PhilosophicalTransactions
,

1711 of the Royal Society,

1712.

t Ibid.

1718 and

X Commentary

Societe

Regierungs Gottingen,1751,

vol. i. p. 301.

Smith:
correct

The

Tension StLrface

of Molten

Metals

171

rise. almost Then followed explanationof capillary the enunciation simultaneously by Young and by Laplace of in many theories of capillarity tion, respects identical in concepbut diifering in which widely in the manner they were
*

presented.
In 1804

Thomas

YouKg

founded

the

theory of capillary

phenomena on a consideration of the fact of surface tension. of a that the particles were Briefly, Young's suppositions liquidact on one another with two different kinds of forces. the particles of a liquid molecules or were Firstly, regardedas being mutually attracted to each other by forces of cohesion of very small range. These forces were supposed by Young to be constant throughout the exceedingly small distances to In liquids, of course, distinct which their influence extends. as of moving from still retain their power solids,the particles in all directions. freely Secondly, in order that a statical consideration might be of liquids these forces in the case were possible, regarded as In gases, where these being balanced by repulsiveforces. forces appeared to act uncontrolled repulsive by any cohesive the pressure in forces, they were regarded as representing with Boyle's Law. accordance Modern of course, conceptions, for pressure account by the impact of moving molecules.

Amagat's researches,however,
it is necessary
account to
assume

have

shown

that

even

the from
der

existence

of cohesive which shown


occur

gases forces to under


his

in

for the deviations Van


"

Law Boyle's

increasing pressure.
known States
"

Waals

has
the the
term

in and

well-

work that

on

the

Continuity of
forces and the

Liquid

Gaseous
to

these
are

cohesive

deviations
in his

which

they give rise

represented by

equation

RT. (^+5)(.-6)
=

in

with regard to the forces of Finally, the former were Young's hypothesis,

cohesion

and

repulsion

greater range
as

than

the

regardedas having a latter,although the latter were garded rein the distance

by

which
*

increasing rapidlywith a diminution the particles are separated.


"

Cohesion

of

Fluids," PhilosophicalTra?isactions

1805, p. 65.

172

Smith:
these

The

Surface

Tension

of MoHen

Metats

advanced by Young the hypotheses were if it were as a tendency of a Uquid surface to behave membrane stretched uniformly in all directions,has been the attributed these cohesive forces between to particles the that small same distances, is, to extremely acting over of liquids and solids is due. forces to which the cohesion deduced classical work on the theory of capillarity, Laplace's that of from the fact of surface tension, differs only from Young in fundamental conceptionby the substitution of the arise from forces which idea of a for the repulsive pressure Since
" "

cohesion.
This
'

constant

pressure,

to

which

the

name a

has

been

given by

Lord

is Rayleigh,*

intrinsic sure presof the measure


"

liquidor solid,that is to say, in liquids the force which be applied must to cause separation fracture in solids, or words, their tensile strength. or, in other for the special Reference is made intrinsic pressure to this far has not of pointingout that it is a force which reason so been definitely related to capillary phenomena, and so cannot be determined from the observation of those phenomena, j" The has been intrinsic pressure which (or tensile strength), determined for a number of liquids by Berthelot,Worthington, and others, must relation to surface tension have some clearly
cohesive
force of the

substance,

"

"

"

"

since it arises from


It is well is

the

same

cohesive

forces between that


a

the molecules.

known,
in

moreover,
a

high

accompanied by
as
a

high
unit

surface

intrinsic sure presEach is tension. for the


pressure

involved
within

factor of

formula Laplace's

form

is

sphere expressedby

liquidof
the
P

radius which

in its

simplest

relation
=

where

is

term

of capillarity, liquid and H a K being much greater than H. confusion This should be clearly some understood, because of be caused constant by a subsequent reference to a may have writers to which German given the name capillarity"
" *
"

involving the intrinsic term involving its constant

pressure

of the

The

Theory

of Surface

Forces," PhilosophicalMagazine, 1890, vol. ii. p. 285.


for

t Walden
Surface

has, however,
at the

Tension

given a relation boilingpointX 75 '3.

liquids in

which

Intrinsic

Pressure^

174

Smith:

The

Tension of Molten Siirfacc

Metals

Surface Consideration surface


tension forces

Tension.

will
as

now

be

given to
measurable in

the

case particular

of
hesive coare

being
are

the

evidence

of the

which
to

put forward
The

hypotheses which explaincapillary phenomena.


which
follows

involved

the

consequence

from

the

cohesive

forces

tween be-

molecules, when or particles


their radii of molecular
find themselves of this is
an

considered
so near

in relation to the the surface that

surface,is that the layerof molecules


attraction unbalanced
attraction

extend
on

beyond
all sides.

the
The

surface,
result

by

forces

undue

towards
we

the

interior, causing the


say, the

layer
behave

under
as a

consideration, or,
whole
every
as

may
were a

surface,

to

though
forces of

it

membrane

stretched uninfluenced
it and

uniformly in by gravityor
This
is

direction.
the

If the

liquidwere
between

by

adhesion
the

the

walls,it containing
It is then forces between Clerk tension
drawn
:

would

assume

perhaps the simplestway


seen

form. spherical of regarding surface


of the

sion. ten-

to

be

the manifestation molecules of the

cohesive

the

or particles

liquid.

Maxwell
"

The the

on

definition of surface given the following tension line of a liquid surface across any surface is normal to the line (along the surface), has for all directions

and

is the

same

of the line and


the

is measured

element of an by the force across length of that element." of The following simple exposition by him. Suppose the surface film to be
n

line divided

by

the

this definition

was

given

removed
on
a

stretched
r.

like
to

soap

film

altogetherand work framerectangular


in the

and If the

the space A B C D. occupy side B C be regarded as movable of the


to arrow,

q\

\Q direction

then

the

resistance ofl'ered
side B C is

I
Fig. 2.

by the film
the

the

extension

of the surface where

the representing in a case strictly speaking,

force

tension ; or. this imaginary

condition because

could be realized it would the film would have


two

be twice

the surface

tension,
is

sides.

This

consideration

Sfjzitk :
set clearly

The
in

Surface Teiision of Molten


an

Metals

175

forth

admirable
and

series of

articles

recently
unit
"

contributed
The work

by

Willows in

Hatschek.*
this

done

moving
the
measure

side
of the

B
"

along

of

distance,is,of Gauss, if the


area

course, movement

surface

thus

producesa change
of surface

of energy of a unit of

in the

surface.
to

It is usual

express
factor

the force

tension

in C.G.S.

units,i.e. in dynes per linear centimetre.


Sometimes
of gravity the the 981'4
(j

is omitted

(the acceleration

due

to

centimetres

expressionfor the weight per centimetre,


per millimetre. We come now relation
to to

per second per second),so that is given in grammessurface tension


or

in milligrammes-weight frequently

the

consideration
of fine
"

of

surface
as

tension
are

in

the walls of tubes


in

bore, or

they
tubes

rally genepression, ex-

called

this

connection,

tubes." capillary the

This used

the

to however, is hardly applicable in all cases are present work, which

in

many

times

the

diameter
When

of

"

capillus."
a

such
over

tube the

is

into plunged vertically

the liquid,

length

which

surface of
an

tension

is made

apparent is

the clearly
It has

circumference

internal section of the tube.

alreadybeen shown that under these conditions one of two thingswill happen according to whether the tube is wetted it is not. In the former by the liquidor whether rise of liquidtakes place within the tube ; while in a case The the latter case be conto a cases sidered depressionoccurs.
" "

in relation to molten The

metals

are

all of the latter order. tension

of the surface vertical component liquidand the walls of the tube, at the the
acts tube, clearly

between

the

level of

liquidwithin
the internal

to along a lengthequivalent

circumference
course,

of the

section

of the

tube.

This

leno^th is, of

^-kv.

It has surface

been

said
which

that
acts

it is the

tension

vertical component of the in this way. This is made evident in


cases,

when

it is considered the

that

such

as

we

are
"

dealing
wet
"

with, where
walls of the
*

liquid (molten metal) does not it at an angle. This meet tube, it may
Chemical

the

angle is

World, April,May, June, July,and

August

1914.

176

Smith:
the
"

The

Surface
of

Tension

of Molten
the

Metals

called

angle
as

contact," or

edge angle (German


the
to

HandAoiTikel).
It is defined

the
and

angle
the

between

normal the

to

the free

surface where
we

tangent

liquid surface,
case

it meets
to

the

solid walls.

Thus, in the

have
The

consider, it is clearly greater than 90". vertical component, then, of the surface
at

tension

the

point of

contact

between
cos

liquidand
(where
the
0 is

solid is : T
Fig. 3.

(the surface tension) x


cos

the

angle of contact).
0, is balanced

vertical component, T of liquid which of the column This


it is
or

by

weight
which

prevented from
surface volume
of of

filling by
this space

the space occupy the cohesive forces of the

would

liquid,

the The

tension,holdingf it back.
is

given by

li x Trr"^ (where h is

depressed surface and r is the radius of the would fill tube). The weight (in dynes) of the liquidwhich this space is h x tt?-^ x px g (where p is the densityof the liquidand g the acceleration due to gravity). Since these balance and are both expressed two quantities in the same units of force we (dynes), equate them may
the

depth

the

thus

"

T From which

COS

2ir)=

/i X

vr-

pxg

^
2XCOS0

, '

which surface

is the

well-known

formula

giving the

value

of

the

effect in height or depth of capillary of density tube of radius r and in a liquid a p. which These, then, are the measurements are required to material the surface tension the furnish for calculating at some one particular temperature The of in a tube. (a) depression depth
"

tension from

the

densityof the liquid. between the liquid and solid. (d) The angle of contact with The concerned the measurement present paper is chiefly of varying diameters. tubes of (a) in carbon The of (b) is a simple physical determination. measurement of (c) is not dealt with in the present The measurement

(") The (c) The

radius of the

tube.

Smith:

The

StirfaceTension
m

of Molten

Metals

177

is paper, although work made in the last volume


it is intended therefore,

reference was progress to which For of the Journal.* the present,


the

that

values

the fluid densities of reference done


to

metals

shall be

alreadyavailable for accepted although ; and


work

will be made various the workers

to generally
on

the

which

has

been

by

this
to

determination, it is proposed
the
most

attach

greatest reliance

recently published

figures, namely, those of MM. Pascal and Jouniaux.t With regard to id)the angleof contact, a further discussion the experimental will be given in the section dealing with
work The

(see pp. 30-33).

questionof
serves

surface tension
some
a

at

varying temperatures

will

also be discussed

and
as

results offered. link between


"

Mercury
for
water
are

useful

the determinations
"

and

other

which liquids and


the work

wet

the tubes
to

in which

they
which

examined
tubes mercury
are

about

be

described

in
cepted ac-

the
for

not

"wetted."
those

The

relative values
for mercury in
serve

and

obtained
carbon

the
to

course

of these how

experimentswith accepted values


with for

tubes, will
may

show

far the results here


the

obtained

be said

to

fall in

line with
have

well-known
care

liquidswhich
workers

been

determined
of variety

great

by

numerous

and

by

distinct methods.

Constant
may be

of

Capillarity. in

Some literature different constant."

confusion
on

caused

reading
surface of

international

the
which In

to subjectsrelating

tension
term
"

by the
is

uses

have

been

made

the

capillary
which

all German

literature the
of

constant

height of rise or depression, For this product r x h, Quincke and the radius of the tube. It is a quantityincohesion." volving specific proposed the name and being in two linear quantities, the product of two been dimensions be equated to a "square." It has may customary to denote it by c^. of this quantityis that if divided Obviouslythe significance adopted
is the

product
"

the

Journal
Pascal

ofthe
and

Institute A.

f P.

of Metals, No. 1, 1914, vol. xi. p. IIG. Jouniaux, Comptes Rendus, 1914, vol. clviii. pp.

414-416.

178

Smith:

The

StirfaceTension

of Molten

Metals

by unity we are left with tlie heightof elevation or depth of depressionin a tube of unit radius given by the particular liquidunder consideration. is really In constant French literature,the capillary metre in milligrammes per millithe surface tension,a, but expressed that tension as is, the surface already defined in C.G.S. units, but with the weights and lengths expressed in and g omitted. milligrammes and millimetres the three values are given, In Landolt's tables of constants
"

"

"

that

is,
a^

(rxh),

"

?^* and

--^
cm.

mm.

In the present work


for a^ Some
"

it is
a

proposed to give the


cm.

results both

(in mm.^) and


^ '

for

in -^"^^
is felt in

hesitation, however,
"

cohesion specific
r

adopting the expression given by Quincke for the quantitya^ (that


be

is

h).
this may
"

Although
"

constant," it is thought

capillary properlycalled a very the to be misleadingto speak of it as


"

cohesion of a liquid, since cohesion as expressed specific of consideration theory involves the concurrent by Laplace's is not determinable which intrinsic pressure tensile strength, or from capillary phenomena.
" "

Further the paper

reference

to

this

matter

is made

in

later

stage of

(see p. 181).

Shoet So
far
as

Keview author made

of

Previous been
measure

Work.
to

the

has
to

able
the

determine,

no

attempts have
of molten

been metals Thomson

sions deprescapillary
case

in tubes in

except in the

Poynting
of
as
"

and

their standard

work

of mercury. perties the "Proon

Matter," speak of the depressions given by mercury


"

* beinggiven by no other liquid." at ordinarytemperatures." liquids

This

may

merely
been

mean

The

most

serious
*
"

pronouncement
of Matter," Properties

which
p. 141,

has

found

Smith:

The

Surface

Tension

of

Molten

Metals

179

of capillary finite dedepressionsaftbrding against the possibility information is made worker German by the eminent admirable work whose the Constants on Capillary Siedentopf, * the author Metals of Molten tance regardsas being of impormethods second he only to that of Quincke, whose
"
"

followed. For from


"

His

work

will be

discussed

at

later

stage.
a

the

moment,

the

author

is concerned

with

passage ist

in which he says :| his paper Fallen libliche der Die in andern

Steighohenmessung

geschmolzenen Metallen nicht anwendbar, da eine starke einer an gleitendeReibung der Einstellungeiner Fliissigkeit Wand nicht benetzten entgegenwirkt." The usual method of measuring the capillary rise is not molten to applicable metals, because the strong sliding (or rubbing) friction opposes the discontinuance surface which at is a (or break of fluidity)
bei
"

not

wetted." in the

The
course

constancy of results which


of his
statement
was

the author

has

obtained
to

experimentshas encouraged him


based
on

hope that the above experimental evidence, or


of the behaviour of

insufficient

which

would

from observations originated which undoubtedly shows irregularities mercury, from cordant discourage expecting (conanyone
it

that

results with Reference


has

other metals.
made in

previous sections to British literature on the general of which subjectof capillarity, of classical writings of acknowledged we are happilypossessed ferences authority. Attention is directed to the Bibliographyfor reof Young, Guthrie, Rayleigh,Worthingto the work
ton, and The
and

already been

others.
work of Professor of
.

is experimental, with

Worthington,J both great importance,and


of the is liquids

mathematical
to

those

cerned con-

metals, his demonstration

of reality of the

the

increase of interest.

densityat

the surfaces of

greatest
tensile of of
to

of the experimentalwork on the measurement strength or cohesive force of liquids, followingthat thelot,is of great importance,since it is a measure intrinsic pressure of liquids, which, although due
"
"

His

Berthe the

Physik, No. 61, 1897, p. 235. X PhilosophicalMagazirie, No. 18, 1884, pp. 334, 339.
Annalen der

f Ibid., p. 23G.

180

Smith:
cohesive

The

Surface

Tension

of Molten

Metals
and

same

forces which not,


so

control

phenomena capillary
connected with them

sm-face any Of

tension, has
French writers

far,been

by
of

direct

expression.
references
will be

found

to

the

work

Laplace,Poisson, Gay Lussac, Desains,


When, however,
work
as
a

and

others.

we

come

to

consider
out

the
on

actual
molten

mental experimetals,
German careful

which

has

been

carried

instance particular

of

we capillarity,

find

that much

workers work

have

established

themselves

behind

extremely accurate involving Experimental work with metals


almost every
case

observations. has

begun quite naturally


on

in

with

observations

mercury,
of this

and metal

the is

literature

dealingwith
be

the

constants capillary

considerable.
It should

recorded there
the

that
are now

the

first scientific paper

by
was

Quincke (of which


concerned
was

happilysixtyor
of

more)

with

publishedso
The
next
was

constant capillary long ago as 1858.

and quicksilver,*
need

of

his

papers

with

which

we

concern

selves our-

ten published to gave In it he

The Solid of

title he Bodies."

years later in 1868. Constants The it was Capillary


"

of

f
to

reviewed

the

classical considerations

Young,
He of

Laplace,Poisson, Gauss,
in
an

and

others, which
paper

have

been

referred

earlier

section

of this

(see pp.
surface wires. those

5-8).
tension He of
same

sought to
solid that the

obtain

information

regardingthe

metals

showed

by studying the tenacities of found were comparable with figures


Johnson the have
not

Karmarch,
of

Calvert, and
made

for the

hardness
"

of the surface

metals, and work, however,


paper, where
"

statement

that order
as

the

tensions
This

solid metals
does

the
come

same

for hardness." scope

-within

the

of the
the

present paper, but


of the

interest the

is

again

aroused
to
a

towards

end of
the

author

returned metals.

consideration

the
"

constants capillary

of molten

In

the

case

of

noble

metals
as
s

he

made

determinations
melted
5, 1858, pp.
134, 18G8,

the drops by weighing

which
*

fell

they were
Annalen,
No.

from

the end
Annalen

of
der

wire.
Chemie, No.

He
55,

Poggendorf

1-48, and
and

1859, pp. 227-241. Annalen, t Poggeiidorff's


No. p. 350,

Magazine, \9,Q", Philosophical

vol. -xx.xvi. p. 267 (a translation by Silvanus

Thompson).

182 In

Smith
1894

The

Tension Stirface
re-entered the

of Molten
a

Metals

Quincke
rise
to to

field with

long paper*
this is

which

gave attributable
Other

criticism from
interest this which

the of

quarters, but many it aroused.


enumerated
in the

papers

period are

graphy. Biblio-

In

1897

paper

was

published by

H.

Siedentopfon
is of the

"The very

Constants Capillary

of Molten

Metals,"f which

importance to metallurgists. those of Quincke, namely, His methods were essentially and of the curvatures the measurements heights of molten His bilities drops restingon a plane surface. opinion of the possiof obtainingcapillary in tubes has already depressions is without referred 's work been to (p. 179). Siedentopf doubt valuable contribution to the subject. Immense most a of experimental results which industry is shown by the mass
he

greatest interest and

records.
Not

of the values for a number only did he determine his work the study of a to ordinary metals, but extended With complete series of alloys those of tin and bismuth. that in this the important statement regard to these he made tension is a linear at series, rate, the surface particular any of the components function of the alloy.
"

The

author's

earlier work made

in

1909,

when

measurements

of
same

depressionswere
conclusions with with

point to after solidification,


the

the

regard to

alloysof
Time
has

lead
not

with

tin,with

bismuth, and
the

antimony.

yet permitted of

of these determinations condition in the molten repetition by the improved methods. The obtained constants capillary figures by Siedentopffor the
"

"

have

been

included

in

tables

which
are

are

given
latter

in

later section the results of his other

(p. 201),where
obtained

comparisons
workers. the

made

between

by

different

In of

the

part
to

paper

he

discussed

relation

surface

tension

of metals, and made some importantreferences properties of Ramsay and Shields which will be referred to to the work the the author discusses again in the last section, when of his own results. interpretation
'*"

Annalen

der

Physik, 1894,
vol. Ixi. p. 235.

vol. Hi. p. 1.

t /did., 1897,

Smith:

The

Su7^face Tension
the

of Molten

Metals

183

after Shortly
to

of publication
*

criticisms

and

reviewed

this paper, Quincke replied and his own work back to 1868 metals
gave in groups

re-stated his
as

which placed the generalization, He constants." regards their capillary


"

these
5.

as

multiples of
came were

8*5

with
as

the

numbers

1, 2, 3, 4
Other

and

This

to

be

known

Quincke's Rule.
scheme
to

determinations

made

who by Herzfeldjj* in this

questioned the placesassigned


the
to

by Quincke
He makes

metals, copper
an
"

and

iron.

what

will be the
"

shown

be

important statement,
{a") of
as

namely,
In of the
"

that

cohesions specific three times


as

copper,

iron,

nickel and

cobalt,are
same

the

year SpecificCohesion usual

that of mercury. made determinations (1897), HeydAveiller

great

and

Surface of

Tension
the

of

Chilled

Gold," J by the

measurements

curvatures

and

heightsof drops.
given in
18G9

He

criticized
to

and
on

1877,
the

Quincke's figuresfor gold which Quincke replied.^ Their


the

differences

turned

question of
of

purity of

the

gold
paper mination deter-

employed.
Gradenwitz
on

(a student

contributed Heydweiller)

similar

lines in
an

1899.||

In

1900 of

in the new entirely departurewas made of molten the capillary metals. constants shown in 1871

Kelvin determine
of This
was

had

that

it would

be

to possible

surface

tensions

of

liquids by measuring
surfaces.

the

lengths wave-

clean on capillary ripples carried out subsequently

by
now

Lord

Smith, and
this

others.

Leo

Gritnmach

Michie Rayleigh, proceeded to apply


His

method
were

molten to successfully performed with the the

metals.11

pulations maniin for

addition
several

to

metals,
"

tin

and
"

and greatest care, lead, he gave results


"

of the so-called
"

fusible
made

metals

Wood's, Rose's, and

Lipowitzalloys
his results In 190G

generalcomparison between and those of Quincke and Siedentopf. Th. Lohnstein** reviewed the theory of drops
he
a
*

and

Atinalen
,

de?-

Physik, 1897,

vol. Ixi. p. 267.

t Ibid. X Wied

vol. Ixii. p. 450.

Annalen,
der

1897, vol. Ixii. pp. 694-700.

"

Annalen

Physik, 1898,

vol. Ixiv. p. 618.

IIIbid., 1899, vol. Ixvii. p. 467 H Ibid., No. 308, 1900, pp. 660-671.
**

Ibid., 1906, vol.

xx.

p. 606.

184

Smith:

The

Surface

Tension
the

of Molten
work
of

Metals

(" Abtropfens") and

summarized

Quincke

and

Siedentopf.
Adoption
It may be of interest
to
of

Method.
brief
account

give a

of

some

early
as a

led the author to adopt the experimentswhich finally of fine in tubes of the capillary depressions of the surface of approaching a determination means molten
metals.

ment measure-

bore

tension

of

Previouslyto 1904,
time of the
of

observations forms silver


to

were

made

from
of

time

to

different

which
assume

the
on

surfaces

cupelled
Such
are

buttons

gold
are

and

solidification.
of

differences

familiar
to

all assayers
surface

bullion, and

obviously due
had
been

changes in
to

tension.

directed
in 1893 of Gold.*

these
in He

appearances
with

tion Specialattenby Dr. (now

Sir)Thomas
of cohesion

Rose

connection

his studies

of

the Volatilization

mentioned

the particularly and

loss

of buttons

containingtellurium

the consequent

of their surfaces. flattening Subsequently the author pursued this instance of diminished losses which cohesion t in an attempt to explainthe abnormal had been reportedby various assayers in the assay of gold and

silver tellurides. the

It

was

shown in

that under

extreme

conditions
tension
was

effect of the tellurium


of the
a

loweringthe
oxide of lead

surface
or

in

the presence
such that
no

film of fused

of tellurium

molten

lead

longer retained
itself
absence
over

spread
In
a

the

and tellurium alloy of gold (or silver) the cupel, but its spheroidal form on completely absorbed. cupel and was

the

of tellurium, the medium


to

cupel, of

course,

behaves

as

non-porous

lead

carrying small

of quantities

preciousmetals. of Quincke then made to follow up the work Attempts were silver of gold and and others by measuring the curvatures of impurities had been buttons small which to quantities It was added. measure hoped, at one time, to arrive at some of buttons and of the surface tension by producing a number
*

Journal
"

of the
Behaviour

Chemical of

+ and

The

1893, vol. Ixii.p. 723. Society, relluriuni in Assaying" : Transactio7is

ofthe Institution ofMining

Metal

lufgy, 1908,

vol. xvii. p. 463.

Smith:

The

Surface

Tension

of Molten

Metals

185

which of them the largest approximatedto a perfect selecting sphere and then measuring its diameter and taking its weight. in 1909, and attempts abandoned These experiments were tubes. in narrow made to obtain were capillary depressions various metals first used, and of fireclay Tubes were were flicting Conallowed with the tubes dipping into them. to solidify
results of
were

obtained

which, in pots of cooling, caused unequal contractions However, it soon precisepositions occupied by the tubes. obtainable became evident that real capillary were depressions which could be measured by a gauge after solidification. Some results were of the conflicting attributed,rightlyor of the fireclay to the character tubes, so that attempts wrongly, made with carbons from which cored next were electric-light More the soft cores removed out. sistent conwere by boring them
"
" "

owing to the irregularities small dimensions, comparatively in the and pipings to occur

"

results tubes best of

were

at

once

obtained, and
millimetre
to

supply of

carbon

approximately 1
were

results

then The of

found
reason

be

procured. The given by rapidly cooling


diameter
now

the molten
that in the

metal.

for this is

believed

to

be

method metal

the

"piping" or
may In

quick coolingwhich was the bottom from solidifying shrinkageoccurred irregular


"

adopted resulted
so first, a

that

no

procedurewhich
of

have

some

on application

scale. larger
were

this way

many

determinations

made

the

metals

lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, copper,

aluminium,
bismuth,
The

silver,and
mony, antilast-named
the

gold,and
and

also of

alloysof of copper alloys


examined
formed because

lead

with

tin, and

and
it

aluminium.
was

were alloys compounds

thought likelythat
of this

by

certain

members

series would

show

anomalous

results.

So far, measurements

had
cases

been

made

with

tubes

of constant of other
measure

diameter, and
diameters
the
were

in all
now

after solidification.

Tubes
to

used, and

attempts
was

were

made

while the metal depressions done by lowering a thin carbon until it floated vertically, with
on

still
filament

liquid.
down

This

was

the

tube

its lower

end

impmging

the

surface

of

the the

The

position of

within the tube. depressedcolumn and protruding end of the upper

186

Smith
was

The

Surface

Tensioiz

of Molten

Metals
fixed

filament scale.
when

determined

acted
In

the same filament operation was lowered through a similar tube, which, however, merely a as guide-tube to the surface, but did not reach it.
the

The

by suitable means repeated with

against a

this way within and

difference between the


tube

the

height of
the

the

surfaces
of the
was were

without

furnished
At

depth

depressionwithin the left until the springof


made
This
to

tube.

this

stage the

work

this year, when


more

renewed

attempts

effect these

measurements

conveniently.
insulated metallic
an

has been
the

an accomplishedby lowering

wire down
with of in
a a

tube

until its lower

end upper

makes
end

electrical
to the movements

tact con-

the molten
"

metal.

The
"

is fixed of

end

micrometer

depth-gauge

which
to

admits

vertical direction, measurable

thousandths

of

an

inch.

Apparatus

Employed

and

the

Manipulations

Required.

{8ee p. 11
It may be

for illustration.)

give first a list of the pieces of the measurements apparatus which are necessary adjunctsin effecting and afterwards detailed descriptions. to give more
to

convenient

1.

suitable

furnace

in

which

to

melt

the

metal

under

examination.
2.

Carbon

tubes

of

varying diameter
a

in which

to

obtain

the

depressionsand
them
3.

suitable

arrangement
to

for

holding
of
an

in

vertical
"

micrometer
in such
or a

position. depth-gauge fixed


"

the racked

arm

right up-

way

that

it

can

be

in

vertical

horizontal

plane.
the

4. A

source

of current,

circuit of which
of of the wire of

shall the metal

be

pleted com-

by
"

the

contact

"depthand
a

gauge
suitable
5.

with

the

surface

the

molten

thin

galvanometer to indicate this contact. wire of high melting point which can
insulated
to resist the

be

ciently suffi-

passage

of

small

current

when

in contact

with

the

walls

of the

carbon

tubes

at

high temperatures.
6.

pyrometer
metal
at

to

show

the

temperature

of

the

molten

any

moment.

Smith:

The

Stw

face
1.

Tension

of Molten

Metals

187

The

Furnace.

The

furnace

which

was

available for these


furnace of of
to

small
wire

electrical resistance

experiments is a wound spirally platinum


four take
at

arranged in

and jacketed, Salamander and


"

fireclay groove is justlarge enough


a

coils.
a

It
2 0

is water-

No.

Morgan

pot, of which

the

diameter

the

height 2\
"

inches.

the top is 2 inches Precautions with taken were

of metal to rings to guard against any access resistance which the spiral might be caused by splashing or during the experiments. With this furnace steady "spitting"

asbestone

temperatures
current

can

be

attained

up

to

about and

1200"

C.

The
at
a

is controlled

by

resistance

switch-board

convenient The

distance. is closed the

top of the furnace


meet

by

two

of pieces

"

asbestone suitable

"

board, which
described within
the

along

centre

line, and

have

for perforations the

the admission in the

of five tubes, which

will be

ther fur-

furnace of
a

admission
on

followingparagraphs. The atmosphere is maintained "reducing" either by of coal gas or steady stream by floating
of the
metal. Each has

charcoal
in

the

surface

advantages

cases. particular

2.

The

Carhon

Tubes.

These made very


been

carbon, and were ordinaryelectric light specially for these experiments. The diameters found to be are that it has not within the limits required, constant so
are

of

found It is

necessary

to

measure

the
measure

diameters
a

of

each

one

used.
This and

quite sufficient
done
both

to

proportionof
with

them.

has been

them by filling from

clean

mercury
of

the calculating

diameter

the

lengthsand
with
a

weights
Zeiss

and also mercury, micrometer screw

by direct
over
a

measurement

ocular

70 -millimetre In
so

which objective, latter


case a

gives
one

readings
of tubes

to

y^sth
also

millimetre. broken
be up,

the

number

were

that

the variation

from

part

to

another

might

checked. tubes suffer very little surrounded by neutral


severe

in the furnace these During use burning,because the hot portionsare or reducing gases. In order to test the

eflect of

burning,

188

Smith:
a

The

Surface Tension of Molten


of tubes
the have been

Metah
in

however,
20

number

reduced

weight by

per cent, and for the been done

diameters
and middle

end

This has again measured. and no appreciable portions,

change

has

been tubes

observed.

Carbon

have

been

used

described made

in this with

paper.

Some

experiments ever, earlyexperiments were, howfor certain

in most

of the

tubes, and fireclay


further
use

purposes

it is

proposed to make it might have been


tubes The in the

of

them.
some

It

was

hoped

that

to possible

include

results with these

present paper. has arrangement which


in
a

been

used,

so

far,for holding
into
one.

the

tubes

vertical

positionand
in
some

lowering them
a

the The

molten
two
one or
"

metal
tubes
"

has which
the
"

been
are

respects
and side
an

crude

sufficiently distinguishedby calling


"

of them
"

dipping
are a

tube

the

other

the

"

surface asbestos

"

guide packing,at
iron
retort retort

tube about

"

clamped

by

side

with
an

quarter of

inch

apart, in

ordinary
down
an

clip.

This

clip is free to

iron
be

stand, which

slide up fixed to the bench. is firmly

and

It would

that the movement which raises and preferable clip holding the tubes should be effected by a rack The point of this is that the "dipping" tube lowered steadily and without jerksinto the molten

lowers and

the

pinion.
be If in

should metal.

this is
any
case

not

done

the

entry of the metal


results suddenly,

into the tube, which


in
a

occurs

rather
to

column

or

thread

shootingup
leaves
occurs
a

the

solid

and it breaks cold part of the tube, where little experience this seldom a plug. With

if the

tube

the

entry effected
In the
at
case
or

heated sufliciently steadily.


been

has

beforehand

and

of metals
below the

which

are

oxidizable
at

and

form

fusible

oxides

temperature temperatures
measurements

which

to necessary point before

raise the

well

they melt, it is above the melting


to
ensure

attempting any
and
enters

that

oxide

shall be reduced

the metal the


to

thus

"

cleaned."
course,

any Otherwet
"

Avise the
the the
more

surface which
allow the

tube

will,of
is

"

tube, and
measurements.

column

slipup
be

the tube
one

and

falsify
later

This

behaviour
will

which

calls for

complete discussion,and
paper

dealt with

in the

sections of the

(see p. 194).

190

Smith

The

Surface

Tension
it

of Molten
then
be

Metals
to

either

of these

notches, and

can

clamped
at
can

the

micrometer When

in that

clamped, the
course,

by a small position range through which


inch. To
measure

thumbscrew the rod

the

top.

be moved

is,of

half

an

beyond
notch
into subtract
on

that

merely
screw,

necessary

to

bring

another
or

range it is play with the


an

again clamp it, and add ^^l^ths from the reading. The
is divided the into

half

inch

or

half-inch

the micrometer of
an

twenty

parts,

i.e. fortieths

inch, and
one

micrometer-head revolution

is divided
of the of
one

complete
of the be will

latter

twenty-five parts, raisingor lowering the


divisions.
of

into

rod it

gauge

by
a

one

the

former division

From

this

obvious

that

the

micrometer-head
^"^

correspondsto
To the
"

vertical

movement to

of
be

loViF^^^^
to

inch. end
of

enable

suitable

wire

attached
been

the lower
on

rod,
"

small

"chuck"

has

fitted
the

to

it.

This

chuck
The
"

grip any depth gauge


horizontal
arm

will

size of wire
"

within

limits

itself is held

in securely
out

end
a can

of

which
the

reaches
of

from

required. a clamp at the an upright to


This
arm

over position directly

centre

the

furnace.

be
can

moved be

in

It
over

racked
entrance

planes at right angles to each other. horizontallyto bring the depth gauge exactly
three
to

the

the

top of the tube, and


into from
to

it

can

be

racked

to lower vertically

the wire
a

the

tube

and

also to

bring the
are

gauge made. vertical

down

to

datum

which
the

the lower

measurements

It is convenient rack is
as

adopt
The rod

extremity of
the end
to

the

the

datum.

adjustmentwhich
through
lower

is then
to

necessary notch
nearest

which
to

merely to happens
surface

slide the
to

gauge
of it

the wire

bring

the

the

the
to

of the

molten

metal,

clamp

there,

until the movement spin the micrometer- head down the surface. of the galvanometer shows that it touches The then be instantly racked whole gauge can up to bring the from wire away the surface again and the reading of the micrometer taken the base the support to which at leisure. Finally, be rotated to of the rack itself is fixed can as so horizontally swing the whole of the measuring gear out of the way when and then the

operationis

over

and

it is necessary

to

open

up

the

furnace.

Smith

The

Teiision of Molten Siirface

Metals

191

4.

The

Source

of Current.
the
source

It
the

was

found

detection

be necessary that of the contact between


to

of current of the

for

the wire

measuring

metal should have a low gauge and the surface of the molten force. The reason for this lies in the difficulty electromotive of
a insulating

wire

from
are

the
at
are

interior of the

carbon

tubes

"

the lower

parts of which

high temperatures.
excellent
wire with

Kelatively
some

the carbon speaking, trouble


so
as

tubes

conductors, and
the tube

was

not

to

experiencedin gettinga make a complete contact


the metal.
An

insulated sufficiently
before its

end

reached
a

which adjustment

would

permit

of

descending a tube 6 inches or so in length which is without largerdiameter than itself, only of slightly touching is clearly the walls at all, of improvised beyond the possibilities
apparatus.
The Pt. and
current

wire

Pt. Rh.

employed was therefore providedby an ordinary thermocouple in circuit with a millivoltmeter

(an ordinarypyrometer indicator).

5
.

The

Selection

of a

Wire.

The

insulation
was

steel wire

presented some selected,primarilybecause of

of the

wire

difficulties. its

being higherthan
examine. it was
Various

found finally non-conductingsurface

melting point that of any of the metals it was proposed to made but to insulate it suitably, attempts were that by thoroughlyoxidizing it a sufficiently
was

obtained, while
be

core

of unaltered

readily exposed at its end by nipping it off with pliers. Such a wire causes little trouble at comparativelylow temperatures, but
the lower ends of

metal

remained

which

could

lower
very when of

the

tubes

are

surrounded

by metals

high melting point there is a considerable leakage. It ciently fortunately happens, however, that these metals give suffiwith the wider tubes, which, of course, deep depressions the minimizes difficulties arising from tion. incomplete insulaAn important advantage of iron wire is that it has a
very small

thermo-electric This

effect

of

its

own a

with

the

hot

carbon

tubes.

effect is

at appreciable

dull red

heat,

192 but

Smith
is

The

Surface

Tension
at

of Molten

Metals
and

fortunately reversed diminishes to zero again.

higher temperatures
were

High
to

resistance

wires

of nickel-chrome

tried,but
carbon which

the

thermo-electric
be
so

effect between
that the the
"

them
and

and break

hot
"

appears
occurs as

great

make
tube

the wire passes down that it is difficult to

is

so

frequentand

troublesome

the interpret

movements

of the

meter galvano-

correctly.
6.

The

Pyrometer.
Pt. Rh.
the
as

merely an ordinarythermocouple of Pt. and the temperature of the metal by steadily indicating
is
of
one
a

This

flection dethe the

millivoltmeter detect the

of
contact

exactly the
of

same

pattern

used

to

the

with depth-gauge

metal.

Experimental At the time


it
was

Results. of this paper was taken underthe results of the author's

when

the

contribution
that
to

merely

intended

in experience

earlier attempts

measure some

should
the

be

recorded, together with

capillary depressions remarks on general

of a knowledge of the constants possiblebearingwhich the general study have on and surface tension may capillarity and alloys. of metals which To this it was might proposed to add a bibliography work future be of guidance to any who might contemplate

in this direction.
of have other material

The

results
for this

of

work the

obtained
character

in

the of

paper,

paration prewhich

already been
results which

however, indicated, appeared,


were

entertained.

beyond the Consequently the scope

promise originally expectations


to

of

the

work

has

been

of the available time has been widened and most considerably of general method taken in attempting to establish a up application.This has left but little time in which to pursue
more

closely the
metals and the
measurements

actual

measurements

in

the

cases

of

ticular par-

alloys. Had
of the

the earlier work

been

confined

it would of mercury depressions have abandoned been most long ago, because of the certainly others most undoubted difficulties which probably have also
to

Smith:

The

Surface Tension
this metal.

of Molten

Metals
these

193

with experienced and

of which irresrularities,

It may be that records have been

difficulties disgested sugare

found, have
It is not in

couraged further
that the

attempts with
observations

other

metals.
metals

of other

this way

free from confidence

difficulties and
that these
a

anomalies, but

difficultiesare

it may be said less than might have of mercury

with

been
in

from anticipated
narrow

knowledge
lost in

of the behaviour

tubes. time
was

Much

making
now

the initial experimentswith

the methods

adopted, by the unfortunate to work, and by the failure to choice of lead alloys upon which the absolute of the metal being realize at the outset necessity it to a sufficiently cleaned by raising high temperature to reduce all fusible oxide before any measurements are attempted. fact that is of The the few ordinarynietals which lead one it in that respect the very fusible oxide makes forms a readily which could have the possibilities of the method worst one on With been tested. however, lead and its alloys experience, difficulties. appear to present no special This explanationmust be oftered in excuse for the comparative It incompletenessof the results recorded below. to have satisfactory delayedpublication might have been more
" "

which

have

been

until
on

later stage, but it was felt that it was the whole, that such results as have been
a

more

desirable,
should

obtained

be recorded. It has been order

shown
to

on

page
to at

176

that
a

the value

measurements

in required

be

able

calculate

for the surface from the

tension of
the

molten

metal

observations

of the

particular temperature in tubes are depressions narrow


some
=

: following

(") The

itself depression

7t.
=

(") The internal radius of the tube r, of the metal at the temperature of the (c) The fluid density

experiment
=

|0.

id) The
to

cosine of the
the

angle of

contact

between and

the normal
to

free surface
at
cos

of the metal

the tangfent the


wall

the
the

surface tube
=

the 0
.
.

point where
.

it meets

of

(c) The

value

of the acceleration due

to

gravity =//.
N

194 The

Smith:
formula

The
which

Surface
has been

Tension

of Molten
to

Metals
express this

given (p. 176)


r X X cos

relation is :
/i X T
=

/) X gf

In

recording the

results of the

be offered in support of the


to

evidence will experiments, with regard followingstatements


in
at

the
1.

