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International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science

ISSN 23195665 (Januar 2!13" issue 2 volu#e 1$

Design Analysis and Optimization of Piston using CATIA and ANSYS Ch.Venkata a!am"# P.V.$.%u&thy'(# %.V.S.%u&ali $&ishna)# *.%.P&asada ao+ Mechanical Engineering Department, Vathsalya Institute of Science and Technology, Bhongir, Nalgonda Dist, India, 2 Jaya ra!ash Narayan Educational Sciety "roup of Institutions, Maha#u#nagar$%&'&&(, India ) Mechanical Engineering Department, *haitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology, "andipet, +ydera#ad$ %&&&,%, India Mechanical Engineering Department, Vathsalya Institute of Science and Technology, Bhongir, Nalgonda Dist., India

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A-ST ACT

Aim. Design, /nalysis and optimi0ation of piston 1hich is stronger, lighter 1ith minimum cost and 1ith less time. Since the design and 1eight of the piston influence the engine performance. Study Design. /nalysis of the stress distri#ution in the 2arious parts of the piston to !no1 the stresses due to the gas pressure and thermal 2ariations using 1ith /nsys. %ethodology. The iston of an engine is designed, analy0ed and optimi0ed #y using graphics soft1are. The */TI/ V%3(4, */D soft1are for performing the design phase and /NS5S ((.& for analysis and optimi0ation phases are used. -&ief esults. The 2olume of the piston is reduced #y 2-6, the thic!ness of #arrel is reduced #y )(6, 1idth of other ring lands of the piston is reduced #y 2%6, Vonmisses stress is increased #y (46 and Deflection is increased after optimi0ation. But all the parameters are 1ell 1ith in design consideration. $ey /o&ds. */TI/ V%3(4, /NS5S, Vonmisses Stress, *omputer */D, */E, 7ptimi0ation. *orresponding /uthor8 .V.9.Murthy INT OD0CTION /utomo#ile components are in great demand these days #ecause of increased use of automo#iles. The increased demand is due to impro2ed performance and reduced cost of these components. 3:D and testing engineers should de2elop critical components in shortest possi#le time to minimi0e launch time for ne1 products. This necessitates understanding of ne1 technologies and 1"2 ;uic! a#sorption in the de2elopment of ne1 products . / piston is a mo2ing component that is contained #y a cylinder and is made gas$tight #y piston rings. In an engine its purpose is to transfer from e<panding gas in the cylinder to the cran! shaft 2ia piston rod and or connecting rod. /s an important part in an engine piston endures the cyclic gas pressure and inertia forces at 1or! and this 1or!ing condition may cause the fatigue damage of the piston. The in2estigations

41 International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science ISSN 23195665 (Januar 2!13" issue 2 volu#e 1$

indicate that greatest stress appears on the upper end of the piston and stress concentration is one 1'2 of the mainly reason for fatigue failure %OD34IN*

'.". Piston Design


The piston is designed according to the procedure and specification 1hich are gi2en in machine design and data hand #oo!s. The dimensions are calculated in terms of SI =nits. The pressure applied on piston head, temperatures of 2arious areas of the piston, heat flo1, stresses, strains, length, diameter of piston and hole, thic!nesses, etc., parameters are ta!en into consideration '.".". Design Conside&ations fo& a Piston In designing a piston for an engine, the follo1ing points should #e ta!en into consideration8 (> It should ha2e enormous strength to 1ithstand the high pressure. 2> It should ha2e minimum 1eight to 1ithstand the inertia forces. )> It should form effecti2e oil sealing in the cylinder. -> It should pro2ide sufficient #earing area to pre2ent undue 1ear. %> It should ha2e high speed reciprocation 1ithout noise. 4> It should #e of sufficient rigid construction to 1ithstand thermal and mechanical distortions. ,> It should ha2e sufficient support for the piston pin. '.".'. P&o5edu&e fo& Piston Design The procedure for piston designs consists of the follo1ing steps8 (> Thic!ness of piston head ?t+@ 2> +eat flo1s through the piston head ?+@ )> 3adial thic!ness of the ring ?t(@ -> /<ial thic!ness of the ring ?t2@ %> Aidth of the top land ?#(@ 4> Aidth of other ring lands ?#2@ The a#o2e steps are e<plained as #elo18 Thi5kness of Piston 6ead 7th8 The piston thic!ness of piston head calculated using the follo1ing "rashoffBs 2 formula, t+ C ?)pD @D ?(4t@ in mm Ahere C ma<imum pressure in NDmmE DC cylinder #oreDoutside diameter of the piston in mm. tCpermissi#le tensile stress for the material of the piston. +ere the material is a particular grade of /F$Si alloy 1hose permissi#le stress is %& Mpa$ '&Mpa. Before calculating thic!ness of piston head, the diameter of the piston has to #e specified. The piston si0e that has #een considered here has a FGD specified as (%2G(-&.

