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# ESc201:IntroductiontoElectronics

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## Amplifier Design requires specialized knowledge

+12V
VCC CE Amplifier p R1 CB RC vo CC R2 CE RL

VS

RE

## It is not possible for every user to design his/her own amplifier !

Why cant we have experts design and implement amplifiers and make it available to everybody else ! Although this is done, it does not satisfy all the users due to diverse requirements Custom

Design

Semi-Custom Standard

Semi-custom: p partially y competed p design g which is customized by y the user Opamp is a good illustration of the advantages of semi-custom approach
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v1
X

v1 v2 = 0
short

i=0
X

open

v2

## Can something be both a short as well as open circuit ?

Difference Amplifier -An amplifier that is sensitive to difference in input voltages and insensitive to what is common.
vin1 vin2 vo

## vo = Ad vid + Acm vic

Ad : Differential mode g gain Acm : Common mode gain

Ad Common Mode Rejection Ratio: CMRR = Acm
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vi1 vi2

vo

## vi1 =1V + 5mV Sin(t ) ; vi 2 =1V 5mV Sin(t )

vid = vin1 vin 2 = 10mV Sin(t ) vin1 + vin 2 vic = = 1V 2 vo = Ad vid + Acm vic
= 1V Sin(t ) + 10mV
Whatever is common is rejected and whatever is different is amplified !
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Operational Amplifier

v1 v2

vo

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v1 v2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

vo

## InfiniteDifferentialmodevoltagegain InfiniteCommonmodeRejectionratio InfiniteInputResistance ZerooutputResistance .

Example:LM741

Inside the opamp, there is a complicated circuit containing several transistors and resistors.

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Simpleequivalentcircuitmodelofanopamp

v1 v2

vo

v1 Ri v2
~106

R0 + vi vo
+ -

AOL vi
~105

~10

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+VCC v1 v2 -VCC

v1
vo

R0 Ri + vi vo
+ -

AOL vi

v2

vo
VCC

vo = Aol vi
vi
VCC

## Opamp is said to be saturated

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v1 v2

vo

v1 Ri v2

R0 + vi vo
+ -

AOL vi

+ve +ve
vo

vo

-ve +ve
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Howdoweamplifythissignal?
+12V
vS

v1 v2

vo -12V

vs =1mV Sin(t )
+ 12 V
vS

vO

- 12 V
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+ 12 V
vS vO

v1 Ri

R0 + vi vo
+ -

- 12 V

AOL vi

v2

vs =1mV Sin(t )
vS Ri R0 + vi vo
+ -

Aol =10

AOL O vi

## vo = Aol vS =10 Sin(t )

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Butopampvoltageislimitedto 12V
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SimulationResults

vs =1mV Sin(t )

Aol =10

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Howdoweamplifythissignalthen?
+12V v1 v2 -12V

vS

vo

vs =1mV Sin(t )

vS

vO

1. Attenuatethesignalto0.1mVandthenamplify? 2. .
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ABetterSolution
R2

R1 VS VO

vo R2 = vS R1

Amplifierhasfeedback
If the feedback signal helps the input voltage we have positive feedback, otherwise negative.
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Feedback

vIN

AV

vout

vIN

AV

vout

Feedback network
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## Negative and Positive feedback

vIN

+ vfb -

VIN - Vfb AV

vout

Negative g feedback

Feedback F db k network

vIN

+ vfb +

VIN + Vfb AV

vout

Positive feedback

Feedback network

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## Opampcircuitsclassification Negativefeedback Closedloop Orfeedback Opampcircuits Openloop Positivefeedback

MostOpampCircuitsemploynegativefeedback
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Invertingamplifier
R2

v+
R1 VS VO

R0 Ri + vi vo
+ -

AOL vi

vR2

vS

R1 Ri vi +
+ -

R0 vo AOL vi

R2 vS R1 Ri + vi + -

R0 vo -AOL vi
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R2 vS R1 Ri + vi + -