: depressions That the depressions, measured

the
same

way

which

has

been within
2.

indicated, are
the

constant
error same

the

temperature,

limits of
the

of the

That, subject to
varies
at
r

experiments. reservations,the depression


of

as inversely

the

radius

the

tube

and

sequently, con-

any
A

particular temperature,
is
a

the

product
called

multipliedby
"

constant

which

will be

the
3.

That
"

constant." capillary the depressions given by


"

different

metals
are

are moved re-

whose specific depressions, from the possible errors

differences
of in

far

4.

That

the variations
the
same

which
at

occur

experiment. the depressions given


temperatures
the
amount
are latively re-

by

metal
in

different

small

comparison with

of the

itself. depression the 5. That angle of contact,"as defined,approaches 180". has been given to the following corrections in Consideration
"

order

to

allow

for

"

{a) The
the

change
carbon

in the value tube.

of

owing

to

the

expansion of

(") The

expansionof
errors

the lower

end

ic) Possible

caused takes

by the

of the gauge wire. horizontal and vertical


measurement.

racking which

placeduring a

Fluid

Density.
metals shown is

Although distinctive
is furnished that
a

by their knowledge of
to

concerningdifferent it has been depressions, capillary


information

the

densities
to be

of

the

molten

metals

necessary The

enable

values

given for
one

their surface tensions.

questionof

fluid

densityis

to

which

Roberts-Austen

Smith:
gave
a

The

Surface Tension of Molten


amount

Metals

195

considerable
with Sir
near

of

attention

in

1881,*

in

junction con-

Thomas

certain

metals in books

their tables.

Wrightson. Their vahies points of solidification are


More

for still

quoted
were

of

extended
in "j" 1887.

determinations
Pascal
are

made

by Vicenti and Omodei


admirable
us

the Quite recently,

work

of

MM.

and
the The

JouniauxJ
first

has

furnished

with

figureswhich
a a
a

of

importance in connection with the had author work, " with planned some
values

present work.
view number
to

obtaining
of which minations deterwas

for this

purpose, for lead and


to

and

had

made

bismuth

by

method MM.
it

analogous
Jouniaux. continue

that

recently adopted by
work, however,
at
to

Pascal

and
to

Their
those

makes

unnecessary The his

determinations

present.
to

author, in

wishes adopting their figures,


on an

offer

them

tions congratulahe has

achievement

with

of which the diflficulties

had

some

experience.
The

AnrjU of Contact.
has

This
amount

is of

questionwhich
work
contact

given rise
the

to

considerable
from the

perplexity.Theory

and

observation

have

earliest recorded
a

agreed upon

finite
not
cases
"

angle of
wet."
that

do of

It is,in

for assuming necessity and solids which between they liquids small number fact,only in a relatively
"

solids are regardedas which wet even liquids small angles of contact, or in other words, having negligibly where the last element of the hquid surface is parallel to the containing wall.|| Elaborate taken have been by various workers precautions in the measurement need consider of the only case which we
"

"

that The
*

of mercury.

angle in
Austen p. 360. and and

this

case

is,of

course,

an

obtuse

angle which
p.

Roberts-

Wrightson, Philosophical Magazine, April 1881,


Atti di

295, and
Annalen
,

May 1882,
t Vicenti X Pascal " Journal
11Some

Omodei,

Lincei

Rend.,

1888,

And

Beibldtter

IVeid

1888, 12, p. 179.


and

Jouniaux, Comptes Rendus,

1914, vol. clviii. pp. 414-416. 1, 1914, vol. .xi. p. 116.


"

of the Institute

of Metals

No.
,

experiments by Professor Huntington are of interest in this connection, of Sulphides by Flotation," Faraday Society,December 12, 1905.

centration Con-

196

Smith

The

StirfaceTension
as

of Molten
to

Metals

lias been the


are

given variously
of the for the

from which

128"

140", according to
No

nature

solid with

it is in contact.

values
the

available

medium With

of the
molten

of mercury angle of contact used in these experiments carbon. no experimentalevidence to offer of even in existence of this finite angle of contact
"

with

the
the ofter

reality
case

of

metals

with

carbon, the author


of metals in

proposes

to

figures

for the
the

surface

tensions

which, for the

present,

defined as assumption is made that the angle of contact This implies that the last 176 on approaches 180". page with the of the liquidsurface is practically element parallel which it follows that cos Q approaches walls of the tube, from this assumption that negative. From unity and is,of coarse, of the liquidis tangential the surface at the point of contact the author the walls of the tube, an to assumption which realizes is againstall acceptedbeliefs based on theory or fully be regarded must observation, it follows that the meniscus as hemispherical. Support is given to the adoption of this have effects which contact course by the fact that many the result of adhesion. been observed are clearly the observed becomes then The depth of the depression for plus an allowance depressionto the top of the meniscus which is usually the volume represented by the meniscus
" "

taken

as

t;.

although in the
been assumed
contact

actual
to

measurements

this small
the

allowance
of the The becomes wire

has

be

balanced

by

penetration assumptions physical


"

before

is indicated. tension in under

equation to
the the

the surface
one

these

familiar rise

used

that calculating

quantity from
tubes
:

of

which ordinaryliquids

wet

"

the

r^_h.r.p.g
2

be subsequently furnished, it angles of contact values for T by their will be merely necessary to divide these 0-7 and unity. cosines,which will probably be between the author Before perhaps finally leavingthis question, may the method he has sought to establish indicate a by which The method values of these anglesif they exist. adopted by

Should

finite

198

Smith:

The

Surface
obtained

Tension

of
the
a

Molten

Metals

Finally,
mercury
are

the
on

values the

for of the

surface

tension

of

itself,
such

assumption
with

contact

angle
of in the many
at

of

180",
values
cases

in

close
various
a

agreement
workers

majority
which

obtained do it
not

by
involve

by

methods,
of how
a

consideration
see, at

contact-angle
one can

all, that
as

is

difficult
than

to

present,
author's

regard
the

it

being
tension
0"949

other of

180".
at

The

figures
different

for

surface
of
are

mercury

15"
0'633

C.

by

two

tubes

radii 45'56

millimetre

and

millimetre
the

respectively comparison
with

and

45*64,

expressed
in

for

sake
per

of

the

following

figures,

milligrammes

millimetre.

The

following
in

tables

give
with the

the

results

of

the

author's
on

ments experi194.

accordance

scheme

indicated

page

Smith:

The

Surface Teiisi on of Molten


I.
"

Metals

199

Table

Constancy of Depression.

Table

II.

"

Constancyof the

Product

rxh

or

'"'"

Capillary Constant."

200

Smith:
Table
III.
"

The
The

SurfaceTensiojt of Molten
"

Metals

Metals GajnllanjConstants" for different {Mean Values of all the Measurements).

Table

IV.

"

Calculated

Values

of the Surface Tensions

in

Dynes

per

Centimetre.
sions Tenferent of DifRadii Surface Tension

Surface Fluid Metal.

Density
over

Capilla.ry
Constant,
Tubes

given by

Range

of

of Metal

(Mean
Values) Dynes per
cm.

Temperature.

Temperature
Range.

(mm.").

(Dynes per

Centimetre).

'

Antimony
Bismuth Lead
.

840" -850" 700" -850" 770^-780" 15" -17"

I I
I

6-45

(P. "J.)*
(the author)
10-51

274
"

274

331

361 431
418
,

(
1

346 424-5

(P. "J.)
13 55

f
)

f 6'
I

Mercury
Tin

614-

750" -910"
.

6-66

(P. "J.)

14' 14' 45 25 24 18 18 11-29

447-10 447-92 [ 476 Alb 489 520


716 699 861 855 1018 1153

447-5

480

Aluminium Zinc Silver Gold

2-35 -j (P. "J.) 5-81 630 580" I (P. "J.) 9-453 980" 1120"! (R. A. " W.)t 18-38 1120" I (calculated) 700-820"
-

520

707-5
858 1018

'

Copper

1150"

-i

8-32

(P. "J.)

1203

1178

Pascal

and

Jouniaux.

t Roberts-Austen

and

Wrightson.

Smith:
Table

The
V.

Surface

Tension

of Molten
Molten a^.

Metals

201

"

Constants Capillary by Landolt)r

for
xh
=

Metals

{given

Table
in

VI.

"

Comparison of
IV.

the

Values

for

Table

loith those

obtained

Surface Tensions given by precious Worliers {givenhy

the

Landolt).

202

Smith

The

Surface
of

Tension

of Molten
Conclusions.

Metals

Discussion
At

Results

and

the time
was

when

these
at
a

experiments were
method differ

begun,the object
the their

in view

to

arrive
metals be

by

which

surface

sions ten-

of molten

which

widelyin
under

generalproperties
conditions.
then be

might
It
was

readily compared
that would
some

similar

hoped
which the

might generalization
relations and
to

revealed
between

enable

be other

established

property of surface tension


the of molten has

properties,
line with

and that
The

so

bring

which

knowledge been acquired in regard


property of the
the and

metals
to

into

fact that
so

the

surface

ordinaryliquids. tension of a liquid


the molecules

depends
which
of

intimatelyon
up, solids

cohesion

of

of

it is made

the

fact,also,that the properties


the
two

show liquidsand phases,naturallysuggests


may
or

exist between
of tenacity Roberts-

the

signs of continuityin that some the possibility the cohesion of liquidsand


were

relation cohesion

solids. classical researches

mainly concerned with varying aspects of the generalmetallurgical phenomenon of small of the influence which quantities impurities relatively in which of the metals the physicalproperties have on they in 1888 in made He hidden. a are striking generalization of Metals considered Mechanical the his paper on Properties
Austen's
"

in Relation

to

the

Periodic

Law."

By
pure
the

the

admixture
was

of small
to

of impuritieswith quantities
an

gold he

able

show
on

undoubted

relation

between

effects of these
their atomic
"

elements

the mechanical
In

of properties

gold and
he said
"

volumes.

his conclusions, discussing

An
as
or

examination

of the results obtained

so

far

they

have

yet been
which

in my that carried,shows

experiments, not a single

occupies a positionat the base of the diminishes either of the loops of Lothar Meyer's curve of gold. On the other hand, the fact is clearly brought tenacity all occupy the gold fragile which do render that metals out This would to show in Meyer's curve. appear high positions
metal

metalloid

that
*

there

is

some

relation

between

the

influence
vol. clxxix.

exerted
pp.

by

PhilosophicalTransactions

of the Royal Society 1888,

339-349.

Smith
the their

The

Surface

Tension
either

of

Molten
atomic

Metals

203

metallic atomic
work of

impurities, and
volumes."
of Roberts-

their

weights
received

or

This
amount

Austen

has
years

perhaps
which it

not

the there

attention that
at

in recent the

merits, but
it aroused of

is

no

doubt

time

it

was

and

widespread
Committee
in of

interest.
of the first

The

published appointment
afford

Research
was

Institution
to

of Mechanical

deep the Alloys Engineers


an

made

the

place
his

Roberts-Austen
on were

opportunity
to

extending
Law. iron and

the

Periodic of

These

experiments experiments
other of

alloysin relation
continued
more

into

the

realm

steel, where

and

pressing
results

matters

diverted
are

the
to

original trend
all.
has

the

work, with

which
So

familiar

far, very
the

little work the

been

possible in
in metals

the

direction paper,
the

of

by investigating,
on

methods
of

described
molten

this

effects the

surface of
small

tensions

produced by
Sufficient

additions has

quantities of
obtained,

other

metals.
of

evidence

been

however,

the Such

reality
above

and

measurability of
as

the the

changes
results
on

so

produced.
pure metals

conclusions
may

appear

from

given

be

indicated. briefly When


the

experiments

which

have

been

described

in

the

from the standpoint of the Periodic present paper are examined Law they reveal, in the first place,the interestingfact that, in accordance tensions with other metals

properties of
are

the

elements, the surface


their atomic

of molten
show this

'periodic

functions of
metals
in their

loeights.
To
so

fundamental
have

relation, the
been tabulated
"

which
"

have
"

far been

examined

periods
of each
same

the according to the periodic classification period having atomic weights which Their atomic volumes order of magnitude.
"
"

members
are are

of also

the

given
on.

in

these

tables, and
once

reference
be
seen

will that

be in

made each of

to
"

these

later
"

It will at tension

period
lowest

the

surface

decreases the

having

rapidly,the metal highest surface tension.

atomic

weight

204

Smith:

The

Surface
Periods

Tension

of Molten

Metals

Metals

(jroupedin their
are

in each

of tcMch
First

the Atomic

Weights

of the

same

order

of macinitude.

Long

Period.

Second

Short

Period.

Second

Long

Period

"

Odd

Series.

"The

Behaviour

of and

Tellurium

in

Assaying."
p. 463.

The

author.

Proceedings of

the

Institution

of Mini?ig

Metallurgy, 1908,

206

Smith

The

Tension Stirface

of Molten

Metals

It would
metals
vary

tensions of molten therefore,that the surface as some function of their atomic volumes. inversely

appear,

of clearlybear a relation to the work employed surface tension as a Ramsay and Shields,* who of determiningmolecular complexity by the application means tion molecular surface for of Eotvos' formula energy." A relaforeshadowed of this work to n:ietals was by Siedentopfin be developed, This consideration cannot however, until 1897. These

conckisions

"

"Bi.

^"^
"3b.

"P6

"Sn.

%
I
'///

Hg{^..
XSn.

Hgy-

v^

ja^

"^9
"Zn

_" /la

Vfu

"C(J

"OOO'f "0000

50

100

/so

200

/]TO/vtJC WE/GHT3

(AT Xr

VOL)" THUS
THUS

"

Fig.

4.

further

determinations
occur

have

been tensions
an

made with

of the

small variations

which
In

in the

surface

conclusion, however,

indication

changing temperature. be given of the may


appears
to

of this paper the work bearing which experience. generalmetallurgical If


we

have

on

look

at

the

table

or

the

curve

for the

"

fourth
has

long
O

of period,"

which
we see

gold
Roberts-

is the

lowest

member

which shown

been

examined,
in 1803,

that, of all the elements


Austen in 1888,
to

by
a

Hatchett

and the

by

exert

disturbing
the

effect
most

on

cohesion
to

of

gold,its fellows
hut much

in this
have

period are
atomic

active,that is

say, those metals which


tensions.

weights

very

nearly that of

its oion,

largeratomic
647;
and

volumes, and

lower consequently
*

surface

Roberts- Austen's
p.

generalof

the Chemical

Transactions Philosopliical of th,e Royal Society,1893, 1893, p. 1089. Society,

Transactions

Smith:
ization volume
to

The

Tension Stirface
course,

of Molten
elements
these those

Metals

207

holds, of
in other

for

other
seems

of hisfh atomic elements


of

have

higher

but it groups, vokimes atomic


to

require
lead,
the the

than
a

and

bismuth,
This

in order

exercize
be

consideration
"

may

other

periods

"

where
of

common

comparable of applied to the members knowledge of the effect of


volume
on

mercury, effect.

presence of members volume which atomic


curves

high

atomic

those of lower

{e.g., copper
to

conclusions if of
"

that the

bottom of the at the positions and silver) will readily suggest parallel in drawn of gold. Finally, the case

occupy

we

consider elements volume"

effect of the
occupy

admixture
the

with

each

other,

the

which
curves

lowest
of is

atomic

(that is,those
their
cases

tension) we
on

know

that

cohesion it is

in the positions the highest surface not impaired, but,

the contrary, in many The relations of carbon Osmond and

strengthened.
explanation to give them on volumes, both occupying
the

which
the low

have iron may Roberts- Austen sought and of atomic

basis

of considerations

atomic volume curves. respective lend These instances, taken from experience, metallurgical some expressedat the beginning support to the hope which was afford anof this paper, that a study of surface tension other may approach to the study of the constitution of alloys.
on positions

their

Since
relation attention the
"

the of

above surface been

conclusions
tension
to to

were

written

regardinsf
the
*

the

the the

periodiclaw,
work

author's
on

has

directed
of

of F. Schmidt

Surface

Tension

AmalG^ams."

discussingthe effect on the surface tension of mercury produced by the addition of other metals, he states that this of the atomic is found be a periodic function to weight. With regard to these dilute amalgams, therefore,he appears reached conclusion to have a analogous with that which the author has given on p. 203 with regardto pure metals generally.
In
*

Annaleti

der

Physik,ViVl\yi.\\o\. xxxix.

p.

1108; Journal

of the histitnte of Metals,

No.

1, 1913, vol. ix. p. 233.

KoYAL

Mint, London,
E.

208

Smith:

The

Tension Sttrface
BIBLIOGRAPHY.

of Molten

Metals

Standard
Young. "On

Worli

on

and Surface Tension. Capillarity of

Transactions of the Fluids," Philosophical Lectures Natural Philosophy (1807), on 1805, p. 65 ; Royal Society, Collected 1816 658 No. TI., JForks, 1816, Encyclopcedia Britcmnica, ; ; p. the Cohesion
" "

vol. i. p. 459.

Laplace. PoissoN. Gauss. Clerk

1805, Mecanique Celeste,


Nouvelle

vol. iv. p. 389.

TJieorie de I' Action

1831, p. Capillaire,
v.

110.

Fig. Fluid
Maxwell. and revised

Werle, 1839,
in 1910 de

vol.

p. 69.

"Capillarity." Encyclopedia Britannica.


Edition Chimie
;

9th

Edition,

also Nature, 1875, vol. xi. p. 357.


xxx.

Berthelot,

Annates
"

(1850),vol.

p. 232.

Guthrie.

Certain

Molecular

Magazine, 1883, Constants," Philosophical


the

p. 321. Thomson

(Lord Kelvin). Institution, 1886, and


"

"

Attraction,"Proceedingsof Capillary Popular Lectures, 1889,


p. 53.

Roijal

Rayleigh. 1883

Magazine, Philosophical Laplace's Theory of Capillarity,'' [2],p. 309; "On the Theory of Surface Forces," Philosophical
On

Magazine,1890
WoRTHiNGTON

[2], pp.
"

285

and

45G. of

On Laplace'sTheory (A. M.). the 1883 [2],p. 339; "On Magazine, Magazine, 1884 [2], Philosophical p. 334.
"On

Surface

Philosophical Capillarity," Forces in Fluids,"


Solids," Philosophical
1885

Magie.

the
1888

Contact

Angle
"

of

Liquids

and

Magazine,
PoYNTiNG
AND

[2],p. 162

; also

JFied. Annalen,

[25], p.

429.

THOMSON.

of Matter," Properties

pp.

135-181.

EoTVOS. Ramsay

Wied.
and

Annalen, 1886,
"The

vol. xxvii. pp. 448 Molecular

and

452. of "The

Shields.

Complexity
p.

Liquids,"

actions Trans-

of
Molecular

the

Chemical

Society, 1893,

1089;

Variation

of

of the
Whittaker.
1908 Willows
"

tions TransacSurface-Energy with Temperature," Philosophical 1893 Royal Society, [A],p. 647.

The

Theory
21.

of

Capillarity," Proceedings of

the

Royal Society,

[A],81, p.
and

Hatschek.
on

"

Surface

Tension

and The

Surface Chemical

their Influence
pp.

Chemical

Phenomena,"
233.

Energy, and JVorld,1914,

112, 144, 175, 204, and


"

Quincke.
1858
"

The

Capillary Constant
1-48
; and

[105], pp.

Annalen of

The

Capillary

Constants and

Annalen, Quicksilver,"Poggendorffs der Chemie, 1859, 55, pp. 227-241 ; Solid Bodies," Poggendorff's Annalen,
of
"

Philosophical Magazine, 1868 [36], p. 267. of (A translation Thompson) ; The CapillaryConstants by Silvanus 1869 261 sophical Philoand Molten A nnalen, Metals, Poggendorff's [135],p. ; (A translation Magazine, 1869 [38], by Prof. Jack) ; p. 78. of Molten Chemical The Capillary Constants Compounds," Poggen1868

[134],p. 356;

"

Smith:

The

Surface

Tension

of

Molten

Metals

209

dorff's
Common

Amialen,
Surface

1870
of

[138],
two

p.

141

"The

Capillary

Phenomena

at

the

Fluids,"

Porjgend'rff's
IBll

Annalen,
pp.

1871

[139],
"The

p.

1;

and

Philosophical
Constants
of

Maga::ine,
Water and

[41], Mercury,"
of the

245-454;
der

Capillary
1894

of

Annalen
Measurements

Physik,
of the 1897

[52],

p.

1;

"Recent
of

Criticism Molten

Capillary

Constants -267. "On


the

Metals,"

Annalen

der

Physik,

[61],
SiEDENTOPF. der

p.

Capillary [61],
p. 235.

Constants

of

Molten

Metals,"

Annalen

Physik,
"

1897

Heydweiller.

The

Specific
der

Cohesion 1897
from

and

Surface

Tension

of the

Chilled

Gold,"
of

Annalen

Physik,

[62],
the

p.

694;
of

"On

Calculation Annalen

the

Capillary
1898

Constant

Heights

Globules,"

der

Physik,
"

[65],
the

p.

311.

Gradenwitz.

On

Determination Annalen der

of

the 1899 Tension


of

Capillary [67],
of p. 467.

Constant

of

Solidified

Globules,"
"

Physik,
Surface

Gruxmach.

Determination
Metals

of

the

Fluid

Bodies
of

and

Molten

by

the Annalen

Measurement der

the
1900

Wave-lengths [308],
p. 660.

their

Capillary
Herzfeld. Annalen
"

Ripples,"
The

Physik,
of

Specific Physik,

Cohesion 1897

Copper,
450.

Iron,

Nickel,

and

Cobalt,"

der "The

[62],

p. of

LoHNSTElx.

Determination 1894

Capillary Tlieory
of

Constants," Drops,"
Annalen

Annalen der

der

Physik,
1906

[53],
p.

p. 606.

1062

"

The

Phxjsik,
Stockle.
"The

[20],
Surface

Tension

of

Mercury,"

Annalen

der

Physik,

1898

[66],
Schmidt.

p.
"The

499.

Surface
1108.

Tension

of

Amalgams,"

Annalen

der

Physik,

1912

[iv], 39,
Landolt's

Tables,

1912

Edition,

p.

114

{Physikalisrh-Chemische

TuheUen).

210

Communications

07i

Smith's

Paper

COMMUNICATIONS.
Dr. Smith be C. H. Desch
to
one

seemed
to

described by Mr. (Glasgow)wrote that tlie method but attention might be well designed for its purpose,

of error, namely, the influence of gases probable source The in forming surface layersof oxides or of other compounds. metals it certain that a nd used were was oxidizable, ordinaryprecautionssuch with the apparatus with the surface or charcoal, as an filling covering the insufficient to prevent inert gas, Avere absorptionof oxygen by the called metal.

The

use

of

high vacuum

would

no

doubt

introduce

very
*

serious

but the experimental difiiculties, of molten the viscosities determining


This

consisted

in the

use

of

employed by R. Arpi when metals, might perhapsbe practicable. highlyreducing atmosphere, obtained by
device

of methyl alcohol. There was also vapour to believe that gases other than oxygen were reason capable of exerting of molten metals. influence the surface on an properties Perhaps Mr.

charging hydrogen

with

the

Smith

would

find

it

to possible

estimate

the

amount

of this influence. the determination


of

was now being made Very satisfactory progress of liquidmetals and alloys, such as the properties and surface electrical conductivity, expansibility,

in

their

density, viscosity,

tension.

Sir
very

Thomas useful
to

Rose,
have
was an

D.Sc.
the

(Member
and

of

Council),wrote
observations
deserved
on

that

it

was

results of those
he

record.

Mr.

Smith's

method

original one,

all credit for attacking

line. His conclusions that the amount problems along a new metal of depression of a molten in a capillary tube at different temperatures the and also that constant li at r x was capillary nearly constant, different temperatures was and nearly constant, were striking, appeared had It clear metal also that each to be fully a justified. was specific and presumably a specific surface tension at a given temperadepression, ture. It seemed however, to regard the calculated values of necessary, the surface tensions given in Tables IV. and VI. as only approximations,
those

liable to revision.
another results with

Mr.

Smith's

own

results

differed

from appreciably

one

different sizes of the tubes, and differed .still from the more of others. Part of that divergence due doubtless ence to a differwas

in the methods also. Surface-tension


it
was

used, but the purity of the metals


was

must

be

factor

well known
necessary

to be

reduced

by

and impurities,

therefore
as

to bear

in mind metals

the presence of the substances Smith

examined.
used
were

Some

details

to the

purityof

the

M'hich Mr. his silver and silver and

would

be useful
the It

for future other


was

reference.

Probably
than the

gold
values for
much

purer than other observers. for surface

metals, and
remarkable lower than

purer that whereas

gold of

Mr. other

Smith's

tension

were

those
were

given by

observers and

antimony, lead, bismuth, etc., they higher for gold.


The

higher
of

for

silver

suggestion "Sto^
*

as

to

the

connection

surface
vol.

tension
v.

with

the

International

Jouriial of MetnUogyaphy,\%\\,

p. 142.

Communications
law periodic for In
was

on

Smith's
not

Paper
disregarded.The

211

and interesting,

could

be

sideration con-

of the matter

would

be aided

by

further

o1:)servations to determine,

example, how
devotion
at

far oxidation
to

affected

surface tension.

conclusion,he desired
Smith's
to

bear

of Mr.

that

testimonyfrom while investigation


and
to

by

his officialduties

the
as

Royal Mint,

personal knowledge fully occupied the hope that he express


almost

would Dr.

regardthe
G.
A.

paper

only an

instalment. that the

Shakespear
was

wrote (Birmingham University)

author's work in actual With


be

of much

and interest,

seemed

to be one

culty of great diffimust

manipulation. regard to the reference


that be this
war

to

"surface
to

energy" (p. 175),it


the
a

remembered
had
to

not

equal
area

surface surface

because tension,
was

heat

suppliedwhen
In

the
case

of

increased 0"

at

constant

temperature.
tension
area was

the 76

of

water,

surface

increase of the
surface

the

energy

dynes per about 41 ergs, so that to be supplied was heat-energy became 76 + 41 ergs. Something similar probably
surfaces.

about

at instance, for but centimetre,

for

C,

the unit

each

appliedto
In

molten

metal

the

"drop"

method
that and

originally employed by Quincke (pp.180


weight
of the

and

he 181),

assumed

the

drop

was

the surface tension within


mg

the circumference
that

of the

equal to drop.
must

the

product of
the

Rayleigh had shown, however,


pressure 27rrT A
=

consideration

be

given to
The

the

drop

due

to

the
me

surface

tension which

itself.
T mg
=
"

formula

then

became

27rrT

+ TrrT from

stillcloser

consideration when To

shown was approximation by Rayleighto follow from the of the problem as dynamical rather than merely statical, became
to

the formula enable have


one

nig
=

^.o
.

(SeeRayleigh's papers.)

it would
at the same

successive and The


was

of the author's results, probable accuracy had been been useful if more given for the actual figures of the depression of the same liquid independent readings

judge of

the

temperature.
the
"

questionof
this

angle of
in
a

contact

"

was

one

which regarding
at

it

difficult to

feel at all satisfied.

If the

behaved liquids with


molten
was

all like

mercury of the surface


so

might vary
of the

tube, but

as objectionable

mercury,

capricious way these apparently and perhapscarbon


Table

local difl^erences slight metals


were

not

better than

in glass

in discrepancyshown the author's results and those of Quincke that used have possibly Quincke may correction Rayleigh's
.

this respect. The remarkable

VI.
case

(page201) between
of

in the
the

gold suggested
without author had

"drop"
that

method
the

The

in discrepancies
a

the table

showed generally while

chosen

and therefore difficult, It should be certainly that probable


a

very

suitable, subjectfor

accurate

gation. investi-

worth
deal

continuingthe
be got out
of

observations,
them, perhaps

as

it seemed

great

might

in especially

the

case

of iron and

steel.

212

Communications
R.

on

Smithes
Cass

Paper
wrote Institute)
on

Dr.

S. Willows,
disarmed
a

M.A.
criticism

(Sir John
with

that
"

the

author
contact

had
"

regard to his views


and

the

angleof

If

he

by merely assumed
At
was

confession

of doubt
a

them. concerning would


was

surface hemispherical
have

then
"

contact tangential

should, one

wetting."
Would

the
a

same

time, it

difficult

nothing further, thought,have assumed to see how, if wetting

occurred, there
it not
was

be

the practically It
to be

depression. more likely assumption that the angle of contact for all molten same metals,though not necessarily
a

180"?
was

hoped

that

the author

would

settle these doubtful

points

by further experiments.
Mr.
to the

Smith

wrote, in reply to the

first

point raised by

Dr.

Desch

"

as

other
too

of oxides influence of gases in formingsurface layers probable of which that that eff'ect was evidence was one compounds
"

or

of

only

abundant

in the earlier values

stages
than

array

of discordant
were

for the

values

invariablyless
been

experiments. discouraging was depressions encountered, and these the condithose finally obtained when tions
were

of

the

had
The

improved.
were

values which

then

found

the

highestvalues,and
In

were,
were

in fact,constant
the that figures

under

repeated determination.
put
forward.

all cases,

these

had

been

insuflBcient were objectionthat the ordinaryprecautions to prevent partial oxidation, might be a real one, but the counsel of which he atmosphere of hydrogen perfection suggested, of using an from the ordinary charged with methyl alcohol, differed so completely Dr. conditions
under
a

Desch's

which
course,

metals
if

were

melted

without it
was

tion, oxidaappreciable The attainment


of

that such itself to of


a

would, possible,
of
was
was

feared, only commend


tastes.
success

the

refined
"

discrimination
"

academic
so

specular brilliantly
that
to

surface which

essential to the taken


to
ensure

the

measurements
was

the

care

this

condition from

thought
With

have

been

sufficient to

prevent

any

serious

errors

the

effects of oxidation.

regard to

the

belief that
on

of
was

exertingan
submitted
was

influence that

the

other than oxygen were gases surface of molten properties

capable metals,it
one

the

first call for


to exert
an

lay with investigation influence, namely


amount

the

gas

which
As

known definitely

to

the

of estimating the possibility that

of

oxygen. that influence, it

would

appear

the
as

problem
to

effects of adhesion troublesome.


that
some

make

complicated by the concurrent in that direction exwork tremely quantitative


was
so

The

matter

was,

however,

of

such
to

obvious
deal with

portance imit.

attempt
in Tables

would

be certainly

made

The
drawn

for regarding as necessity

only approximate those figures given for


IV. and
was one

the surface

tensions
be

VI.,

to which

attention
author

had

been
was

by Sir Thomas
should

Rose,

which There

the
was no

himself
to

anxious in the

understood. clearly

pretence

finality

figures.Even

if accuracy

could

be claimed

for the values recorded

214

and Thorneycroft

Turner

Behaviour

of

BEHAVIOUR WHEN
By W. E.

OF HEATED
thorneycroft,
Bowen
IN

COPPER IN
B.Sc,
Scholar
of and and

ZINC A
THOMAS
Professor

ALLOYS

VACUUM.*
TURNER,
of

M.Sc. Metallurgy

(Respectively

Research
THE

University

Birmingham).

Considerable the

attention of metals

has

been

devoted

in

recent

years
a

to

behaviour

and
a

when alloys
of separation

heated

in metal

vacuum,
or

the
at
a

objectbeing to
lower

obtain

the
to

metals

temperature
Reference
to

than

usual, and

prevent loss by
that

oxidation.

patent literature

indicates

such

extent been proposed, and to some processes have The in various countries, and for different purposes.

adopted,
ing follow-

examples
(a)
form
vacuum.

are

worthy

of note W.

1898.

D.R.

104,990.
for

Forence

suggested a special
from

of

retort elliptical

separatingzinc
2782.
from its J.
ores

silver in

(6)

1901.

English
extraction

Patent

C.

Butterfield reduced

patentedthe
pressure.

of zinc

under

(c) 1905.
a

method
in
a

for

English Patent refiningmetals


United
States

19,781.

W.

S.

Simpson
a

claimed
state

in by agitation
Patent

molten

while

vacuum.

(fO

1910.

959,785.

R.

J. McNitt

described of another
a vacuum.

the

in presence by reduction production of sodium metal, and separationby subsequent distillation in

(e)

1911.

United

States

Patent of

996,474.
metals
from

C.

G.

Fink
ores

proposed the
arsenic and

fractional
in
a

distillation

their

by distillation (/)
1911.

vacuum,

specialreference
Patent

being made
W.

to

antimony.
United
States

998,665.

C. Arsem

patented the

refiningof metals, and more of silver from gold by heating separation 1300" in a nearly perfect of about vacuum.
*

the particularly
to
a

temperature

Taken

as

read

at

Statutory Meeting, London,

September

10, 1914.

A Hoys Copper-zinc While of the


there above is
no

when

Heated
evidence
a

in
at

Vacuum

215

available has

present that
measure

any

processes
success,

obtained

considerable

of commercial

with
vacuum,

that to anticipate good reason of producing and improved methods maintaining a and with better lurgical a system of applying heat, metalimportance may ultimately processes of far-reaching the theoretical

there is

be

obtained.
A

contribution
to
were

to

aspect of the
of

was subject

submitted
references

the

Institute

by

one

us,* and

in

this
on

papei*
the

given

to

certain

earlier

experiments

tests conducted scale a on subject. Some practical the importance of a more careful study of the effect

indicated
tions of variafurther

of

temperature
were

and

pressure

in such

work, and

published. The first of these fied by Groves and Turner f indicated that alloyscould be classiinto five groups, accordingto their behaviour heated when in a vacuum ing to temperatures not greatlyexceeding the meltpoint of the alloys. The classification is as follows : metals 1. The non-volatile and the alloy is unaltered are
papers
in
2.

shortlyafterwards

weight.
volatile metal
or

The

3.

4.

5.

completely removed, a quantitative separation resulting. of volatile metal and a chemical is removed Any excess compound remains. is removed, but the residue of volatile metal Any excess is not a chemical compound. The metals composing the alloysvolatilize together, their relative proportions in part, dependent upon the being, temperature employed.
are

metals

The with The

second the

reference has to which paper volatilization of zinc and cadmium


was

been in

made
a vacuum.
a

dealt

J
unit

rate

of volatilization
a

determined
a

by heating
The

at weight,

known

temperature, for

fixed time, with gases.


critical
Heated

different

certain other pressures of air and that after a certain arrived at were
*

conclusions has
of

temperature
in Vacuo
"

T.

Turner,

"

The

Behaviour

of Certain

Alloys when

Journal

the histitiite

of Metals, No. 1, 1912, vol. vii. p. 105. t Transactions of the Chemical Society 1912, vol.
,

ci. p. 585.

Nair

and No.

Turner,

ibid., 1913, vol.

cii. p. 1534.

Abstracted

Journal

of

the Institute

of Metals,

1, 191.3, vol. ix. p. 234.

216 been

Thorneycroftand
reached
the
or

Turner

Behaviour
is

of

once

rate

of volatilization
nature

independent of
that it varies other

the

initial pressure,
the

the

of the

gas, but
In

with directly the

increase
curves

of
are

temperature.
if the

words, all
the be

volatilization

straight lines
initial any

throughout
rate

greater part of their length,and

sented reprewe

by
have

and

the
a

rate

at

higher temperature
which
the

by R^
case

R^
to

R + at, 1.

very
down
a

nearly
about but Below

On

being a constant, exhausting from


of mercury in

in this

is

ordinary pressure
millimetre

5 0 millimetres

each

has

small

equal effect
50

loweringthe
the the

volatilization

ture. temperaeach has when


cessive suc-

millimetres
is

effect of

removing
removed

millimetre

greater,and
1

last millimetre

about the

seventy
pressure
The ascertain the

tunes

the

effect of
50 the

millimetre

is about

millimetres.

object
the

of

present
on

series the

of
rate

experiments
of the

was

to

effect of copper
This
two

volatilization

of

copper-zinc alloys.
exists between

would metals

indicate
under

attraction stances. circum-

which

the

varying
that

There

is the which
to

further have

consideration been

all

librium equiunder

diagrams
had relation

hitherto of
the

publishedhave
metals the with

only

the

behaviour
is

atmospheric
of variations

pressure.

It

constitution

of pressure fresh of the series.

probable that light will be

study
the

thrown

upon

Materials

Used.

For

the

Mond
to

zinc

contain of

alloys electrolytic copper These were were employed. analyzed and of foreign metals. The traces only minute
of preparation the the

and
found
position com-

copper,
the

taken zinc

by difference, was
99*988

99"944
cent.

per
The

yielded per alloyswere prepared by melting in a clay crucible and pouring into a cast-iron mould. Six alloys were prepared,and the proportion of copper by the present carefully determined The iodide method. follows, as composition of the alloyswas the zinc being obtained by difference :
cent,

copper,

while

Alloys when Copper-zinc

Heated

in

Vacuum

217

Experimental The and in


an

Method.

apparatus used

was

similar
of
a

Turner.*

It consisted

employed by Nair glazed porcelaintube, heated


to

that

electric resistance furnace.


was on

The

pump

was

made

in the

and laboratory,

shortened Toepler principle ; a of was employed, and all the apparatus was pressure gauge mined deterglass with sealing-waxjoints. The temperature was of a platinum platinum-rhodium thermocouple by means
inserted between

the

the

tube

of

the

furnace

and

the

It was not couple porcelaintube. possibleto place the thermotube inside the porcelain actually owing to the action of zinc vapour the platinum. The ings upon temperature readat

the

maximum

pointwere
was

accurate

to

about

5" C.

The
and

alloyto placed in
was

be examined
a

in the form

of thin

porcelainboat.
and In

In
of

each

turnings, experiment one


uniform,

gramme

taken minutes. that

the
some

time

heating was

namely,
was

30

ascertained
rate to
was

the size of

preliminary experiments it the turningsused influenced


to to

the

of

volatilization, owing
from
the

the time the

zinc Care
as

diffuse

inside
to

for the necessary outside of the piece.

therefore

taken

have

the same thickness. possible left in the porcelain boat after for copper by analysis by the iodide

turningsof as nearly of the residue The composition the experiment was determined
method.

all the

Experimental The
as

Results. the series of


are experiments

experimentalvalues
:

from

follows

Journal

of the

Chemical

Society 1913,
,

vol. cii. p. 1535.