International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science

42 ISSN 23195665 (Januar 2!13" issue 2 volu#e 1$

6eat 9lo: th&ough the Piston 6ead 768 The heat flo1 through the piston head is calculated using the formula + C (2.%4Gt+ G 9 G ?Tc$Te@ 9HDsec Ahere 9Cthermal conducti2ity of material 1hich is (,-.(%ADm! Tc C temperature at center of piston head in I*. Te C temperature at edges of piston head in I*. adial Thi5kness of ing 7t"8 t( C D)p1Dt Ahere D C cylinder #ore in mm 1C pressure of fuel on cylinder 1all in NDmmE. Its 2alue is limited from &.&2%NDmmE to &.&-2NDmmE. Jor present material, t is '&Mpa A;ial Thi5kness of ing 7t'8 The thic!ness of the rings may #e ta!en as t2 C &.,t( to t( Fet assume t2 C%mm Minimum a<ial thic!ness ?t2@ C DD? (&Gnr @ Ahere nr C num#er of rings /idth of the top land 7<"8 The 1idth of the top land 2aries from #( C t+ to (.2 t+ /idth of othe& lands 7<'8 Aidth of other ring lands 2aries from #2 C &.,%t2 to t2 %a;imum Thi5kness of -a&&el 7t)8 t) C &.&)GD K # K -.% mm Ahere # C 3adial depth of piston ring groo2e Thus, the dimensions for the piston are calculated and these are used for modeling the piston in */TI/ V%3(4. In the a#o2e procedure the ri#s in the piston are not ta!en into consideration, so as ma!e the piston model simple in its design. In modeling a piston considering all factors 1ill 1)2 #ecome tedious process. Thus, a symmetric model is de2eloped using the a#o2e dimensions . 2.). The Piston %odel <efo&e optimization

The follo1ing are the se;uence of steps in 1hich the piston is modeled. (> Dra1ing a half portion of piston 2> E<iting the s!etcher )> De2eloping the model -> *reating a hole

International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science

43 ISSN 23195665 (Januar 2!13" issue 2 volu#e 1$

(> /pplying fillets iston 1as modeled using */TI/ V% soft1are 1hich is sho1n in Jig.(

Jig.(.S!etch of the iston #efore optimi0ation It 1as then imported to /NS5S ((.&. for analysis and optimi0ation. Specifications of piston #efore optimi0ation are sho1n in Ta#le (.
Ta#le(.Design Specification #efore optimi0ation S.No. Dimensions Si0e in mm

( 2 ) % 4 ,

Fength of the iston?F@ *ylinder #oreDoutside diameter of the piston?D@ Thic!ness of piston head ?t+@ 3adial thic!ness of the ring ?t(@ /<ial thic!ness of the ring ?t2@ Aidth of the top land ?#(@ Aidth of other ring lands ?#2@

(%2 (-& '.&)4 %.2% (& -

'.+. The CAD and 93A of Piston The design of the piston starts 1ith the definition of the piston geometry using )D */D soft1are. This )D */D geometric model is then imported to JE/ soft1are and analysed under the predicted ser2ice conditions #efore anything is made. That speeds up the design and testing process, reduces the lead time to create ne1 pistons designs, and produces a #etter product. The idea #ehind finite analysis is to di2ide a model piston into a fi<ed finite num#er of elements. *omputer soft1are generates and predicts the o2erall stiffness of the entire piston. /naly0ing the
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International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science

data it is possi#le predict ho1 the piston 1ill #eha2e in a real engine and allo1s the engineer to 1+2 see 1here the stresses and temperatures 1ill #e the greatest and ho1 the piston 1ill #eha2e . /nalysis of the piston is done to optimi0e the stresses and minimi0e the 1eight using /NS5S. The mathematical model of optimi0ation is esta#lished firstly, and the JE/ is carried out #y using the /NS5S soft1are. Based on the analysis of optimal result, the stress concentrates on the piston has #ecome e2aluate, 1hich pro2ides a #etter reference for redesign of piston. '.= %eshing of piston <efo&e optimization