NodalAnalysis
R0 vo -AOL vi

vs vi vi vi vo (1) = + R1 Ri R2
AOL vi vo vo vi = (2) ( ) Ro R2
1 1 + Ro R2 (4) vi = vo AOL 1 + Ro R2

vs vo 1 1 1 = + vi ( + + ) (3) R1 R2 R1 R2 Ri

As AOL vi 0

ThisiscalledtheVirtualGround property
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R2 vS R1 Ri ii + vi + -

R0 vo -AOL vi

As AOL vi 0
Thisimpliesthat:

ii 0

No current flows in or out of either inverting or non inverting terminals of an ideal opamp
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R2
i

R1 VS
+ Vi=0 -

VO

i
vx

i

## For actual ground

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VirtualGroundProperty
+12V 12V v1 v2 -12V vo

v1 v2

In an opamp with negative feedback, the voltage of the inverting terminal is equal to the voltage of the noninverting terminal if the gain of the opamp is sufficiently high

Thisproperty Thi t does d not thold h ldunder d certain t i conditions diti such has openloop, positivefeedback oriftheopampissaturated.
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Twoimportantpropertyforanalyzingidealopampcircuits undernegativefeedback
i1

+12V vo

v1 v2
i2

-12V

1 v1 = v2 1.
2. i1 = i2 = 0
At the input side opamp appears to be like a short and an open circuit simultaneously ! 27

Invertingamplifier Reanalyzeinvertingamplifierwiththeseproperties

is = vs / R1
R1

R2

is
0
VO

VS

0 vo vs = is = R2 R1

vo R2 = vs R1

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NonInvertingAmplifier

is = vs / R1
R1

R2

1. v1 = v2
is

2 i1 = i2 = 0 2.
VO

VS
VS

vo vs vs = is = R2 R1

vo R2 = 1+ vs R1

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Examples
10K

10K

1K 10mV

R2
VO

1K VO 10mV

R1

vo R2 = vo = 100mV V vS R1

1mA 0 0

vo R2 = 1+ vo = 110mV vS R1

0 vo =1mA 10 K

vo = 10V

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Rf

is1 = vs1 / R1
VS1 VS2

R1 R2

is1 + is 2
0
VO

is 2 = vs 2 / R2
0 vo vs1 vs 2 = is1 + is 2 = + Rf R1 R2
vo = ( Rf R1 vs1 + Rf R2 vs 2 )

For R1 =R 2 =R vo =

Rf R

(vs1 + vs 2 )

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Alternative Analysis
Rf R1 VS1 VS2 R2 VO

Rf R1 VS1 R2 VO

Rf R1 R2 VS2 VO

vo = (

Rf R1

)vs1 + (

Rf R2

) vs 2
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Design Example
Design a circuit that would generate the following output given three input voltages vs1, vs2 and vs3.
Rf R1 VS1 VS2 R2 VO

## vo = 10vs1 4vs 2 5vs3

Rf R1 vs1 Rf R2 vs 2

vo =

## Rf R1 VS1 VS2 VO R3 VS3 R2

vo =

Rf

R1 Choose :

vs1

Rf R2

vs 2

Rf R3

vs3

R f =10 K
R2 = 2.5 K

R1 =1K

R3 = 2 K

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R4
Rf R4 R1 VS1 R2 VS2 R4 R3 VO Rf R1 VS1 R2

Rf

VO R3

Rf R2 R3 vo = vs1 ( (1 + ) R2 R3 + R1 R4 Rf R1 R3 + vs 2 (1 + ) R1 R3 + R2 R4

R1 R2 VS2 R3

VO

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Rf R4 R1 VS1 R2 VS2 R3

Rf R2 R3 vo = vs1 ) (1 + R2 R3 + R1 R4
VO

Rf R1 R3 + vs 2 (1 + ) R1 R3 + R2 R4
Complicated expression !!!!!