218

and Thorney croft

Turner:

Behaviour

of
"

Table

I.

"

Alloy A.

Copper 75-12.

Constittdion

of Alloy

Alpha.

the percentage of zinc is that obtained the total zinc in the loss by volatilization from in subtracting In the
above table

the

and alloy, original obtained.

this calculating

value

as

percentage

of the residue

Table

II.

"

Copper

5\-2)?i.

Constitution

of Alloy
"

Beta.

The in Table

percentage of
I.

zinc

in the

above

table

was

calculated

as

Copper-zinc Alloys when


Table
III.
"

Heated

in

Vacuum
Beta + Gamma.

219

43-80. Coi^p^r

Constitution of Alloy
"

The

percentage of zinc in the above


I. and
IV.

table

was

calculated

as

in Tables
Tablk

II.
34-20. Cop23er

"

Constitution

of Alloy
"

Gamma.

The
were

values

for zinc

marked

in the above

table

by

an

asterisk

determined
In the

by the method
was

adopted in
some

Tables

I.,II.,and volatiHzed,
values

III.

as remainingexperiments,

this check

method

not

available,and

copper for these

the

220

Thorneycroftand
was

Turner

Behaviour

of
tbe zinc

copper in the residue difference.


Table V.
"

obtained

and by analysis

by

Copper 20"10.

Constitution

of Alloy
"

Gamma

Epsilon.

As in Table
an

IV. the values obtained

for zinc which

are

marked the

with

asterisk

were

and by calculation,

remaining
Eta.

by figures
Table

difference.
"

VI.

Copper \Q'2b.

Constitution of Alloy
"

Epsilon+

222 and the

Thorneycroftand

Turner

Behaviour
terminate

of
with

curves volatilization-temperature

the

Consequently alloys within this be quantitatively of composition separatedinto their can range shown was as by constituent metals by heating in a vacuum, alloys. and Turner, who Groves experimentedwith copper-rich
vertical

lines

a,

h, and

c.

remaining alloysD, E, F, it will be observed of the that each beyond its corresponding curves passes vertical lines d, e, or /, thus showing that the total volatilizaWith

the three

1000

900

800

I I

30

fO

50

60

70

Percentage
Fig. 1.

VoL/iT/uz/iT/ON.

tion

was

greater than
In other

the

amount
some

of zinc

originally present
volatilized.

in

the

alloy.

words,

for alloy observation curve interesting F, containing8 9" 75 per cent, of zinc, lies below that of pure zinc for the greater part of its length. Alloys which consist of zinc may thus have than a chiefly greater vapour pressure of This increase of volatility, due the presence to pure zinc. metal, resembles the effect on the loweringof melting a second point so often observed on alloying. to Fig.2, a solid model was Referringnow prepared to more and a plan of fullyrepresent the results of these experiments, Another

of the copper is that the

this model

is here

shown.

The

horizontal

axes

of this model

Copper-zinc Alloys when


indicate the boat vertical shown
on

Heated

in

VacMum

223

percentage compositionof the residue in the lain porceand of volatiHzation respectively.The percentage
in the
as

axis

model dotted

indicates
contour

the

plan

is temperature, which lines or isotherms, the

interval between lines in

isotherms adjacent

being

50" C.

The

tinuous con-

composition of residue plotted againstpercentage volatilization for the respective alloys. The for alloys in character, and curves A, B, and C are uniform
Cum. Copper- Zinc Series- Vo/al///zdl/on: Co/npos/tm: Te/nprnfure

Fig.

show

100

90

80

70

60

SO

JO

20

10

Per

Cent
Fig. 2.

Copper.

show

no

zinc-rich

The remaining three curves, for the irregularities. different type, alloysD, E, and F, are of a totally
a

except for
each
cross curve.

short At the
at

distance

at

the

lower

or

zinc-rich
curves

end

of

upper
about
5

ends

of E

and
meet

F the

actually
G50".

each

other

50", and

again at

about

This

of the apparently indicates that the residue from one alloyswas in a condition of metastable equilibrium. At the each point of intersection, the residue from alloy has the chemical same weight and the same composition, yet they behave The in further on differently heating. irregularities the shape of the curves for alloys D, E, and F are due to the

fact that

some

copper

volatilizes with

the zinc.

224
An

croftaiid TJiorney
examination
of the

Tztrner

Behaviotir

of
a

isotherms

shows

that there is

great

The chief interest lies in the direction. in general similarity the composition-volatilization curve valleyalong which runs for alloyF (10"25 per cent, copper). the research on Structural In an interesting Changes of that Mr. D. Ewen, M.Sc.,* has shown Iron during Annealing," of crystals there is a selective volatilization at the boundaries
"

when

metallic polished

surface is heated

in

vacuum.

This
near

is

regarded as supporting the view that the is in the amorphous state. boundaries crystal
well in connection results observed
of
as

metal
It may,

the

perhaps,
how that far

be the

with may

such be
a

researches affected
metal

to

consider
fact

by the

the

presence pressure,

an

impurity in
in the

may

increase

its vapour

observed

alloys. copper-zinc

Conclusions.

The appear

results experimental
to

described

in

the

precedingpages

conclusions: the following justify solid which of the al'plia consist entirely 1. Zinc-copper alloys tion solution have, with increasing temperature, a rate of volatilizawhich is a straight be representedby a curve which can line throughout the greater part of its length. With alloys
which
are

richer in zinc, the


a

curves

show

considerable

tions devia-

from 2. The

line. straight and is higher, the

temperature of initialvolatilization
interval between initial and consist

temperature
is

greater, with

alloyswhich

tion complete volatilizaof the al-jiha entirely

phase than with pure zinc. be divided into two series may 3. Alloys of the copper-zinc tatively they can or cannot be quantiaccordingas to whether groups heated in into their constituent metals when separated than 40 per cent, copper a vacuum. Alloys containingmore which contain less than while with alloys be so separated, can
40

per
4.

cent,

of copper,

part of the copper is volatilized with the


of

zinc.
a containing high percentage Copper-zincalloys

zinc

are

somewhat

more
*

volatile than

pure

zinc.
,

It is not

unlikely

fur Metallographie Zeitschrift

vol, vi.

Copper-zinc

Alloys

ivhcri

Heated

in

Vacuum

225

that

there

is

one

alloy

which

will in in

be

found
words

to

have
to

the

lowest

temperature
vapour
5.

of

volatilization,
than any
to

or

other the

have

higher

pressure

other

series.
zinc from

The
is

heat

required
in

separate
of

alloys
to

rich

in

copper the
6.

considerably
zinc.
exact

excess

that

necessary

volatilize

liberated The

manner

in
not

which
been

copper ascertained.

volatilizes

from

the

zinc-rich

alloys

has

yet

226

Communications

and Thoi^neyci'oft

Turners

Paper

COMMUNICATIONS.
that the author's (Birmingham), wrote in of this field. The the investigations importance present proved paper and valuable research had results,and he produced very interesting be extended and offered the work would opportunity hoped that when

Mr.

O.

F.

Hudson,

M.Sc.

experimental o f the results interpretation work, part the material in the experiments described, from which Thus obtained. volatilization was taking place was undergoing continuous alteration in there also alterations in constitution and in most were cases composition, He in bulk. and thought, therefore,that the figuresgiven for percentage
elaborated.
of He

appreciatedthe
and

difficulties involved the

in the

the

in particularly

volatilization should
rate

in most This did


were

cases

be taken

as

due

to

certain

mean
clusions con-

of volatilization. which the

not, however,
able
to

affect from

the

important

authors

draw

the

results of their

experiments.
Mr. F.

Johnson,

M.Sc.

of internal diff"usion was

(Birmingham) wrote for mainly responsible


in order
to

to

suggest
from

that

the

rate

the

for necessity the

highertemperatures

separate zinc
to

ing employcopper-rich

alloysas stated in the fifth to temperature, as referring


There seemed in the
to

conclusion.
ai;d not
some

be and

aflbrded

that conclusion (He interpreted quantityof heat.) bilities variafor experimental possibility

shape
authors

size of the

samples taken.
must size,

It seemed

clear that

these considerations, viz., shape and


and
a common

attect the rate


some

of volatilization,

the

seemed

to

have

made

effort to have

provided
uniform

standard. there and


must

As

be

some

in procuringturningsof difficulty

width

the writer thickness, had alloys have been been

would

suggest that

should graded filings

be used.
If all the

could
dimensions The

ness thin rolled strips of uniform thickmalleable, of uniform cut out prepared,and suitable pieces
a

by

means

of

standard

punch.
solid

writer
a

which

suggested that a photograph of the plan appeared in Fig. 2, would be acceptable.


Rose, D.Sc.
observations drawn.
gave He in

also

model, of

Sir Thomas number


and of

(Member
that

of paper

Council),wrote
made
to

that

the which

large
the the

it

valuable specially

and interesting, had

great weight
had himself

the

conclusions

experimentson many of zinc from in vacuo, however not volatilization, separation by copper had but in a reducing atmosphere. His been out work to a object
made method copper
was

authors

of
was

never

His analysiswhich he had described.* with zinc volatilized and that always removed by volatilization. Allowances

conclusions
the

were

that zinc for

whole
to

of be

the made

had

both

these
*

defects in the method. of the Societyof


Chemical

convenient

temperature

was

1300"

Journal

Industry, vol. xxxiii., February 28,

Authors
to not
vacuo.

Reply
He
had

and Thoi^ney croft


doubts lingering
some

Turners
similar
at

Paper
results
to

227

1400".
to be

some

whether

were

expected

at

lower

An

examination
them

of the did
not

say results of the authors

temperature,

600"

800"

in

and

of the

previous
some

papers

quoted by
would

those altogether dispel


as

doubts. that
in of

He the
that

like further

information

to the

evidence
copper It

experimentsin Tables
in all other
for
cases

IV., V., and


did
not

VI.

some

and volatilized,
was

copper

volatilize.

clear that

largeamount
where,
cent,

of copper

had 660"

volatilized in the 7854


per
cent,

experimentsin Table
500"
2'44

VI.,
per
was

example,at
per
cent,

and

99-81

of the zinc had

of the copper volatilized. At 94'65 per


cent,

originally present
of the zinc seemed
to

of the

volatilized. that
than

copper Both

present and originally and those experiments

all the others

show

the metals of separating was a less effective method heatingin vacuo in a heating reducing atmosphere, although experimentsat lower that tentative conclusion. temperatures for a longer time might reverse
a

In
the

vacuum

the

zinc had with the

in

no

case

been

reduced
of
a

below

1 per

cent,

of per

residue

except

accompaniment
was

heavy loss (say


to

90

of copper cent.) submitted He

by

volatilization.

that

there

not

sufficient evidence

clusion conjustify
a

as

paper, of zinc from to the separation between to distinguish

No.

3 in the

and

that in any copper


in

attempt

to

form

conclusion should
be and

care by volatilization,

taken

cases

which

ebullition

took of

place
zinc

those in which
cause

it did

not.

He if that

considered metal
were were

that

ebullition

must

loss of copper even and that further

not,

tilized volastrictly speaking,


on

experiments

required, carried

for

ments longertime at temperatures below that of ebullition. In such experizinc should and be determined that both copper he submitted by
in analysis the residues
in order to
remove

another

source

of doubt.

Mr.
that

Thoeneycroft

wrote, in reply to
internal diffusion
was

Mr.
not

Johnson,

that

he

thought
for the

the

rate

of

sufficient to account

in copper-rich zinc from of separating alloys, though it difficulty copper The the of rate volatilization. great undoubtedly had an influence on in A for for of the instance, taining con1), curve (shown Fig. regularity alloy

75'10
other influence

per
at

cent,

work.

copper, Were
curve

seemed
the
rate not

to

show

that

there

was

some

of internal
appear
as more

diffusion
a

the

only

he thought the factor, rather


rate
rose,
as a

should

curve,

concave

downwards,
diffusion would
rate

showing a
increase.

line,but straight rapidincrease in


the
was

of the

volatilization at
rate

higher temperatures, since,as


the

temperature
the

of

internal
that

There

bility, possia

of
manner

course,

of

internal
the
an

diffusion
content
as

varied
the
ensure

in such

with
was

the

temperature
at rate

that such

zinc
amount

of
to

surface
a

layer
of

of

metal

maintained
the of

uniform

increase

in of

volatilization.
was

Apart

from

this,the
very
was

influence in
some

the

rate

internal

diffusion

demonstrated

to be
care

great

experiments,and preliminary
the of preparation o f the same possible

the

great subsequently to get the turningsof alloys,


so

bestowed

on

thickness, and

obviate

this

each as nearly as influence, by making

228
the

AtUhors
effect

and Reply: Thorneycroft


rate

Tuinier

Paper

of the
Yet

of internal be
more

each the

alloy.
curve

it would
was

for

alloyA

for approximatelythe same from seen Fig. 1 that the general slopeof that for zinc than from widely divergent

diffusion

that of any
It
was

of the other
but

alloys.
to

intended originally

photograph the
had been

solid model

shown
was

in

plan
that

in

Fig. 2,
the

after the
scale

model

prepared it
critical would

found

with

horizontal

adopted the
a more

actual

points and
have

so were ranges of little value.

indistinct that relatively


It
was

photograph

been

considered

instructive

to show

the

results in

diagrammaticform
In

in

Fig. 2.
Rose,
he

replyto Sir
did in

copper shown
to

show

thought that there was no doubt that alloys D, E, and F (the results of which were there was evidence Tables IV., V., and VI.),and no absolutely in and volatilized that C, though such alloys A, B, copper
Thomas

volatilize in

evidence of the the

had

been

looked

for. in

It

must

be

remembered with

that

in
was

none

alloy under
coarseness

experimentsconducted even investigation


residue
was

connection molten in
amount

this research
In
a

the
case

in the found
the

condition. form
of of

each

unvolatilized of which

the

powder
copper

the

varied

with

volatilization that in the


to

had had

taken
been

place. Moreover, after those experiments in which


found
to

volatilize

(by

direct
been

estimation
found

of

copper

atilized unvol-

residue had a residue)


of the

firmlycemented

the sides

portions. A sample of that residue and collected, and, after the partial was separation by mechanical means, with cold dilute hydrochloric acid, of zinc which had been by treatment of condensation, the residue the mechanically entangled during process
tube porcelain
was

in the cooler

found
to

to

contain
that

31-3

per

cent,

copper. the

No

importance could be
that copper
not
was

attached obtained
the of
a

however, beyond figure,


residue. The
It

fact

in the sublimed

volatiHzed

alloydid
was

resemble

alloyin physical original appearance.


sublimed metal. than
No 40

had clearly

the

such
per

volatilized residue
cent,

found

appearance when alloys

containingmore
case

copper

were

could

volatilization of copper be detected residue. Since the alloys were not


did
not

and in no investigated, of the volatilized unby analysis

fused, the

question of
with residue
was

ebullition the

arise.
a

It

might
the

be

added

that, in
of
so

connection

suggestionthat
made, small, often
was was

complete analysis of the unvolatilized


cases

should
very

be

in many
not

total

amount

this that

residue
the

exceeding O'05-O'l such of an difficulty analysiswould


in agreement with Sir Thomas less effective method of a the

gramme,

mental experi-

be very
in

great.
copper
a

He
vacuo

that heatingin considering in

certain

reducing though for copper-rich atmosphere, alloyshe thought the method quite if the a used. applicable, temperature approaching melting point were He also ventured to suggest that even heating for a longer time at a
lower

copper-zincalloys than

method

separating zinc from of heating in

temperature

Avould he had

not

prove

much
on

more

effective. 420"

In

some

experimentswhich
cent,

conducted gramme

20"10 alloy E (containing


at

per
tern-

by heating 1 copper)

for

varyingtimes

C.

(a

230

NOTES.*

THE

EXTRACTION
AT

OF
LAKE

NATIVE SUPERIOR,
M.A.,
Ph.D.

COPPER
U.S.A. (Vice-President).

CALUMET,
H. C. H.

By

Professor

CARPENTER,

visited by tlie writer during liis works iuteresting and Hecla the plant of the Calumet recent tour was Mills,Smelter, and Whereas the great Linden Lake at on Superior. Electrolytic refinery
One of the
most

bulk

of the copper

manufactured
oxidized
ores,
or

in the

United
of

States is obtained

either mined

from

sulphideor
and It

mixtures

these, the
in the their

at Calumet

the

occurs neighbouring properties

copper form of native

unique character of copper in the methods extraction,and their interest is heightened by of great malleability and the further fact that just those very properties of high heat and electrical conductivity which constitute to ductility, in its the finished value of metal form, so great an extent the practical
metal. is this fact which

gives

these works

are

veritable

drawback

in its extraction

from

the

matrix

in which

it

occurs.

The

surface of the mines


some

at

Calumet

is about

800 the

feet above
ore

the

lake

level,and

five miles

from

Linden,
to two

whither
a

is

conveyed by
from the 4000 copper

long
to
occurs

trains.

Mining
the

is
ore

now

carried

vertical both

depth

of

5000
as

feet, and
native

is of

kinds, in
"

of which

metals.

Conglomerate,"in which the mostly in a fine state of tolerably evenly copper is This ore division in the rock material, the latter being very hard. in sandstone and indeed resembles a ferruginous quite red, appearance. in the congloEven It contains from TS metal. cent, of to U4 merate, per the of is size the however, particles very variable, and copper be anything from fine grit may up to nuggets of several pounds weight. is the There the as Amygdaloid," in which (2) ore, known poorer (1) There
is

is the

richer

ore

called

distributed

and

"

the

copper
ore

is is of

and highly segregated,


a

is found

This
*

bluish
have of

colour, and
been the who received Institute may

contains
as a

replacing other minerals. only about 0-6 to 0*7 per


an

The

following Notes
to

result of

intimation do

contained
read
as

in

letter issued "The Members,


to

Members invite

on

August
in
a

14, 1914, which


so,

follows: for the fellow

Council short

Members,
on

be for

position to
in the

to

submit

consideration the The


on

and

information
of

of, and
Notes will be
as on
"

discussion

Journal

by, their

Notes

subjects within
such Committee."

Secretary copies
the Publication

send to the scope of the Institute's work, and their inclusion in the Journal, if with view to a receive further

approved by
the

Publication Committee

glad
Ed.

to

Notes,
if

present

Notes,
issues

as

well

further

Notes,

which,

also correspondence suitable, will be included

in

subsequent

o[ the Journal.

Extraction
cent,

of Native
copper
tons.
masses

Copper

231

of

metal.

Some

of

the

aggregate.s in the amygdaloid


The
writer
was

are

very

and large,

of copper of less frequent are large at the the occurrence present depths of mining than in the ore nearer still they are occasionally after so surface, met with, but that even now, of mining there is no satisfactory method experimenting, be left in have to situ. they The Conglomerate and Amygdaloid are treated in separate mills for the removal of the metal far as possible from the ore as body. The many

that

weigh although these very

several

given to understand

them,

years and

of

Specimen

of Native

Copper (Lake Superior).

Mas;nified 100 diameters.

problem
ores,
or

is

entirelydifferent from
of

the in

milling of sulphideor
the

oxidized
in

mixtures

these,

because

Calumet

ore

it consists

metal from a extractingmechanically a very soft and plastic very hard the in both mills is to crush oi'e body. Brieflystated, adopted principle and then transfer the mass it by gravityto a singlestamp coarsely, it meets of water under sufficient pressure stream a mill, where to keep the rock and lighter the metal particles while heavier suspended, lumps of the mortar. accumulate at the bottom Every three hours the latter

is
of

opened
chilled
than

and
cast

the

accumulations last

removed.

The

stamp shoes
so

are
a

made

iron, and
obtained

only
any

four

days.
of

Even steel

this is has

better

restdt

that

with

form

that

been

tried,

232

Extraction
testifies to the hardness
of separation the

of Native
of the
from
or ore

Copper"
A

and

body.
the

complete description
does
not
come

of the
the

copper

matrix

within
the

scope

either of this

note,

of

subjects ordinarily presentedto


to

Institute of Metals, and


concentrates
"
"

it must

suffice

say

that
are

the

richness

of the
copper

may

be

apart from the coarse 25 and anything between


from 75
to

which pieces

nearly pure
The

75 per

cent.

total extraction

is stated to be

Hitherto million
copper
tons

the

per cent. have been mill tailings

80

run

into the lake, and


lake and the

some

40

lie

there, making
vivid mill The

wonderfullypicturesque
have

burnished

beach

the against woods.

blue of the

brilliant green

however, recently metallurgists, leaching scheme for these tailings.Accordingly and is to beginoperations a powerful suction dredge has been installed, that extraction, it is anticipated shortly. Having regard to the original
of the

pine
a

worked

out

successful

bring the total extraction up to 96 per cent. and The draining,are shovelled into cars products,after classifying the of the Some to transferred and melting furnaces, a mile distant. is of a remarkable only needs degree of purity,and literally copper oxidation followed to with a slight by poling," bring it up to melting, pitch. The less pure varieties have to be melted with a little flux,and
the

scheme leaching

will

"

"

the

slag from

this is smelted

in the

one

blast-furnace

that

the

ment establish-

refined it is cast If the copper is to be electrolytically possesses. into anodes in the Walker machine, otherwise it is cast direct into wire-

bar form. The refined is of two kinds : only copper that is electrolytically sufficient silver to containing pay for the cost of extraction. That properties. having enough arsenic to interfere with its conductivity the steamer to Until quiterecentlythe copper was shipped by
"

1. That 2.

of the writer's visit the new at Buffalo ; but at the time refinery refinery the and usual is the in at Linden treating was just being started, copper the parallel or multiple system. way, i.e. on of native Lake A photomicrogi'aph Superior copper is appended with of Mr. Bardwell, of the the writer owes to the kindness this note, which Boston and
at

Montana Great

Reduction

Works

of the Anaconda The

Company
and

Falls, Montana.
is that way. of the and

Copper Mining is 100 diameters, magnification


metal, which
of has
not

the structure

of the
The very

native

been
two

treated artificially
reasons:

in any

structure

is remarkable the

for

(1) on
of the Mr.

account

large size

cause crystals ; (2) beseveral of them

well-marked Bardwell

plentiful twinning which


the writer have
that

exhibit. been heated


tons

informed he
The
an

if this that

specimen had
it had

artificially prepared
to about

would

concluded
of

been

1000"

C.

breaking stress
extension
of 0-6

per 100

square

inch, with

electrical conductivity, as of
per per
cent,

compared with the to conductivity, corresponding


was as

this copper 26"5 was 5 feet. Its per cent, on standard annealed copper
a

of resistivity

0'15328

ohms
per

metre-gramme,
after

follows 500"
of

in

the

hard-drawn
per
cent.

cent.;

annealing at
its

C,

101 '5

state, 98'8 The latter above values

figureindicates

high degree

chemical

purity.

The

Extraction

of

Native

Copper
supplied
the

233

have

been

furnished chemical

by

Mr.

Bardwell,
:
"

who

has

also

ing follow-

partial

analysis

Arsenic
. . . .

0'0019
.
.

per

cent.

Antimony
Silver

0-0022 5 '5
ounces

per

ton.

The visited

Boston

and

Montana

works his of
and
recent

at

Great
tour

Falls in which

are

the

only

ones

by
is

the

writer

during
a

microscopic
in
in
"

lography metaluse.

definitely
of taken

part
rod

the wire
with

works
is
"

equipment
examined

regular
way, and

Each

batch

finished and

this

photograph
increasing
in the

compared
of and

standards
test

containing
to

regularly
the
to

percentages
finished bar

oxide.

The
and

is

used it is the
of

estimate time fail


copper the

oxide

wire,
it
that

although
seldom
occurrence

from

time
to

trolled con-

by
It

chemical be

analysis,
understood
to

is the the the

that

results native
of

agree. is

should confined
are

by

no

means

the

mines virtue native native has


copper had of

in

neighbourhood
fact that

Lake the whole


many with

Superior.
of the

These

unique
in

by
the

practically
are,

metal
copper oxide
;

occurs

form.
copper

There
occurs

however,

oxidized red cuprous

deposits
and of

where writer

crystallized
fortune
various
to
see
a

the

the

good
from

great
e.g.

variety large

of

forms

crystallized
isometric

obtained
of

place.s,
tree

welltions, forma-

developed
and

crystals

cubical

form,
forms.
at

pine
One
Lake

skeleton the
most

irregularly
is

shaped
in

arborescent
museum

of

striking
and
is that

specimens
of

contained
copper

the

Salt

City,
of

Utah,
some

salmon-coloured

encased

in

quartz

sheath

thickness.

234

High Temperature

Tensile

Tests

of Copper

THE

EFFECT ATMOSPHERIC AND WROUGHT


ITS

OF

TEMPERATURES ON TENSILE AND AND


A

HIGHER TESTS COMPARISON OF

THAN COPPER WITH

ALLOYS,
IRON

STEEL.*

(No. II.)
By Professor A. K.

HUNTINGTON,

A.R.S.M.
of

(Past-President),

(University
In
on
"

London).

paper

on

The of

Effects of

Temperatures Higher than


its

Tensile

Tests

Copper

and

t Alloys,"
and for

curves

were

others, for
those

pure arsenic).In Figs. 1 and

electrolytic copper
2
curves

arsenical copper
other coppers

Atmospheric given, amongst (0"234 per cent, are plottedwith

and publishedby the author for electrolytic previously copper for comparison. arsenical copper (0'234per cent, arsenic) the curves which In Tables I. to IV. the data from were plottedare down 1 inch diameter turned all bars to 0-5 inch were given. The test 2 inches. J the tested length,which on Avas

Table

I.

"

Copper {tested Electrolytic 13.3.06).


in Laboratory 2 hours
at

Annealed

600" C.

Professor

but

owing

to

there

Huntington's Note is somewhat being no verbal discussion


have been

fuller than
at

such

Notes

are

intended it

to

be,
the than

the

last than

Meeting
usual,

of the
hence

Institute,
was

Jourtial,
desirable
was

of publishing this Note in a somewhat intended. Ed. originally t Journal of tlie Institute of Metals, No. 2, 1912, vol. viii. pp. 126-144.
"

in consequence, would take the opportunity to

smaller

thought

fuller form

% The tests, except those marked " made by Mr. R. A. Woollven recently on the same made who assistant in the rod, were was an by Mr. R. A. P. Davison, A.R.S.M., copper author's laboratory for eighteen years, having previously been with Mr. Riley,recently in his work. He deceased, for eleven was exceptionallycareful and methodical years. The data for the Le Chatelier curve (Fig. 2) are taken from Dr. Bengough's paper in the
Journal

of the

Institute

of Metals,

No.

1, 1912, vol. vii. pp.

123-174.

^ NOUWONOig

236

of Temperatwes Higher Effect


Table II.
"

than

Arsenical
in

21.12.00). Copper (tested


2 hours
at

Annealed

Laboratory

600" C.

Table

Ul."Cojyper
Not re-annealed in

{tested 10.4.99).
Laboratory.

Table
Annealed

IY."
in

Copper (tested 27.10.02).


Laboratory
2 hours
at

600" C.

238

of Temperatures Higher Effect


there
is
a

than
soft commercial

fact that
coppers

sucldeu

reduction
at

in

in elongation
are

when

the that in
a

temperature
reverse curve

which
commences

they

tested about

rises to 200" 350" the


to
curves

to

300" The 350" 300"


the

C, and
increase
to

at

400"

C.

however, which elongation,


of
a

is that

seen

on

above

400" This

C, is

different

nature

to

produced below
of

250"

to

C.

is shown No.
1

by
and of

the

difference in the amount

necking
C. This

in

specimens of
250"
seen

copper very
area

(Fig.3).
curves

Considerable 350"
to

necking occurs
450" is the the also show
way than

below
best

to

300"

C,

little above

in the

reduction

effect of the presence


curves. elongation

of arsenic The

even

in

more

(Fig.4), which pronounced


3
causes
a a

arsenic in Nos.

2 and

ing distinct stiffenis

up

whilst

the

necking remains

good

until

higher temperature
for
some

reached. At from
and
seen

highertemperatures cracks are liable to occur the principal fracture,in fact at any point on to the fracture if a section be cut perpendicular that the metal has examination on microscopic
the whereas the lower

distance

the tested
or

portion,
it will be

cracks

failed at the inter-

at temperatures the fracture has crystalboundaries, themselves, which are also distorted. taken place through the crystals Plate XVIII., shows cracks 4 millimetres The photomicrograph Fig. 7, bar No. 1, originally from the fracture of the electrolytic distance copper in re-annealed hours at 600" C. in laboratory 1906, recently annealed two

for two

hours

at

750"

C. and

tested

at

350"

C.

The

usual

was difficulty

in etching up experienced
matter

the structure
tested In

of the

highly strained
or

copper,

no

whether
at

it had
or

been C.

unannealed
cases

after

annealingfor two
see

hours

600"

750"

all three
are

it is not

difficult to

with

the microscope that


a

the fractures

but intercrystal,

it is difficult to

get

for a photomicrograph. It can, development of structure satisfactory in well however, be seen photomicrographFig. 7, Plate XVIII. quite boundaries.* that the cracks follow the crystal The

author

elastic limit

would slight, its resistance. This it does, according to increases automatically lia^""u the crystalline metal from material at Beilby,by generatingamorphous the slip planes,and, in the opinionof the author, also at the boundaries thus formed of the crystalgrains. The amorphous matter by work on be made metal to recr3'stallize by heating to a certain temperature a can for a certain time ; the temperature required being lower the longer the when series of hot tests is made, In the author's opinion, time allowed. a becomes difficult for the change the temperature is raised it increasingly as the crystalline state to take from to the amorphous spondingly place,and correthat easier for the reverse to happen, so at a certain temperature for a given rate of loading the crystalline metal at the slip planes is no longer able to assume boundaries the amorphous state ; and crystal
*

views : When the held the following years many is reached increase in the load, however of a metal any it not that the metal pari fracture, were cause inevitably
has for

With

increased

dealing with them,


the
most

but

experience with these particular structures those produced in the neighbourhood


See

there of about

was

less trouble

in

290"

were

always

difficult to obtain.

photomicrographs

in Plates

accompanying

this Note.

Atmosphericon
W^^:ZW".

Tensile
"m'LM

Tests

of Copper

239

.k^'-tWAiiiKMaa

iiiai
/5

l^tS

ZOi-

232

28a

*'C.

Ill III
S/"
J43 57/

f27

^82

S/O^C.

Fig.

3.

"

No.

Copper,

13'3

0(1.
out

(2(iO was

not

found

in time

to

include

in Plate.

It shows

drawing

intermediate

between

204" and

232" C. )

Temper/^
Fig. See also 4.

ture

Appendix .A, diagrams

6 and

7.

240
in

Higher Effectof Tempe7^atures


the parlance, metal

than
take up

common

is

no

longer able
load. strain

to

work,
to

and

thus A

the stiffen itself automatically against

metal

subjectedto
attacked

mechanical harmful

human

body

by

bacilli.
human

be may The metal

compared
defends

the

producingamorphous material,the
If the bacilli are
to

in sufficient number human

by toxin. body by generating an antiat first, or vigorousenough


form

itself

rapidlyincrease, the
and

body
the

cannot

the

antitoxin
to

fast

an ceases. enough, stiffen itself up at a high temperature it cannot adequate stress when in condition and it gives the amorphous sufficiently by assuming part If,however, the load separatingat their boundaries. way, the crystals the the metal may below is applied at critical, temperatures very rapidly break owing to work having been put on it causing through the crystals it. the heat can counteract the formation of amorphous metal faster than

life

So

with

metal, if it is subjected

Thus

it will be

seen

that

even

inanimate

nature

can

put

up

for fight

! self-preservation The shapes of the viz.

curves

are

determined
There and
are

by

temperature, time, and


and many heat

load.

also others, such

mechanical has made collect and

treatment

chemical
these

bearingon experiments

factors, principal as previous composition. The author but he is unable to points,


three

the results in time for inclusion in this note. arrange leaves open the question The foregoing to why the cracks pass round as and at high temperatures when the boundaries not through the crystals the

amorphous

metal

ceases

to form.

If it is assumed

that

in worked

metal
not

low temperatures exists relatively at the crystal also between grains

Beilby'samorphous metal at the slipplanes but only between


it would in the follow

their boundaries, then would


of

that

cohesion The minute

at

the

boundaries
At low

grains.
very

crystalgrainsconsist
lamellae. between
the

crystal arranged layersof systematically


be

greater than

temperatures, when
consist of

amorphous
be

metal

can

form, the boundaries the crystal as grains,

crystal grains would


be

they

would

stout relatively

stronger than layers of the

fine made amorphous up of alternate In these circumstances and layers of crystalline amorphous metal. take placethrough the crystal fracture would tures, grains.At highertemperathe ceased to exist, weaker when the amorphous metal became or and less would be the conditions reversed ; systematicallyarranged would take place and fracture would boundaries be the weaker stouter

metal, whilst the

grainswould

through them.
If the effect of work there
on
no a

metal

can

be

removed appear

by heat, as
to follow

ing, in annealthat
were

of which

is

doubt,
unable

then

it would

the unworked
load able

metal

placedunder
be

similar conditions
to take

of

temperature
it would
at the

and

it would applied
to

up

work,

i.e.that
state

not

be

pass

from

the

to the crystalline

amorphous
examination that
to be

junctions

of the

lamellae and

grains. crystal this shows Note accompanying


coumion

An

of the
case.

the

graphs photomicro-

It is

the It has not

above atmospheric knowledge that at temperatures not greatly draw fracture takes placethrough them. out and crystal grains in the series of been considered necessary to include this region

Plate

XVI II

Fig.

5.

"

Copper

(1-2 per

cent.

Arsenic).

Fig. 6." Copper

(1-2per

cent.

Arsenic).

Rolled Rod, 10.4.".t9). Jan. 1906. with dilute HCl-FeCla. Etched Vertical Illumination. Magnified320 diameters. Outlines of crystals well marked. Globules of Cu.iO (red by transmitted, blue flected by rewithin crystals. light)

(No. 3

(No. 3
Etched

Rolled

Bar, 10.4.99, annealed 10 hours at 700= C). Jan. 1906. with Ammonia. Vertical Illumination.

Reduced

Magnified320 diameters. as (red large spherical CujO segregated globules bv transmitted, blue bv reflected light). 15 per cent, in reproduction. approximately
"

annealed, Originally
Tested
at

350" C.
Etched

Shows

2 hours cracks

at

600^ C.

reannealed, 2 hours
bar

at

750''C.

across

of with Ammonium Persulphatewith excess Magnified44 diameters, and reproducedsame

of portion crystal grains. tested

followingboundaries
Ammonia. size.

Plate

XIX

_i^ "i^f?^Fi

Y y^f^^rir*^

*--?t5z
-

-i-

;^",.

,1

"

"L^i2J

iirF?'.; ;5/.'4{"

Fig.

8." Annealed

two

hours

at

600 125

C.

Tested

at

232'

C.

(450 F.).

Magnified

diameters.

Fig.

9."

Annealed

two

hours

at

600" C.
125

Tested

at

260

C.

(500"F.

Magnified

diameters.

Pi. ATP

XXI

Fig.

12."

Annealed

two

hours

at

(JiW C.

Tested

at

399

C.((7r)0'F.).

Magnified 200 diameters.

Fig.

13."

Annealed

two

hours

at

600" C.
200

Tested

at

538" C. (1000"F.

Magnified

diameters.

Atmosphericon
draw although the crystals
out
a

Tensile
At

Tests
somewhat and
some

of Coppei'fracture

241

(Plates photomicrographs XIX.-XXI.).


good

deal

placethrough them,

it will

be

seen

that

relation to the strains part at the boundaries In the photomicrographs (Plate XXI.) a further
at crystals

highertemperatures, takes generally crystals badly placed in XIX. and XX.). Plates (see

change is observed.
are

The selves them-

hold also

they part at the boundaries to collapse units throughout, justas if the crystal the appliedstress. together against
same

the

time that

seen no

could

longer

The

conditions in 1912 the

which

have These

been

shown

to exist in the case

occur

alloys of

copper, for
curves,

which
out

curves

are

of copper given in the

author's

paper.

got

practical purposes,
Benedick's

IV., and

paper on that for

agree remarkably well * that for Allotropy


"

many years ago for purely with the theoretical curves in coppers

60/40

copper

zinc with

IV.

or

that the critical suggested in copper- zinc

point the
about
curve

existence

of

comparing with Curve III. Carpenter has which lished he firmlyestabwith

/? at

470"

C,
for

is connected that the

the

change
he
in

pointin
The

Bengough

and

Hudson's

70/30 brass, f
curves

first the the

still further and goes in discussion the on published


author

considers

which
paper

Carpenterand

Edward's

of Mechanical author's

of the Institution Eighth Report of the Alloys Research Committee and in with other curves 1908, Engineers, subsequently

1912 it quite clear that the same critical papers, make all exist in and in these that due the main they are points alloys, copper itself. In the 60/40 copper-zinc to the copper alloythe zinc doubtless

playsan
750"

importantpart.

that copper C. ; zinc at 1 1 0" and 300" C. ; and aluminium In at 300" and 530". for 60/40 copper-zincalloyin 1912 the author's curve paper " there is a fall in elongation 260" C, a fresh curve remarkable about commencing

heat determinations by specific undergoes allotropic changes at 350", 550", and

Le Verrier

has

shown

about
accounts
curves

300" C.
for in the
a.

or

sooner.

If the upper

pointis equally abrupt it probably


clear evidence of
an

Carpenterbeingable to obtain
case

arrest

in his

of

zinc much

It is to be remarked
more

ftthough it did not show up copper-zinc that the allotropic changes are
the series of tensile tests the
do than

evident

in

they

in coppermade very in the are

heatingand
In

coolingcurves.
1912 paper
over curves

the author's

not

quitereach

the

pointsat
case

which
the little

they

turn finally

downwards,

except

in possibly

the

of

The others are evidently alloyat about 480" C. only a copper-tin and from Hudson's work, which higher and, judging Bengough shows 70/30 copper-zinc at about 470". a, are and The author considers that the curves in this photomicrographs and recrystallization that the annealing of metals Note make it probable
and

their behaviour

under

stress

by allotropic changes. Over a side of the upper allotropic point, althoughif


*

temperatures are controlled certain range of temperature on either


a

at various

stress

was

with applied

See Appendix B, and Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute,No. II. 1912, p. 244. t See Appendix C, and Jour7ial of the Institute of Metals, No. 1, 1911, p. 142. X See last paragraph of Appendix B. See

Appendix

to

this Note.

242

Effectof Temperatures Higher


amount

than

great rapiditya small


when
structure.

tlie fracture takes Then


lower
some

by slipcan probably occur, elongation of the crystal place there is a complete collapse
comes
a

of

crystalscan place by rupture at elongateby in which is there the a the crystal boundaries. region Finally crystals the takes fracture and place through crystal only. grains by slip elongate until such time the discussion in matter sake as For brevity's may have been dealt with by the Nomenclature Committee, the author will pointswith which he is concerned speak of the upper and lower allotropic
down range

in which takes

the

slipto

extent, but

fracture

in this communication Rosenhain


and
T/a"

AKHas
j

and

AKHg.
"

Humfrey, in their

paper

on

The

DeformaTenacity,

70

60

SO

30

20

10

-300-200-100

0-1- loo

eoo

300

foo

500

600

700

800

900

/ooo

//oo

/eoo

Temperature
Fig. 5.
"

"^

tion, and
Iron
and

Fracture

of Soft

Steel at

High Temperatures

read

before

the

curves

for mild steel at high temperaSteel Institute, gave tures a curve the lines of the heatingand cooling that it followed and showed that in the neighbourhoodof in the /3region. They also showed iron fractured
out

900"

C. the

round

the

drew crystals Dr.

and
a

fracture

took
"

750" whilst below crystals, place through the crystals.


