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To what extent did the SinoJapanese War (18941895) and the RussoJapanese War (19041905) change the balance

of power in East Asia? Since 1868, The Meiji Emperor had started a range of modernisation programmes in all aspect of Japanese society, which is also known as the Meiji Restoration (18681912). This restoration made Japan a modern industrialised state that was equipped with modern machineries and weaponry that was strong to resist their enemies. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) show Japanese had become a powerful nation that dominated the North East Asia in the 20th Century, and they intimidated the modern Western nations, who exploited every Asian nation by establishing colonies. Therefore, Japan had to a large extent changed the balance of power in East Asia after the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War. The Sino-Japanese showed the Japanese soldiers were well-equipped and powerful, which took the position of becoming the most-powerful nation in Asia from China. Japan is always a small nation and the emperor wanted to expand their territory so that they could start dominating the world. Korea were seen as a suitable place because it had a good industrial and agricultural base. The Sino-Japanese war started at the Battle of Asan in July 1894, which the Chinese lost 500 lives compared to 34 lives for the Japanese. The Japanese continued with the War in September 1894, capturing Pyongyang and killed over 4000 Chinese soldiers and civilians. In October 1894, the Japanese crossed the Yalu river to enter Manchuria and in November 1894, the Battle of Lushunkou caused the live of 4500 men. This shows the Japanese had become a modernised nation with powerful army trained by Prussian general, and they challenged Chinas position as the leader of Asia. On the other hand, China was weak because of the failed modernisation programmes, in which Empress Dowager Cixi was mostly responsible. She spent over 8 billion to rebuild the summer palace, which was originally used for improving military equipment, which could be used to fight against the Japanese. This corruption indirectly helped Japan to establish herself as the most powerful nation in Asia. The defeat in Sino-Japanese War destroyed the Chinese society, and encouraged the 1911 Revolution to happen. China lost 35,000 lives in the war, had to pay 200 million teal of silver and annexed Korea to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1894). This further weakened the vulnerable Chinese society and consolidated Japans position as the leader of Asia. The Sino-Japanese War. The shift in power balance in Asia, with Japan being the leader can be shown with the reactions from the major nations. Russia had given 30 million tael of silver to Japan as a gift. It shows the Russian was scared of Japan attacking their soil as Japan completely wiped out Chinese in the Sino-Japanese War. Russian, France and Germany pressured the Japanese to capture Liaodong Peninsula because they understood Japan had become a powerful nation, and they could only exploit China, with the help of the Japanese. Britain had also associated with the powerful Japanese by signing the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in January 1902. This shows all modernised western powers viewed Japan as a strong and effective nation, which they must create diplomatic bond or Japan would become their future enemy. Japan had been recognised as the leader of Asia, which the Western powers viewed them as a powerful nation as the Sino-Japanese War (1894-5) Japan continued fighting in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5), which they were able to consolidate their position as the leader of North East Asia and completely changed the Westerners perception on an Asian country. The Tsars did not believe that the Japanese were that powerful and took pride of their army. They thought they could

easily defeat the Japanese and kept hold of Lushunkou, which was their only colony in the Pacific. On the other hand, the Japanese were promised they would have Lushunkou in the Treaty of Shinmonoseki (1895) but that didnt happen. There were 2,000,000 Russian soldiers versus 400,000 Japanese soldiers in this war. The RussoJapanese War officially started in July 1904, when the Japanese Navy attacked the Russian army guarding Port Arthur in surprise. This caused the lives of 30,000 for the Russians and the Russian Pacific ceased to exist. This was a huge blow for the Russians because they only had Port Arthur as their colony, and it shows the Japanese had an organised army that could defeat the huge Russian army. Additionally, the Battle of Tsushima further consolidated Japans position as North Asias leader. Admiral Togo was victorious on May 27-8 1895 after nearly a year fighting. The battle caused the 4380 lives and 5800 were wounded for the Russian. The Japanese only had 4 battleship to fight against the Russians with 11 battleships. In September 5 1905, the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed, which signified the end of the war. This shows the Japanese army was so powerful that they could cause such destruction to the Russian army, further consolidate Japans leading position. The victory in both Russo- Japanese war and Sino-Japanese war changed the Westerners position of Japan, with Japan becoming the leader of North East Asia. The war had important significance because they were the first non-European nation to defeat a European nation. Japans victory had also challenged the view of European and white supremacy because they had become such powerful nation. Japanese victory had also encouraged the public discontent towards the Tsars and indirectly prompted the Russian revolution in 1905. This shows the Japanese had become a strong influence in the world by becoming the leader of Asia, which changed the balance of powerful completely. In conclusion, the Japanese had to a large extent changed the balance of power in Asia after the Sino-Japanese War (1894-5) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-5). The success in the wars show that a constitutional monarchy was more effective than an autocratic state, with Iran started to change after witnessing their success. The Japans leading position wasnt challenged until 1950s, with them colonising Korea (1910) and Manchukuo (1931).