Element used is 2& node Tetrahedron named soilid'& 1=2. The element si0e is ta!en as %, then total num#er elements 1ere %,4)& and nodes 1ere '((,4 found in meshed model. The Jigure 2. Sho1s meshed model of the piston.

Jig. 2. Meshed Model of the iston


'.>. The&mal and *eomet&i5 P&ope&ties It is important to calculate the piston temperature distri#ution in order to control the thermal stresses and deformations 1ithin accepta#le le2els. The temperature distri#ution ena#les us to optimi0e the thermal aspects of the piston design at lo1er cost, #efore the first prototype is constructed. /s much as 4&6 of the total engine mechanical po1er lost is generated #y piston ring assem#ly. The piston s!irt surface slides on the cylinder #ore. / lu#ricant film fills the clearance #et1een the surfaces. The small 2alues of the clearance increase the frictional losses

and the high 2alues increase the secondary motion of the piston. Most of the Internal *om#ustion ?I*@ engine pistons are made of an aluminum alloy 1hich has a thermal e<pansion coefficient, L&6 higher than the cylinder #ore material made of cast iron. This leads to some differences #et1een running and the design clearances. Therefore, analysis of the piston thermal #eha2iour is e<tremely crucial in designing more efficient engine1>2. The thermal and geometric properties are as sho1n in #elo1 ta#le 2
International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science 45 ISSN 23195665 (Januar 2!13" issue 2 volu#e 1$

S.No. ( 2 ) %

Ta#le 2. Thermal and "eometric roperties Name of the roperty Thermal conducti2ity Specific +eat 5oungBs Modulus oissonBs 3atio Density, Dens

Value (,-.(% ADm9 &.() JD!g9 ,(e) Mpa &.)) 2.,,e$4 !gDmmM

'.?. Applying Tempe&atu&es# Con@e5tions and 4oads The piston is di2ided into the areas defined #y a series of groo2es for sealing rings. E. The #oundary conditions for mechanical simulation 1ere defined as the pressure acting on the entire piston head surface ?ma<imum pressure in the engine cylinder@. It is necessary to load certain data on material that refer to #oth its mechanical and thermal properties to do the coupled thermo$mechanical calculations 1?2. The temperature load is applied on different areas and pressure applied on piston head. The regions li!e piston head and piston ring regions are applied 1ith large amount of heat ?(4&I*$ 2&&I*@. The con2ection 2alues on the piston 1all ranges from 2)2ADm9 to (%,&ADm9. The 1or!ing pressure is 2Mpa. ). OPTI%IAATION /fter generating an accurate finite element model a strategy for the optimi0ation 1or!flo1 1as defined. Target of the optimi0ation 1as to reach a mass reduction of the piston1B2. 7#Hecti2e Junction8 Minimi0e mass Su#Hect to constraints8 ?(@ Ma<imum Vonmises stressN/llo1a#le or design stress ?2@ Jactor of safetyO(.2 ?)@ Manufacturing constraints

?-@

/fter carrying out static structural analysis the stresses in each loading conditions 1ere studied and then area 1here e<cess material can #e remo2ed 1ere decided so that ma<imum 2onmises stress does not e<ceed allo1a#le and factor of safety is !ept a#o2e (.% . ?%@ Jollo1ing reasons 1here scope for material remo2al (. 3adial Thic!ness of the ring 2. /<ial Thic!ness of the ring
46 International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science ISSN 23195665 (Januar 2!13" issue 2 volu#e 1$

). Ma<imum Thic!ness of the Barrel -. Aidth of the Top Fand %. Aidth of other ring lands

).(. %eshing of piston afte& optimization The meshing of the piston after optimi0ation is done 1ith the same element structure and si0e i.e., ta!en #efore optimi0ation. The total num#er elements 1ere ,L22( and nodes 1ere -,2L4 found in meshed model. ).2. The Piston %odel afte& optimization The optimi0ed model of the piston is as sho1n in #elo1 Jig. ).