Causes

C. the

Injury to Steel after before Manufacture Engineers and Shipbuilders in 1913, gave in Scotland a diagram (see Fig. 5),*in which he pieced 200" and 18" C. by the breaking-bond curve obtained between together Rosenhain's 14" and 427" C, and Hadfield, that of the author between
Desch,
in paper

entitled
the

Some

of

"

read

Institute

of

"

curve

between
*

656"

and

1080"
Iron

C.
Institute, No.
I. 1913, p. 23S.

the Jjournalof

atid Steel

Atmospheric on
The

Tensile

Tests

of Copper

243

author

suggests

that

and recrystallization, annealing,


to to

pointcontrolling A.^is the upper allotro})ic and in is equivalent iron, "working"

the

AKHo
where whether

pointin
the

show

and its alloys. He has not data available copper to loAver allotropic AKH^ change corresponding

comes,

it is at

the

hump

in his iron

curve

or

at

some

higher

temperature.
that there should be theory requires something of the a gradual change as the temperature rises or falls, of straining. and rate R stress R form S", S being maximum iron diifereut at in As Rosenhain examining temperatures did not find The

viscous-amorphous cement
=

this condition which

he fulfilled,
not

assumed

that He

it would

have
"

been
. . .

so

if the bolic para-

changes had allotropic


law

intervened. referred
have
to

has

been

says, p. 258, above in this connection

the

is

exactly

the
the

which relationship
flow of
a

would

been

obtained

from

experimentson
iron, however,
critical

very

the

matter

is

on liquid. In the experiments the influence the two of complicatedby

viscous

points

Arg

and

Ar^."
author's render the

construed

rightly changes AKHj, AKHo opinion the allotropic form of viscous necessary. unRosenhain amorphous cement between cement for an amorphous the necessity In suggesting to have and others appear Rosenhain, Sears, Bengough, grains, crystal
In

the

overlooked

the

fact that

it is

only

Avhen

the metals

are

worked

that the

this

necessityarises,and that then it is automaticallymet It is true into existence of Beilby'samorphous metal.


not

by
that

coming

Beilby has
it

of

pointedout the presence specifically but the crystalgrains, by definition


he
"

of this material he
"

in the boundaries

appears

to

admit tacitly
the

when

says

on

p. 6 of his

According to
all the internal

this

May Lecture : * theory,hardeningresults


of
or slip

from

formation

at

layerssimilar to those produced on the outer surfaces by polishing.These layers their mobility for a very brief period and then solidify retain only in a vitreous amorphous state, thus forming a cementing material at shear throughout the mass." all surfaces of sli]) or
surfaces shear of mobile
be difficult it would examining the author's photomicrographs, lamellfe the crystal that if amorphous material exists between agree

After
not to

it must draw

also form
out
as

between
are seen

the

boundaries. crystal
done

The
on

could crystals
their

not

to have slip which the originally globules copper-oxide by emphasized in the surrounded the photomicrographs seen crystalgrains and are of cement, into lines. drawn amorphous out speaks Beilby Although his for to be sufliicient there would amorphous not appear endowing reason and assumed known The of a cement. material with the qualities perties proall the would to meet of the amorphous metal requirements appear it of the case cement. without a considering of mobile The existence layers of vitreous amorphous momentary

they

without

boundaries.

This

fact

is

metal

between

the

lamellae is

remarkable

natural

for provision
an

cating lubri-

taking them, thus ensuringelongation


*

placein

orderly

manner

Journal

of the

Institute

of Metals

No.
,

2, 1911, vol. vi.

244
without
in and
a

Effectof Temperatures Higher


undue

than
with
a

friction.

At

highertemperatures, just as
friction fails,
is set up between journal does in the fracture

journal

bearing,the lubrication

the lamellae

just as the they begin to seize, ultimatelythey actually do seize and without planes which regard to the slip
ceased
"

takes

until bearing, place irregularly purposes

to all intents at

and
at

have

tures boggles lubricating high temperait has of time Perhaps in a hotter in coui'se be There limits to its to no evolved some satisfactory appear system. circumstances. of accommodating itself to its surrounding powers and AKH, to the AKH^ If function by the author be assigned of what happens at about 470" C. admitted, then Carpenter'sexjjlanation be accepted. He claims that cannot in copper- zinc alloyscontaining /? ^ breaks up into a higher and a lower phase,viz. a + y. If the author's be the Whatever case. change explanationbe accepted this cannot in character,and not a phase change. takes placeit is allotropic that we but little doubt There are dealing with phenomena appears it would appear metals and alloys. If that is conceded to many common all the observations on likelyto advance the elucidation of the subjectif and correlated matter this and different metals were alloys bearing on
to

exist.

Even

Nature

in

this

world.

considered The
use

together. phasesin alloysof /?, y, "c., to denote and allotropic changes in simple metals percentage compositions
of

the

same

letters

a,

different
and
we

solid have

is likely to solutions, and below /3 A3 only and

lead to considerable
y the

confusion.

In

iron

above, but
a

both

above

below

AKH."
y

we copper-zinc which it is point allotropic

in

have

/?

believed

corresponds to
that the

A3, and

denotes

phase

with

more

zinc.

It is suggested

are

ing, annealpoints AKHj and AKH., allotropic of metals whilst being wrought, and the behaviour recrystallization, of such great practical importancethat they should have appropriate

which

control

names

common

to

all the

metals

assigned to

them.

This

should

prove

useful and

work congenial

for the Nomenclature

Committee.

In

the concluding,

author

has

much
Mr.

pleasure in acknowledging the


E,. A.

valuable
the

given him and curves photomicrographs


assistance

by

Woollven

in

gettingout

accompanying this

paper.

APPENDIX
The
cases

A.
does
not

information refer to
the Two

given
rods from

in

this
in

Appendix
The

in necessarily
or were

all

tips used
were

making
rod.
one

other

measurements

micrograp photoplotted
A

examined.
same

tensile

curves

from the
i.e.

cut test-pieces

the

In the first series of millimetre

Appendix

in crystals
a

ten

different

fields of

lengthwere
the

counted,

line

one

millimetre the

in

length was
of

100

diameters,and
were

number

sections counted

to perpendicular at
a mean

the

screen magnified projectedon The it counted. cut crystals by fields The the of axes test-pieces.

were

distance

of 4 millimetres

from

the

fracture.

246

of Temperatures Higher Effect


(8) Bar
tested at

than

538"
=

C.

(1000" F.).

Number

of 40.

crystals per millimetre


of

40, 48, 40, 46, 39, 42, 39, 40,


=

39,
Mean Mean

number size of
at

crystals j^er millimetre


=

41*3.

crystals
section
=

24*93

/a.

Diameter

9-88

millimetres.

Summary.

The the

second

series itself.

was

made
one

as

check.
on

A each

small
was

flat

was

ground
At

on

fracture

Only
the

field

measured.
to
measure.

the

highest temperature

grainswere
II.

too

broken

up

Second
taken

Series.
on

1.

Reading

each

tip.

In
are

curves

(Figs.6

and

the 7, opposite) of the

mean

sizes of
where the

the

crystals
were

shown

measured

plotted with the diameters for comparison.

bars

fields

Atmosphericon

Tensile

Tests

of Copper

247

mo

2O0

300 OF
6.

900

soo

600

TEMP"R/^TUff"
Fig.

TesT

200

SOO

WO of

600

Temperature
Fig.

Test.

7.

248

Effectof Temperatures Higher


APPENDIX B.

than

According to perceptible may,


as

Benedicks
in the the

allotropy is property in which every the be regarded proximity of pointof transition,


*
"

depending
"I. The

on

temperature
from
"
to
c

in four

and principal

different

"

ways

(typesof allotropy).
deviation
at the transition (Fig. 8, I.f) occurs temperature T perfectlyabruptly, so that

neither
nor

the

curve

(for the deviation perceptible


they have
transition
TZMP
*

cd

modification) (forthe show ^ modification) any


ab
a

from

the

'

normal
from

'

course

at

some

distance

T.

The

The

body

occurs quite a, lithus alters properties suddenly ;

of

sharply.
no
tinuous con-

transition
may

also be

/3 place. that by saying expressed


a,

takes

This

both

modifications

are

insoluble ideal
case

in each which
the

other.

77- a

"

"

This

is

the been

hitherto

generallyhas
of
an
"

regardedas thought
more

expression
one

transformation. allotropic II. It may


ah
'

be cd

that
or

of the
from

curves

or
'

deviates

less
on

x/

"jj J

the
, ,

normal

course

(shown
the

in

dots

the

'" T

'" T,

when followingfigures)

temperature approaches T, thereby approaching the other


is the with
case

curve.

This
the
a

either

with

ab

(Fig.8, II.,a) or
this
case

cd

transformation said to
T

8, II.,h). In (Fig. less becomes a, (3


taken

abrupt;
may the be
can

part of the
be

transformation allotropic

have

placebefore
It may

temperature

is reached.
:

also
a

expressedas
dissolve
;
no a

follows certain

the

modification
or

versa
,

IV

I
T,
Fig. 8. TEMP^

"III. and
course

cd

quantity /?, is hereby made. supposition It is further possible that both ah deviate from the respectivenormal (Fig.8, III.)in the proximityof T.
vice

real

'

'

The
means

transformation
with

a,

fi becomes

by these
be

still less

shai'p.
has normal

In

analogy
a

that both
"

modifications The
the
manner case

have

limited be

it may preceding, for the other. solubility

the

said

IV.

yet

to

considered,when
ah and cd
occurs

the

transformation
a tinuous perfectlycon-

between

two

curves

in

mean

(Fig.8, IV.) case, may between the supposed modifications,no tropic alloperfectmiscibility will the definito occur transformation-temperature corresponding
which

In

this

also be said to

Journal

of the

Iron

and

Steel

Institute, No.

II. 1912,

pp.

244-246.

t Ibid., p. 244.

Atmospheric

on

Tensile

Tests

of Copper

249

be fully tion ; but it may to speak of a transformation justifiable range. of this An found is in the liquid in nature state (forinstance example that gases having molecules instance iodine). temperatures (for " It is not logically unimaginablethat either
.
. .

sulphur)and

in

dissociate

at

increasing
could,
course

or

both
the

the

curves

when the the

the

temperature approachesT,
to

deviate

from

normal

in

oppositedirection
transformation

what become

has

been previously discontinuous

supposed,whereby
than in
case

could

more

I. ;

but this
"

is,from
I.-IV. said

physical reasons,
III.

almost
be

inconceivable. it Strictly speaking, In case. physical general

Cases be

to have, therefore,

considered.

may

that

ought
is

to

represent the

graduallyworking its way that it is always certain solubility between bodies. account two a necessary shown Bornemann that in certain cases fusionhas, for instance, recently the of which demands are fullyagree with diagrams, thermo-dynamics, if small, reciprocal even obtained,only provided that a certain, solubility
to

chemistry the

conviction into

take

between
"

the components or between two Solubility different bodies


cannot

combinations modifications
be

is assumed.
of the
same

body

and

between

two
"

It may

therefore

be

regardingan
of

said to present any essential difterence. natural asserted that the most legitimately position supis that its course is that transformation allotropic the be
others
as

type III.,which
should

embraces
case

attention
of how
or,

in every the deviations large

given
a

to

from

the normal

cases special ; afterwards determinations experimental lines (a", be resp. aX) may

in

other

words,

to

what

degree

reciprocalsolubility may

be

supposed.
"

as

between two modifications, insolubility suppose a perfect little justified that has usually been done, is probably to suppose as as

priori to

sulphateof
is evident any

barium that

soluble in perfectly experimental proofs must

is

water.

On

the other

hand,

it

be

requiredbefore supposing
modifications.

mentioningbetween two is not in opposition to the phase rule, while, on the solubility the of the modifications two assumption of an aggregate contrary, under different at constant pressure) occurring temperatures (and
"

worth solubility
a

Such

would certainly
Professor

be."
"

in his paper The Critical Ranges of Pure on Carpenter, attention to a paper Iron,"* after quotingBenedicks' views,calls special fessor Eine neue entitled Theorie der ErscheinungAllotropie," f in which Pro"

A.

Smits

puts

forward

the

view

that

"

heterogeneous allotropy
the existence solid
of of

(two phases existing) always that in one or allotropy,


modifications

correspondsto
and of the
same

geneous homo-

liquidor
a

exist in

state

solution The

with

state

phase both equilibrium

which

varies with

regarded as
solution of

transition points are allotropic of solid a homogeneous being the splitting up {Entmisclmng) The author's the two modifications." curves might also be the temperature. this way.
Journal

explained in
*

of the

Iron

and

Steel

Institute, No.

I. 1913,

p. 315.

t Zeitschrift fur physikalischeChemie, 1914, vol. Ixxvi. p. 421.

250

Effectof Tempei^aturesHigher
also
"

than

in present number of Common in Abstracts Metals Allotropy under of the Journal heading The Propertiesof Metals and Alloys." Various importantquestionswhich have a bearingon the author's paper discussed are by Professors E. Cohen and A. Smits, and importantexperiments heats in 1892 are by Le Verrier on specific quoted.

See

APPENDIX

C.
author's

Fig. 9,
912 paper.

as

reproduced below,

has

been

replottedfrom

the

200

300 OF

fOO

SOO''C.

7EMPER/\TU/fE
Fig. 9."

TEST.

Copper-zinc

about

60/401(16.1.00).

Atmospheric
Fig.
compare
10 has
not

on

Tensile

Tests
It

of Coppei'
is of interest
to

251

been 9

published
with
and the

before.
other

pare com-

it with both

Fig.
with

and

Bengough

Hudson's

also copper-alloy curves; 11 Fig. (p. 252). curve,


%

to

Vd
30

80

28
a

70

26

I*
'^f
",

60
22
\
\

I
50

Y-..
^

18

X.

IQ

I"
?L
QQ
12

fO

ii
^

X\

50

10

V
BREfiK/h'C ftO^/GA'/ON
ReL.
200

20

LQ*1D 10

of

/ifi"fl
0 300 of WO

100

SOO'C

Temper/iture

Test
received

Fig.

10."

Copper-zinc

about

70/.36(13.12.99) as

(annealed).

Fig.

11

is

Bengough
hard

and
drawn It

Hudson's

curve

way." It
eflfects of
are no

is for

wire,
the

and

is therefore

usual replottedin the more complicated by the about

annealing.
between

shows

critical

point

460"

0.

There

points

0" and

300".

252

Effect of Temperatures Higher

than

/OO

200

30O

WO

SOO

600 C

Temperature
Fig. 11."

70/30 Brass

wire.

APPENDIX
The 1912

D.
tests
was

metliod

of When

making

the

hot

described
soft

in the which

author's

elongate testingby paper. in order to prevent saggingof the bar it is best to suspend consideral)ly, and them attached the holders by iron straps encircling by a wire or not to chain to something at a sufficient height above the machine
prevent
the

this method

metals

test-bar

extendingin

true

horizontal

direction.

^." C.
"

Fixed Wire

Shield. Hooks

55."

(fixedto

movable Fig. 12.

head

of

Sliding Shield. testing machine).

As

the

heat

is

applied at
the

both

ends, just beyond


of heat should

the

part
the

to

be

tested,
the bar

it is necessary

that

source

follow
on

extendingbar
of

^ari

2^ci^su, otherwise

the

flame

would

impinge

the

part

254

Heat

Treatment

of Admiralty

Gun-metal

THE

HEAT

TREATMENT
GUN-METAL.
By H. S. primrose

OF

ADMIRALTY

(Ghent).

Shortly
Heat Mr.

priorto

the

of publication

paper
*

under

the

title, Practical
"

Treatment
J.

purposes of this
Numerous

Admiralty Guu-nietal," by the present writer and S. G. Primrose, it was agreed that gun-metal for Admiralty considerable could contain a percentage of lead, and quantities from of lead. 0'5 1 made cent, to were containing alloy per
of

test-bars of this
to

fashion
vdth
were

that

used

in
not

tested,after heat treatment, in similar the previous research,which, however, dealt only
were more

metal
not

having
considered

than

0*2

per

cent,

of from

lead. those

The

results

to

be

variant sufficiently

corded, already re-

employed for the although a wider range of temperatures was confirmed fact that almost The the results an inappreciable annealing. much conducted at a was by annealing produced temperature change any
below this

700"
case

C,

even
was

with
most

the

increased how

percentage
much
of the

of lead results

present.
were

In

also it

remarkable
the

affected

by
and
to

and the temperature casting the most consistent results were


of
a

rate

coolingafter
when bars

solidification,
cast
a

obtained
ensured slow

were

close

largebody of
assured

cold metal.

This

solidification of
was

the the the

and gun-metal,

by means cooling of
The

of the chill

rapid
mass

the

solidified

by
which

surrounding
test-bar for half
to 500"
was
an

mould

becoming
showed

heated
bars
no
on

castingto
various

attached.
hour and

by the heavy annealing at

temperatures

almost

change in

the

microstructure

rightup immediately700"
under

C,

again the remarkable


In of

tion transforma-

C.

was

attained.

that

uniform strictly

conditions

it was noticeable particular, no casting, change was made

for half an hour at 250" C. the structure of bars annealed upon of The following figures tensile tests bear out the above interesting and the three
at 90 diameters photomicrographs

ments, state-

show magnification value


at 250"

the futility of expectingany change of clearly

material
cast

C.

Average

Tests

of Gun-metal

Bars, dry

sand

and

cooled. sloxvly

Journal

of the

Institute

of Metals,

No.

1, 1913, vol. ix. pp. 158-173.

I)

(U

t3

ai

256
The Copper,

Heat

Treatment
the metal
;

of Admiralty
gave
"

Gun-metal

of analysis
88'00 per
cent.

Tin, 9 '445 per

cent.

Zinc, 2'08 per

cent.

Lead,

0'475 per

cent.

Considerable

was difficulty an

found
at

in

maintaining a

constant

even

temperature
the

in

industrial furnace
this

temperatures below
in

annealingbelow
the
use

point was
a

usually conducted

300" C, and oil bath. an

By

of

.suitable muffle furnace C


was

the control of the

temperature
and

in the The

region of 700"
writer had

comparatively
to read at

simple matter. Longbottom


pion's Cam-

been
as

interested read

Messrs.

paper,*taken
of Naval Architects
made

the

Newcastle

meeting of the Institute

the section dealingwith particularly different the tests annealingat temperatures. It of castingthe that the temperatures and conditions appeared regrettable these bars had a profound effect not as were fullyspecified, gun-metal in changing the structure and strength of the alloy. Thus comparatively the of be differences in rate quite sufficient to coolingwould slight in Fig. 13, and for the variations in the propertiesrecorded account It is attributed also advisable to the different annealingtemperatures. in

July, and

in the cold after

to

use

more

than
It
was

one

test

bar, and

of tests.

C,

as

the results from

rather strange 500" up

the average values from a series that the Table V. did not go beyond 600" showed a distinctly improvingtendency,

plot

corresponded with the writer's results,and From improvement continued right up to 700" C.
which in

he the

had

found

this

700"

ence experiat largeand intricate castings the in trouble ever was C, no regulating experienced ture temperaand evidence of burning was to no ever prevent overheating, annealinga great
number
of both

writer's

observed. of it
on

It

appeared

to

him

much
an

at annealing

700"

C. in

ture ea.sy to regulatethe temperamuffle furnace than to control ordinary


more

the

scale at 250" practical


at

C,
was

and

350"
as

C,

which

the structure
its the

300" to attaining by the Glasgow authors represented

prevent

it from

to reverting to handle necessity

cored original
to

formation.

There

was

no absolutely

at the higher annealing temperature, as castings

they

should

be allowed

cool off in the furnace.

As

the result

of heat

several hundred treating deformation burning or It will be work is necessary

heavy
was

and

intricate

no castings,

evidence

of

observed.
see

to interesting to prove

the

fuller

promised,as experiments

further

that

the structural alteration

said to be noticed

by Messrs. Longbottom and Campion at 250" C. actuallytakes placeon evidence commercially-prepared heat-treating gun-metal. Microscopical and confirmation alone is insufficient to establish this conclusively, by is the thermal and of test an coolingcurve accuratelytaken heating It is somewhat said strange how the homogeneous structure necessary. normal cored 250" C. restored the could be to be got by annealing at to recalescence. structure on annealing to 350" C. without giving some the The of is its and whereas final test a theory practical application, has 700" at annealing treatment satisfactorily accomplished this, no the show is has been this evidence adduced to case on annealing at the lower temperature suggested.
*

[See Abstract,

p. 281."

En.]

257

ADDITIONS

TO
During

THE
1914.

LIBRARY

By whom
Presented.

"Applications
Industrial Canada of
:

of and

Ductile

Tungsten." (Reprint Engineering Chemistry.)


of Publications of the Mines

from

the

Journal

of
Duram, Limited.

Catalogue
"Researches

Branch,

Department
The

Mines, 1907-11.

Director.

Canada:

Queen's
Branch Metallic

Alloys, for the Mines University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, of the Department Part of Mines." I. : Preparation of Cobalt of the Oxide. By H. S. Kalmuo. by Reduction
on

Cobalt

and

Cobalt

conducted

at

The

Director.

Canada:
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"

Reports
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and

Maps

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number.

the The

Director.

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:
"

Screw
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Liner

"

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"

Souvenir

The

Shipbuilder.
The

Curran, T. F. V. Dennis, L. M. Desch, C. H. Desch,


Desch,
C. H.
: :

Carnotite, the PrincipalSource

of Radium." Macmillan

Author.

Gas

Analysis."
of Crystallization Metals."

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Author. if Co.
Sf

"The
"

:
"

Intermetallic

Compounds." (Second Edition.)


Research

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Greeii Green

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Metallography."
"

Co.

Lectures Dreaper, W. P. : with Special Reference

on

the

Chemist

Works,
Institute The

to

the Textile

Industry."
Council, The

of Chemistry.

Fawns,

S.

"Tin
"

Deposits
Some
"

of the World."

(Third Edition.)

Mining Journal.
The The Author. Author.

Garland, Gowland,
Hanaman,
Handbook

H. W.

Physical Propertiesof Tin."


of the Non-Ferrous mit Metals."

Metallurgy
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Eisen." staff of the

The

Author.

Milling Details, compiled by Engineering and Mining Journal.


''

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Constable "= Co.
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Ltd.

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By whom
Presented.

Le

Chatelier,

H.

"Introduction

I'Etude

de

la

M^tallurgie, Le
The Author. The The Hill

Chauffage
Le

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:

Chatelier, H.
C. A.
"

"La
"

Silice

et

les Silicates."

Author. Jotirnal. Co., Ltd.

Longridge,
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C.
:

:
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Hydraulic Mining."
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Publishing
Institute

:
"

Lectures

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Quantitative Analysis."
" H.

Hill Measurements in

Publishing Co.,
Green Market Shaw "p

Geiger

"Practical

Radio-

Activity."
"

Longmans,
American Metal G.

Co. Co.

Metal Mexican

Statistics, 1914."
Fuel G.
:
"

"

Oil." The

Scott.

Moor,
National National

C.

Recognition
:

of Minerals." for the Year

The

Mining Journal.
The Director. Director.

Physical Laboratory
and and Gateshead Commercial

Report

1913-14.
vol. xi.
,

Physical Laboratory:

Collected

Researches,
of

1914. YearChamber H.

The

Newcastle Book

Incorporated Chamber Review (with Sunderland


de I'Acier.
"

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of Commerce.
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et Pinat.

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Fabrication
:
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Wilhelm for

Outlines

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of and

Macinillan

b' Co., Ltd.

Inventions. and

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Abridgements Alloys (excepting Iron


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:

b' Son.

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Entwicklung
Roscoe,
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der E.
,

deutschen and C.

Kupferversorgung Kupferborsen."
Schorlemmer
:

Deutschlands A.
on

und Marcus

die "" Webers'

Verlag.

"Treatise

Chemistry.
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The
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to

"= Co., Ltd.

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W.

the

Study
Report.

of

Physical

lurgy." Metal-

Constable

"= Co., Ltd.


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Technical

College,Glasgow
Vol.

Annual

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viii.
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volumes.

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The

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E. F.
:

have and W. C.
:

been

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the

Institute

"

Law,

"Alloys

their R. "An

Industrial

Application."
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to
on

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G., and
Sir W. "The

Cooper:

Electro-Metallurgy."

Roberts-Austen, Rose,
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:

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259

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tions following Institu-

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in Scotland.

Institution of Mechanical

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260

OBITUARY.
Thomas Richard

Bayliss

died at his residence, Belmont,

Nortlifield,

Birmingham, on July in Birmingham in 1838, Born Mr. Baylissat an early stage of


interest John

24, 1914, in his


the

seventy-sixth year.
of
a

son career

well-known

brassfounder,
an

his

showed

signs of

in
the

metallurgy and
founder of

engineering. Associated

with

exceptional INIr.

Adderley Park Metal Rolling-mills, in perfecting machines considerable he displayed designed to ingenuity and of casting, generalworking up of rolling, improve the methods work. Mr. Bayliss the original for ammunition was metals, particularly for small arm of the solid drawn case inventor quick-firing cartridge navies of the since adopted by all the armies and and other guns,
Abraham,
the civilized world. Nordenfelt which
made In

this connection
a

he

was

called

in

by Mr.

Thorsten

to manufacture

both

gun

and

immediately adopted by the in the early'seventies war place on record that after the Franco-German Mr. to of last century, Baylisswent over Spandau, Erfurt, and Dantzig,
to

six-pounder gun, a complete success, and they were cartridge It is interesting British Government. to
suitable

for his cartridge

and superintend small

erect
arm

of solid drawn
ment.

of the then new plantfor the production for the ImperialGerman cases cartridge
he

design
Govern-

At

the

age

of

twenty-four
the

married
was

Abraham,
Small Arms director.
In the

and and

when Metal

business he

daughter of Mr. John acquired by the Birmingham


the years

Company

for ten

remained

its

managing

commenced
few late

year the

with 1889, in conjunction erection


of
a

his
at

son

Mr.

T. A.

he Bayliss,

months
Mr.

later, after
the

large King's Norton, and some its establishment, he called in his friend, the
then

works

Arthur

Greenwood,
well-known
his

Chairman

of Messrs.

Greenwood

" of

Batley, Ltd.,
Leeds,
company, and

machinery cartridge
it
son
"

manufacturers
a

with

assistance
and

was were

formed

into

limited

liability
from
"

of which

father
company

jointmanaging

directors

its
has

inception. This
enjoyed
most
a career

of
and

Metal Co., Ltd. King's Norton and is now one steadily increasingprosperity, businesses interesting
and his in the

the

of the

extensive
the

country.

at Bayliss colleaguesthe works were splendidlyequipped,the plant includingcomplete King's Norton the for production of coinage. provision of land were Some sixtyacres acquiredat Abbey Wood, years ago

Under

direction

of Mr.

importantextension of the for loading fuses,"c. largecases, shells, especially


Kent, and
The
on
an

this

site

works

was

erected,

contracts

for

ammunition

executed

by

the

large orders,not only from the British foreigngovernments, amongst which may be mentioned and Spain. Sweden, Denmark, Italy,

cluded inhave company but several also from those of

Japan,

SECTION

II.

ABSTRACTS

OF

PAPERS

RELATING

TO

THE

NON-FERROUS

METALS

AND

THE

INDUSTRIES

CONNECTED

THEREWITH.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

Properties Electro-Metallurgy

of

Met.\ls

and

Alloys

264 312
. . .

and

Electro-Chemistry
Pyrometry Methods

Analysis,
Furnaces

Testing,
and

and

324

Foundry

339 359
364

Statistics
Bibliography

264

THE

PROPERTIES

OF

METALS

AND

ALLOYS.

C O N T E N T S.
PAGE

I. II. III.

Propertiesof Metals Propertiesof Alloys Industrial applications

264 281

295

I."

PROPERTIES

OF

METALS.
"

Absorption
W. Planck.*

of
The

Light by Copper
determinations

Films.
been

Copper
examined

films

have prepared by electrical disintegration, of the


the of by measuring the polarization

glass, by optically
on

opticalpropertieswere
and

made

transmitted

reflected
from

light.
1'3
to

The
46

thickness
iijx.

of

the
was

twenty-ninefilms employed
found

varied

A
the

formula

which

the relation expressed fairly closely


and absorption have

between

thickness

and

the indices of the the free

refraction. C. H.

The

generalconclusion
on

is that

electrons

less and
"

less influence
D.

the

as optical properties

film becomes

thinner.

Allotropy of
been made

Common
and

Metals.
"\V. D.

"

Some

remarkable

observations

have

by cadmium, used in the form hours in dry carbon by heatingfor ninety-five


On
the

E. Cohen

that pure Heldermann.f of turnings, has a specific gravity which is unchanged dioxide
at

It is found

150"

C.

to 100" C. for seventy-two hours in a solution other hand, heating and cadmium of cooling rapidly,reduces the specific sulphate, gravity

from

8'643 has

cadmium
of cadmium

it is found that Following up these observations, 64*9" If C solution a point at kept in a boiling its specific sulphateand then cooled rapidly, gravity gradually
to

8-633.

transition

increases

at

any

temperature

below
a

64'9"

C,

or

diminishes

above

that

point. point may


considerable
a

With

material be

having

a displaced

difi"erent previous history, the formation transfew degrees upwards or downwards,


more

the indicating
is for
a

probable existence

of

than

two

modifications.
metal may

There
exist

lag in
in
a

the

that the so transformations, condition.


vol.
w.

long
*

time

metastable

Ultimately, however,
\).

the

1914, PhysikalischeZeitschrift,

503.

t Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, 1914, vol. l.xxxvii. p. 409.

The
metal
of
a

Properties of Metals
the stable condition. Fine

and

Alloys
and the

265

does

reach

division

presence recorded
that

suitable

Many

change. of in the physical properties irregularities


observers is
are
a

facilitate the electrolyte


thus

cadmium

as

by

different

accounted

for, and
of two
or

it is evident
more

ordinary "cadmium"
its constitution

variable mixture
its

modifications,

depending on
observations

thermal previous
been made

history.

Quite
In this

similar
a

have

case

transformation

is observed

from the by rapidly cooling pure copper that kept i n below temperature, and decreasingwhen increasing density less times thousand is many it. of transformation The velocity above fine turnings when the metal is used in rods than when are employed. behaviour of copper have been noticed by in the physical Irregularities observers. previous In addition to the observers.! Zinc has also been studied by the same at 170", one well-known change at 300"-350",and a possible allotropic low undetermined is found at an ture, temperaa new change,also reversible, value for the The lowest indicated as before by volume changes. metal for obtained freshly by Kahlbaum specific gravityof zinc was Zinc which has been used for metallic cooled. distilled and very rapidly and metastable condition, coatings by the Schoop process is in a specially after a time. be expectedto disintegrate may is discussed The bearingof these observations on theory and practice by Ernst Cohen. J It seems probable that our ordinary metals are, at condition, and consist of atmospheric temperatures, in a metastable indefinite mixtures
of their

regard to copper.* at 71-7"; the copper, prepared and then turning, meltingpoint
Avith

of difi"erent

modifications. allotropic

Our

tions determina-

constants physical are, therefore, of a haphazard character, depending on the previoushistory of the specimens employed. It is of metals, to for the comparison of the physicalconstants necessary, able into by suita permanent state employ material which has been brought

thermal
It

treatment.

follows

that under

metastable certain

materials

may

undergo spontaneous
to

integrati dis-

conditions, owing
from in
a

the

very

considerable
In

volume

changes which
a

accompany

their transformation.

this

nection con-

statement

is

quoted

the

of disintegration
of tin. of cadmium The

copper
has

to 300 B.C.) referring Theophrastus (c. the well-known severe frost, recalling

behaviour
case

been

further

W.
such

D.

Heldermann," with
in the the

the

objectof
cadmium
a

and by E. Cohen investigated modification which determining

is formed that

of electrolysis

salts. The

apparatus used
a

is

of cadmium cell is used and the which

on deposited sulphate, using a cadmium

cadmium

is

from platinum spiral,

solution
same

to

determine
a

the difference

amalgam as anode. of potential between


is introduced
to

The

the metal that replace

amalgam,
been

fresh

quantity of

which It

has

partly exhausted.

is found

that the

varietycalled

* Zeitschrift fur physikalischeC/iemie, 1914, vol. Ixxxvii. p. 411). t Ibid., 1914, vol. Ixxxvii. p. 426. X Ibid., 1914, vol. Ixxxvii. p. 431. 1914, vol. xvii. p. 122. " Proceedings of the Royal Acadeiny of Sciences, Amsterdam,

266

Abstracts
is

of Papers

and that this changes into stable always deposited, a-cadniium in time, causinga decrease in the electromotive force of the cell. On depositing the cathode, which a further quantity of cadmium on has passed into the a-modification, the new layer again consists of the

y-cadmium

Cadmium y-modification.
state

which

has

been with
to

obtained
the

from

the

molten in

is assumed

to

contain

y-cadmium

other

and varieties,

accordance

Avith this

it is found supposition

no givepractically

motive electro-

formed for There is room againstcadmium by electrolysis. difference of opinion in the interpretation these results. of * In a further this E. Cohen refers to work on subject, by Le paper that Verrier in 1892, which showed the mean heat of several specific metals remained 200" after it changed 300" constant to to which C, up abruptly. The same thing had been observed by Ponchon in 1886 for

force

iron,cobalt,and

of these discontinuities was position to depend on The the previousthermal of the metal. history examined with their transformation by Le Verrier, were points,
"

nickel.

The

found metals
copper,

and 350", .550", 1 10",300" C. ;


to

the

fact

260" C. : lead, 220" to 250" C. ; zinc, silver, and The author calls attention aluminium, 300", 530" C. that aluminium The temperatures readilyundergoesdisintegration.
are

750"

C. ;

given above
In
a

theoretical
a

paper,
metal

probablyall somewhat A. Smits "}" shows that


requires so modification,
a

too

high.
electrolytic tion deposition internal transformathe

the

of

metastable
that
at

much

smaller

than carried out

of

the stable

that when
of velocity

is deposition
is

temperatures
is

at

which

the

transformation

small,the metastable metal experiments with cadmium.


with E.
a

deposited.This
The conversion
same

is confirmed

by

the author's

is accelerated
metal. is

by

contact

solution Cohen

ions containing

of the Cohen

objects that
ago and

this

last conclusion
and Van

identical
in

with

that the

arrived at fifteen years inter-conversion of grey


In

by

Eyck

regard to

Avhite tin. transformations


transformations

his

A. reply,
two

between between

solid

" draws a distinction between substance, and phases of an allotropic


molecules
is
new.

Smits

different chemical
of

within

the

same

solid

phase.
kinds

The of

study
A

the
must

latter emit

case

Moreover,
of ions.

these

different

molecules

different

kinds is ||

further

paper

by

A. Smits

highlytheoretical.
"

"

C. H.

D.

Annealing Cold-Rolled
deals with the effect of
Six per of

Copper.
copper, rolled

paper

by

E.

S.
on

Bardwell^

different

annealingtemperatures
with
oxygen
content

of copper. 0'070 0-036 to B. and the S. gauge

bars of
cent,
were

the ties properrangingfrom


to

wire.

The
was

coils

were

into rods, and in annealed within


the
mean

drawn
an

No.
All

12

electric 10" C.

muffle,
six

temperature

which
in
a

maintained

"

specimensbehaved
*

the being very closely

similar manner, closely for all, that a same so

critical temperatures
curve

for each

pro-

Proceedings of the Royal Academy


Ibid.
,

of Sciences, Amsterdam,
X Ibid., p. 807.
p. Wfbid.,

1914, vol. xvii. p. 200.

t
H

1914, vol. xvi. p. 699.


Institute

55 Ibid., p. 1002. Bulletin of the American

1167.
p.

of Mining

Engineers, 1914,

2075.

The
perty
The 300"
could be

Properties of Metals
without

and

Alloys
curves are

26 V
shown in the

drawn

These difficulty.

Fig. 1.
electrical of

the temperature exceeds (about is maximum takes The increase rapid place. very there is very little change reached before 800" F. (430" C), after which until 1200" F. (6-50" C), beyond which the conductivityfalls ofifvery diminishes the metal being injured. The tensile strength considerably, with increase of temperature of annealing, rapidlyat the same falling

temperature

of conductivity annealing, until


a

the wires

increases

very

slowly with
600"
F.

C.)

when

0.40
z

0.30 E
z

o
"

0.20

o
_i

Ul

IZ

0.10

^,

200

400

600
DEGREES

800

1000 FAHRENHEIT

1200

1400

1600

0.0 1800

Fig.

1.

"

Variation

of

Physical Propertiesof Copper Anneahng Temperature.

Wire

with Variations

in

pointas
there

is

almost indeed
to
a

conductivity. At higherannealingtemperatures follows an of strength. The elongationcurve a slight recovery the slightly elongation increasing very exactly oppositecourse,
the

change

of

up

to

300"

C. The

or

somewhat obtained obtained


of

and higher,

then

maximum. the
F. best

conclusion
are

from

the results

shown

that

results

in by annealing

rising very rapidly is in the figure the neighbourhoodof


150-200"
may be

1100"
The

(595" C).
formerly
instead
content

results

by

Grard C.

gave

C.
due

as

the
the

transition

range,

300-430"
of cent.)
are

This

to

higheroxygen (0-15per Photomicrographs of the copper

Grard's included

specimens.
in
the paper. The

268

Abstracts

of Papers

specimens annealed at temperatures up to 200" C. still show tlie strained 300" C. the slip bands At with structure disappear,and slip bands. At 400" C. the their appearance. fine grained crystals make very regular". At 500" C. the crystals larger and inore crystalsare slightly much 600" this point C. and at are larger. From considerablylarger, but in an onwards irregular manner, they continue to increase in size, the the small. at of the large crystals Twinning is growing expense the appearance of the polyconspicuous in these annealed crystals,
"

in conductivity with the decrease coinciding synthetic twin crystals and elongation. Other photographs show the effect of annealing copper containing
"

secondary importance. At 1100" F. (595" C.) suffice for the complete annealing of cold-rolled copper, twenty minutes hour. but the metal is not injuredby exposure to that temperature for an
time factor is of The C. H.

oxygen. The

importanceof
D.

pyrometriccontrol

of

annealingis emphasized.
"

Atomic

Heat
"

and
been

Molecular

Homology.
P. Ludwik
*

"

The

term

"molecular the molecular

homology
condition ratio atomic is
to

has

introduced

by
at

to denote
are

of different substances

temperatures which
Various worked
are a

in the between

same

the

absolute other notice

heat and
to
as

important
such when

melting point. are properties physical which that properties


in

relations
out
on

the

this basis. It
of the

function
are

rature, tempe-

and cohesion, strength,

hardness,
in
a

the

metals
an

question are
the
sum

only fairly able comparAs the state. homologous


of its

heat of specific

alloyis
should view.

of the

heat specific

components,

these

conclusions
on

be

applicableto
at

alloys.
between

The

author

promises
1200"
C.

experiments from this pointof

tensile tests
"

temperatures
D.

