Cloud computing is all the rage.

"It's become the phrase du jour," says Gartner senior analyst Ben Pring, echoing many of his peers. The problem is that (as with Web 2.0) everyone seems to have a different definition. As a metaphor for the Internet, "the cloud" is a familiar cliché, but when combined with "computing," the meaning gets bigger and fuzzier. Some analysts and vendors define cloud computing narrowly as an updated version of utility computing: basically virtual servers available over the Internet. Others go very broad, arguing anything you consume outside the firewall is "in the cloud," including conventional outsourcing. Cloud computing comes into focus only when you think about what IT always needs: a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends IT's existing capabilities. Cloud computing is at an early stage, with a motley crew of providers large and small delivering a slew of cloud-based services, from full-blown applications to storage services to spam filtering. Yes, utility-style infrastructure providers are part of the mix, but so are SaaS (software as a service) providers such as Salesforce.com. Today, for the most part, IT must plug into cloudbased services individually, but cloud computing aggregators and integrators are already emerging. InfoWorld talked to dozens of vendors, analysts, and IT customers to tease out the various components of cloud computing. Based on those discussions, here's a rough breakdown of what cloud computing is all about: 1. SaaS This type of cloud computing delivers a single application through the browser to thousands of customers using a multitenant architecture. On the customer side, it means no upfront investment in servers or software licensing; on the provider side, with just one app to maintain, costs are low compared to conventional hosting. Salesforce.com is by far the best-known example among enterprise applications, but SaaS is also common for HR apps and has even worked its way up the food chain to ERP, with players such as Workday. And who could have predicted the sudden rise of SaaS "desktop" applications, such as Google Apps and Zoho Office? 2. Utility computing The idea is not new, but this form of cloud computing is getting new life from Amazon.com, Sun, IBM, and others who now offer storage and virtual servers that IT can access on demand. Early enterprise adopters mainly use utility computing for supplemental, non-mission-critical needs, but one day, they may replace parts of the datacenter. Other providers offer solutions that help IT create virtual datacenters from commodity servers, such as 3Tera's AppLogic and Cohesive Flexible Technologies' Elastic Server on Demand. Liquid Computing's LiquidQ offers similar capabilities, enabling IT to stitch together memory, I/O, storage, and computational capacity as a virtualized resource pool available over the network.

flamed out in 2005. Coghead and the new Google App Engine. cloud-based mashup platforms abound. SaaS provider Workday recently acquired another player in this space. among others. Platform as a service Another SaaS variation. Well-known examples include Rearden Commerce and Ariba. but you do get predictability and pre-integration. as virtualization and SOA permeate the enterprise. 5.com. They range from providers offering discrete business services -." with many isolated clouds of services which IT customers must plug into individually. an ESB (enterprise service bus) provider that was edging toward b-to-b integration. this cloud computing service offers a service hub that users interact with. MSP (managed service providers) One of the oldest forms of cloud computing. Web services in the cloud Closely related to SaaS. You build your own applications that run on the provider's infrastructure and are delivered to your users via the Internet from the provider's servers. this form of cloud computing delivers development environments as a service. recently introduced the OpSource Services Bus.such as Strike Iron and Xignite -. a managed service is basically an application exposed to IT rather than to end-users. scalable infrastructure should eventually make every enterprise a node in the cloud. such as a virus scanning service for e-mail or an application monitoring service (which Mercury. Grand Central -which wanted to be a universal "bus in the cloud" to connect SaaS providers and provide integrated solutions to customers -.to the full range of APIs offered by Google Maps. such as those offered by CenterBeam or Everdream. They're most common in trading environments. these services are constrained by the vendor's design and capabilities. Today. as do such cloudbased anti-spam services as Postini. ADP payroll processing. which employs in-the-cloud integration technology from a little startup called Boomi. Service commerce platforms A hybrid of SaaS and MSP. Internet integration The integration of cloud-based services is in its early days. which mainly concerns itself with serving SaaS providers. Web service providers offer APIs that enable developers to exploit functionality over the Internet. For extremely lightweight development. It's a long-running trend with a far- . rather than delivering full-blown applications.net. and even conventional credit card processing services.3. recently acquired by Google. Prime examples include Salesforce. IBM. Way ahead of its time. and Verizon fall into this category. the U. so you don't get complete freedom. OpSource.S. Think of it as an automated service bureau. CapeClear. the idea of loosely coupled services running on an agile. provides). 7. such as expense management systems that allow users to order travel or secretarial services from a common platform that then coordinates the service delivery and pricing within the specifications set by the user. cloud computing might be more accurately described as "sky computing. On the other hand. Managed security services delivered by SecureWorks. Other offerings include desktop management services. with such cloud-based interconnection seldom in evidence. such as Yahoo Pipes or Dapper. 4.com's Force. 6. Like Legos. Postal Service. Bloomberg.