Jig. ). S!etch of the iston after optimi0ation The model of the piston as sho1n in #elo1 Jigure -.

International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science

47 ISSN 23195665 (Januar 2!13" issue 2 volu#e 1$

Jig. -. Model of the piston


+. 3S04TS AND DISC0SSION The follo1ing images are sho1n for resulted 2on$mises stresses #efore and after optimi0ation

i8. Vonmisses St&ess <efo&e Optimization

7ii8. Vonmisses St&ess afte& Optimization

International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science

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The optimi0ed 2alues after optimi0ation using /NS5S are gi2en in the follo1ing Ta#le )

Ta#le ). Design 2alues after optimi0ation S.No . ( 2 arameter Volu me 3adia l thic!ness of the ring ?t(@ /<ial thic!ness of the ring ?t2@ Ma<imu BEJ73E 7 TIMIP/TI7N '',&2( mmM %.2- mm /JTE3 7 TIMIP/TI7N ,%2''-mmM ).-4 mm DESI"N *7NSIDE3/TI7N ,%2''-mm) - mm

) -

% mm (-.)- mm

).%2 mm '.&L mm

- mm (& mm

% 4 ,

m Thic!ness of Barrel ?t)@ Aidt o th h f e top land ?#(@ Aidth of other ring lands ?#2@ Von mises stress

(&.L- mm - mm 4).&('Mpa

'.)4 mm ).2- mm ,%.'%Mpa

(& mm ) mm 4)$,4Mpa
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International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science

ISSN 23195665 (Januar 2!13" issue 2 volu#e 1$

Deflection

&.&('L mm

&.(2&mm

&.(2&mm

The length (%2mm of the piston o#tained is same as #efore and after optimi0ation process. The 2alue after optimi0ation is ta!en into consideration. It is not considera#le that the 2ariations in piston length. /pplying the temperature and pressure loads on different areas of the piston and heat flo1 has not affected the length. The diameter also same e2en after optimi0ation process i.e., (-&mm and is ta!en into consideration for design purposes. The heat flo1 in the piston material and pressure on the head has not affected in length and diameter as these are larger than other parameters. So the piston can 1ithstand easily on si0es of these parameters. The 2olume has 2aried after applying temperature and pressure loads o2er the piston as 2olume is depends on not only on length and diameter and also on thic!nesses. The 2olumetric si0e after optimi0ation is ta!en into consideration. The 2olume of piston #efore optimi0ation is '',&2( mmM and for the same after optimi0ation is ,%2''-mmM The radial thic!ness of the piston has affected more as it is 2ery small in si0e and the temperature and heat flo1 are 2ery high to this si0e of thic!ness. Before optimi0ation 2alue is gi2en as %.2-mm and o#tained after optimi0ation is ).-4mm. This is rounded to ne<t highest 2alue i.e., -mm and is ta!en into consideration for design. The a<ial thic!ness of the piston ring #efore optimi0ation is %mm, it is changed to ).%2mm after optimi0ation, since the more and more heat and stress applied through gro2es as it is 2ery near to the head of the piston. This is rounded to ne<t highest 2alue i.e., -mm is ta!en into consideration for design. The ma<imum thic!ness of the #arrel #efore optimi0ation is (-.)-mm has much affected in 2ariation of si0e after applying pressure and temperature loads and is changed to '.&Lmm and rounded to ne<t highest 2alue i.e., (&mm ta!en into consideration. The 1idth of the top land has not much affected 1hile comparing 1ith the ma<imum thic!ness of the #arrel. The initial 2alue i.e., #efore optimi0ation is (&.L-mm and is changed after applying pressure 1hich is directly applied on the head i.e., top of the piston as a result