RP = R1 R2 R3
R1 ( R2 R3 ) R2 R3 + R1

vo = (

Rp R1

vs1 +

Rp R2

vs 2 ) (1 +

Rf R4

Rp =

= R1 R2 R3

## Simple e expression pression !

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Design Example Design a circuit that would generate the following output given two input voltages vs1and vs2.
Rf R4 R1 VS1 R2 VS2 R3 VO

vo = 10vs1 + 4vs 2
Rp R1 vs1 + Rp R2 vs 2 ) ( (1 +

vo = (

Rf R4

RP = R1 R2 R3

Homework problem !
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R R VS2

VS1

VO

vo = (vs1 + vs 2 )

## vo1 = (vs1 + vs 2 ) vo = vo1 vo = (vs1 + vs 2 )

Have we made some assumption here ?
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Example
R vo1 vs R

R vx R vO

vo1 = 0.5 vs

vo = 0.5 vx

vo1 = vx

vo vo = = 0.5 05 vx vo1

## vo vo vo1 = = 0.5 0.5 = 0.25 vs vo1 vs

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BUT
vs

vo

2R / 3 R vo = vs 2R / 3 + R R + R

## vo = 0.2 vs Where is the error ?

R vO R

R vo1 vs R vx

vo1 = vx

vo1 = 0.5 vs

vo1 0.5 vs

vo = 0.5 vx
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Circuit-1 gets loaded by circuit-2 and its output vs. input characteristics get modified.

vo

Circuit vs

vo
vs

Circuit

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Example
1K vo1 vs 1K
vx 1M vO 1M

vo1 = 0.5 vs
1K vo1 vs 1K

vo1 0.5 vs

## We can describe this effect in terms of output resistance

Ro = 0.5 K

RL = 2 M
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Whenever output resistance of a circuit is much smaller than the load resistance, the loading effect is minimal.

Ro << RL
R2 vS R1 Ri ii + vi + -

R0 vo -A AOL vi

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R R VS2

VS1

VO

vo = (vs1 + vs 2 )

## vo1 = (vs1 + vs 2 ) vo = vo1

vo = (vs1 + vs 2 )

The assumption made here is that there is no loading which is reasonable because opamps have very low o/p resistance 43

Example
R 2R R R R 2V 1V VO1 VO

R R vo1 = { 1 + 2} = 3V R R
vo 2R = 1+ vo = 9V vo1 R
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Subtractor
R3 vs1 vs 2 R2 + R3 R1

R3 vs 2 R2 + R3
R1

Rf

R3 vs1 vs 2 R2 + R3 R1

VO VS1 VS2 R2 R3

R3 vs 2 R2 + R3

vs 2

R3 R3 vo vs1 vs 2 R2 + R3 R2 + R3 = Rf R1

R3 Rf Rf R2 vo = vs 2 (1 + ) ( )vs1 R3 R1 R1 (1 + ) R2 45

Rf R1 VO VS1 VS2 R2 R3

R3 Rf Rf R2 (1 + ) ( )vs1 vo = vs 2 R3 R R 1 1 (1 + ) ( R2

R3 R f Choose = R2 R1

vo =

Rf R1

(vs 2 vs1 )
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## Subtractor: Alternative Analysis

Rf R1 VO VS1 VS2 R2 R3

Rf R1 VO

VS1

R2 R3

Inverting amplifier
Rf R1 VO

## Use superposition theorem

vo = ( Rf R1 )vs1

R3 Rf vs 2 (1 + ) ( R3 + R2 ) R1

VS1 VS2

R2 R3

Non-inverting amplifier

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Rf R2

VS2

R1 R3

VS1

VO

VS3

R4 VS4

R5

Rf

Rf

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Rf R2

VS2

R1 R3

VS1

VO

VS3

R4 VS4

R5

RP = R3 R4 R5

## Rf RP (1 + ) vo = ( )vs1 + ( )vs 2 + vs3 R3 R1 R2 R1 R2

Rf

Rf

Rf R P (1 + + v ) s4 R1 R2 R4

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Example
VS2 VS1 VS3

R2 R1 R3 R4 VS4

Rf

VO R5

RP = R3 R4 R5

## Rf RP R vo = ( )vs1 ( )vs 2 + (1 + vs3 + (1 + ) ) P vs 4 R1 R2 R1 R2 R3 R1 R2 R4

Rf

Rf

Rf

Choose :

R f =10 K

R1 =1K

R2 = 2.5 K
R4 = 2.5 R3 R5 = 0.625 K
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RP = 0.33 R3

R P = 0.133 R4

Choose :

R3 =1K

R4 = 2.5 K

RP = 0.33K