20"

and

C. H.

Capacity
of bare Three copper

of Bare
conductors

Copper
been

Conductors.

"

The

carryingcapacity

is discussed

by

W.

A.

Coates.f

computed dealing with the maximum missible perin amperes of single loads (direct strips, current) copper copper rod. in parallel, and round strips copper It is stated that the actual capacityof a conductor depends not only A single its surface. also its cross-sectional area, but on radiating upon from this point of view. stripstandingon edge is the ideal conductor full for value the upper surface only is of convection, as the Lying flat, the under side. air will tend to heated pocket against
tables have
" "

In

the computing the tables,


must

fact

that

some

portion of conductors
considered, whilst
is
some

on

switchboards allowance The


has

lie flat has necessarily


made for poor of

been

been

joints.
the inner surface affected

value heat-dissipating
*

by the

Elektrochemie 1914, vol. xx. p. 325. Zeitschrift f-iir The Electrical Review, September 18, 1914, vol. Ixxv. "j,

p. 411.

270
12.

Abstracts
Cobalt be
than

of Papers
a

may solution
more

from plated satisfactorily

more

centrated highly con-

nickel, at
"

much

higher current

density

and

several times

rapidly.
"

F. J.

Colouring Aluminium.
colouringaluminium
The
or

Eeference

is made

to

new

method

of

introduced

by

aluminium

is treated

with

Lang of Karlsruhe. hydrochloricacid,chloride of


is rinsing, heated. this may be

A.

copper,

chloride of iron, and then, without of the A film is left on the surface
and coating,

metal,
white

and

lacquered

if desired.
a

acid impartsa Hydrochloric chloride of iron


the
a

black The

enamellingof
"

coatingsis

chloride of copper coating, grey coating. recommended as giving the best

results.

F. J.

Complexity
radium
the is that
same

of

Lead.
to

"

The lead. of

end-productof
Recent
all the

the have

of disintegration led
to

believed the

be

studies

the

clusion con-

end-products
the
have

series fall into disintegration

periodictable,namely, that occupiedby lead. similar chemical and physical Such precisely perties, prohave been called and but different atomic isotopic weights, elements through or isotopes by Soddy. Lead derived from uranium have atomic weight from radium a different should, on this hypothesis, The from first successful lead derived thorium. experiment in this H. Hyman.f The generally direction is due to F. Soddy and accepted would atomic assign to the weight of lead is 207-1, whilst theory that atomic and the to derived from uranium 206, weight isotope 208'4. thorium derived from Ceylon thorite,containing62 per cent. place in products should
"
" " "

oxide, with 0'39 only 0'85 per cent, of uranium lead with a mean atomic weight of 208"4, per cent, of lead oxide,gives the difference used being a purely comparativeone, and the method from ordinary lead being much greater than the error of experiment. M. E. Lembert W. and Richards T. Other :|: give by experiments,
of thorium

oxide, and

atomic

weights lower
the
lead The in values

than
these

207-1

for all the

minerals
for

mined, specimens exaderived from being presumably

radioactive

uranium.
to

found

different

minerals

range
same

from

206*40

206-86,
Other

all the

analysesbeing carried out


have

by

the

method.

workers

obtained 206-74

similar
as

results.
for

O.
lead

Honigschmid
from

and

Mile.

S. Horovitz
and ore), for

"

find M.

the

value

pitch-blende
lead, and
from

(uranium
207-08 thorium.
It may of

lead

from

Curie ||finds 206-4-206-6 monazite, and therefore

for uranium

largelyderived

regarded as established that ordinary lead is a mixture isotopes. The spectra of these isotopesare the same, so far as yet
thus be
and

determined,
than
those
*

it remains

to

be

seen

whether
"

any

other differences,

of atomic

weight,are

to be

recognized. C.

H.

D.

Foundry, September 1914, vol. xliii.p. 301. Transactions 1914, vol. cv. p. 1402. Society of the Chemical , Chemical Society , 1914, vol. xxxvi. p. 1329. X Journal of the American 11Ibid. , p. 167C. " Comptes Rendus, 1914, vol. clviii.p. 1796'.
The

The
Conductors
has mercury

of Metals Properties
without Resistance.
"

mid

Alloys
the

271
trical elec-

The

resistance of mercury should become been verified by H. Kamerlingh Onnes.*

that prediction at about negligible At 4-19"


"

2" absolute

absolute,

suddenly
The 6" absolute.

sistance. super-conductor without appreciablerefor tin is and for lead 3"8^, corresponding temperature

becomes

"

about
A

lead wire, 01

ohms ends

in section, and of total resistance 7.36 coiled on a bobbin, and the two at the ordinary temperature, was then This cooled in a magnetic field to was joinedby welding.
square

millimetre

1"8" absolute.
in the
to

On shown

coil, as
or

a removing the field, its influence on a by

current

was

found

to be

flowing
per

needle.
at the
were

This current
rate

amounted
cent,

0'4

0-6

hour.

In

and only diminished ampere, another experiment, two wires

of 1 per

each

side of the weld, connected

with

joined to the coil, one on galvanometer. On cuttingthe


observed, the magnetic
C. H.
D.
"

coil at the

weld,
same

throw
moment

of the

needle at the

was galvanometer to zero. returning

Contact
been

Differences
certain

of

Potential.
The

"

The

contact

diiferences
a

of

between potential determined


the

metals, freshly distilled

in

vacuum,

have

by

A. L.

Hughes.f

objectof the distillation is to

eliminate

influence of occluded
a

by
to

means

of

quadrant

The measurements made are gases. electrometer. Zinc is slightly electro-positive


more
a

platinum at first, becoming when i ncreases potential rapidly


A

so

with

time.

The
to

difference of the apparatus.

littleair is admitted

to air is always more surface of distilled zinc after exposure negative electroof polished zinc. It appears than one that zinc,when quite free from to platinum, but becomes as positive gas, is electro-negative

in The results are being reached. with those of Polil and Pringsheim, accordance accordingto which the limit effect of the the towards moves photo-electric long wave-length of gas. red end of the spectrum with increasing absorption Bismuth in the same behaves manner as zinc, but the change of is not quiteso large. C. H. D. potential
a
"

air is absorbed,

maximum

value

Cooling" Curves
according ordinary temperature,
to

of
and

Metals.
is

"

The

P.

K.

is Laschtschenko.J

cooKng curve regularfrom


to

of 580"

aluminium,
C.
to

the axis.

convex slightly

the

temperature
590"
at

It

shows

decided

change
is without

in

direction
on
a

between

and

580^

C.

Molten but

aluminium
act

action The

silica tube

700-720" Calories

C,
per the

begins to

at

750" C.
of

heat

of

fusion is 1-70

gramme-atom.
The
curves

heat of transformation
to be

nickel

at

363" A

is determined

from

3'11
at

Calories 700" C. has


a

per

gramme-atom.
of fusion of

further transformation
curve cooling

is indicated

Antimony gives a
heat

continuous
4'85

in

solid state, and atom. C. H. D.


"

the

Calories

per

gramme-

Comptes Rendus, 1914, vol. clix. p. 34. t Philosophical vol. xxviii. p. 3.37. Mai^azine, 1914 [vi.], X Journal

of the

Russian

vol. Society 1914 [x.], Physico-Chemical


,

Ivi. p. 311.

272

Abstracts
of Zinc.
rate

of Papers
been made

Corrosion
determine
cent,

"

Experimentshave
of
cent,

by E.
zinc 5

Prost in 0'5

to

the

of corrosion
per With

various

sulphuric acid, 0'37


chloride
a

of qualities and acid, hydrochloric


current

per
cent,

sodium

solutions.

passed,
covered
some

white
an

chloride,a is formed, and flocculent precipitate


adherent
greasy

sodium

per of air

being
to

the metal

becomes
acts

with
extent

layer of
An
the

zinc

hydroxide, which
usual

as

a or
are

protection.
iron increases

increase

in the

of proportions

lead, cadmium,
and

corrosion

by acids,whilst arsenic
;

antimony
"

active in particularly there


D.

corrosion increasing
the pure

in sodium

chloride

solution C. H.

is little difference between

and

impure

specimens.

Crystalline Form

of Selenium.
been

prepared by sublimation, have

Crystals examined by
"

of F.

metallic C.
Brown.

selenium,
f
The

C. Acicular are crystals largestcrystalsare formed above up to than 0"2 millimetre thick. Flat 11 millimetres and not more long, be 9 millimetres There are crystals long and 2 millimetres wide. may semi-flexible The and lamellfe. also twinned thin, crystals pressure and temperature gradientinfluence the form of the crystals. All are the conductivityincreasing fairlytransparent and conduct electricity, increase the conductivity under illumination. Mechanical pressure may 1000 times. The
was

210"

optical properties vary


sublimed.
"

with

the

temperature

at

which

the selenium

C. H.

D.

Crystalline
copper

Structure
been

of
examined

Copper.
"

The

internal method
as

structure W. 1

of

crystalshas
Natural
but square, reflections.

by

the

X-ray

Bragg. J

crystalsare
these
are

used, having faces

by large as

L.

metre centi-

warped and By deep etching with


a

and distorted,

give
cases

factory unsatis-

nitric acid, surfaces


In
some

showing
the whole

facets parallel

are

obtained
to

Avithout distortion.

specimen
The

proves

consist of
the

crystal. single
of

relation faces

between which

angles

reflection from
a

the

three

cipal prinlattice.

is that

would

exist for

face-centred

cubic

results are obtained, in spiteof slightwarping of the Very accurate found is the simplest that has yet The structure crystalemployed. been

observed.

"

C. H.

D.

of copper of the elasticity Elasticity of Copper. Measurements been A. the have wire Colonnetti," publishedby experimentsreferring in tension are observed the form of the when t o tests cycle specially It concluded that the of copper, is behaviour intervals. repeatedat is usuallyconsidered which to diverge very widely from the accepted
"

conform to the latter in a satisfactory manner theory of elasticity, certain limits the cycle is of very small amplitude,between The
rate at

when of
stress.

which

the

alternations

are

carried

out

is almost

without

* de la Soci^d Bulletin chimique de Belgique, 1914, vol. xxviii. p. 94. vol. iv. p. 85. t Physical Review, 1914 [ii.], vol. xxviii. p. 355. % PhilosophicalMagazine, 1914 [vi.], dei 1914 [v.], vol. xxiii. No. 1, pp. 1C.5,225, 421. Reale Accademia Atti della Lincei, "

The
influence individual
on

Propertiesof Metals
generalcharacter
values.
"

and

Alloys

273
alters the

the

of D.

the

cycle, although it

numerical

C. H.

Electrical

Conduction

at
E. F.

High Temperatures."
Northrup employed are
*

The
to

problem work, experimental


manner.

is discussed and

by

with

references

the methods

described

in

general previous a general

collection of the available data the

brings out

the fact that the

ratio of the coefficient of resistance to the coefficient of cubical reckoned


at
same

expansion,
different bismuth.

metals,at
The
at

least for

for closelythe same and tin,lead, sodium, potassium, mercury,

temperature, is

for brass shows a curve change of direction resistivity-temperature volatilization zinc that appreciable loss of 1090" C, indicating by begins

at that

temperature.
"

C. H. D.

at the experiments by H. KamerlinghOnnes.f temperature of liquidhelium have been made Coils of tin and lead,which have been found to become super-conducting the is applied, field When used. at that temperature, are a magnetic tion introducof The the field. observed resistance depends on the strength effect as heatingthe conductor, but for of the field has the same

Hall

Effect

at

Low

Temperatures.

"

Further

lead

there
For

is

threshold
is
a

value

for

effect.

tin there flattened

but fields,

no
a

quite sudden
lead the transverse

change change.
"

below which the field, in the direction of the


that

it is without
curve

for low

Using
weaker

wire,it

is found

the

is eff"ect longitudinal

than

efi'ect. C

H.

D.

Magnetic Properties of Manganese


determinations with massive
and

and

Chromium."

Further

powdered metals have been made by in Both metals are W. Lepke. % showing a maximum ferro-magnetic, itself is only of the the susceptibility although the susceptibility curve, The finely metals. order as for paramagnetic powdered metals are same much high more magnetic than the massive metals, but for sufficiently D. values would the two field strengths probablycoincide. C. H.
"

Melting
W. Heike

Point

of Arsenic.
the
much

"

" has determined thermocouple arrests being


amounts

vessel By using a sealed porcelain well-marked melting point of arsenic,


at

obtained
as

830"
or

C. few

The but
in

undercooling
some

sometimes
was

to

as

40"
have

50",

of

the

experiments this
Further arsenic
and and
*

avoided
air The the

by leavinga
not

unmelted. crystals Sublimed been bomb.


p. 373.

arrests

at lower

temperatures
than

been observed. which


has

is

inore

resistant to
to enclose
American

the

metal

fused

cooled

in the vessel.

pressure

during

melting is
an

considerable,

it is necessary
Transactions

vessels in porcelain

iron

of the

Electro-chemical

1914, vol. Society,

xxv.

1914, vol. xvi. p. 987. t Proceedingsof the Royal Academy of Sciences, Amsterdam, vol. xvi. p. 369. 1914, der deutschen Gesellschaft, ph'ysikalischen X Verhandlungen

"

International

Jour7ial ofMetallography, 1914, vol. vi. p. 108.

274

Abstracts
an

of Papei^s
calculates the

By
to

indirect method, L. Rolla*

meltingpoint of
The data
"

arsenic
are

be 929"

C,

but

this is almost

too certainly

the

heats of solid solutions specific

of arsenic and

high. antimony.
before the

used

C. H.

D.

Metals

Under

Stress.

"

In

paper

read

Birmingham
the

Society,F. C. A. Metalhu'gical who have of various investigators


of metals
are

H.

Lantsberry f

reviews

evidence behaviour

endeavoured

to elucidate the

under

stress.

stresses

given,whilst

the

Examples of simple stresses and stress importance of alternating


is

compound
and

impact

tests is mentioned.

The

stress-strain

diagram
a

analyzed
which

and

explained, three
which

regions
an

the region in viz., being delimited,

elastic deformation
in

occurs,

intermediate
occurs.

and region,

third

region

deformation plastic brittle metals

The

of plasticity and

all metals

is noted,

includingsuch
lead

as

antimony
The

bismuth.
of in

occurrence

in slip-bands
with

stressed the

receives
of

and attention,

other
have The

features been

connection

occurrence

which slip-bands,

formerly noted by Ewing and Kosenhain, are reviewed. slip-bandtheory is pressed into service to explainthe phenomena
in
a

revealed

stress-strain

in appearance between ing The effect of work metals is treated,the increased density resultupon from hot- work being attributed to the closingup of cavities.

diagram and and fibrous crystalline

to

explainthe

differences

fractures.

An

essential condition

for

the
be

which crystalline plasticity the existence of three The

makes

cold-

is said to working possible and therefore three planes,


is the down has the
occurrence

series of

gliding

series of

slip-bands.
three

tion effect of deforma-

of

in slipping
into

of the material

smaller

in the breaking planes, resulting Rest or heatingsimply crystals. also properties, The

stable. rendering the system more the Cold-working,in addition to afirecting mechanical effect of whole
of the

affects the

physicalpropertiesof
that limit, of soft

metals.

property

mostly

affected is elastic
times of

increase to fourteen
The

modulus

ing. value of wire-draworiginal process thermal electromotive solution tension, elasticity, density, its

copper by the

of being susceptible

force
are

among A

etc., againstother metals, thermal and electrical conductivity, the properties Avhicli undergo changes as a result of coldof

working.
study
the effect of work
to
on

the

density of
and

metals

follows,and
collaborators.
that

reference

is made
with
a

the

work

of

Kahlbaum
and

his

Working
metal
had

platinum, density of 2r2137,


into
on
:

Kahlbaum

Sturm
was

found

the

cast

which

increased

to to

21"4314

by
but

forging. drawing again increased to 21-4314


other

After

wire the

decreased density The

21*4136,
observed

annealing.

variations

in

metals

are

as

follows

Atti

i-eale Accademia

del Lincei,

1914

vol. xxiii., No. [v.],

1, p. G9.3.
vol.
v.

t Proceedings of the Dirminghani Metallurgical Society, 1911-13,

p. 101,

The

Properties of Metals

and

Alloys

2 75

nution explanationof the considerable differences in the dimiof density is that they are due to differences in methods of translation of small along the glidingplanes ; being simple in the cases and of in of those more density complex change greater change, and in the formation of twin resulting crystalsand consequent development Tammann's of channels. of much The offered. A
most
on

theory is met by the fact that copper, a metal capable undergoes very slight twinning, change of density.
of

This

phenomenon

twinning

is

considered,
deformation

and

an

explanation
is that produced

effect interesting
the energy

of cold
a

of

metals

content,

fact which

influences other of deformation latent.

physical perties. prois converted

considerable

into frictional is revealed


unworked

heat,and
as

portionof the energy of it is rendered some


of
an

in the metal

The viz.
1
.

electrical

piecesof worked electrolyte. is affected by cold-working in conductivity


electrodes in
of cracks. of

behaviour

This latent energy metal with piecesof three ways,

:
"

Development

in direction of overstrain. crystallites 3. metal A decrease in conductivity along slip-planes. follows from each, but in case be removed by annealing. (1)cannot The profound influences of annealingare mentioned, the two objects of the process being : 1. To bring about homogeneity of the metal and to remove tional constituchanges brought about by rapidcooling.
2.

Arrangement Loosening of

2.

To

remove

the

effects of

stresses

and

strains

set

up

in

the

material.

[There
The

are

two

distinct

objects set

forth

in

case

(1).
"

Note

by

abstractor.]
attributed theory of amorphous cement elaborated by Beilby,Bengough, subsequently is reviewed illustrations.
"

and to Spring, originally and

Rosenhain

and

Ewen
seven

at

some

length. Meeting
Proceedings

The

article is

accompanied by
W.

F. .J.

At

the Australian
*

of the British Association


of the

Rosenhain

British Association, 1914.

276
said that for strain normal the
a

Abstracts
rational

of Papers
the

understandingof
of

behavionr
and

of

metals

under their

truly annealed) state is or (cast

character crystalline is proposition


the
"

all metals

alloysin

of fundamental

for this fundamental


in
"

importance. Evidence readilyobtained by the microscope

ways, and crystals," negative


a

variety of

includingthe
oriented

development of
lustre
"

"

etch

figures,"

of

crystalline aggregates.

when material a crystalline aggregate is formed such as undergoes solidification by a process of dendritic crystallization in metals is illustrated by the buildingup of aggregates of is typical cubical blocks,a process which is shown by the aid of the cinematograph. of behaviour etched the the metal surfaces under same means oblique By and of The behaviour of demonstrated. is a crystals crystalline light is next the manner deformation and considered, aggregate under plastic in which a crystalcan undergo deformation by a process of slipon its and is illustrated by the cinematocleavageor glidingi:)lanes explained of the evidence which our a upon present knowledge grajih, summary

The

manner

in which

of

the

true

nature

of

deformation plastic

is based

being given
with

and

illustrated. The
more

detailed and
fracture of

difficult questions connected which have received

tion the deforma-

and

metals

attention increasing

recently are next considered,including such phenomena as " fatigue," by, and failure under, shock or repeated impact,and the phenomena testing and The elastic recovery. of semi-plasticity of metals behaviour and the explanationof these at high temperatures is also discussed development of the theory of an phenomena aftorded by the modern in metals, as originated by Beilby and extended by the amorphous phase is summarized. author and his collaborators,
PalladiTim
and

and

Hydrogen."

G. Wolf wires

has

determined

the

sity den-

conductivityof
as

of occluded

palladium quantities the palladiumactive by use nately alterhydrogen, after rendering


and cathode in dilute
curve

different containing

anode

sulphuricacid.
is in three

The

specific
0 to

conductivity-hydrogenconcentration
40

parts.

From

is the conductivity hydrogen (to 1 volume of palladium) 40 t o the concentration. From 600 to volumes inversely proportional the fall of conductivity is asymptotic,and above is this the conductivity of the to In the middle quantity hydrogen. againinversely proportional

volumes

of

section of the
in the

curve

the of

compound
of

PdHo

is

supposed
in

to

be

formed,

and

last the

excess

hydrogen
two

dissolves

the

compound.

The
and
a

density curve
The
same

consists

only

parts, a

curve steep hyperbolic

line of straight of

inclination. slight also been studied


of

The by A. Sieverts.f quantity wire is hydrogen by a givenweight palladium independent of the surface. At the melting point liquid palladium absorbs less than the solid metal. The of different hydrogen varying behaviour specimensof palladium black is attributed to the presence of both amor-

has subject absorbed

Zeitscli rift Chemie fur pliysikalisrhe t Ibid., 1914, vol. l.\xxviii. p. 103.

1914, vol. Ixxxvii.


,

p. 575.

278
denum from

Abstracts

of Papers

with metallic calcium at high their oxides byl treatment As 800" an or more. C, example of the process, say temperatures, of pure zirconium is instanced. Fifty the case of the production grammes of metallic calcium,and mixed with 72 grammes of its oxide is intimately the mixture
and rapidly, proceeds The reaction metallic bomb under vacuum. bomb is in the cooled phere atmosan completion the is and then from free mass nitrogen ; oxygen preferably dilute the remaining acid to remove and treated with water calcium, at a tempewhen the insoluble residue is filteredand dried in a vacuum rature It is claimed that the productwill be 96 per of 300" or 400" C.

is heated in
on

other impurities. differ from those announced of the element thus prepared The properties and the authors ascribe the diiference to the fact that former heretofore, D. H. have not producedpure zirconium. investigators
cent,

about zirconium,

3 per cent, zirconium

and oxide,

"

Production
been observed the reduction
used for the grammes

of

High

Vacua
*

by
that

means

of

Copper."
copper,

It

has

by

T. R. Merton

hnelydivided
gases very
a by sealing

of copper

absorbs salts,

prepared by readily. It may be


a few containing

of production

highvacua

bulb

The copper is of the copper to the vessel to be exhausted. and on to obtain the vacuum, heated to 250" C, using a Fleuss pump first obtained. On is vacuum a heating, cooling non-conducting easily the occluded moisture,"c.,is sometimes evolved rather violently.

Oxides Helium
are

of carbon is not

are

firstabsorbed, then The


"

and lastly nitrogen, hydrogen. the gases

absorbed.
on

is not chemical, as absorption

againevolved

heating. C. H. D.
"

Pyrophoric Metals.

It is

by suggested

A.

Smits,A. Kettner,and

condition in metals is due, not merely A. L. W. Gee f that the pyrophoric is of their fine state assumed, but to their initial to as division, generally loses condition. liberation in a metastable Pyrophoriciron gradually in a sealed tube, the converwhen heated for long periods its pi-operties sion The of 310". in hours at forty-eight disappearance beingcomplete
to character is shown, by dilatometric experiments, pyrophoric in H. D. C. volume. by a considerable increase accompanied

the

be

"

Reduction
made R. E.

of

Oxides

by Carbon.

"

Measurements

have

been

Slade and G. I. Higson \ to determine the equilibrium by with carbon. Equilibrium may pressures when certain oxides are heated values are obtained : be reached from either side. The following

Transactions of the Chemical Society 1014, vol. cv. p. 645. 1914, vol. xvi. p. 999. t Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Sciences,Amsterdam, X Report ofthe British Association, 1913, p. 450.
*
,

The

Properties of Metals

and

Alloys

279

"

C. H.

D.

Resistance
have been

of

Antimony
by W.
of
A

in

Magnetic
*

Field.
a

"

Exact

ments measure-

made

J. de Haas,

and

formula general the


to

for the

change
has been

of resistance arrived
at.

diamagneticsubstances
connection of
and resistance,

with

magnetic field
the
"

is also shown

exist between

form, change crystalline


C. H.
D.

diamagneticsusceptibility.

Resistance
been

of

Nickel

in
M.

Magnetic
and J. E. and 0*0206

further studied
3'61

by

W.

Jones

Field. Malam.f

"

This
A

effect has

fine

straight

wire, only
used,
and

millimetres

long

millimetre

diameter, was

tion accuratelyin a specialapparatus designed for exact rotathe poles of the electro-magnet. between The effect for the longitudinal field is always greaterthan for the transverse field. A complete set

theorycannot
The 5
were same

yet

be

formed.
been

effect has

examined

millimetres obtained

long

and

0"015

millimetre

by W. A. Jenkins, J using a wire diameter. Hysteresis curves


transverse

at different

effect consists of two

temperatures. It is found that the parts, one of which givesan increase and
other

reaches
a

maximum,
The
transverse

whilst

the

gives a
a

decrease

and

does
to

not

reach

mum. maxithe

effect longitudinal

is very

similar

the

first

part of
other.

effect.
of

There

is

relation between the


one

the the

change of
of the

dimensions A

and

that

resistance,but
an

is not

cause

structural which
be show the

change is
cause,
as

assumed. and bismuth the metals are Iron, nickel, but the magnetic properties abnormally largeeffect, cannot in the that
case

iron

should

give a greater effect


saturation
"

than
at

nickel.

Moreover,
the

magnetic
on

reach properties

values D.

fields for which

effect

resistance is not

saturated.

0, H. Thiel

Solution
of inactivity

of Metals
obtained The
is

in Acids.
when

"It

is shown

by

A.

"

that

the

zinc in acids has highlypurified


of such

nothingto do with
consists

The
and

black

residue

zinc is dissolved
a

passivity. of lead entirely

cadmium. which
the

presence

influence

partlycapillary. It
"

of impuritieshas an sponge also influences the area of the

surface and

C. over-voltage.

H.

D.
1914, vol. .\vi. p. 1110. % Ibid,, p. 731.
*

* Proceedingsof the Royal Academy of Sciences, Amsterdam, vol. xxvii. p. (549. t PhilosophicalMagazine, 1914 [vi.],

" Zeitschrift fUr

Elektrochemie
,

1914, vol.

xx.

p. 4G0.

280

Abstracts
at

of Papers
"

SpecificHeats
has been

Low
W.

Temperatures.
Nernst
a

Work
*

on

this
the

subject
former

continued
of electrical

by

and

F.

method

heatingin
even

vacuum

Schwers, using with calorimeter, some


has
an

ments. improve-

The

heatingcoil

is of constantan, which
at
means

almost

temperature coefficient
vacuum

the

lowest

temperatures.
charcoal
the

is maintained A

by

of coconut is used
for

cooled

negligible The high by liquid


of temperature,

hydrogen.
and

lead wire
the

resistance

measurement

of the cylinders
to increasing

calorimeter has
at

difference of temperature between the outer and inner is measured couple. by a copper-constantan thermoan

Aluminium MOT
heat has
a

atomic and

heat of
2-355

52-4"
at

has

the

atomic

2'92

22*9"

(absolute), at (absolute).Thallium (absolute), reaching 5"65 at 95-7".


only 0'U66
79*1"
at

19*1"

Carborundum below 40"


of

molecular

heat which
a

is

immeasurably small
suitable
as

at

or

(absolute).It is therefore
to

very
zero,

substance
the

for

the
of if

study
40"

near properties downwards (absolute) are

the its

absolute

from

temperature
any

propertiescannot
at

undergo
zero.

change
The

they
at

such
heat

as

to have

finite value

the absolute
at

lowest

atomic

20-1"

magnesium 0. H. D. (absolute)."

found

for

is 0"335

and 27'2",

for

silica O'OSl

Temperature-Coefficientof
metallic
conductors It
to

Resistance.

"

It is known

that

many
sistance. re-

exhibit shown

of negative temperature-coefficient
F.

is

now

by

Streitz t that

this eflect is often due

the presence of minute which close as the cavities, filaments have a small The denser varieties of carbon
that value

temperature rises. coefficient, positive

show experimentsnow has this coefficient, positive and


at

platinum black, which has a very small increased until by strong compression,
It is believed

last the value

for

the of

drawn

wire is attained.

that the for in

abnormal the
same

behaviour
way.
"

titanium, "c., silicon,


D.

is to

be

accounted

C. H.

Thermo-electric
thermo-electric
measured effects K.

Forces

produced
when

by
are

Deformation.
deformed
the have

"

The been

produced
and W.

metals

by

Baedeker

the effect is of the kind

elastic range Vehrigs.J the elastic limit is exceeded, expected. When

Within

is observed, the phenomena beingvery similar to those of maghysteresis netic The deformation. hysteresis. A time effect is observable in plastic has that d eformation the effect during plastic within the opposite sign to elastic range,
the and tends drawn

towards
with the

value. limiting
the

Analogies are structure crystalline

magnetic behaviour, but


"

relation

to

is not

considered.
The

C. H.

D.

Tungsten
and

Preparation.
"

denum, preparationof tungsten, molyb-

similar

bent,

and

otherwise

staller." The
*

bodies in a form Avhich can be drawn, refractory is described and worked, by Schwarzkopf Burgand operation is a combined sintering reducing prok. Akademie der

der Sitzungsberichte

Wissenschaft,Berlin, 1914,

p. 355.

der Physik, 1914 [iv.J, vol. xliv. p. 545. t Annalen % Ibid., p. 783. " Metallurgical and Che7nical Engineering, July 1914, vol. xi. (No. 7), p. 480.

The
cess

Propejdies of Metals
in two

and

Alloys

281

conducted into
to 1100"

compressed
heated

metallic oxide is powdered stages. The are rods, which relatively strong and coherent 1150" C. in 2600"
a

and then

to

stream

of

hydrogen, the
metal
an

material

thereby
current

sintered
of

and

partlyreduced.
to

The
C. in
can

is then

heated

to electricity

2700"
and

and

the

rods resulting D.

are

ductile

be

atmosphere of bent into a ringat

being by a hydrogen,
a

red

heat."

H.

Volatilization
effect of
been have
current

of Metals
to very

at

heating metals

Very High Temperatures" high temperatures in a high vacuum


E.

The has

examined
been

by

E.

Tiede
a

and

Birnbrjiuer.*
in which

Two
a

types
to

of

furnace

used, one
a

resistance thin

furnace

heavy alternating
receive
a
a

is

passedthrough a
cathode

tube, slotted graphite

boat,

the

other

material

is found
even

of tungsten as The use ray furnace. the be to impracticable, metal being

resistance

heating
or

to

1200"

C. in contact

with

any Most

other

material refractory
may
means

hitherto

destroyedby magnesia,zirconia, porcelain, employed.


the
vacuum

metals

be volatilized
of
a

easilywhen
mercury
at

is

kept
as

ciently suffiof

high by
copper 880" as

Gaede

pump.

Thus
Tin

3 grammes leaves

maybe
C,

distilled in 10 minutes Tantalum


.

1360"

C.

volatilizes

low the

silver at 830" C

volatilizes at
brittle. be

2200", and Tungsten

remainingmetal
freelyat
The of the 2450"

and extremelycrystalline

volatilizes its

C, whilst
is of the

manganese

may

distilled
this
manner.

below rapidly

and meltingpoint,

in convenientlypurified

character

condensed

material

depends on
and

the temperature
dense tungsten conan adherent,

condensing surface.
in
distinct

Thus, zinc,antimony, hot surface, but a crystals on


a

form

mirror-like
of
some

layer on
method

cold

surface

of

glassor

silica.

Photomicrographs

are given by the authors. deposits of some was same employed in examining the properties 2400" C, of the oxides and carbides. Beryllium oxide melts at about but lime and alumina are its meltingpoint, and does not volatilize below lower volatile at much temperatures. Magnesia dissociates readily at and in 1900" C. a deposit of metallic magnesium is a high vacuum,

of these

The

obtained
are

on

the

walls

of the

containing ves.sel. INIanyof


"

the

carbides

also

and volatile,

may

be distilled.

C. H.

D.

l\."

PROPERTIES

OF

ALLOYS. Tests.
cent,
"

Admiralty and systematic A Campion.!


9-77
of

Gun-metal,
accurate tests

High
have
used of been

Temperature
made

Very
and

by
1-94

J. C.
per

Longbottom

The
of

material

contained

87-96

tin,0-13
were

iron, 0-18
one

lead, and
1 inch

of zinc.
cast

of copper, Two sets of turned

test-bars
*

used,

turned

from

round

bars, the

Zeitschrifi ficranorganische Chemie, 1914, vol. Ixxxvii. p. 129. of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders Newcastle Meeting.
t Transactions

in

Scotland,

1914,

282

Abstracts

of Papers
and 0"564

middle

portionbeing
bars
cast

3" 5 inches

long
then

inch

other from
5'5 inches in and
a

to

shape
inch

and

turned, with
The bars

diameter,and the the middle portion


heated

long and
horizontal
to

0'798

diameter.

were

cally electriof

machine, testing uniformity


was

the furnace

wound being specially


A modified of form

lagged
the

insure

of temperature.
for
a

Martens'

mirror

apparatus
of

used

the

measurement

strain,so
The
scales

that
under
were

increments

of elongation

measured

lengthof the test-bar


accuracy.
as

with progressiveloads could be measured from mirrors distance the such a placed at

to
a

give a magnification
millimetre
on

of 1000

scale; this
was

of to read one-tenth possible with 0-0001 o f an elongation corresponded


; and

it

was

the

millimetre.

ing Load-

begun stationaryfor twenty


never

until

temperature of the furnace had remained minutes, the deflection of the measuring mirror
the
test

being
The
The

more

sensitive

pyrometer.

The

modulus the

this purpose than the readings of the of elasticity in all cases. determined was
for

are following

results principal 13
to tons

obtained
at

maximum

stress, about
up about

the
and

ordinary temperature,
then

remains almost
at about

constant practically
zero

200" final

C,

falls oflf, reaching

at

750" then

C.

The

150"

C, and
350"
course,

falls C.

rises to a maximum elongation low a nearly constant rapidly, reaching The contraction
of of
area

value

between
same

and

550"

follows almost
constant

exactly the
up
to about

whilst the modulus falls

is also elasticity results 250"


are

200", and
those annealed

then

agreement with
Tests results
and J.
as on

obtained
bars show

rapidly. by Bach.
that the the

The

in

good general

at 700" C, annealing

S. G.

Primrose,*

whilst

produces as good by H. S. temperature recommended is likelyto be higher temperature


Note

annealingat

J. S. G. Primrose's to the castings. [JNIr. injurious this subjectshould be consulted. Ed.]


"

(page 254) on

examination Microscopical resulted in almost

is stated

to

show

that

complete
an

of the 8 constituent absorption

annealing at 250" C. by the a solid


At

solution, producing
the
a

almost of the

homogeneous
cored
structure

metal. and

260"

0.

and

upwards the re-formation


S

the reappearance
accounted
as

of

complex
of the The in

become

evident.

This

the form
known.

equilibriumdiagram for known absorptionof the


to the

the

change series copper-tin


above

is not

for

by

at

present
C.
was

S constituent

400"

observed
In

annealingat higher temperatures.


photomicrographs,the
paper is

addition

accompanied by six

of fractures. of colour-photographs plates show

Those

at the

highertemperatures
regard their
an

remarkable
as

fractures. intercrystalliue

The
to

authors the that

supportingRosenhain's view as cement. amorphous intercrystalliue They admit


observations oxidation
has
not

of presence the influence the

of

been
announce

eliminated

from

the of

temperatures,
non

and

their intention
"

experiments at making further

higher
in
a

tests

atmosphere. -oxidizing

C. H.

D.

Ageing

of Silver-Tin
*

Alloys.
"

The

of silverproperty of filings

This

Journal,

1913, vol. i.x.p. 158.

The
tin
"

Properties of Metals
power of

and

Alloys
with mercury

283
after

of losing alloys, part of their

combinins^
W.

has ageiug,"
not

been

further
and

investigated by
there

A.

Knight.*

The

tilings
of any

are

aged by

ozone,

is

no

evidence is
no

of the

formation

change of weight, perceptible but the volume diminishes in the on change ageing, pure AggSn being about 0-4 per cent. In solid solutions containing the ageing effect silver, is roughly proportional to the amount of AggSn present, vanishingcompletely for pure tin. An explanation of the change has not yet been

film of oxide

during ageing.

There

found."

C. H.

D.

alloy has been patented by W. A. M'Adams,! of Bay Shore, New York, which, it is said, will not tarnish, pressions and which that it will take the smallest imso great fluidity, possesses from The and of mould. is a zinc, alloy aluminium, copper,

Aluminium

Alloys.
"

new

and silver, 26 per

the best
of

are proportions

said to be 70
copper, and

cent,

zinc,3 per cent,

of

per cent, of aluminium, 1 per cent, of silver.


"

D. H.

compositionof a ternary alloyof aluminium, zinc,and cadmium as patented by T. Baylissand B. G. Clark and the method of producingit are given. is as follows : \ The range of composition
range

The

of

"

Per Zinc Aluminium Cadmium 0-001 O'OOl

Cent.
to

19-999
10

80 to 90
to

The which
added

method
and
not
so

of
to

producing
add the

the

alloy

is to

melt in

the

aluminium

in

crucible
do if

zinc and

cadmium

determined

exceed desired.
are

the above-mentioned
The mixture

suitable a limits,
to

quantities flux being


until the which

is allowed

remain

molten

zinc and
is then An

cadmium

uniformly distributed
is to add
a

throughoutthe mass,
alloy of
added
desired.

allowed

to

cool. method zinc-cadmium


be they may however alloy, any
manner

alternative
to

known

composition
the made be molten
or

the the

aluminium, whilst
condition.
made
use

either

in be
can

solid

The

produced, can
It
or

into
cast

castingsor
sand
or

of then

in

in

in

chill and

hammered,

annealed,
of

stamped.
and
; ;

The

of properties

the

of its

alloys. It has
a

alloyare different from and can be great strength


surface
as

those
worked
can

aluminium

in all conditions

it possesses

smooth
and

cast

which

be

easilymachined

it is malleable

wire, "c.
two

stamping or variation of within Any composition typical examplesbeing given :


"

suitable

for

for the

working into sheet, able, limits given is allowPer Cent. 88 10 2

Per Aluminium
. .

Cent. 91 8 1

!
i

Aluminium
.
.

Zinc
....

Zinc
....

Cadmium
...

Cadmium
...

Transactions

of the

Chemical

t Metallurgical and Chemical et Alliages,March X Mitaux

Society, 1914, vol. cv. p. 63U. Engineering, 1914, vol. xii. No. 15, 1914, vol. vii.,No. 5, p. 7.

5, p. 352.

284

Abstracts
two

of Papers
aud

These
cast

alloysare
when

tenacious
cast

malleable
have F. J.
a

to

liigh degreewhen
and surface,
*

into

strip ;

in sand

they
"

smooth

can

be

machined, turned, or easily


Aluminium
and

drilled. shown

silicon

are

by

C. E. Roberts

to form

simple
cent,

eutectiferous
of silicon.

the series, There is


no

eutectic pointbeing at 580" indication of the


of either
curve freezing-point

C. and
or

10

per

compounds
are

solid solutions, smooth.


"

and

the

two

branches

quite

C. H.

D.

C. F. Grimm

has

patented
lead 25 per

solder
It

for

aluminium,
of zinc

which
25 per de

can

be

applied
tin 50

to

the

metal

while

it is cold.
cent.

consists

cent.,

per

cent., and

Another
of 30

solder,patented by Auguste Cornande % Brussels,consists of 52 per cent, of zinc, 17*5 per of tin, and 0'5 per cent, of nickel. per cent,
an

and
cent,

Henri of

Cruys
be

aluminiunij
may

The

nickel

by replaced

equal amount

of German

silver.
"

D. H.

Annealing
have
cent,

Alloys
by

after

Quenching.