and are in fact served up by virtual hardware. with improved manageability and less maintenance. ---------------------------------------\\ Cloud computing is a phrase used to describe a variety of computing concepts that involve a large number of computers connected through a real-time communication network such as the Internet. Service models Cloud computing providers offer their services according to several fundamental models:[2][55] infrastructure as a service (IaaS). platform as a service (PaaS). But among big metatrends.[2] At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services..arguably. For example. similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network. The cloud also focuses on maximizing the effectiveness of the shared resources. and software as a service (SaaS) where IaaS is the most basic and each higher model abstracts from the details of the lower models. email) may reallocate the same resources to serve North American users during North America's business hours with a different application (e. is required for a variety of functions. and means the ability to run a program or application on many connected computers at the same time. Other key components in anything as a service (XaaS) are described in a comprehensive taxonomy model published in 2009. cloud computing is a synonym for distributed computing over a network.[56] such as Strategy-as-a-Service. The phrase also more commonly refers to network-based services. Collaboration-as-a- . a web server). This approach should maximize the use of computing powers thus reducing environmental damage as well since less power. a cloud computer facility that serves European users during European business hours with a specific application (e.[1] In science. rather likCloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale. etc. cloud computing is the hardest one to argue with in the long term.out horizon.. which appear to be provided by real server hardware. and focus on projects that differentiate their businesses instead of infrastructure.[3] Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster. Proponents claim that cloud computing allows companies to avoid upfront infrastructure costs. and enables IT to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.g. air conditioning. rackspace. This can work for allocating resources to users. The term "moving to cloud" also refers to an organization moving away from a traditional CAPEX model (buy the dedicated hardware and depreciate it over a period of time) to the OPEX model (use a shared cloud infrastructure and pay as one uses it).g. Cloud resources are usually not only shared by multiple users but are also dynamically reallocated per demand. Such virtual servers do not physically exist and can therefore be moved around and scaled up (or down) on the fly without affecting the end user . simulated by software running on one or more real machines.

customers can use either the Internet or carrier clouds (dedicated virtual private networks).) IaaS clouds often offer additional resources such as a virtual-machine disk image library. Pools of hypervisors within the cloud operational support-system can support large numbers of virtual machines and the ability to scale services up and down according to customers' varying requirements. runs the virtual machines as guests. To deploy their applications. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis[citation needed]: cost reflects the amount of resources allocated and consumed. . such as Hyper-V or Xen or KVM or VMware ESX/ESXi.[58] IaaS-cloud providers supply these resources on-demand from their large pools installed in data centers. Cloud communications and cloud telephony. the cloud user patches and maintains the operating systems and the application software. In 2012. recognized service categories of a telecommunication-centric cloud ecosystem. For wide-area connectivity. providers of IaaS offer computers – physical or (more often) virtual machines – and other resources. Business Process-as-a-Service. replace local telecommunications infrastructure with Voice over IP and other offsite Internet services. IP addresses. virtual local area networks (VLANs). firewalls.[57] Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure In the most basic cloud-service model. In this model. load balancers. Database-as-a-Service. rather than replacing local computing infrastructure.Service. network as a service (NaaS) and communication as a service (CaaS) were officially included by ITU (International Telecommunication Union) as part of the basic cloud computing models. etc. cloud users install operating-system images and their application software on the cloud infrastructure. raw (block) and filebased storage. (A hypervisor. and software bundles.

that is. and web server. towards meeting other goals. cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients.[62] Proponents claim SaaS allows a business the potential to reduce IT operational costs by outsourcing hardware and software maintenance and support to the cloud provider. Cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform where the application runs. test environment as a service. business process as a service. In addition. With some PaaS offers like Windows Azure. updates can be released without the need for users to install new software. programming language execution environment. One drawback of SaaS is that the users' data are stored on the cloud provider's server. In the SaaS model. Cloud providers manage the infrastructure and platforms that run the applications. typically including operating system. database. This enables the business to reallocate IT operations costs away from hardware/software spending and personnel expenses. SaaS providers generally price applications using a subscription fee. any machine serves more than one cloud user organization.[60] Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines. there could be .[59] Software as a service (SaaS) Main article: Software as a service In the business model using software as a service (SaaS). The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. cloud applications can be multitenant. with applications hosted centrally. This process is transparent to the cloud user. It is common to refer to special types of cloud-based application software with a similar naming convention: desktop as a service. The latter has also been proposed by an architecture aiming to facilitate realtime in cloud environments.[61] so price is scalable and adjustable if users are added or removed at any point. users are provided access to application software and databases.Platform as a service (PaaS) Main article: Platform as a service See also: Category:Cloud platforms In the PaaS models. As a result. To accommodate a large number of cloud users. the underlying computer and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand so that the cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers. communication as a service. which simplifies maintenance and support. cloud providers deliver a '''computing platform'''. Cloud applications are different from other applications in their scalability—which can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet changing work demand. SaaS is sometimes referred to as "on-demand software" and is usually priced on a pay-per-use basis. who sees only a single access point.