the shape of the piston on top 1ill #ecome Hust li!e a #o1l. The 2alue after optimi0ation is o#tained as '.)4mm and it is rounded to (&mm. This 2alue is considera#le for design. The 1idth of the other lands i.e., near piston rings are -mm in si0e and is changed due to pressure and heat applied on rings through gro2es. The 2alue after optimi0ation is ).2-mm and is rounded to )mm. The 2on misses stress initially 1as 4).&('Mpa, after optimi0ation it is o#tained as ,%.'%Mpa and it is permissi#le up to '&Mpa. So the piston 1ith these considerations can 1ithstand easily. The deflection due to pressure applied is more than that of temperature applied. In this analysis the pressure as 1ell as temperature loads are ta!en into consideration for applying on the piston. The deflection #efore optimi0ation is gi2en as &.&('Lmm and after optimi0ation it is o#tained that &.(2&mm, this 2alue is ta!en into consideration for design purpose. The 2alues o#tained after applying the loads are depend on the area chosen #y the user. The factor of safety is as follo1s8 /. The mass of the piston #efore optimi0ation is 2.,2. and factor of safety of is (.-2
International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Science 50 ISSN 23195665 (Januar 2!13" issue 2 volu#e 1$

2. The mass of the piston after optimi0ation is 2.&L. and factor of safety of is (.2 %. CONC40SION The deflection due to pressure applied after optimi0ation is more than #efore optimi0ation and this 2alue is ta!en into consideration for design purpose. The stress distri#ution on the piston mainly depends on the deformation of piston. Therefore, in order to reduce the stress concentration, the piston cro1n should ha2e enough stiffness to reduce the deformation. /ll the phases in this proHect gi2en can #e e<tended to the piston design 1ith reduction of material at #ottom. The material is remo2ed to reduce the 1eight of the piston so as to impro2e the efficiency. It is essential to o#tain the optimi0ed results for ne1 piston 1ith reduced material. In #rief8 ( The optimal mathematical model 1hich includes formation of piston cro1n and ;uality of piston ad piston s!irt. 2. The JE/ is carried out for standard piston model used in diesel engine ceramic coating on cro1n and the result of analysis indicate that the ma<imum stress has changed from 4).&('Mpa to ,-.'%Mpa.

efe&en5es

Q(R /./tish "a1ale, /. Shai!h and Vinay atil, SNonlinear Static Jinite Element

/nalysis and 7ptimi0ation of connecting rod Aorld Journal of Science an% &echnolog , Vol. 2?-@, pp .&($&-, 2&(2. Q2R /. 3. Bhagat, 5. M. Ji#ha!ate, Thermal /nalysis and 7ptimi0ation of I.*. Engine iston =sing Jinite Element Method, International Journal of 'o%ern Engineering Research (IJ'ER$, Vol.2, Issue.-, pp.2'('$2'2(, 2&(2. Q)R 3.S.9hurmi,J.9."upta, / Te<t Boo! of Machine Design, S.*hand : *o., pp. (()2$ ((--, 2&&-. Q-R . *ar2alheira(, and . "onTal2es, JE/ of T1o Engine istons Made of /luminium *ast /lloy /)'& and Ductile Iron 4%$-%$(2 =nder Ser2ice *onditions, %th

International *onference on Mechanics and Materials in Design orto$ ortugal, 2-$ 24, pp .($2(, 2&&4. Q%R /NS5SBS Element 3eference http8DD111(.ansys.comDcustomerDcontentDdocumentationD(2(DansUelem.pdf pp ($ (4LL. Q4R "udimetal . "opinath *.V. Jinite Element /nalysis of 3e2erse Engineered Internal *om#ustion Engine iston, 9ing Mong!utBs =ni2ersity of Technology North Bang!o! ress, Bang!o!, Thailand /IJST ME, Vol. 2?-@, pp L%$'2, 2&&'. Q,R MirosVa1 Aende!er, a1eV Magryta /dam MaHc0a!, MichaV BiaVy, SModeling The Thermal Foads in the Su#aru EJ2% EngineW Journal of 97NES o1ertrain and Transport, Vol. (L, No. (, pp. 4L)$4LL, 2&((. QLR D.Jan!o , Jo2ano2i,W Jinite Element E2aluation and 7ptimi0ation of "eometry 1ith D7EW, International Journal for Xuality research =D9$ &&%. Vol.%, No. (, pp. )'$-%, 2&((.

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