"

Some

brasses and
bronze needles with of the

bronzes
19
a

been

studied

of tin after
to

Portevin." Annealing a quenching from 700" C. causes


in

A.

per
stituent con-

appear

arrangement
when per
cent,

like

the

Widmaustatten

figures.
825" C. also

This A

structure

even persists,

is annealing of in the

complete.
stage
of and but annealing, the distorting

brass
a

containing42

zinc, quenched from


first

gives longerannealingcauses
needles." C. H.
D.

Widmaustatten

structure

alteration

of this

by rounding

preliminary communication by W. that bismuth and Heike ||states melted arsenic,when together in a sealed porcelain in the miscible fluid tube,are perfectly state, contrary arrived to the conclusion at by investigators working with open vessels, in which thorough mixing is impossible. Arsenic separates as primary
"

Bismuth

and

Arsenic.

and the eutectic point is close to the bismuth end of the series. crystals, For developing the microstructure a preliminary etchingwith alcoholic nitric acid is given,followed chloride solution." by dilute copper- ammonium C.

H.

D.

Bismuth

and
been

Cadmium.
once more

"

This

system, which

has been

repeatedly
and A.

studied, has
in the cadmium held C. H.
*

examined

by

G.

J. Petrenko

S.

in order Fedoroff,^ solid state.

to

The

clear up discrepancies to the mutual as solubility eutectic point at 140" C. and 40 per cent, of
it is found the that
cannot

is confirmed, and solid solution

the

quantity
exceed 0"1

of

each
per

metal
cent.
"

in
D.

by

other

Transactions Ibid., p. 352.

of the Chemical
Chemical

t Metallurgical and
+

1914, vol. cv. p. 1.383. Society, Engineering, May 1!I14, vol. xii. (No. .5), p. 352.

" Coniptes Rcndus, 1914,


IIInternational m Ibid., p. 212. Journal

vol. clviii. p. 1174.

of Metallography

1914, vol. vi. p. 209.

286
the

Abstracts
cold-drawn
an

of Papers
straining consurface-layer Facts are quoted

possesses a permanently deformed interior in a state of elastic compression.


bar

to

support
A survey
was

the

theory,which by turning off


of

is elaborated in
a

to

some

extent.

of the initial stresses

1^ inch

cold-drawn

manganese

brass the subsequent

rod

made

variations
stresses

\ length due

inch

the layers,
to

and length original

from elongationresulting

relief of

being total corresponding


It

measured. carefully
stress

From

the

differences

in

length the
in

in each is of in
no

layerwas
need
to

calculated.

is

suggested

that

there

put
or

to

structural use,
as

the

cold-worked
and

condition, any
obtained

the

three

alloys mentioned,
hot-rolled obtained
to

strength
to
a

are elongation

the extruded

material

satisfactory degree.
When the
axes

great stiffness is required it should


of the rolls

be

by cold-rolling,
of

being

inclined slightly

that

the

rod, thus
structural

the outer layer and relieving the tension. enlarging The following for rolled,extruded, specifications
brass
are

and

drawn

proposed :

"

Minimum

for Hot-rolled, Extruded, Physical Requirement^^


Annealed Material.

and

Drawn

Material

not Annealed.

The
For
cent,

Propertiesof Metals
tubing the requiredminimum
table. AH

ana

Alloys

2(S7

sheets and
less than

given in
to
a

material

must
or

will be 5 per elongation cold bend through an

angle of 120"
stand

radius
hot
to
a

to its diameter ec^ual

thickness.

Bars is

must

hammering

in the mill of similar be free from

produced point. Scrap,except such as material used. The must be not composition, may and of uniform clean, smooth, straight, injuriousdefects,
fine

uidess condition size ; it must be in the cold-worked and not quality be effected by simplebending must specially permitted. Straightening the exceed of hot-rolied material and not by rolling.If the hardness material must be annealed. Drawn, unannealed figureit must typical strain in the for maximum initial strain ; be tested a specimen 5| inches longand over \ inch thick may not exceed 0"002 inch in lengthof 4 inches. Instructions for obtainingthe measurement are given. Sheets and in be tested by immersion tubing less than \ inch in thickness must
a

saturated
two

solution
weeks

of mercuric the

chloride for

one

hour

; if cracks

appear

within

from
"

date of

immersion,

the initial strain will be

regardedas
Electrical
Bornemann Bornemann

excessive.

F. J.

Conductivity
and and

of

Liquid
subject
has

Alloys." The
been

work

of
E.

Miiller K.

on

this

continued

by

Wagenmann,*

calibrated using very carefully


be of

nesia mag-

tubes, heated in carbon tube furnaces. The breaks in the conductivity-temperature curves
Thus
the

may

used

to two-

boundary curve plot the equilibriumdiagram. for has been alloysof copper and lead, accurately plotted liquid region with of Mixtures copper diagram. copper completing the thermal of also allow ferrous and and of sulphide sulphide sulphide copper
the

the

determination method.
discussion

of

the has

method conductivity thermal The


of

miscibility.It is shown great advantages for this purpose


limits of
was

that
over

the the

the

remaining curves
come

to

have

appeared
results

in

the

August number,
and
curves

which

has not
been

to hand.

The
the
not

figures experimental
broad may

have, however,
copper the

and published,

be

given,although the Liquid alloys of


both
the

author's

are interpretations

available.
minimum
at

and

tin show

well-marked

in

conductivity and
With the maximum pass

the

curves temperature-coefficient

the

composition CugSn,
temperature.

minimum
and

copper

becoming zinc, the minimum

flatter with above 900"

increasing corresponds with


C
show
a

Cu^Zng, but
small
and local

curves temperature-coefficient at this point. Both curves

in the

case

of copper
at

cadmium
The

through

minimum,

with

small local maximum

the

composition Cu^Cdg. are complex. Both the conductivity copper-aluminium curves between 30 and show a minimum and the temperature-coeflScient curves of direction marked 40 atomic change per cent, of aluminium, with a
at

CuAlo

and

less distinct

one

at

CugAl
and

; whilst

maximum per
cent.

occurs

at

the

highertemperatures between
*

80

90 atomic

Ferrum,

1914, vol. xi. p. 270.

288
It would that

A bstrads
seem

of Papers
of

the

existence
is

molecules

of

in solution
curves
are

at

not
or

high temperatures to interpret. Undissociated easy


indicated, but
must

the

and Cu,,Cd.j CuoZiig copper-aluminium

molecules

of

some

compound
formulae
a

compounds
accuracy

be present in the

remain

undetermined.
of the

The method.

curves
"

are

but their liquidalloys, to very smooth, pointing

considerable

C. H.
An

D.

Ferro-Silicon
into the

and

its

Dangers.
of

"

inquiryby
leads
to

G. E.

Pellew*

per drums
were

cent,

dangerous The principaldemand of silicon, made in


casks
50 containing due of carbide
to be

character

ferro-silicou is for
a

clusions. coninteresting

about product containing

50

the
to

electric furnace.
per
cent,

The

of explosions found

and

60

ferro-silicon in 1903-1904
cause

proved
as

to inflammable

gas.

The

of this

was

to

be the presence

arose

the calcium this

carbide

the
Now

same

electric furnace has practice deaths


of

that

phosphide. The ferro-silicon industry and in some cases industrywas declining, used for the two was products alternately. been discontinued, this source of danger has
and
s.s.

and

disappeared.
In 1905

eleven

fiftycases
from
cases

of

sickness
were

steerage
to the
was

evolution

passengers of

the

Vaterland, which
fatal
on

among traced iiltimately

occurred

poisonous gases
other

ferro-silicon in the hold.


steamers

This boats.

followed
gas

The

arsenide.
cent,

by many proved to be hydrogen phosphide containingsome that the product containing less Inquiry showed
and
was

canal

hydrogen
than
30 per

and was not liable to poisonous impurities, T he rich with 96 70 to spontaneous disintegration. grades, per cent, of but contained small not liable to disintegrate, of were silicon, quantities

of silicon

free from

poisonousimpurities. The intermediate grades,with 35 to 60 per cent, of silicon, As a result, were highlypoisonous and liable to disintegrate. the carriage of ferro-silicon has been prohibitedon most steamers.

Niagara Falls avoiding the presence coke, and metallurgical


have
of
even

The

manufacturers
of

calcium

selected

difficulty by phosphide. They use steel scrap, quartzite.The Ontario manufacturers


overcome use

have

the

adopted
on

similar
In
to

but precautions,
cases

roasted

Rio

Tinto

ore

in
of

place
gases,

steel scrap.
exposure
as

both

all

and disintegration is removed

evolution

water, have
C. H.

disappeared. It
in
D.

restrictions
made

to

transport might be
"

suggested that the respect of a product

from

pure

materials.-

Growth

of

Eutectics.
the and
to to

"

The

formation

of

"halos,"
been

separating
by
been gested sug-

primary
F. E. E.

crystals from

banded

eutectic,has

examined

Lamplough
it is due

frequentlyattributed
that the

"j" Whilst this structure undercooling, Huntington and Desch


segregationof
the

J. T. Scott,

has have

eutectic

at

the

boundary
thermo-

of

The

primary crystals during solidification. undercooling is measured by using


*

copper-con

stantan

Journal

of ike Societyof Chemical

Industry, 1914,
xc.

vol. xxxiii. p. 774.

t Proceedingsof the Royal Society, 1914, vol.

A, p. 600,

The

Properties of Metals
in A
to

and

Alloys
a

289

not enclosed couples, coatingof cement.

protecting tubes, but merely smeared


bifilar

with

galvanometer, with
the

of

is vibration,

used
are

determine

curves. cooling a

grammes
a

of metal

used, enclosed
can

in

period Only about five heated by means of a test-tube,


very

short

furnace, the temperature of which

be controlled

within

fraction of

degree.
No relation between the

and the formation of degree of undercooling halos in tin-cadmium is found, and alloyscontaining primary cadmium such formation is not afi'ected when is lation. undercooling prevented by inocuthat the eutectic Chillingafter partialsolidification shows and at the primary cadmium that growth does not originate crystals, the halo is only present round those primary crystals which have become Other alloys behave similarly. by the growing eutectic. enveloped Eutectics mainly fall into two classes : (1) those of spherical radiating Halos are contours. growth ; (2)those having well-defined crystalline eutectic growth. Silver-copper show always present in spherical alloys when the primary only occurs contour, and halos are crystalline The gold-antimony eutectic, then absent. Au-AuSbg is a good example. In a third type, representedby the copper-antimony eutectic, Sb-CuoSb, eutectic and constituent the one growth very separates as laminae, this of in the at case one definitely CugSb. originates primaries,
second

this structure

well.

The

class

constituent

solidifies with

definite

It

was

not

found

to possible

confirm

Vogel'sobservations
The

as

to

the

of alloysof rapidcooling
structure

zinc

and

cadmium.

scale of the eutectic

is
may

usually diminished
also be
D.

eutectic

by rapid cooling. The habit of the of the bismuth-tin in the case affected, especially

C. alloys."

H.

Hall

Effect
copper,
*

in Heusler's

Alloys.
"

The

Hall longitudinal

effect in

alloysof

has been aluminium, and manganese 72 O. Bouazzi. Using an alloycontaining per cent, of of manganese, and 10 per cent, of aluminium, it cent,
a

examined
18

by

per copper, is possible for Two

skilled workman
cm.

to prepare

a a

wire 0"1

mm.

in diameter.

70

long,
Hall

are

wound

into

with spiral

insulated

turns.

The The

pieces, tudinal longicurve

efi'ect is then

measured
been

in the usual

way.

resistance
D.

diminishes

with

strength of increasing
which
has

the with

the magnetic field, cobalt.


"

that resembling

obtained

C. H.

Hardness
hardness
of
to

and
modulus

Elasticity of
of

Copper

Nickel

Alloys." The

for a series have been determined elasticity found It is these alloys by N. Kurnakoft" and J. Rapke f necessary be which obtain add manganese in order when to alloys casting may and

rolled method. The


as

without
modulus

cracking.
of

The

hardness

is determined the

by

Brinell's

to is strictly proportional elasticity

composition,
theory,the
1, p. 427. T

is shown
*

in the table.

Accordingto
dei

Maxwell's
vol. [v.],

relaxation
xxiii.
,

Atti

della Reale

Accademia

Lincei, 1914

No.

Cliemie, 1914, f Zeitschrift fur anorgatiische

vol. Ixxxyii. p. 269.

290

Abstracts
friction of
a

of Papers
is equal to solid, ""?,
the

coefficient of internal

product of the of elasticity, modulus E, and the time of (time required of internal strains). As the hardness,H, is known for the equalization
relaxation,T
to must

be

is the measure to the pressure of flow, which proportional be proportional increase of hardness obtained to "";. The
with In
same

of i^, it
on

ing alloyof be

copper relaxation.
due
to

nickel other
cause,

must

thus

be

due

to

an

increase in the time


hardness of
must

technical
as no

alloys the
increase
means

increased

the

in the

modulus increased

is elasticity

observed.
It is

Increased

time

of relaxation

brittleness.

is due to an that alloysmay exist in which the hardness possible of elasticity, and not in the time of relaxation. in the modulus increase Such alloyswould be hard without being brittle. It is suggested that steels may nickel,and other special belong to this class,but manganese, has not been tested experimentally. the question

"

C.

H.

D.

Intermetallic

Compounds
*

in the
the

State

of

Vapour.

"

memoir

by H.
theorem
case

von

Wartenberg

discusses

compounds
and Trouton's of

in

the
rule.

gaseous

metallic of existence of interpossibility in of Nernst's the condition, light existence another and
the is most
a

Such
with
one

an

probable in

the

metals
The

which
actual

unite heat
of

with

of but

heat.
the

of

combination

is known alkali

in

compounds
as

magnesium
has

largedevelopment hardly any case, amalgams suggest

themselves
The

suitable.

compound
in
at
a

without mixed

MgZn2 at decomposition
1300"

already been shown by A. Berry to distil If magnesium and 600" C. zinc vapours are served vapour-densityapparatus of iridium, no contraction is obC,

although the

reaction

Mg

-|-2Zn

MgZn2

would
almost

The therefore be require a large contraction. compound must that dissociated at completely temperature. Argon is used as the neutral atmosphere. Solution in acid of the separate metals and of the small formation the of of the heat as relatively compound gives MgZuo
*

Zeitschrift fur Elektrocheinie, 1014,

vol.

xx.

p. 443.

The
value
of 1314 cal.

Propertiesof Metals
Calculation
state at

and

Alloys
must

291

shows

that the

compound
the

be

fairly

stable in the gaseous


at

low
for

temperatures, but
a

600

"

is

to likely

be too

low

direct determination have


shows

vapour-pressure of the vapourof formation,

density to be practicable. The compound NagHg is found


about 440" C.
An

to

much

greater heat
it should be

13,000
account

cal.
to

Calcidation determine the the

that

stable

at

attempt
of

vapour-densityat
on

failed,on
of

rapid action

glass,and

that temperature the method was

different temperatures and adopted distilling pressures, and determiningthe compositionof the distillate. It is found that at 444"
at two

C. the

compound is stable,whilst

at

380"

C.

even

small

quantity of

is present. [It should be noticed compound containingmore mercury that the most stable compound of the series, indicated by the equias librium of the liquid diagram and also by the electrical conductivity amalgams, is not NagHg but NaoHg.] C. H. D.
"

Lead
immiscible
to be

and

Arsenic.

"

The

alloysof

lead

and

arsenic

have

been

again examined

It has been supposed that a region of by W. Heike.* shown not liquidphases exists in the system, but this is now
of difficulty By using sealed the

the case, the previousresult having been due to mixing two substances of such different densities.

furnace,which could be repeatedly inverted, perfectmixture Avas obtained,and alloyscontaining even more than 60 per cent, by weight of arsenic could be prepared. The freezingis a simpleone, the two branches meeting in a eutectic point point curve of arsenic (3"2per cent, by weight). at 280" C. and 8-25 atomic cent, per There is no indication of solid solutions, and compounds are not formed. of the the of 852" C. arsenic curve Extrapolation as gives melting point
tubes, heated porcelain
an

in

electric

"

C. H.

D.

general review of is given by some metallurgical investigations J. H. The chief methods of producing alloys,including Stansbie.f of compression of metallic powders, are Spring'smethod given. The in which the constituents of distributed a are given alloy way through
"

Modern
of

Views

of

Non-Ferrous

Alloys.

the

results of modern

its
are

mass

and

the

manner

in which

this distribution that the

affects its
two

properties

only alloysare solid solutions and compounds, the so-called free metals being very dilute solid solutions. A short account is given of the methods employed togetherwith results obtained in investigations of the relations of solid solutions and of alloys. The three compounds to the physicaland chemical properties
constituents
of
" "

considered,the author

takingthe view

methods

and chemical. physical, microscopical, The and used described to electrolytic theory of corrosion is briefly the corrosion of and when metals of the to action explain alloys exposed electrolytes. The author, however, considers that corrosion may not
are
*

discussed

International Journal of Metallography, 1914, vol. vi. p. 49. t Proceedingsof the Birmingham Metallurgical Society, 1911-13, vol.

v.

p. 25.

292

Abstracts

of Papei's
to suggest that appears the question.

action,and always be ascribed to electrolytic purely chemical action may have a bearingon
The

from the use of pure nitric acid as a resulting gaseous products solvent for metals are stated to be nitric and nitrous oxides, nitric oxide, perwhilst and and ammonia nitrite, are nitrate, hydrogen, nitrogen, of these By the quantitativedetermination has been the metals studied action of by alloying products nitric acid compared with that of the pure metals. the alloys upon in view of their great practical The copper-arsenic alloys, importance, A series of ten alloyswith arsenic, studied. have been specially varying the of nitrous acid from O'Ol to 3"0 per cent., was examined, weight constant left in solution after treating a weight of alloyin a constant formed

in

the

solution.

the

eifect of

"

with the measured being taken, together of gases evolved, as criteria for making a comparison. The quantities quantitiesof nitric oxide and nitrous acid pass through a minimum whilst that of nitrogen at a composition of passes through a maximum 0*25 per cent, arsenic. examination is said to show that Microscopical marks of arsenide of copper in this composition the limit of solubility [This is considerably below the limit given by Friedrich, copper.

volume

of

dilute

nitric acid

"

Hill, this Metallurgie, 1905, vol. ii. p. 477, also by Bengough and Journal, No. 1, 1910, vol. iii. Note by abstractor.] Assuming that the related to the chemical the physical are closely properties, properties
"

author
be

the opinionthat the useful expresses worked is 0'25 per cent. and annealed

limit of arsenic in copper

to

The

behaviour
up
to

of the
per
cent,

40

series is also instanced, taining alloysconcopper-zinc of zinc giving almost identical reactions with

zinc a quantitative effect upon of copper ; with more the reaction In neutral is observable. solution, alloys copper-nitrate containing up to
those

30

per

cent,

zinc

zinc pass into author concludes The

very little but to a solution,


are

affected,whilst
much

those
extent
"

more containing

smaller
solvents

than which than

pure

zinc. 70-30

that

the

a-solid solution

of other

the

alloy consists
and

"

is very

stable towards

nitric of the

acid,
pound com-

attributes this CuZuo.

to the stability

presence

in solid solution

As

another

instance 50

of the

modification

of

the

action

of

solvents

by

the solid solutions,

the protecting

alloyis per cent, gold-silver silver from attack.


of in
an

quoted, the gold

pletely com-

As which
In

an are

instance
not

of the behaviour
but

in solid solution

alloythe constituent metals of simple admixture, the copper-lead

alloysare
a

given.

whilst
numerous.

alloythe lead is distributed in largesegregations, slowly-cooled smaller but more in a rapidly-cooled are alloythe segregations
The
cause

latter

dissolved

more

rapidly in nitric

acid

than

the

former, the
a

being attributed
of contacts.
"

to

action proceeding from electrolytic

greaternumber
Potassium

F. J.

and

Rubidium

pressure

to produce flow required

Alloys. The conductivityand the in these alloys have been determined


"

294

Abstracts
of
the
"

of Papers
"

Specific Heat
Rolla
*

Solid
atomic

Solutions."

deals

with
a

solid solutions
curve.

curve

of atomic

frequency with frequencies corresponds

tlieoretical paper by L. In any series of of metals.


A

the

ing-point freez-

heats of the the specific investigated copper-nickel, gold-copper, followingseries of solid solutions : silver-gold, values The pared comare experimental nickel-manganese,manganese-copper.
The

author

has

with
fair

those

calculated
"

by the author's
H. D.

theoretical

and formulae,

agreement

is found.

C.

Thermo-electric
Pelabon
maximum

Power
of

of

Selenides.
with

"

Measurements selenium
at

by
a

H.

t show
in the

that
curve

alloys of antimony
thermo-electric

have

strong

power

the

composition

SbgSeg
The

when
force

measured is
a

againstplatinum.
at

The

value

motive of this electro-

maximum

700" C.

same

author

has
on

examined
the D.
curve,

singlepoint is marked compound


Titanium
SnSe.
"

Only a alloysof tin with selenium. the with that namely corresponding

C. H.

Alloys.
"

The the

reduction

of

by

reducing metal,

with

simultaneous

metals like titanium refractory of an formation alloy with


processes. None E. Kraus of

the basis of many metal, has formed however, producehomogeneous high titanium that
to have
overcome

these,
claims

alloys. by
as

"

by which
mixture The
when

and difticulty titanium alloys may high

this

gives
be

several

alternative

obtained H. for
use

processes with a reduction

of aluminium

and
a

copper. metal

"

D.

productionof
added
to

metallic

compound
is
and

purifyingagent
and

molten

patented by
carbon the

A.

J. Kossi
are
are

W.

F.

Meredith. crucible
of

1| Iron,
an

titanium

oxide,

electric

furnace, and
is
cast
"

conditions

charged into the regulated to so

give the
mass,

of titanium proportion greatest possible

when

the

charge

as

quickly
H.

as

throughoutthe possibleto prevent the


carbide

formation

carbon. of graphitic

D.

Type
a

Metal
0-39

Oxidation.
cent,

"

Experiments by S. Zinberg\ show


per
cent,

that
mony, anti-

type

metal and

containing 80-30
per of

of

lead, 19-21
acted
water.
so on

per In

cent,

of

arsenic

is not

by ordinary hard
observed this respect it is thus

water, but is readily attacked The corrosion resembles lead.


due
to

by distilled
of

type metal moisture,


of lead and

often

the
on

action the

of

condensed
is
a

the

grey

powder
metallic

which
mony. antiper the be

collects

surface

mixture

hydroxide and

A
cent,

of lead

less lead

comparison with type metals containing 72-12 and 82-34 that resistant the alloys are shows more respectively Washing with turpentineor petroleumis to they contain.
with
water.
"

to washing preferred

C. H.

D.

* vol. xxiii., No. 1, p. G16. Atti Reale Accademia dei Lincei, 1914 [v.], % Ibid., p. 1897. t Comptes Rejidiis, 1914, vol. clviii. p. 1669. Engineering, 1914, vol. xii. (No. 5), p. 352. " Metallurgical and Chemical II Ibid., (No. 6), p. 413. IT Zeitschrift fUr angewandte Chemie, 1914, vol. xxvii. p. 436.

The

Propertiesof Metals
Alloys.
"

and

Alloys
the
two

295

Zinc-Silver-Lead
B. The

This
are

system
melted The

has been

partly studied by
ing result-

Bogitch.* analyzedafter layers


an

three metals

togetherand
determine

solidification.

triangulardiagram given is
the

not

isothermal, and
the
"

it is not D.

to possible

equilibrium

from

figures. C. H.

\l\"IND Aluminium
of horst show the the

U STRIA Steel

A P PLICA

TIONS.
mittee ComWick-

and
American

Ingots. In a report to the Rail IVI. H. Railway EngineeringAssociation,


"

states
a

that tests

on

the influence of the metal the

of aluminium
takes

on

Bessemer
the

that

consolidation
is

ingot head
on

greater,and

small

place; whilst elongatedholes usually found


ingotsshowed
an

ingots pipingin

along the
Tests
in

sides of the untreated


rails rolled from

ingotare

absent.

aluminium-treated

ment improve-

and considerable increases in transverse strengthand ductility carbon steel. in cent, the of 0"61 before case breaking per flange sag uniform of more were as a mould-addition Ingotstreated with aluminium the former of Bessemer than steel, composition throughout ingots plain steel but having denser having largerand deeper pipes than the latter, in the neighbourhoodof the pipes. F. J.

of

"

Aluminium
of it

in

Automobile
is

Industry.
"

It

is stated

that

the

in aluminium chill-casting

automobile
very
over

parts, to

in the preparasuperseding the sand-casting tion which it readilylends itself and to which It also

gives a
Perfect

pleasing lustre.
the

possesses series
In
an

other

than

artistic

advantages
reason

sand-casting. of a whole interchaugeability


permanence of the mould of

of

of

the

the

mould.
off

parts is secured important series


economy of time absence
to the

by
the and of in

initial cost of

is

quicklyset

by

the

labour

and

by

the
are

avoidance

of wasters.

Owing

air the
a

flaws which mould.


and
a

metal

The

with sand castings cannot possible the lessens precisionaff'orded


a

be

formed

manufacturing
; in a

expenses,
case

allows of

diminution

in thickness per
cent,
was

of metal
effected.

special
use

quoted
The

savingin
are

weight of 20

mechanically serviceable that it is proposed to parts aluminium produced in this way for moving parts, e.g. for pistons.
so

crank case forming the largealuminium base for a twelve-cylindermarine gasolineengine built for the new hydroplane. Disturber IV. (U.S.A.). The castingweighed .365 lbs. in in an ordinary flask, in green sand the rough ; it was moulded using a crank the the wooden case being centre, split through pattern, which was A

photographis given" of

Comptes Rendus,

1914, vol. clix. p. 178.

t Iron Trade Revieiu, 1914, vol. liv. p. 589. X Mdtauxet Alliages, 1914, vol. vii. No. 12, p. 7. " The Foundry, July 1914, vol. xliii. p. 262.
,

296
moulded the metal
90 its sides.
was

Abstracts
on

of Papers
along one side,and time, using crucibles

poured

Six gates entered the mould at one through six runners aluminium each.
"

holding

lbs. of molten

F. J.

Aluminium
issued
the
use

Network
aluminium
as an

Feeders.

"

Reference

is made

to

leaflet
on

by

the British Aluminium

a Company, Limited, containing

note

of
a

additional

overhead

feeder to

an

outlying
safety

of portion

network.
a

The

sag

is 12 inches for
lbs.
as

span

of 120

feet,so that the

factor of

is 10, taking 2000 strand. Aluminium into


contact

the

breaking load

of the hard-drawn

aluminium

bonds with
are

are

used

no throughout,

other

metal terminal

being brought
where poles,
out

the

aluminium

except
connect
on

at

the

clamps special
of the

employed to
boxes. made

to the

copper

leads, taken
aluminium the form

cable

and
are

The

end

connection
of

between

and

kicking coils
cable
"

by

means

aluminium

clamps in

of

lugs. F. J.
of
a

Application
Reference
is made

Protective
J. Osborne

Metal

Surface
of

by Spraying."
a

by

to the invention

Japanese

lurgist, metal-

whereby iron rusting. The metal


; it is then

and

surface

be coated with aluminium to steel may in first the instance, tinned, or is,

prevent

nized galvaof tin


new

immersed with
is

in molten
steel wire

aluminium,
brushes
to

under

the

surface
zinc
or

which

it is scrubbed

remove

the metal

coating,which
is coating

replacedby the aluminium. said then to be ready for any processes


iron
or

The

with

its

through which

it may

have

to

pass, e.g. such

and polishing. rolling, pressing, steel structures


writer then

Large castings and


to
a

cannot, however, be

jected subthe

process.

The

proceeds to

describe The

development
described

of the

evolved finally

is not that

and pulverization but is named, probably the Schoop the

spraying of metals.

process process, and is

by the author.

It is stated

density(9-5)of

lower than that of a steam was superheated with hydrogen. sprayed of flow Hydrogen,for a givenpressure, possesses a much highervelocity with metal is the than superheated steam, and so projected pulverized is proportional This increase of energy proportionately greater energy. it is therefore a nd of the the to possibleto vary the velocity, square in order to obtain a density suitable for any particular velocity purpose. of the sprayed coatingsis usually hardness The greater than that of

deposit sprayed with similar deposit (11 to 11 'S)


lead

the cast

metal.

be put are given, sprayedcoatings may for electrical resistances, the coppering and include thin sprayed strips of electrical and electrode ends, the perfecting of carbon brushes contacts, structural of the broken the mending of cracked surfaces, or galvanizing Instances of the
use

to which

Iron

and

Coal

Trades

Review,

1914, vol. Ixxxix.

p. 203.

t Machinery, 1914,

vol. iv. p. 625.

The
iron

Properties of Metals
aeronautical
wooden
"

and

Alloys
and

297 parts with

work,

the

coating of
ravages,

fabrics

wooden

of aluminium, the protection and rotting, insect

againstdampness, parts in general

"c.

F. J.

Babbitt

and
in the

other
Electric of

Bearing
Journal,

Metals.
T.

"

In

an

article which
*

first
ditions con-

appeared
to

J.

Johnston

reviews

the

of service be

the anti-frictional

alloys. The

are following

stated

good bearing material should fulfil: It of sufficient be heat not must strength to sustain its load ; it must be capable of being easily have good worked rapidly ; it must ; it must anti-frictional properties, and different internal structure a durability, from that of the revolving journal which it has to support.
the which requirements The metals
are

given

as

enteringinto

the

compositionof
copper, list would be and
"

white

metal

alloys
bismuth

aluminium,
recommended.

zinc, nickel, tin, lead,

[A

more
a

correct

antimony, and tin,antimony,

lead,
The

copper,
"

zinc ; sometimes

little

bismuth,

other occasionally

elements.

Ed.]

discussed,bronze being used composition of bearingshells is fully in railway work because its use certain the completion of a run makes the if accidental overheating babbitt melt even occurs. though liningmay The anchor holes or grooves provided in iron shells are not necessary in all bronze if properly If used, they tinned." shells,especially should be small and few in number. sion Tinning" is effected by immerin the 1 and uniform 1 solder, and the coating should be i:)erfectly
" "

over

of The the

"

will result. A thin wash the entire surface ; otherwise loose linings " talcum should be appliedto the parts not requiring water tinning.

babbitt
"

liningshould be appliedto tinning operation.


"

the surface, while

still hot

from

Babbitt has copper) increased


such
as

(88"88 per
excellent
to

such

an

antimony, and 3"7 per cent, when properly made ; the cost of tin has properties the use of a cheaper metal necessitate extent to as
cent,

tin,7'4

per

cent,

The
the
use

place. metal in melting babbitt to be observed precautions of an electric temperature-regulator being advocated
a

lead in its

are

stated,

for maintaining

constant

temperature of
of
a

about

465"

C. of the The
use

Efficient

use stirring,

avoidance covering of charcoal,

of scrap metal, and periodical of dross are advisable. removal of a bearing metal lies in the ability of the bearingsurface to resist the minute in the steel inequalities

merit

yield to and not journal. Consequently the bearingsurface,instead of being injured by contact and momentary high the way is smoothed and coefficient of friction, burnished, thus preparing for a uniform coefficient of running friction. oil film with a minimum in addition to their antiThe other advantages of white-metal alloys, frictional properties, run to melt and discussed,whilst their liability are
from
the

bearingshell

if accidental

metal, with general instructions are


*

Babbitt

is not overlooked. occurs overheating receives specialattention, whilst history, of of mandrels, method given for the preheating its
World,

Mechanical

September 11, 1914,

vol. Ivi. p. 129.

298

A bs tracts

of Papers
temperature.
areas,

and maintenance of correct pouring, too high,extreme shrinkage,porous and result,


rate

If the

temperature is
are

and
"

broken

anchors
results.

the
slow

if too

low,

"

coarse

granular
the

structure

of

as cooling,

influenced

by

high temperature
constituents
and

of shell

or

mandrel,

results in
of hardness.

of the heavier segregation

lack of

uniformity
are

Details

and regarding handling, finishing,

repair work
in of

also

given.
Three
the

mandrels article

by G. E. P.* for use being accompanied by illustrations


are

described

ings, bearbabbitting
the

three

types

described.
In
a

subsequent issue f H.
comments
on

W.

Hawkins

discusses

the

same

subject,
tions. sugges-

adding
L. and of

the

former

article and

making

further

D.

Allen

discusses

the

employing suitable methods

suitable material importanceof selecting in reducing friction and bearing surfaces antifrictional

machinery.

He

states
or

that

properties are
A
metal

of

more

compressive strength. and content good compressive strength would readilyoverheat at high speed, owing to the generation of heat being faster

importancethan

tensile

with

high
and than

tin

fuse its

dissii)ation. of Upon the quality


lubrication. low A

the
which

metal
of

bearing metal will depend shows of rate satisfactoiy


may be low
reason are

the
wear

expense and

of
even

temperature
entail of

running

in antifrictional
of the

therefore

great
a

requirements
various
are as

by expense babbitt metal


are

and qualities, friction produced. The The


in of the properties metals bearing in

detailed.

metals follows
:

used

reviewed, and
the

their influences

Tin

toughens, lowers
lowers softens, reduces
in

melting point, and


It has low

assists

producing

and homogeneity. strength Lead up. is used It the


more

antifrictional
reduces

pr")]:)erties.

meltingpoint,and
than any metal.

friction

tendency to heat lead Impure antimonial


It

cheap babbitt

metals.

Copper hardens, toughens, and


increases the friction.

raises the

melting point.
It

slightly

Antimony
fracture. The

hardens

and

raises

the

melting point.
friction.
It

improves the
metals
are

and properties heat-dissipating


evenness a

reduces

produces a crystalline

and

of best babbitt wearing qualities

greatest with
Bismuth

On

account

Third

proportionof 13 per cent, antimony. lowers the melting point, reduces shrinkage and friction. of its costliness, it is not in great favour. man, [CompareGoodto the Alloys Research Committee liejjort (1895),p. 289.
"

maximum

Ed.]
Aluminium Babbitt

toughens but
metals
are

increases

the

divided

into

three

friction ; is rarelyused. classes,viz. : (1) Lead-based

Machinery August 6, 1914, vol. iv. p. 595. t Ibid., September 24, 1914, vol. iv. p. 822. + Mechanical World, July 10, 1914, vol. Ivi. p. 16.
,

The alloys,in
metals 10
to

of Metals Properties
lead tin and
is

and
metal

Alloys
;

299

which

the lead

predominant
are

(2)

semi-tin-based

in which 20
per

about

equal,the
which

antimony being from


from 75 to 90

cent.;

(3) tin-based

metals

contain

per For

cent.

tin.

lead-antimony and
metals made

period is recommended
Babbitt

lead-antimony-tinalloys a lengthyannealing to obtain uniformity and homogeneity. from pure metals are to those produced preferred
in order
It is claimed

by of properties
Reference

the reduction
the

of dross.

that other factors enter


"

into

the

alloysthan chemical
*

composition. F.
of

J.

to practicaltests conducted of bronze journalbearingscomposed of 65 per determine the efficienc}' solid cent, 30 cent, lead, and 5 per cent. tin. They were per copper, babbitt bronze no surface, but could scarcely lay castings requiring claim to be new in composition to one of the well; they corresponded to

is made

the

results

known years. In

bronzes plastic for the

which

have

been

in

use

in

America

for

some

test

Baltimore
tender of
a

and

placed under
had
run

the

a railroad, 22-pound bearingwas Pacific type locomotive. After the engine

Ohio

51,000 miles the bearingis said

to

have

worn

^.V inch

only

and

to have

given

no

trouble

in

heating.

"

tested in the form of 75-pound mill For mill purposes, the bronze was under the rolling brasses" table of a 108-inch platemill,the minimum of which
was

weight
The

estimated

at

10,000 lbs.
service
for four

bearings
"

gave

continuous

weeks

without

lubrication.

F. J.

Bronzing
by
a

of Metals
of other

and

Alloys.
"

The

bronzingof
to

common

metals
them

process

atmosphericand
is described

oxidation in order superficial external to or corrosion,

protect
iron

from

confer

artistic effects, and


means

j in detail.

Conditions

for the

bronzingof
by
for
some

steel,
in
an

zinc, aluminium, alloys, copper the cold are given in detail,as


heat oxidizing
"

tin, and
also and
are

nickel those

chemical
the

bronzing by

treatment

of iron

steel and

non-ferrous

alloys.

F. J.

Cold
of
a

Strip Rolling Machine."


with

An
10

illustrated

is given % description 10 inch

chilled rolls. striprollingmachine, by in a sliding is fixed, The upper the lower roll being mounted roll-bearing of wedges and mild steel screws bush which is adjustableby means nected conto allow either end by bevel gearing,which may be disconnected plate, in the baseof the roll to be separately collects Lubricant adjusted. and is conveyed to a drain. The roll-housings, pinions, coupling
cold

inch

and

method

of drive

are

described.

"

F. J.
The of practice

Bronze

and
*

Cast
Trade
et

Iron

Bearings"

manufacturers

Iro7i

t M^taiix X American

1914, vol. liv. p. 1009. Alliages,May 15, 1914, vol. vii. No. 9, p. 7. Machinist, August 22, 1914, vol. xli. p. 24 E. Review,

300
of

A bstracts
machine-tools
in

of Papers

criticized

by repairswhich
The author's

C. C.

omitting to put bushings in wherever possibleis Anthony,* who emphasizes the important savingin
be

might otherwise
of cast

effected.
bronze
to

relative merits

iron and

for

bushingsare considered,

the

experience inducinghim
lie claims

iron,for which
of

better when

troublesome
rate

conditions

a preferencefor cast and less aggravation equalities wearing the bearingsbecame hot, owing to the
"

entertain

lower

of

expansionof cast

iron.

F. J. An

Copper-Coil Forming
given t
of
a

Machine.
to

"

illustrated

descriptionis
with together

machine

designed

coil copper

field coils for automobile

and coiling it lighting systems, taking the copper in strips F. J. arbor. of insulation on a rectangular a strip
"

Copper
of
a

for

Drilling Holes

in

Glass.
in

"

By
a

means

of

drill
down

sisting conon

to

in

up glassupon which a mixture of emery and be readily pierced, if the the glass may sides
or

pieceof

set copper-tubing

drill chuck, fed been

oil has

dropped, holes
on

operation is carried

from

both

jV

inch

conductor local

alternately. having a wall-thickness of J The copper-tubing is soft enough to hold the emery, and, being an excellent of heat, prevents cracking from which would excessive ensue
more
"

heating.
a

F. J.

Drawing
the
TF

Circular
he

Brass
had in

Cup.

"

A
a

writer
brass

(0. R. W.) "


cup made

outlines stock

experiencewhich
inch thick.

drawing

from

of description whereby they were

the

encountered, and the initially is accompanied by overcome successfully

difficulties

means

several

drawings

of
"

the
F.

various
J.

punches

used

for

the

drawing

and

upsetting

operations.
Firebox
in firebox
is
are one

Riveting Device.
described
the

"

device

for

using two
by J.
means

air hammers

is stay-bolts riveting

and

illustrated
to

K.

Long. ||
small

The

inverted, and
other

device
can

fastened be
moved

it.

Inside
of

wrought iron
handles

pipes
from
to

pipes,which
to

by

point

another.