hardware. These assets have to be refreshed periodically. users are increasingly adopting intelligent thirdparty key management systems to help secure their data.[2] Undertaking a private cloud project requires a significant level and degree of engagement to virtualize the business environment. Network as a service (NaaS) Main article: Network as a service A category of cloud services where the capability provided to the cloud service user is to use network/transport connectivity services and/or inter-cloud network connectivity services.[63] NaaS involves the optimization of resource allocations by considering network and computing resources as a unified whole. and requires the organization to reevaluate decisions about existing resources. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. When done right. and bandwidth on demand.[74] Self-run data centers are generally capital intensive. storage. Technically there may be little or no difference between public and private cloud architecture. Generally. and other resources) that are made available by a service provider for a public audience and when communication is effected over a non-trusted network. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.[76][77] Public cloud A cloud is called a "public cloud" when the services are rendered over a network that is open for public use.[32] It has been suggested that Public cloud be merged into this article. . For this reason. requiring allocations of space.[75] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". They have a significant physical footprint.unauthorized access to the data. resulting in additional capital expenditures.[63] NaaS concept materialization also includes the provision of a virtual network service by the owners of the network infrastructure to a third party (VNP – VNO). build. Microsoft and Google own and operate the infrastructure and offer access only via Internet (direct connectivity is not offered).[64] Traditional NaaS services include flexible and extended VPN. security consideration may be substantially different for services (applications. it can improve business. They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. public cloud service providers like Amazon AWS.[65][66] Deployment models Private cloud Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. but every step in the project raises security issues that must be addressed to prevent serious vulnerabilities. and environmental controls. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2013. however.

an organization may store sensitive client data in house on a private cloud application.Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. but interconnect that application to a billing application provided on a public cloud as a software service. Varied use cases for hybrid cloud composition exist. etc. This example of hybrid cloud extends the capabilities of the enterprise to deliver a specific business service through the addition of externally available public cloud services. during spikes in processing demands. Distributed cloud . Another example of hybrid cloud is one where IT organizations use public cloud computing resources to meet temporary capacity needs that can not be met by the private cloud. from different service providers.).[2] Gartner. compliance. Hybrid cloud architecture requires both on-premises resources and off-site (remote) server-based cloud infrastructure. Inc. jurisdiction. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.[78] A hybrid cloud service crosses isolation and provider boundaries so that it can’t be simply put in one category of private. companies and individuals are able to obtain degrees of fault tolerance combined with locally immediate usability without dependency on internet connectivity.[2] Cloud bursting is an application deployment model in which an application runs in a private cloud or data center and "bursts" to a public cloud when the demand for computing capacity increases.[79] This capability enables hybrid clouds to employ cloud bursting for scaling across clouds. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. by aggregation.[81] By utilizing "hybrid cloud" architecture.[2] Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private.[80] Cloud bursting enables data centers to create an in-house IT infrastructure that supports average workloads. public and community cloud services. and use cloud resources from public or private clouds. integration or customization with another cloud service.defines a hybrid cloud service as a cloud computing service that is composed of some combination of private. community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. or community cloud service. public. A primary advantage of cloud bursting and a hybrid cloud model is that an organization only pays for extra compute resources when they are needed. For example. It allows one to extend either the capacity or the capability of a cloud service. so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.

Much like a warning sign on a fence or a property.[2] Oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo Cloud Security Controls Cloud security architecture is effective only if the correct defensive implementations are in place. while still connected to a single network or hub service. Examples of this include distributed computing platforms such as BOINC and Folding@Home. Detective Controls . These controls are put in place to safeguard any weaknesses in the system and reduce the effect of an attack. Corrective Controls Corrective controls are used to reduce the effect of an attack. Unlike the preventative controls. [[[[ Cloud computing is broken down into three segments: "application" "storage" and "connectivity. While there are many types of controls behind a cloud security architecture. If an attack were to occur. the preventative controls are in place to cover the attack and reduce the damage and violation to the system's security. In June 2011. The preventative control will safeguard vulnerabilities of the system.Cloud computing can also be provided by a distributed set of machines that are running at different locations. [5] The security management addresses these issues with security controls. the corrective controls take action as an attack is occurring. Preventative Controls These controls upgrade the strength of the system by managing the vulnerabilities." Each segment serves a different purpose and offers different products for businesses and individuals around the world.[1] highlighting the young nature of the technology. they can usually be found in one of the following categories:[6] Deterrent Controls These controls are set in place to prevent any purposeful attack on a cloud system. An efficient cloud security architecture should recognize the issues that will arise with security management. these controls do not reduce the actual vulnerability of a system. a study conducted by V1 found that 91% of senior IT professionals actually don't know what cloud computing is and two-thirds of senior finance professionals are clear by the concept. In Sept 2011. an Aberdeen Group study found that disciplined companies achieved on average an 68% increase in their IT expense because cloud computing and only a 10% reduction in data center power costs.