After
to
a

the setting small

hammers

be

used, air

is admitted the

thus cylinder,
are

they are lockingthe airover

where

hammer usual

against
way.
"

which stay-bolts,

then

riveted

in

the

F. J.

Gas-heated
heated
are

Soldering
eightsmall

Iron.

"

Illustrations T. into R. Ellen.


a

are

given
In

of

gas-

iron soldering

introduced

by
holes

^
cap

two

largeand
*

which

the copper bit directs the flame,

Machinery, September 24, 1914, vol. iv. p. 815. t Atnerican Machinist, 1914, vol. xli. p. 171. X Machinerv 1914, vol. iv. p. 757" Ibid. p. 505. II America?! Machinist, 1914, vol. xli. p. 164. 11 Mechanical World, 1914, vol. Ivi. p. 9.
, ,

302
has adherent,
a

Abstracts
more

of Papei^s
has spangle, smaller
of alloy and crystals, low

beautiful

is free from discolorations. Aluminium should be added in the form of an It is claimed that the than 480" C). point(lower
due
to the

melting

increased

and to the influence of aluminium deoxidizing It is for of the the latter iron. only precipitation purpose that

is fluidity and separation aluminium

is used
not

in

whilst wire-galvanizing,

for hard-drawn

carbon-steels it should
"

clear " the bath " is inadvisable in baths containing cake " as the zinc does not then rollers, the rollers. on bath are distributed The average losses of zinc in a wire-galvanizing
The

be used, only the addition of more

results. satisfactory purest zinc giving aluminium than is


to required

as

follows

:
"

68 18 12 2

per cent, in the coating. 91 per cent. zinc. per cent, to form dross containing 66 to 68 per cent. zinc. per cent, to form ashes containing "c. per cent, volatilization,

Reference is made
made Revue
to reduce

in detail to the various attempts which have been of which had been previously described in some losses,
of these innovations
a

de

Metallurgie.Several
zinc.

take

of advantage

the

of iron in insolubility

lead,and

a superimposed layerof

employ bath of lead on which is Improved wire and sheet-galvanizing


described.
"

baths

by

the author

are

illustrated and

F. J. of locomotive subject

Locomotive
of and

Boiler Tubes.

"

A treatise *

on

the

boiler tubes deals with

fixing. For
brass
are

the material of which they made and methods are the material iron is preferred but copper by the majority,

the United

the water The

used by a considerable minority.Iron is much used in States and in Canada ; brass in Belgium and India,where is bad ; steel in France,where the water is good; and copper
:

in Australia

all four

are

used

in the United
are as

Kingdom.
follows the
:

claimed advantages of

for steel of better

Low

initial cost,

retention
less

shape

of

firebox

to tube-plate, ability at joints

withstand

higher
fore there-

boiler pressures, formation

and tube-plates

leakage. The or comparedwith brass and copper are : Pitting disadvantages i n service unsuitable to lower thermal water), conductivity, grooving (due and lower value as scrap when no longer serviceable. The various ways of fixing tubes in tube-plates employedby different
are railways

described. and

ferrules are almost universally used at copper tubes, the firebox end, for,in addition to keeping the tube tight, they protect the internal front end from the abrading action of ashes and cinders With
brass drawn

in

by

the blast.
ends

Flanged ferrules
of

are

used

by

some
are

to railways

protect the

beaded

the

tubes.

Illustrations

given and

of the British method of securing include representations brass tubes,of of securing the Continental method iron tubes with copper ends,of the
*

Mechanical

World, 1914, vol. Ivi.pp. 3, 40.

The
American
end and of the the
over.

Prope7'ti"s of Metals
of
a providing

and

Alloys
the iron

303
tube

method

thin copper

liner between the tube is


copper

the firebox Russian


end

which tube-plate, against of

method

providingseveral
into the firebox method

expanded,and which ringsagainst


then beaded

tube

is

expanded
to

and tube-plate

Reference
where

is made
come

the
of

Swedish
the

they

in contact
are

with the

Illustrations

given
of

and operations,

the tool
hammers. the

"'tinning"tube ends copj^er tube-plate. ing" "expanding,"and "bead"inserting," ends tube the for used beading" over
of
"

by

means

of

pneumatic
of

Leakage heating and

tubes

at

is tube-plate

attributed

less to

alternate

coolingthan to cold feed and existence of scale. Where hot feed is used, leakageis comparatively rare. of tube The ends reduced owing to the length of tube tightness in thick tube-plates has been counteracted by unprotectedby water
"
"

method in the

used

in the

United

States:

the

tube

end

is beaded

over

flange

only about two-thirds into hole,the tube thus reaching tube-plate the of the plate. A is inserted between the thickness copper-ferrule tube end and that part of the plateagainst which the tube bears. illustration is given of the method An employed on the Lancashire
and

Yorkshire and
of

expanded
Methods
and

fixed in the

Railway of arranging tube-plate.


are

the

order

in

which

tubes On

are

tubes repairing

described
brass

and

illustrated. brazed
new
on

Indian

Continental brass
or

With

are railways new^ on tubes, by piecing brazing copper

ends

to

steel tubes. is the

ends

only
been

method. satisfactory
For the

renovation
a

of

copper

tubes

redrawing plant has


in which
to

installed removal
with

by

of their

large Englishrailway company, damaged ends, are drawn down


thickness.
"

tubes, after the

their

length, original

reduced slightly

F. J.

Making
made copper

the

Dies
to

for

Drawn
of

Copper Shell"
the
actual dies

preliminary
ferrules for

the

manufacture
are

for

Experiments producing

by A. C. Lindholm.* dimensions The ferrules were to have the following : inside diameter, of inch ; the ends material, \\i inches; length,\\ inches; thickness y^ the sides parallel for electrical contact. to be flat and were It was found possible to design dies to produce these ferrules in three and without annealing, viz. a drawing, a flattening, a sizing operations and The dies and punches are trimming operation. experimental
fuses cartridge

described

described.
bottom of

With the

bottom square but considerable shell,


a

punch,

fracture
was

occurred

at

the
was

information

gained.
shell in
one

It

then
was

necessary

to

ascertain

if the

productionof

the

draw

and this was done feasible, by rounding off the bottom of the punch ; drawn shell being produced without fracture. this resulted successfully, a then A single-acting at a speed of used, and, if run power press was strokes per minute, shells could be produced without fracture. thirty-five
*

American

Machinist,

1914, vol. xl, p. 1119.

304
The

Abstracts

of Papers
as

design of

the

dies

was

such

to

allow

of uniform

pressure

on

requiredangle was blank, and dishing of the blank drawn die and the blank was entered before the over cuttingpunch and and drawing punch out knockthe plug. The drawing die mth cutting it being arranged for a singledescribed and illustrated, is clearly with ability on a double-acting principle, acting drawing die to work
the the also to dish the blank.
ing operationof squaringthe bottom of the shell in a flattenand illustrated. the a operation flattening During outside small bulge appeared at the bottom edge of the shell,but was of a sizingand removed trimming by the third operation,by means the illustrated i s Before treatment which of an description given. die, the and when forced than in diameter thus, shell is slightly die, larger with and leaves burnished becomes the a slightly punch, through by The

to the

efl'ectedas

second

die

is described

smooth

surface.-

"

^F. J.

Manufacture
method
for

of Seamless
seamless
at
a

Tubes.
tubes.

"

L. J. Krom molten
metal

describes is

new a

making

The

poured

into

mould, which
side up

is rotated outside

high speed, the


can

metal

being thrown

to the

by
to

force. centripetal inches


"

Tubes

be
any

manufactured wall

22

diameter, of

by this process and up to 20 thickness,

feet

long.

J. L. H.

Metals

and
die

Alloys for Die

Castings." E.

F.

Lake

t classifies

alloysfor

castingsinto : alloyswith a lead base,alloyswith a zinc The other metals used may be selected base, and alloyswith a tin base. from antimony, bismuth, boron, cadmium, copper, aluminium, nickel, and iron. silver, For the dies special alloysteels have been found superiorto bronze,
cast

iron, and ordinarysteel.


be
are alloys have the lowest meltingpoints, used for castings to withstand severe required

Lead-base
cannot

easilycast,
service.

but

In Table
use as

I.

are

given the

of lead -base compositions

suitable alloys

for

die-castings.

alloys for the purpose of Antimony is used in nearly all die-casting shrinkage,but zinc-base alloysrequirelittle (1 to 2 per cent.), lessening the low and shrinkage. Antimony reduces owing to their hardness of 13 per antimony content shrinkage of lead progressively up to an
cent. ; this influence

then

falls off to
at

minimum

at

35

per

cent,

mony, anti-

a againreaching

maximum

lead-antimony alloysmaximum 17"3 per cent, antimony. of shrinkage in a die-casting is said to be increased by The amount the metal into the moulds. Bismuth the pressure employed for forcing is twice as efficient as antimony in causing an alloyto completely fillthe within 0"005 inch of correct size ; mould, thus enabling it to be made bismuth costly. is,however, twenty times more
Of
*

off. 50 per cent, and again falling that hardness is attributed to ing contain-

Metal

Industry, 1914,

vol. vi. p. 201.

t Mechanical

World,

1914, vol. Ivi. p. 64.

The

Propertiesof Metals

and

Alloys

105

Table

I.

"

Compodtion of Lead-hase Alloys suitable for Die-castings.

Table

II.

"

Zinc-base

Alloysused for

Die-moulded

Castings.

One

per

cent,

copper

also

added. 4 '5.

t By analysis.

J Phosphor copper,

106

Abstracts alloys are stated to probably the strongest of


not

of Papers
be the

Zinc-base and used


are

work, adapted to die-casting white-metal alloys. Lead is rarely


best

be high. The unless the copper highest tensile strength is obtained by keeping both copper and tin A to purify little aluminium be used 2 and 5 per cent. between may
; tin should

exceed

15 per cent,

but in high percentages will raise the melting point. strengthen, The suited for bearing metals. alloys are stated to be more analyses are given : following and Tin-base
"

White
Tin
. .

Bronze.
Per

Cent. 29 0

65-0
.

Zinc

Copper

4-5 1-5
.

Antimony
Aluminium Lead
.

Parmns'
Tin Zinc

White

Bronze.
Per m 38 2 Cent. "5

Copper
Antimony
Aluminium Lead

........

1
........ .......

0 0

great need

in the

manufacture
"

of
F.

is a die-castings

method

for preventing

at sponginess

the centre.

J.

Making
describes
a

Half-round
method
for

Polished

Brass

Moulding.
use on

"

A.

Grieve
of motorcar

making

brass

moulding for
sawn

edges
in
a

Brass

upholstery. tube, f inch diameter,


slotted and

was

in

two

halves

specially

drilled and tinned

steel holder ; the interior of the halves were then The method of slitting is illustrated, filled with soft solder. "F.J.

Non-ferrous
are

Mixtures.

"

Patents

by E. D. Gleason
bronze.

of

New

York
fused

described
1.

as

follows

Improvement
of

in manufacture calcium

of aluminium
one mass

Into

bath

three

parts

fluoride and the

aluminium
and

ingotsare

introduced, and
The
latter
are

part fused boracic acid, is stirred when molten


in slightly
excess

poured into ingots.


to

added
under

of ten oxide

parts

ninety parts pure


The

copper

melted

charcoal

and

black

alloys for bearing metals. copper-tin in is said to be overcome The trouble of lead segregation these alloys by derivative of An -metallic lead,e.g. galena. a non example incorporating lead-copperand
*

of manganese. 2. Plastic

alloyis said to be free from resulting


lead-

alumina.

American

Machinist,

t The

Foundry,

August 22, 1914, vol. September 1914, vol. xliii.p.

xli. p. 207. 361.

The
is

Propertiesof Metals
galenabeing added
lbs.
to
an

and

Alloys

307

given, 5
lead
"

lbs. of
5

GO

of

and

of

tin.

Such

lbs. of copper, then 30 lbs. geneous. alloy is said to be homo-

F. J.

Schoop
of M.

Processes
account

of Metallization.
in

"

full discussion
of

Vezoul's

the Reeve methods

Industrielle

the

given* lizing Schoop metalis with

processes.! The
of other metals shown
taken known

various
to

of

metals coating
are

deposits

molten
when

it is prior that the principle of the Schoop process was embodied in a patent manufacture of accumulator for the out thirty : plates years ago lead was by a jet of steam into a metallic trellis, which, projected

Schoop'sinvention

reviewed,and

served filled, earlier form

as

an

accumulator

plate.

the pulverized by Schoop is described, and metal the cleaned to previously being projectedon object, of the depositbeing perfect. It is suggested warmed, the adherence that the force with which the solid molecules are driven against the surface of the body bringsthem into the liquid or, at anyrate, the malleable in perfect them and the consequent formaunion between tion state, resulting of a homogeneous body. of metallization is based on this conception, method the new Schoop's apparatus being supplied with powdered metal prepared by the original The by the coating thus produced is equal to that j^roduced process. is superiorin density to the molten rolled of liquidmetal, and or use is of the new metal. A description given. apparatus The metallic particles carried with a are speed which depends on

The

of apparatus used

several

and viz. velocity conditions,

and calculated. The of the


on

of density

metal

; the

density of speed cannot

the be

gas, fineness
measured

of

ticles, par-

or directly

hardness

of the gas and the nature of the coat, depending upon be determined the of can metal, also upon pulverization, degree

but experiment,

is under

control.

The
be
most

energy

in the

is transferred projectedparticles
to melt

into heat, which adhesion. absence be


used is the

may

supposed temporarily
essential condition

them

and

thus

promote
coat

A
of for

for
a

homogeneity of the
neutral
or

oxide

particles ; therefore oxidizable metals readily


The thickness
It is

reducing
the zinc

gas

should

and

electrically produced heat.


depends upon density of a

of the coat

pressure pointedout that the of hydrogen)of 5 kilogrammesper sq. centimetre, is 7"42, its (presumably with a density hardness being 48 per cent, greater than that of cast zinc, of 7-29.

quantityof metal coating, using a

taken.

The and The

process has

been

alloys, e.g.

copper,

pistol sprayer,
is described

to high melting point metals applicable and even bronze, gold,nickel,platinum, glass. and thread which metallic is melted in a verized, pul-

made

and

illustrated. shows
et

examination Microscopic
*

that

all the

pores

of the

metallized

Mitaux

Alliages 1914,
,

vol. vii.,No. of the present

t See also p. 116

to

p. 124

7, p. 3. volume.

308

Abstracts
are

of Papers
coat

body

filled in, the completely of the metal used. and of the

the retaining metallized

characteristic

portion pro-

Many
"

uses

of applications

bodies

are

discussed.

F. J.

Separation
of bismuth

of

Bismuth
the of
*

from
United

Copper.
States

"

process

for

the

covery re-

from

of by-products

has been lead-refining


Metal

patented

by William
The

Thum,

the

KefiningCompany.

to all materials is applicable showing a concentration of process the copper of copper. bismuth in the presence It consists in converting the wth alkali bismuth into matte metal, sulphide, leaving by fusing

electrically. and bismuth antimony, and (arsenic, containing copper is oxidized, lead having been removed crushed, and mixed by cupelling) and carbon with an alkali sulphide, or preferablywith an alkali sulphate mixture coke is in cake and The smelted a reverberatory breeze). (salt to be scraped down furnace breast which can providedwith a cupelling in added amounts follow the level of the charge. Fluxingingredients are equal to about two and a half times the theoretical requirementsfor the
can

which

be

treated

The

material

reduction

and

conversion
of
at

of the

metals
on

and

salts.
bismuth.

The

mass,

when

fectly per-

consists liquid,
the copper

three
the

layers:
bottom in

top

is the

matte, and
in the

the

slag,in the middle if Gold and silver,


a

present, are
will be found

concentrated
matte.

mainly
The

the

bismuth, but
matte not
more are

certain amount

slag and

drawn
than

separately,

leavingthe

1 per cent, of than is 1 per cent, bars and refined. When cast into anode more copper, of copper is found, the metal is oxidized by blowing air it,and

bismuth, which,

if it contains

through

is process t his silver, may

the

repeated.
be

When

the

bismuth

contains

much

recovered
the

stopped when
of
a

nearlyall

the product,the by oxidizing ing bismuth is oxidized, the residue then consist"

gold and process being

rich

bulUon. gold-silver-bismuth

D.

H.

Railway Waggons. (issuedby the Raihvay Clearing House) to the standard and drawingsrelating to privateowners' specifications waggons of Great the railways Britain and Ireland, there appear the following on
Standard
In
an

for Bearings Specifications f

in

"

addendum

for specifications

"

brasses
"

"

and

white
be
an

metals

for

use

in axle-boxes.

Brasses." the

'"'"

Brass

bearingsto
"

alloyof

copper,

tin,and

zinc in

proportions: following
Copper
Tin Zinc
. . .

Per 84
. . . . . .

Cent.
to

88 4

10 to 12
. . . . . .

2 to

White and

Metals.

"

White

metal

to

be
"

an

alloyof

copper,

tin,antimony,

lead in the

: following proportions

Metallurgical a7id
Iron and Coal

Chemical

E7igi7iecring, July 1914,

vol. xii.

(No. 7),p. 478.

Trades

Review,

1914, vol. Ixxxviii. p. 994.

310
More in the main blades recently

Abstracts
have been

of Papers

with feet which fitinto a groove provided between the blades dovetail into the element. Spacers blade-carrying the the bladingand rendering interlocking groove, thus completely

strengthof attachment

equal to

that

of the blades

themselves.

"

F. J.

Straightening
a

Aluminium

Tubes.

"

is given* description

of

tubes 2 feet 9 inches aluminium employed for straightening long by 3 inches diameter, and 0' 1 inch wall-thickness ; these were bent from ^ to ^ inch,and requireda bare 3V inch to be turned off to bring them to the required diameter. Each filled with well-dried finely -sifted silver sand, both ends tube was method

being plugged with


centred, were pieces,
steel sleeve lever and
and then
was

soft wood

to retain the
on

sand.

Bored

mild

steel end
a

placed
and
of
set.

the

ends

of each
a

bored the

applied with
as

in turn, and fit to close-sliding


the

tube

mild

guard

againstdistortion
fulcrum turned
to

tubes

they
were

The

tubes

usual by straightened to within 0"031 inch, straightened


were

the

required diameter.

and distortion from circularity, and prevented buckling sand-filling the fitted the outside of tubes on guaranteed end-plates being their truth at each end, and helped to prevent distension during the straightening operation. F. J. The the centred
"

Tungsten
described
For
rea.son

Uses.

"

in Adualites

in the progress is reviewed.! Srientifiques Recent

use

of

tungsten

as

electrical contacts of its

better suited than platinum,by tungsten seems and low vapour thermal hardness, conductivity, high great

pressure.
For used
an

(1800" C.) electrical tube furnaces it may be high-temperature the where round tube,or may constitute the tube itself, winding atmosphere of hydrogen or of hydrogen and nitrogen mixed is
for for

required. The tungsten-molybdenum thermocouple is suggested


temperatures
at

which

the

measuring operativ platinum platinum-rhodiumcouplesare inof 0*005 inch is suitable for


use

Tungsten wire galvanometers.

drawn

to a diameter

in

Owing to its paramagnetism tungsten electric measuring apparatus. F. J.


"

is suitable for

and watch-springs

Useful
cast

Annealing
blanks

Device.
to rotate

"

annealing of
slow

is described

and

the designedfor facilitating A illustrated by O. Clerkenwell. J device


means

iron wheel

is caused
are

by

of

worm

and

bevel gear

at

speed. Blanks brought to a red-heat


*

dropped into slots milled in the wheel, are and fall out by passage through a small gas-flame,
Machinist, 1914, vol. xli. p. 44. Alliages,May .30,1914, vol. vii..No. Machinist, 1914, vol. xli. p. 136.

American
et

t MHaux

10, p. 6.

X American

The

Properties

of

Metals

and

Alloys
is
F.
"

311

by

gravity
for

into
use

trough telephone

of

water.

The

apparatus
work.

specially

mended recom-

in

and

electrical

J.

Wire
clearance

Rings
around and the and

for
the also of

Leaky

Stuffingof of brass does


not
an

Boxes.
"

In in

order the

to

close

up of

the the

piston-rod
at

engine,

bottom it wire

stuffing-box
to

the

bore
or

the

packing-gland,
a

is

proposed
of No. 5

replace
6 B.

ring
S.

babbitt
which

by

ring
up

of

copper
so

or

gauge,

take

much

space

as

the

former. The
method

of

fixing

the

rings

is

described.

*
"

F.

J.

Mechanical

WoHd,

1914,

vol.

Ivi.

p.

17.

312

ELECTRO-METALLURGY
ELECTRO CHEMISTRY.

AND

I."

ELECTRO-MET Nickel

ALL Aluminium."

URG
A
*

Y.
method
of

Deposition
alumijiiuia
The with

of

on

coating

nickel is described is immersed


0'2 into in per
a
a

by

E.

Tassily.
of

aluminium

bath
cent,

lime-water, dipped into a then few minutes, and a


1 gramme
manner,

bath

after which iron per litre, when the nickel coat will be of

potash, washed with boiling bath of potassium cyanide for of hydrochloric acid containing it is nickel-plated in the usual
found
to

be

perfectlyadherent.
"J. L. H.

Electrolytic Treatment
Chile, according
to

of

Copper

Ores.
the

"

At

Chuquicamata,
which

is mainly Cappelen Smith,! ore, brochantite (basicsulphate of copper) mixed with salt in the upper is The first unit of the plant portions, to be treated by wet methods. now buildingis designed to treat 10,000 tons of ore per day, and the will have a capacity of 335,000 lbs. of copper electrolytic refinery per day. The crushed is at first leached with dilute sulphuric but the ore as acid, extraction proceeds no further acid is required,as the sulphuric acid increases content considerably. Chlorides are removed from the solution with shot copper in a revolving drum, the precipitated by treatment mixed with chloride limestone and coke, and being filter-pressed, cuprous smelted, giving a slagof calcium chloride. For the electrolysis of the solution, free from chlorine,insoluble now anodes of magnetite are These in Germany by a used. anodes, made the secret with hollow are on castings electro-plated process, copper inside. Good cathode quite free from arsenic and antimony, is copper, E. A.

obtained. The
will refinery r5
metres

consist of 510

tanks, 5'7

metres

wide, and

deep, made
for

of concrete, lined with

long, 1*05 metres asphalte. Thirty

of these will be used

The tanks will sheets. making cathode starting will be divided into 30 solution circuits. form 5 electric circuits, and The 13 x 5 x 120 magnetite anodes are centimetres, arranged five to a

bar.
*

The
Revue

cathodes
de

are

120

90

centimetres.

"\ Transactions

M^lallurgie, 1914, of the American

vol. xi. p. 670.

ElectrO'Chemical

1914, Society,

vol.

.\xv.

p. 193.

ElectroOther
account

Metallurgy and
described
processes
at

ElectroR.

Chemistry
who

313

plants are
of

by

R.

Goodrich, *
use.

the wet
a

present in
anode
more

In

gives an electrolytic processes

also

the choice of chlorides.


The

suitable
have

insoluble

has

processes
use

been

employed

phate proved very difficult. Sulfrequentlythan those which

methods

of
R.

checking the
Deacon,

losses in
An

electrolytic copper
system
C. H.
of
"

are refining

discussed

by

W.

elaborate
in detail.

correlations

of

weighingsand analysesis
Electricsil
manufacture reference

described

D.

of Soldering*. The application


"

of

frames optical

the heat is produced by the same as of electricity i.e. the passage of a large current action, through the joint. The general method of holding the pieces to be of solderingconsists with the ends of the work A in firm contact. joinedby clampingjaws to melt heavy current of electricity regulatedto heat the jointsufficiently The in the the solder is then passed through the work. form of solder, tape or wire, is then applied to the joint. It flows in and round all parts heated
an

to being also made between the processes, similarity

to the soldering fullydescribed by W. Thompson, \ is a methods of electric welding. There

electrical

is

E.

temperature, as when important difterence : the temper


to
" "

the proper

gas flame, but there is is retained in pieces that have

using a

been
as

instead electrically soldered, heated


with
a

of

being left

in the
to

annealed
use

condition

when

flame.

This is attributed

the

of

alternating-

of which is on the surface of conductors, thus leaving currents, the the core at a temperature insufficiently high to effect annealing. flow

Two
process

highly "tempered"
offer the
same

wires
to

soldered

togetherby
at

the
at

electrical
any

resistance

bending

the

joint as

other

point.
The
range of metals

for economical

electrical

includes steel, soldering

No fumes noxious German are silver,gold,and silver. copper, of 3 5 seconds the is made to a joint produced; very rapidly, period

brass,

coveringthe operations of heating the joint,applying the solder,and off the current. shutting of optical are given of the electrical soldering Examples (illustrated) the ing the of of advantage frames, an instance being given process in renderhad been of working certain parts which the methods unnecessary order of to in softened recover some during the gas-soldering process stiffness. the original It is also claimed that the solder gainsin fluidity, owing to the absence of oxidation during the electrical process. for its is invariably current used^ the reasons High-voltagealternating direct current over superiority being set forth.
"

"

A
as

transformer
are

must

be

used, and

the of

construction

of

one

is

described,
at

also

two

methods practical for

the controlling

temperature

the

joint.
A
*

machine
Transactions

and and bridges, soldering straps to eye-pieces


American Electro-chemical

its operap. 207.

of the

1914, Soziety,
,

vol.

xxv.

t Ibid., p. 255.

X Machinery,

1914, vol. iv. No.

93, p. 456.

314

Abstracts fullydescribed
which has
made and been and found

of Papers
The

tion,are

illustrated.
most

copper, of the contact

suitable
metal and

jaws owing

of the
to

machine

are

of

the
;

low

resistance also to its

between electrical

this

the work

owing

high

is less heated conductivity, by the copper and conducts the heat also from of the current, the work passage away metal than other available. commercially quicker any

thermal

preparationof the scalingis described, two


The oxidation

work

in the of

case

of

metal gold-filled

to

prevent
scribed, de-

methods The

coatingwith
the

boracic acid to prevent


borax is flux is also

being given.
and
a

preparation of
to

method

of

feedingthe wire-solder
of overheating
overcome

Considerable
and

trouble,owing
has been the of metal the

the

given. has joint,


the

been

perienced, ex-

by
to

the

This break

heatingcaused
at

become

rocking arm "rotten," and


the the switch
made

of the work-holder.

parts
the
overcome

would

either Some
the

side

jointupon

of application
was

slightest

pressure.

trouble

experienced

at

by
these used.

making

contact

would points

pointsof pure silver. but this did not fuse together,

When

of copper

happen when

silver

was

"F.J.

Nickel
as

Electro-Deposit.
"

The

chief
are

features discussed

of

nickel-plating
B. Barham.*

applied

to

electro and

stereotypes

by

G.

connected with the installation of small possibilities in tages The advanconsidered. are plants electro-depositing printing-works to the that the metal is uonblocks are printer of nickel-plated is oxidizable, it is termed, as very hard, takes ink well, and "gives ofiF," much In many of the red inks used by the printer, better than copper. in deterioration is of copper^ but being without present, resulting mercury effect on nickel. Nickel is also said to sharpen up the work.

The

commercial

Some

of the

nickel-faced
press
so

of properties surfaces printing

nickel

are

and considered, stand the of


wear

it is claimed and hammer

for of
a

that

they
or

much

better

than
a

stereos

is deposit

but sufficient,
the

heavier

one

soft copper. A light of t he life giveslongerlife, a block of durability the metal


from

electros

depending on
which it is the
of the

hardness, toughness,and
the

made,

hardness

and
at

surface which

packing,the speed
machine,
and the

of the paper the itself, the press is worked, the

pression, imdition con-

composition of the plant are

ink.
the details

The The

main

features of the

necessary

reviewed,and

of the process. from the use of nickel-faced stereos resulting are in and time to last saving owing to their ability output throughouta run, no stoppages for renewals being necessary. 2. Saving in stereo metal, nickelled stereos giving250,000 impressions,

economies

"

1. Increased

whereas 3.

unfaced

stereos

may

have

to

be recast

after

15,000 impressions.
a

Saving
"

in

ink

"(about25

per

whilst cent.),

denser

colour

is

obtained.

F. J.

Plating

in Colours.
*

"

T. J.

Baker,f in

paper

read
p. 231.

to the

Institute

The Metal

Electrical

Review,

Industry, 1914,

1914, vol. Ixxv. vol. vi. p. 238.

and Electro-Metallurgy
of

Electrovarious

Chemistry
solutions

315

shows Electroplaters,

that

by using
and

of acetates,

and nitrates,

sulphates of
the

copper

zinc, it is
and

possibleto
He

get

various the

coloured

effects in

platingof

brass

copper.

divides

of the colours reagents into ten groups, and givesa description of the reagents are given. J. L. H. The composition
"

obtained.

Stripping
not
remove

of Plated

Goods."
such
as

Giraldus

Jones*

shows

alkalies will

mineral the

and

that

greases, of these presence

vaseline, from
a

the surface of metals, of


cessive Exsti-ipping.

is

frequent source

for this trouble in many cases. responsible Differential expansion of the plating and the platedmetal, as well as the effect of occluded hydrogen,is also invoked of stripping. as a cause
current

densityis also

"J.

L. H.

Treatment

of
ores

Tin
as

Ores

The by Electricity."
in the Revue Indusirielle

subject of the
is

smeltingof tin
The

discussed

reviewed.!

required smelting principle, process, considerable practical for its successful working. The ore, mixed experience with anthracite (culm), 20 heated in was usually to 25 per cent, of the charge, a slow, especifurnace,the rate of heating ally reverberatory being necessarily if the gangue in order loss of tin the in to avoid silicon, were slags. The sever^al details of the process, including and the of slags treatment of the crude tin,are described. refining In discussing that no advantage disthe electrical smeltingof tin,it is claimed in f urnace the from a accrues employment of well-designed

old Cornish

althoughsimple in

high temperatures, whilst

the

formation

of

"

hardhead

''

is

less, and
more

the process is economical where cheap power is available. The slag may contain as little as 0"25 per cent, tin, but economical which to leave 14 to 16 per cent, tin in the slags, in
a

it is
are

treated

second

furnace.

The
the

chemistryand

thermo-chemistry of the
energy
out

distribution

of electrical

In

trials carried practical


was

by

per ton Dr. Walmsley


current

discussed, and are process of tin is given.


at

it Polytechnic,
to too

found

that

continuous
and
to

great

production of heat
of
a

Northampton owing unsuitable, action the on slag. electrolytic


was

the

are Large-scale experiments

described.
arc was

The

formation

direct

avoided.
; such

Arrangements
to

were

made

to avoid
or

loss of tin

by volatilization
:

loss amounted

0*5

per

cent.,

less. The three factors

yieldof tin, consumption of energy, and loss in the found connected. to comproeconomical It was are slag, closely mise very tin and between of slagscontaining 0*25 the production cent, per and of the production high current-consumption slagscontaining 17 to 19 per cent, tin and low current-consumption.During a week of continuous grammes kilo6498 mixture and of ore residues containing working a of tin yielded6428 a kilogrammes,this representing recovery
*

Metal M^taux

hidustry, 1914, vol. vi. p. 190. et Alliages 1914, vol. vii.. No.
,

10, p. 1.

316
of 96'75

Abstracts
per

of Papers
kilowatt

cent., tlie total


that
a

current-consumption being 15,113


obtained the rich
in electric

hours.
It is concluded

biggeryieldis
second of which

smeltingby
the

usingtwo
Pure

furnaces,in the

slagsare treated for


of

production of tin for


electrical

making
from
not

solder.
the with
commencement

tin is obtained but

with operations

the

Hand

labour

furnace, is less, and


is
a

the

the

of electrodes

item. negligible

process F. J.
"

is less

ordinary complicated. Consumption

reverberatoryfurnace.

Zinc
electro

Electro-metallurgy.
"

C. V.

Lordier*

reviews

at

length the

by dry methods. Important features of the the with furnace, are coarser compared Belgian-Silesian of the ore-charge and texture continuity of operation. The relative calorific efficiency of the electric furnace is discussed, and is claimed to be 60 per cent, as compared with 8 per cent, for the most modern Belgianmetallurgy
electric furnace, as Silesian
retorts

of

zinc

furnace.

Instead

of

dealing with
has the

infusible been
a

charges as

in

the

of the last-named

furnace, there
to

of

electric zinc furnaces


as

render

tendency that fluid slags so charges fusible,


are

for inventors

discussed,those designed attention. by receiving special The Cute and Pierron process, however, is given the foremost place, in the feature of the the an of blende important smelting process being
types of
electric furnace De and Laval, Imbert-Fitzgerald,

be tapped may The various

from

cupolas.
Johnson

raw

state.

Whilst
the

the metallurgy of simplifying

difficulties of

of the which

In order to dispose operation of the c aused and disadvantages by the gases notablyby carbon monoxide, iron into Cote and Pierron have introduced impedes condensation, zinc

process, electric furnace.

the

this method

increases

the A

charges.
vapours
are
"

The

thus blue

obtained
"

undiluted

with

carbon

monoxide.
and in

high

proportionof
prevent
chamber iron
in

powder
vapours also

would, however, be formed,


pass

order

to

this, the
filled with

through
any

an

heated electrically lead which,


of
wet
centration. con-

vertical The

piecesof carbon.
reacts

the
not

charge
be

with

sulphideof
processes

need therefore,

previously separated by
be

The

molten and

lead may
the zinc

tapped

out

from

the

bottom

of

the

chamber,
the

then

driven

oft'in the form

of vapour

smelting by raising

temperature.

been for carbon have substituted Recently lime and iron, and is given oif with the zinc vapours, it does not although carbon monoxide interfere with the production of fluid zinc, owing to the new type of heated condenser. electrically The of iron is somewhat be regenerated use by costly,but it may smelting the sulphideof iron in an auxiliaryelectric furnace with lime and carbon and the calcium ; the iron is used' again in the ore-charges,
*

M^taux

et

Alliages,1914,

vol.

vii.,No.

12, p. 1.

318

Abstracts
and

of Papers
method
to the

Siemens Hill

Halske

have

applied the Letrange


anodes
a

Broken

using,however, deposits,
the process in favour

of

lead, but

have
one.

carded apparently dis-

of

purely chemical

is a simplemodification Cowper-Coles process at Hayle in Cornwall of lead and rotary cathodes also of the Letrange process. Anodes used. The results are not commercially satisof zinc or aluminium factory, are trials Hill at the Broken confirmed as by recent Proprietary works. Company's

The

from employed at Lipine (Silesia) till the present day, the electrolyte used 1893 being a solution of the of zinc and double sulphate magnesium. A table is givenshowing that be a corresponding decrease in with decrease of temperature there must current densityin order to preserve coherency of the zinc deposit. of of zinc from solution Burghardt introduced a process of electrolysis zinc electrodes, oxide in potash or soda. Pure hollow the commercial The

Nahnsen

process

has

been

and
means

perforated to allow of injected steam

of
"

circulation
used.

of

the

electrolyte effected by
"

are

Germany, Austria, and England, the Hoepfner process has been commercially successful, being employed in England for the manufacture of Mond zinc of 99 '96 per cent, purity.
In

The
the

is electrolyte discs of

solution

of chloride

of zinc and

of lead

or

sodium,

anodes

tical rotatingverbeing of lead or carbon, and the cathodes The is immersed in the zinc,partly electrolyte. process

suitable specially with


anodes fused

for

treatment

of poor
process, manufacture
ores.

zinc the

ores

and

for

use

in
at

junction con-

the

ammonia-soda
for

chlorine
of

liberated

the

being
in

available

the

calcium

which chlorite,

the roasted leaching is


cent,

The

Dieffenhach process
of crushed

applied to
followed

Westphalian
by
a

containing8 per roastingof the


The whilst residue the

zinc, which
ore,

is extracted

contains

only

0*5
of

aqueous

solution

compartment
The liberated chlorite.
In

vats, the
chlorine

anode

by leaching with for iron, per cent, zinc,and is smelted zinc chloride is electrolyzed in doublebeing completelyclosed. compartment
in

pyrites chloridizingplain water.

iron

being employed
that the

the

manufacture

of calcium

conclusion, it is stated
in
of the

processes those are than


the

of electro-metallurgy

only commercially zinc by indirect wet


Dieffenbach.
economical

successful methods

Nahnsen,
solution of
are

Hoepfner,
said
to

and
more

of Electrolytes in electric current

zinc chloride

be

the electromotive for force necessary sulphate, less than for the latter, being although that it is claimed the electrolyte which by Gabran gives the best results in the rapid deposition of zinc is a zinc sulphate solution of the : composition following

solutions

zinc

decomposition of

the former

Parts.
Zinc Water

sulphate

1200

Sulphuric acid (24" Be.)

6000 60

"F.J.

ElectroThe

and Electro-Chemist'yy Metallu7'-gy


is not

319

electric furnace is

considered
of zinc
ores.

by

G. C. Stone The

to

be

an

efficient volume carbon

for appliance of

the reduction
the
must

ratio of surface
zinc.

to

charge

usually higherthan
goes
to

in the

Belgianfurnace,and
the
of

more

dioxide
the

thus

electric furnace
condenser
most retort

condenser, leadingto loss of be large to be efficient, and


nari'ow

Moreover,
of difficulty with

keeping the
the size.
of the the

within

limits of

temperature

increases

The

hopeful
furnaces. W.

outlook

is in the direction

improvement

present
other

Ingallsf considers electric smelting to be as practicable, althoughit has hardly advanced mental yet beyond the experiis of The the formation blue difficulty principal powder stage. also reoxidation. The of the is cost high. by process very In the course W. of the discussion, McA. Johnson J expressedthe that of the labour in electric cost estimated, smelting had been overopinion
On

hand,

R.

and

that C. H.

the
D.
to

electric process
^

could

be

used

and successfully

economically.
"

Reference bulletin furnace lead


ores.

is made the

of and

Canadian
for

process

Johnston " in the April by W. McA. in which described a are Mining Institute, of complex zinciferous copper and treatment
paper 4 per
cent."

After

roastingthe
reduce

ore

to

6 per

cent,
a

a pre-heatsulphur,

ing and
so

with pre-reduction much

bituminous iron

coal in
to

muffle

furnace

follows

as

to

of the

oxide
to

metallic

iron.

reduction

in the electric furnace

leads

the

productionof (3) lead

zinc,which slag.
blue the
In
cent,

is volatilized, (2) copper


60

matte,
per
cent,

Subsequent (1) metallic bullion,and (4)


as

It is stated that

on

an

average
cent,
as

of the zinc is recovered that the metallic content

powder

and

40

per of

and spelter,

of

slagis

very

low.
a

the treatment

mixed

ore

containing35
ozs.

lead, \\ per consumption was

cent,

copper, 6 lbs. per

10

and silver, per


ton

4 dwt. of

1490

kilowatt-hours
ton.
"

per the gold, energy sumption charge and the con-

per

cent,

zinc, 9

of electrode

F. J.

II."

ELECTRO-CHEMISTR

Y.

eastern

Site for Electro-chemical Industries." South Alaska as is W. P. well suited to the ment to Alaska, according Lass,|| developof electro-chemical

industries those of

water requiring

power.

The

climatic of water

conditions
power

are

not

unlike At
cent,

Scotland, and
the
cost

the of

is abundant.
per

Speel

River
and

supply generating power,


at to
xxv.

allowing 10
5 dollars
*

for

interest
The

is estimated depreciation,
coast

per

horse-power-year.
of the
American

wjiole

is open
vol.
,

navigation
p. 161.

Transactions

Electro-chemical p. 458. Electro-chemical

Society 1914,

169. t Ibid..Y".

t Ibid., p. 175.
x.

II Transactions

" Mining Magazine, 1914, vol. of the American

Society 1914,
,

vol.

xxv.

p. 178.

320

A bstracts

of Papers

There of sulphides, and the are large dejDosits throughout the year. of iron pyrites as a by-product. gold industry yields large quantities with A map and table illustrations of rainfall. is provided, a together

The

latter varies from

75

to

168

inches

per

annum.

"

C. H.

D.

Alloys, Electrolytic Preparation


made

of.
"

by

R.
of

Kremaun,
It
Avas

J.

Lorber, and

R.

Maas

Experiments have been * the electrolytic position deon

alloysof

chromium.
with any

not

with aluminium, zirconium,antimony, and copper found to deposit zirconium as an possible alloy
or

other metal,

in

the

pure

state.

Aluminium
and copper may

also does
be

not

deposit Antimony copper. but contains cathode the much alloy together,
with deposited
copper.
"

together with

deposited
is not

oxygen.

Chromium

C. H.

D. conditions
Bennett

of. Brass, Electro-deposition


have electrolytically been

"

The

for

depositingbrass
A.

examined

by
at

C. W.
2000

and per

W.

son, DavidThe

f
used
as

An

aluminium
the

pipe,rotated
aluminium

revolutions

minute, was
copper.

cathode,

being

first coated

with

from which brass could be obtained only electrolyte was one taining conthis hard and brittle Even ing showcyanide. yielded a deposit, The brittleness trace of crystalline structure. no was principally due A less to hydrogen. brittle hotter bath metal. With a gave further increase of speed of rotation, zinc was deposited.

The
cathode.

iisual The

method

of

with jilating then

brass

is

by using

stationary

has

low

be hard, and may polishedwell, but tensile sti-ength. is no There advantage in using a rotating

deposit is
D.

cathode."

C. H.

Bronze, Electrolytic Preparation of


simultaneous R.

"

The

conditions

for

the

Kremann, present.

either tartrate be

have been examined deposition of tin and copper by C. T. Suchy, J. Lorber, and find that R. Maas, \ who or cyanide baths may be used, and sufficient alkali must The
more

depositsare

copper uniform

anode

then

becomes than

passive. The
tartrate
"

cyanide
baths. D.

in structure

those from

C. H. this

Cadmium,
F. C.

Electro-depositionof
and H. M.

"

In that

review
cadmium

of

subject,
used

Mathers
for

Marble, "

state

has

been

for
used

from plating,

cyanide solutions.

An

silver has alloycontaining

been

better than platingsteel,the alloy withstandingtarnishing but is little commercial there Cyanides are generallyused, very has been refined by electrolysis platingof cadmium. Impure cadmium from a slightly acid solution of the sulphate. Experiments by the same authors,|| with the objectof preparing silver. fiir Chemie, 1914, vol. xxxv. Monatshefte p. 581. t Journal of Physical Chemistry, 1914, vol. xviii. p. 488. X Monatsheftefiir Chemie, 1914, vol. xxxv. p. 219. Electro-chemical " Transactio7is of the American Society, 1914,
II Ibid., p. 319.
*

vol.

xxv.

p. 297.

Electrosmooth

and Electro-Chemistry Metallur^^i

321

show that deposits of cadmium from sulphate baths are deposits, better,but chloride deposits,in the always spongy. Phosphates are and other vegeabsence of other compounds, are always rough. Tannin table make the deposition best still worse. The extracts deposit is

obtained

from

an

acid

chloride

solution

containingammonium

chloride,

ferric chloride, and borofiuoride, or peptone. Fluoride, silicofiuoride, of solutions 4 cent, cadmium, with free acid containing per perchlorate little peptone, deposits. C. H. D. and
a
"

or glue,phloridzin,

clove

oil

give good, smooth

Device
in described.*
the

for
The

Cleaning" Silver.
other

"

-A
as

and gold,silver,

metals,
involves

devised

simple method by J.
attrition

of M.
nor

wares cleaning

Hotchkiss, is
dissolution
of

method is
or

neither

surface,and
A
zinc

in character. electrolytic

tray
the

supports of salt (two tablespoonsful


Silver

article to

frame, provided with a grid of copper be cleaned, is placed in a solution


salt to
a

bars
of

which

common

quart

of

tepidwater).

forms voltaic to zinc, the combination a being electro-negative nascent cell, hydrogen being liberated at the surface of the silver and attackingany oxide or sulphide depositwith which the silver may be

tarnished.

"

F. J.

of to the use advantages attaching discussed nickel salts in electroplating are by S. W. Rowsbar. f all nickel and method is in acid contained a salts, nearly rapid

Nickel

Solutions.

"

The

"

ra^iid
Boracic
for

"

its

detection
A

is described.

pronouncedfeature of rapidnickel of both solution and higher efficiency In rapid nickel solutions the amount
great
current
as

solutions is their
anode of than

acidity, involving
solutions. twice
as

in alkaline

nickel

is

more

than

in

solutions
in

of

double

nickel

thus salts,
and

diminishingloss of
salts ; also less

involved

decomposing water

ammonium

An anode hydrogen is liberated, and the loss of nickel is reduced. but with of 90 per cent, is about the limit with double salts, efficiency

rapidsalts
Anodes avoid

double

use compared the cost be doubled, and sulphate solution, the output may the nickel smaller number reduced to solutions, owing by using rapid and of tanks required for the same fittings output and the diminished anode The initial cost entailed by due to superior efficiency. upkeep of the introduction however, high. rapid nickel solutions is,
" " " "

per cent, nickel It is claimed that,as sponginess.

it will average of at least 96

98 per cent.
should

be

used,
the

in

order

to

with

of the

The

of composition

solution which shorter


time

is stated
than

to

givea
double

durable
salt

non-

porous is as follows:

coating in
"

much
ozs.

the

solution

sulphate of nickel,5 ozs. boracic acid, and 1^ be easily chloride to each gallon of water. The depositcan sodium oz. and has but the solution requires buffed a constant, careful good colour, and the anode is attention to avoid exhaustion, efficiencylow.
24
*

The The

Electncal

Review,

1914, vol. Ixxv.

p. ,39.

Foundry, 1914,

vol. .xliii. p. 300.

322
The

Abstracts

of Papers
a

depositis easier to finish,and hence of 98 The use colouringcompound, "c.


pure salts

savingis
cent,

effected in buffs,
anodes and

per

nickel

enables

the

plater

to work

with
anodes

clean

solutions,the

absence

of

slime

being

very

noticeable, the
a

remaining comparatively

clean.

High-speed nickel solutions,with


a

moderate

amount

of

are chlorides,

high percentage of metal and only said to give highly satisfactory


"

results.
of Copper-plating

all steelwork

is advocated. priorto nickelling An


account

F. J.

Nickelling
discovered

of Aluminium

by J. Canac The cleaning of the with milk of followed by scouring


a

given* of the process, and E. Tassilly, for the nickelling of aluminium. is effected in boiling aluminium potash solution,
"

is

lime

and

immersion

for

few

minutes

in

0"2

per cent, liberal wash

solution
in water

of

potassiumcyanide.
each

follows
a

stage.
: composition following

Immersion

follows
Hydrochloric
Water
.

in

bath
......

of the

acid
. ......

500

500 cubic

grammes. centimetres.

Iron
........

1 gramme.
a

When and The

it has
an

receives

particular appearance, of nickel, using a electro-deposit


a

assumed

the
solution

metal

is washed chloride.

of the

deposit has

white

matte

appearance,

which

becomes

bright when
hammered

scratch-brushed. The
or

deposit is remarkably adherent, not that the bent, and it is only by fracturing
force is necessary
to

cracking when
aluminium detachment
can

be revealed. of the nickel

Considerable

effect

the

coating.
The nickelled aluminium
may the

lie heated the nickel.

to

the The
of

melting point
aluminium

of

aluminium adherence

without

separationof
to

perfection of the
ferred con-

is attributed
the

specialcondition

the A

by
acid bath

of

acid bath. hydrochloric ferruginous does not give the same similar strength

simplehydrochloric
results.
"

F. J.

Power

for
foot of

Electrolytic Deposition."
In the

This

subjectis
York,
20
current

discussed
per

by

L.

Addicks.f

neighbourhood of
surface

New

amperes

square copper many

active

cathode

is the

usual

density in
copper.

is consumed for 6 lbs. of refining; 1 kilowatt-hour 30 of 3 feet be used electrodes, as pairs square, may ampc'res.

As

in
means

tank,
1500

requiring10,000
kilowatts.

With

current

at

150

volts,this

The
tanks

of dissipation
at

of the
to

32"-38"
to

electrical energy will C, and sufficient steam


C. Present

keep
must

the be

ture tempera-

supplied
use

increase

it further

54"

moderately superheated steam the On same subject,H.


*

practiceis to in reci^jrocating engines of high class.


E.

American

LongwellJ

takes

the

view

that

steam

Mitaux

et

Transactions

Alliages, 1914, vol. vii.,No. 8, p. 7Electro-chemical of the American Society,1914,

vol.

x.xv.

p. 65.

Electro-Metallurgyand
turbines
are more

Electro-Chemistry
that

323

economical
of
to
*

engines are
should F. D.

out

the the

and reciprocating engines, question for electrolytic plants. The the


are

than

gas

turbine

be

geared Newbury
steam

generator.

discusses turbines

design of
used,
the the

that, where generator small, but


at

generators, and concludes gear-drivencommutator-type


the distance

is

the

most

efficient Avhere the distance

from
for

the

tanks

is

that
a

where

is too

great
D.

economical
current

mission trans-

low

voltage,the
is to be

combined
"

alternating
C. H.

generator

and

rotary

converter

preferred.
"

Zinc, Electro-Deposition of.


the with

electrolyte usually leads


a

presence of to the formation

The

of much
a

free acid

in

great find,however,
of free acid
then and

fall in

the with

that
be

J. N. efficiency. current high very the

rough depositof zinc, Pring and U. C. Tainton "j"


a densities, large quantity to hydrogen liberated

may

present, and
with with the

ratio of zinc

actuallyincreases
also increases

the acid concentration


current

up

to

certain

value,

sulphuricacid
to

50
95

amperes per
cent.

of
5

15 grammes of density. With 100 of cubic and 20 current a centimetres, density per zinc is wdth an decimeter, deposited efficiency per square With lead anodes this requiresa potential difference of zinc anodes.

volts,or

3 volts with

of

obtained with high current densities by the addition are Brightdeposits small of colloids. Dextrin gives very bright but brittle quantities of gum obtained are by the addition deposits. The toughest deposits

tragacanth
exceeds

with
per

some

dextrin.

The

falls efficiency

when

the

colloid surface

0-05 and been

cent.

tension
has
not

current

Although a certain relation between has been obtained, the effect of the efficiency
for. very in

colloid

accounted satisfactorily

Iron, when deposited,and


It is shown

present
does
not

the

solution, has
the

little

tendency

to

be

contaminate Richards

zinc. the

of zinc electrolytic refining of precious metals. is scarcelypracticable On at present, in the absence the other hand the electrolysis of zinc solutions, using insoluble anodes,

by

J. W.

that

is

The quitepracticable. the

two

difficulties are metal.

the choice Acheson

of suitable

anodes
a

and

melting
in

down

of the cathode

graphiteis

able suitLead

sulphates. in an lyte. alkaline electrolonger if previously peroxidized of lead peroxide have Tubes also been manufactured. Probably fused The be only solution must magnetite anodes w'ould be successful. acid. very slightly The effect of organic studied the deposit of zinc has been substances on P. Watts and tried O. A. Of substances C. the forty-two by Shape."
corrodes, but
lasts

anode

chloride

solutions, but

disintegratesin

/3-naphthol gave
*

the best results. of the American of the Chemical of the American

"

C. H.

D. Society 1914,
,

Transactions Transactions

Electro-chemical

vol.

xxv.

p. 8.5.

Society 1914,
^

vol.

cv.

p. 710. vol.
.\xv.
,

X Transactions I Ibid., p. 291.

Electro-chemical

Society 1914,

p. 281.

324

ANALYSIS,

TESTING,

AND

PYROMETRY.

CONTENTS.
PAGE

I. II. III.

Analysis Testing Pyrometry

324

.331
.

.336

I." ANALYSIS.

Aluminium,
extent

Detection

of.
"

Aluminium,
of

even

when

to the jDresent

devised
The and

in 5 grammes gramme G. H. Petit,* depending on by is washed ammonia precipitate of 0-005

iron,may

be detected

by

test

the

of barium solubility

aluminate.

until

free from
of 2

ammonium of

salts,
barium

boiled

with
The

water

with

the

addition

grammes

hydroxide.
filtrate.
and
a

and liquid is filtered,

After

concentration

to the sulphuric acid is added is removed the barium filtrasulphate by tion,

hydroxideis

is of ammonia excess slight on boiling. precipitated


"

added C. H.

to

the filtrate. Aluminium

D.

Antimony,
wanning with
take

Qualitative Recognition
in mixed
water

of.
"

Antimony

is

veniently con-

detected

and

according to J. Petersen,! by sulphides, the following when reactions sodium peroxide,


=

place:
+ llH.p + 14Na.2O.2 Sb2S;j

Na.2H2Sb.2O7+ 3Na2SO4
N

20NaOH;
H
.

SbaSg + 20Na.2O2 + ISHgO


The sodium much

aaHgSbaOy

5Na2S04

+ 28 NaO

antimonate
tin is

on crystallizes cooling.

When
removed of the

present
hot D.

stannic

oxide

is

but precipitated,

by antimony.
"

the filtering

solution.

Arsenic

is tested

be may for after removal

C. H.

Composition
Schoeller
both in
a

of
and

Antimony
"

Sulphide.
"

It is found

by W.

R.
tains con-

that oxide

Chinese

crude

antimony

metallic

antimonv.

(antimony sulphide) Oxygen is estimated by fusing


is formed
:

''

stream

of

hydrogen sulphide. Water


Sb203
+

3H2S=:Sb2S3-|-3H20.
vol. [vii.], ix. p. 66.

Journal

de Pharmacie,

1914

t Zeitschrift fur anorganische ChemiCy 1914, vol. Ixxxviii. p. 108. X Journal of the Societyof Chemical Industry, 1914, vol. xxxiii. p. 109.

326

A bs tracts
be may at the anode. detected

of Papers
a

Manganese
Cobalt Nickel

by

purple coloration

of

the

solution

gives a pink colour, and

givesa
copper

blue

colour

when
"

tested

by ammonia

after removal

of

the

by

F. J. electrolysis.

Micro-chemical Electrolytic
use

Methods.
described
0-1

"

Methods Heinze.*

involvingthe
The cathode

of

cathode rotating
is

are

by

R.

12 to 25 millimetre thick, and a platinum or gold wire, carried by a light on a glass long, wound holder, frame, glass The from which it is readily unwound. is weighed on a Nernst microware of almost balance,using a counterpoise exactlythe same weight. The anode is of platinum wire,0"25 millimetre in zigzag on a thick,wound The vessel for frame. is a cylindrical glass electrolysis glassweighing bottle of 12 cubic centimetres capacity, provided with a tap for emptying A stand without stoppingthe current. is provided for rotation of the

employed

centimetres

cathode. The

figures given for


gold.
0*002
The

test

analyses mostly refer

to

mercury,

which
zinc

is

depositedon
more

than

using 0"2 milligrammeof mercury, when much 100 times as milligramme,even


error,

is not
as

mercury

is present.

Other

metals

are

also stated to

give good
"

results. H. D.

C.

Electrolytic Separation
is found that
to

of

Copper
A. Sieverts

and
and

Arsenic"
W.

This

tion separa-

be

complete by
is in the with

the arsenic
are

quinquevalent condition.
also

Wippelmanu,t provided Copper gauze


to

electrodes
In

used,

ammoniacal
of

rapidstirring. is solution the separation


be

complete; 0"1

0"3 of
taining con-

gramme 0"2 gramme

depositedin 15 minutes in the presence copper may of arsenic, using 125 cubic centimetres of solution
cent,

5 per

of

ammonia

and

2 per

cent,

of ammonium

nitrate at
may

being passed. As the arsenic is not reduced,it C. H. D. directly by magnesia mixture. precipitated
amperes
"

90", 5

be

Free
of of

Cyanide

Estimation

in

Plating

Solutions."

new

method

estimating free cyanide is recommended by G. E. F. Lundell,Jnone the existing It consists in adding methods accurate results. giving to the ammoniacal cyanide solution a small quantityof dimethylglyoxime, and with standard solution of nickel ammonium a titrating sulphate. Ko red precipitate of the glyoxime nickel compound is formed until all the cyanide has been used up accordingto the equation
NiS04 The nickel solution
and is
+ 4KCN
=

K2Ni(CN)4+K2S04. of nickel
monium am-

15*3 prepared by dissolving


litre. The

sulphatein water sulphuricacid


*

grammes 5 cubic centimetres containing


a

of concentrated is

to diluting

solution dimethylglyoxime
xxvii. p. 237.

Zeitsckrift fiirangewaiidfe Chemie, 191-1, vol.


Electro-chemical

t Ibid., vol. l-xxxvii. p. 109. X Transactions of the American

Society 1914,
,

vol.

xxv.

p. 369.

and Pyrometry Analysis,Testing,


9 per measured
a

327
a analysis,

cent,

solution of the with

in

95

per

cent,

alcohol.

For

the

volume mixed

platingsolution

is diluted to 100
and
a

cubic

metres, centi-

1 cubic centimetre

of ammonia

1 cubic centimetre red

of

and solution, dimethylglyoxime

titrated until

permanent

tion coloura-

is obtained.

"

C.

H.

D.

Iron

and

Manganese
oxidation

Groups Separation." Accordingto


presence of

G.

van

Pelt,* ammonium
reagent for the
chlorides of

in persulphate of

nitric acid solution

is the

best

chromium.

containingthe
zinc
may be

iron, aluminium,
follows
:

chromium,
cubic

manganese,

and

separatedas
The

of solid ammonium

with 2 grammes mixed centimetres, nitric of and heated on a few drops acid, which It takes about fortyminutes. the water bath until completely yellow, of ammonia is then cooled and pouredinto a mixture (75 cubic centimetres)
to

solution is diluted

300

and persulphate

and

with solution (75 cubic centimetres), some monium amhydrogen peroxide minium, with constant The chloride, stirring. hydroxidesof iron, aluis and The are completely precipitated. precipitate manganese carbonate dried,and fused with a mixture of equalweights of sodium

and

potassium nitrate.
is obtained
with
as

After

extraction
ferric

of the

fused

mass

with

water,

iron

insoluble

reduced

followed

an hydrogen peroxide, The by hydrogen peroxide, which precipitates manganese. and the aluminium filtrate from this is acidified and boiled, precipitated

oxide, the filtrate is acidified and of sodium excess hydroxide is added,

by

ammonia.

The

filtrate from
and

the

reduced
and

with the

is acidified, trated, conceniron-manganese precipitate is Chromium precipitated hydrogen peroxide. sodium


carbonate
to

by ammonia,
ammonia and

filtrate is boiled with


"

expel

zinc. precipitate

C. H.

D.

Metallography
a

in

Three
examined

Dimensions.
usual

"

The

solid structure

of
of

few

alloyshas

been In

by A. Portevin,tusing the method


device
of
two

serial sections.

place of the

grooves

on

the

device with pins on the microscope stage, a new specimen, corresponding contained in a is employed, the specimen being embedded in cement and into a small steel tube provided with adjustment marks fitting It then of is bronze collar on the stage Chatelier microscope. a Le easy examine the of a nd uniform thickness to remove to by grinding, layers
same area

repeatedly.
an

This

method

is

applied

to

tin-antimony
of

and

and copper-tin crystals,

approximate reconstruction

solid

crystals

is

given.
"

C. H.

D.

New
It

Oolorimetric

Process.

"

process

estimatingsmall

of certain metals quantities

be which may is described by C.

useful

in

Hiittner.J

hydrochloric depends on the coloration imparted to very concentrated acid by cobalt,nickel, Thus, nickel chloride dissolves iron, and copper.
*

Bulletin

de la SociiU

chimique

de

Beige, 1914,
,

vol. xxviii. pp.

101, 138.

t International Journal of Metallography 1914, vol. vi. p. 58. % Zeitschrift fur anorganische C/iemie, 1914, vol. Ixxxvi. p. 341.

328
in the acid with shade cobalt.
appears
a

Abstracts
free yellow tint,
the nickel

of Papers
from
any
as

trace

of
as

green, but
0*1

green

when

contains

little

per

cent,

of

solution. wide

compared with that given by a standard of the nickel within independent of the concentration limits, provided that this is large in comparison with the cobalt.
The
It is
or or

coloration

is

Chlorine
as

nitric acid must


From

be removed O'l
to

before
cent,

making

the

test, as

well

iron

copper.

10

per

of cobalt may

be estimated

in this way, As little

acid usinghydrochloric
as

0"001

per

cent,

of

of sp. gr. 1"I9. iron yields a yellow coloration


manganese, present in the

with

acid. hydrochloric
for O'l

This

is unaffected when

by

and

may

be

used

detectingiron
to

in manganese,

10 per

cent.

a Copper yields

similar

proportion of from but less intense. coloration,

be dissolved aluminium, 0'5 gramme analyzing commercial may in hydrochloric acid, the copper as precipitated sulphide, ignitedto estimated oxide, dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and colorimetrically. The filtrate is evaporated to dryness,dissolved as before,and the iron
In thus

estimated. of impurities are following quantities


found per per

The
metals:

in Kahlbaum's
cent,

pure

zinc,0*0002
0*004 per

per
cent,
"

cent,

cadmium,
per
cent,

iron C. H.

iron; lead, 0*002 ; bismuth, 0*002


D.

cent,

iron + copper; iron ; tin, 0*007

iron

copper.

Phosphorus
of

in

Phosphor

Bronze.

"

new

method

for the estimation

from the Babcockphosphorus in phosphor bronze is announced New It York.* is claimed that a Lackawanna, Hagmaier Laboratories, well as an increase in the accuracy, as by largesaving in time is effected, the use for the phosphorus. The disadof cerium chloride as a precipitant vantages of method is

the

usual

methods Dissolve

are

discussed
one

and shortly, of

the
bronze and

following
in
5 10

suggested:
of of

gramme acid is in

the

cubic

centimetres

concentrated

hydrochloric acid
a

cubic cubic cubic

centimetres

concentrated

nitric solution
and 10

tall-form add of
cubic

300 150
a

centimetres centimetres
of cerium

beaker.
of

When
water

complete,
centimetres

hot

cubic

solution

chloride

(1

hydrochloricacid, and
solution from blue of
one

gramme 200 cubic

of cerium

25 chloride, of and

centimetres Now
of

centimetres

water).
two

add
water

hydroxide until the a burette, stirring continually, This will require from cast. 25 to 30
centimetres the
hot of from

part ammonium

parts
has
a

solution cubic

greenishNow

centimetres.

add

4 cubic

Remove will
as

acetic acid, and boil for five or ten minutes. to settle ; this plate,and allow the precipitate

requireseveral minutes.
or

Syphon
centimetres

off of

as

much

of

the

clear solution

add 100 cubic possible, this operation six Repeat all but about 30

hot

eight times.
of

water, and With careful


can

again syphon.

manipulation
removed

cubic centimetres

the

solution cubic

be

each

time
15

without cubic

the disturbing until

precipitate.After
and 3

sufficient

centimetres heat

nitric acid all the

centimetres

washing,add hydrochloric
which cool

acid, and
*

has dissolved, after precipitate Engineering, 1914,


vol. xii.

Metallurgical and

Chemical

(8), p. 524.

and Pyrometry Analysis,Testing,


and add 5
.

329

cvibic centimetres method

ammonia

(1-1),when
able
to

the

phosphorus is phos})horus
With

precipitated
By
method Tables
this

the
be

author

has

been

have
an

the
hour.

in precipitated

on duplicate

three

sampleswithin
on a

this of

the tin must


are

determined

separate sample.
to which

given of analyses of
been
"

bronzes

definite amounts

phosphorus have phosphor bronzes.

added, presumably after solution,and


H.

of actual

D.

Pyrophoric Alloys Analysis"

The

commercial
be

alloys, pyrophoric
the method

composed recommended by H. Arnold.*


are

which

of iron and

cerium,
From

may

analyzed by
After

0'5 to is

1 gramme

of the
render

alloyis
0'5

dissolved
gramme

in
of

acid hydrochloric
filtered. The

containingbromine.
mixture filtrate is mixed
with

adding

potassiumchlorate,the

to evaporated

silica

and insoluble,

tartaric

poured into 50 cubic centimetres 15 to 30 cubic centimetres heated to 60", and of ammonium sulphide solution are slowly added, the solution being stirred. The acid,and
It is then contains all the iron,with any copper and zinc. It is precipitate with water ammonium and sulphide tartrate, and containing to oxide, and analyzed for copper and zinc. ignited separately washed

of grammes of strong ammonia. .3-5

is then

Cerium
It

is estimated

in the

filtrate by

the residue with acid.

nitric acid and in dilute

and evaporating, potassium chlorate to cerium


"

twice
remove

ing evaporattartaric
oxalate.

is dissolved

acid, and

as precipitated

Aluminium, if present, is found


Titanium
The

in the filtrate.

C. H.

D.

Iron, Aluminium, and Phosphorus. is use "cu])ferron" (ammonium nitrosophenyllhydroxylamine) recommended by W. M. Thornton,jun.f Hydrogen sulphideis passed the acid with sulphuric acid and solution, slightly through containing tartaric acid,to reduce is then added, and hydrogen the iron. Ammonia ferrous as sulphide. sulphidepassed until all the iron is precipitated The acid filtrate is boiled with dilute to expel hydrogen sulphuric of a 6 per cent, solution of cupferron and when cold an excess sulphide, with dilute is added The is washed to precipitate titanium. precipitate hydrochloricacid,dried, and ignited. C. H. D.

Separation from

"

of

"

Tinplate Sampling
is
.J. A.

and

plate given by edge comparatively rich in the heavy metal due to the flow of metal after coating)is ignored. Tin is determined titration beingcarried out with IST : 20 by distillation, iodine solution,using starch solution as indicator. in nitric acid solution at a temperaLead is determined ture by electrolysis and 2-3 to 2-5 50" of 1 to 2 amperes of to 00" C, using a current
volts.
*

Analysis. A Aupperle,{in which


"

method

of

the "list

sampling tinthe edge" {i.e.

Zeitschrift fiiranalytischeChemie,

1914, vol. liii.p. 496.


p. 407.

vol. xxxvii. t A mencan Journal of Science, 1914 [iv.], X Iron Trade Review, 1914, vol. Iv., No. 1, p. 30.

330
A direct determination
X

Abstracts
of the

of Papers

2 inch
or

2 inch

nickel

weight of the coating is also made, four being carefully pieces weighed/then wrapped in platinum and in acid for one immersed concentrated hot, wire, sulphuric piecesare
"

minute. The
four

dried
some

and

reweighed,
is

the

the

coating and
F. J.

iron, which

weight representing determined by separately

loss in

permanganate.

Tung"Sten
by Hans
in fine in Arnold

Metal
* as

Analysis.
"

the

powder,
with

dissolves

method is recommended following result of extensive experience. The metal, if in ammonia or containinghydrogen peroxide, The Coarser

ammonium

persulphate solution.
nitric acid and

powders
massive

are

alternately
must

moistened
dissolved
or

in air. ignited

The

metal

be

in ammonia electrolytically
fused

ammonium containing is not dissolved

persulphate,
alkalies in

by

dropping into

alkali nitrate.

which Ignitedtungsten trioxide,

by

the

ordinary way,
''
"

is dissolved with sodium

by ammonia
carbonate

after

grinding very

and finely

peptonizing
The

solution,or
tartaric acid

to by adding sloAvly

hot concentrated

ammonia.
with

alkaline solution is mixed


of

molecule then

saturated

tungsticacid)and acidified with hot with hydrogen sulphide. The precipitate of sulphides
Any molybdenum
then be thrown
down

(1 molecule to each hydrochloricacid, and


in

is free from

tungsten.
must

present is contained
from
the

this

precipitate.
The

tungsten
excess

filtrate
The

by pouring

into
must

an

of hot, concentrated washed with

hydrochloric acid.
The methods.

be

well

dilute acid.

precipitate mated remainingmetals are estirecommended,

in the filtrate
The

by

the usual

benzidine

of tungstic acid,sometimes precipitation


"

is not

quantitative. C.
Estimation

H.

D.

The methods for the Coinage Bronze." estimation of zinc usually give unsatisfactory results with coinagebronze, and Sir T. K. Eose t has proposedto revert to an old-time assay method, in the zinc by heat and determiningthe loss of consisting volatilizing These are weight. The old crucibles are still used. hexagonal prisms

Zinc

in

of gas carbon, 2"2 centimetres I'l centimetre in diameter and

across

and

of the

same

height.

cavity

1'5 centimetre

deep is hollowed
several

out, and of these

providedwith
One
are

gramme placed in

lid. closely fitting of bronze is placed in


covered
two

each

and crucible, covered

salamander hours

crucible and
a

charcoal.

After

heating in
of every bronze
are

gas

powdered furnace, the outer injector


an

with

pot being rotated

through 90"
samples
or more

quarter of
many

hour, the crucibles


and
as

are

removed,
be

and

the

brushed

weighed.

perature tem-

of 1375"

is

required. As
at once,

heated
*

in

the

outer

pot

four

being

sixteen crucibles may check With assays.


p. 74. xxxiii. p. 170.

t Journal

Zeitschriftfur anorganische Chemie, 1914, vol. Ixxxviii. I tidustry 1914, vol. of the Societyof Chemical
,

and Pyrometry Analysis,Testing,


1 coinage bronze containing remains in the

331

about 0'03 per cent, of zinc per cent, of zinc, residual metal, and 0"2 per cent, of copper and tin is lost and allowed for by means of the check assay. The process by volatilization, much less time than the usual method, and is equallyaccurate. requires When
a

trial

plateis

used

the

error

does not

exceed

"0'05
"

per

cent.

C. H.

D.

W."

TESTING.
A

Brinell
for

Hardness

Tests.
a

"

report

is

given *

of H.

Hess's

recom-

during Society TestingMaterials, on the subjectof Brinell tests. It is suggested that the standard diameter of the ball be 10 millimetres, with a permissible variation of 0'0025 millimetre plusor minus. Reference in measuring the diameter is made to the of the error indentation and depth caused of the metal by the raising immediately is the indentation this marked in the of soft more case surrounding ;
before the American metals. this error. A suggestedand described for eliminating used for is the of simplemicrometic taining ascermeasuring apparatus purpose A ball-indentation the depth of impression due to the full load. is produced by one-tenth of the normal load and its depth measured ; an of the full load is then made, and the depth of the increased application the two indentation measured. The difference between is taken readings the depth of impressiondue to the full load. F. J. as representing method is
"

submitted jnendation,

discussion

Fatigue
C. E.

Limits

of Metals."
Tests
of

are Interesting experiments

described with each


test-

by Stromeyer.f to have as pieces so turned the of remainder the bar broke,

the Wohler waists

type
and

were

made As
the

seven
was

cones.

waist

eliminating,
as

far

as

again inserted in in the irregularities possible,


+ S"^F1 +

apparatus, thus
The

metal.

rical empi-

formula

c(f)"
nominal is the

fits the
cause

where "S?i is the results, rupture if repeated N times ;


a

Fl

fatiguestress, which will extrapolated fatiguelimit ;


under
severe

and

C is

coefficient

the affecting

endurance

stresses.

The

fatiguestress is greater than the actual, as it is calculated whereas there is on elastic, assumption that the metal is perfectly some plasticity. with a calorimetric device is also described, A fatigue torsional machine for measuring the fatiguelimit directly. The extrapolated limits fatigue for and the for torsion (shear) of those about coefficients are bending, f C are about 0-3 of those for bending. Definite fatigue limits are found The results are given. for all the metals examined. following
nominal

the

"

American

Machinist,

1914, vol. xli.

p.

274.
xc.

1914, vol t Proceedings of the Royal Society,

A, p. 411.

332

Abstracts

of Papers

Material.

Tool
"

steel
......

Era

"

manganese

steel

Manganese Manganese
Chrome

steel, 14 per cent. steel, 10"5 per cent. nickel steel, ID'6 per.
......

cent,

nickel

Farnley
Cast Rolled iron

iron
......

nickel
.......

.....

Copper
Phosphor
Rolled Rolled

bronze

.....

aluminium
....

magnalium

....

"

C. H.
the

D.

Crystal Formation occurringduring crystalgrains.


tremor

in Metals.
the

"

F. Robin

discusses
and

mena pheno-

solidification of

metals

the

growth of
a

Microscopicobservation
passes
over

shows of

that
the

at

the

moment

of solidification

the

surface and

metal,

and

line showing straight

the field of view. liquid parts passes across In the case of pure metals the solid part in coolingwithout disturbance, the vicinity of the line is as homogeneous and as reflecting the liquid. as In the case of impure metals first the outlines of the crystals, one sees and then two difterent of the crystal kinds of lines : (1) the boundaries and be age caused by shrinkgrains, (2)a cellular structure. (1)appears to of liquidmetal between the crystal and this metal is the first grains, to liquefywhen the temperature is raised to the melting point. These lines can be obtained but to on a by casting the metal plane surface, the of It is suggested that they are prevented by impurities. presence the metal solidifies in the amorphous state and then crystallizes. Metal which has
not

the

junction of the solid

been altered

to subjected

any

mechanical

treatment

will not

have

its structure

by
the
a

heat

treatment.

(2)
become

In

some

cases,

when

dendrites

form,

at

the

moment

when

the

shrinkage between
covered with

cell-like

the grains suddenly crystalgrains is complete, hatching (reseaux).This is accompanied of strip worked the and annealed of the metal and

by recalescence.

melting the end of one allowingit to solidify,


secondary and beyond
metal. Growth the
the

On

gets first
next
new

growth

melted partly
in the

crystals. These
these

become

covered

with

the cell-like hatching, grow

the

of solidification crystals

liquid

at temperatures neaiof Crystalson Annealing. On annealing takes the melting point crystal place by growth pushing forward of boundaries. In the case of low temperature annealingneighcrystal
"

Revue

de

Metallurgie, 1914,

vol. .\i. p. 489.

334
and reviews Turner's

A bs tracts

of Papers
of

comparison

the
*

Turner

sclerometer, Shore
a

Brinell scleroscope, An

indentation,and

Keep cuttingtests.
to

attempt is made by J. J. Thomas numbers Brinell ball-test hardness may


in readings,
or

establish
converted

factor
to

be

whereby scleroscope

order that

the
in

of various factories jjroducts

may

lie compared,

the

results
Over

given
500

various

technical

readingswere
taken
are curves.

and preted. journalsbe interpapers and numbers taken, scleroscope plotted

Brinell against The of clearness For the aluminium in

numbers. shown

different metals

by

different

symbols for the sake


5*25, and
same

the plotting
factor

steels the
6.

is

6"67, for

cast

iron and

bronzes

for

Considerable

variation

is found
than the
"

even

in the
"

metal,
a

readings varyingmore scleroscope All Brinell impressions made were


in 30 seconds. The

ball-tests.

with

an
a

Alpha

machine, having
with
a

steel ball 10 millimetres for

diameter,with

pressure

of 3000 taken J.

kilogrammes
Shore

instrument,having a

scleroscope readings were F. hammer. diamond-tipped


"
"

On of the variable element Sclerometer. account in Improved resistance abrasion to H. L. Heathcote f devised means testing by hand, for measuring the friction under a given load. A pairof scissors with filesin place of shears proved unsatisfactory. small flat articles on the top of a file, ness their degree of hardBy placing be end of the file and one gauged by raising may observingthe angle at which the article slides. This led to placing the article under the file, the weight of which relative motion, which motion if not too rapid,when the ceases, frictional forces become is for sufficiently great. Such an instrument
causes

round testing

surfaces.

The

angle is indicated
the take
outer

the

slotted

quadrant, hence
form

instrument

is named

by figures engraved on the quadrant


is made with three
at

sclerometer. Another will. The

adajited to
that the

largerarticles
two
can

so files, triangular

be

moved

farther

apart

An

illustration of this form

is

given.
to

quadrant sclerometer
of

capableof dealingwith
Instead

very of work in largequantities


or

is said

be

sensitive,handy
a

and

short
or

time.
be

carborundum files,

aluudum

sticks

pencils may

without employed,but files give very good results and last many months due to wear, and showing any errors provided they are properlymade

appropriately aged before


Various viewer. standards
come

use.

have between

been the

and adopted for different articles,

the the

angle should
"

limits specified

in

order

to

pass

F. J.

Lead-Copper Bearing
alloymakes lead-copper
*

Metal.
very

"

E.

D. Gleason

states

that

50

50

for satisfactory bearingmetal,especially


,

Iron Trade Review, 1914, vol. Iv. No. 1, p. 24. t Ibid., May 7, 1914, vol. liv. p. 843. X Metal Industry,July 1914, vol. vi. p. 318.

and Pyro^netry Analysis,Testing,

335

high temperature work,


be

and

also where

small amounts

of

free acids may

present.
"

J. L. H.

Manufacture
foil is a considerable rolled into

of Aluminium
in industry

Foil.
South

"

The

manufacture The
the

of aluminium is first
of oil in water.

Germany.*
a

aluminium

and sheets,
are are

these

are

painted with
rolled out annealed then

solution
to

The The

sheets sheets

then
rolled

superposed and
cold and

desired

thickness.

in

vacuo.

Testing of Metals.
the British Association
some

"

In

paper

read

at

the

Australian

Meeting of

by W. Dalby,| there is given a short account of testing methods The practice materials. photographic of metals of photomicrographyhas of showing the structure by means The author has recently steadily developedduring the last few years. method for obtaininga record of the relation applieda photographic between the load and extension of metals right point. up to the breaking show taken this in of t he The diagrams peculiarities the way vei-y clearly and also the load actually the specimen at metals at their yield points, on
of

E.

modern

the moment

of fracture. research.

The

combination

of the two

methods

offers

promisingfield of

Testing Metallic
that

Coatings."It
may

is

pointed out

by J. A. Capp \

of chemical by not generallyapplicable. The Preece are attack, but that such methods results for on yieldsgood comparative instance, galvanized test, coatings, but does not givecomparableresults when applied to sherardized articles, resistance
to

corrosion

be

tested

methods

or

to

articles coated

with

tin

or

lead. the
removal

suggestedfor Strong alkalies have sherardized oxide on depositwhich occurs iron. without action on the undei'lying
been The

of the

zinc-zinc
would

as articles,

they

be

indicate the efficiency of the however, do not necessarily results, the the of results with Preece test on are nor they comparable coating,

coatings. galvanized
The
water

author
on

to

records attempts made the articles from an erosion. which


test

to

imitate

natural

rain

by delivering
individual into

ordinaryrosette, but
cloud
then of

the

stream

produced

atomizing nozzle the chamber containing the specimenswere when


An This for
saturated of qualities weathering

projecteda
was

moisture

specimens
from
exposure

removed

the
test

with good results tried, direct path of the jet. first used has
now

atmosphere coatings.

was

for

the testing

and materials, insulating

been

emplo