[7] Security and privacy Identity management Every enterprise will have its own identity management system to control access to information and computing resources. Compliances Numerous regulations pertain to the storage and use of data. the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Physical and personnel security Providers ensure that physical machines are adequately secure and that access to these machines as well as all relevant customer data is not only restricted but that access is documented. Moreover. or provide an identity management solution of their own. Availability Cloud providers assure customers that they will have regular and predictable access to their data and applications. including Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS). In the event of an attack. Many of these regulations require regular reporting and audit trails. using federation or SSO technology.Detective controls are used to detect any attacks that may be occurring to the system. the detective control will signal the preventative or corrective controls to address the issue. the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Cloud providers either integrate the customer’s identity management system into their own infrastructure. It also requires application security measures be in place in the production environment. providers ensure that all critical data (credit card numbers. among others. Application security Cloud providers ensure that applications available as a service via the cloud are secure by implementing testing and acceptance procedures for outsourced or packaged application code. Cloud providers must enable their customers to comply appropriately with these regulations TOP THREATS . Privacy Finally. digital identities and credentials must be protected as should any data that the provider collects or produces about customer activity in the cloud. for example) are masked and that only authorized users have access to data in its entirety.

how it monitors these employees.Abuse and Nefarious Use of Cloud Computing Some providers even offer free limited trial periods. fraud. Service & Traffic Hijacking Account or service hijacking is not new. a provider may not reveal how it grants employees access to physical and virtual assets. Credentials and passwords are often reused. To address this gap. or how it analyzes and reports on policy compliance. For example. Finally. Attack methods such as phishing.  Insecure Application Programming Interfaces The security and availability of general cloud services is dependent upon the security of these basic APIs. spammers. and other criminals have been able to conduct their activities with relative impunity. a virtualization hypervisor mediates access between guest operating systems and the physical compute resources  Data Loss/Leakage There are many ways to compromise data. CPU caches. malicious code authors. unauthorized parties must be prevented from gaining access to sensitive data  Account. From authentication and access control to encryption and activity monitoring.) were not designed to offer strong isolation properties for a multi-tenant architecture. GPUs. Major players .g. as can storage on unreliable media. By abusing the relative anonymity behind these registration and usage models. which amplifies the impact of such attacks. etc. Deletion or alteration of records without a backup of the original content is an obvious example..  Shared Technology Vulnerabilities Often. Unlinking a record from a larger context may render it unrecoverable. and exploitation of software vulnerabilities still achieve results. these interfaces must be designed to protect against both accidental and malicious attempts to circumvent policy  Malicious Insiders . Loss of an encoding key may result in effective destruction. the underlying components that make up this infrastructure ( e.

No.No. 9. 8: Citrix Systems is taking on VMware with some success. competing with two main rivals. Google made big waves in cloud computing last year by launching its own IaaS service. with its own cloud operating system. 2: VMware going deeper into all things cloud Until this year VMware didn't offer cloud services itself. IBM and EMC are reportedly both courting cloud-computing company SoftLayer Technologies in an acquisition expected to exceed $2 billion. Rackspace runs an IaaS cloud and made a name for itself by championing OpenStack. 1: Amazon. IBM upped the stakes in a big. 10: SoftLayer is the key to success for two big players. IBM has been a key player in a cloud tech called OpenStack for a long time. OpenStack and Citrix. too. It offered software called vCloud for building clouds.com is almost synonymous with cloud computing. Citrix makes software for clouds. Joyent competes with VMware. of course. But in March. big way.com proved that the world wants to buy software-as-a-service. VMware and a consortium of vendors who built an open source. Microsoft has a big enterprise cloud. . No. the Compute Engine. No. No. 6: Rackspace is leading a massive coalition for free cloud software. Salesforce. Joyent offers a powerful. free cloud operating system known as OpenStack. Azure. 7: IBM: All in for OpenStack. low cost alternative for big data centers. too. No. No. No. No 4: Salesforce.com has proved that enterprises really do want the cloud The name Salesforce. 5: Google was born in the cloud. No. 3: Microsoft is staking out its own turf.

There's no question who the most important cloud player is: Amazon. Amazon basically invented the IaaS market. .

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