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From < texture.doc> Metamorphic Textures Texture: Is a term that describes the size, shape and orientation of the grains constituting a rock, as well as the relationship between these grains. Elements of metamorphic textures: 1- Crystal size: <0.1 mm 0.1-1mm 1- mm -10mm ! 10 mm v. fine-grained fine-grained medium-grained coarse-grained v. coarse-grained

2-Shape: Idioblastic: If the mineral grain is euhedral "ubidioblastic: If the grain is subhedral #enoblastic: If the grain is anhedral 3- Macroscopic to mesoscopic textures !eneral textures": $i% "lat& $ii% "chistose: ' schist has a lepidoblastic foliation if this foliation is defined b& oriented micas, and a nematoblastic foliation if such a foliation is defined b& the orientation of prismatic minerals as amphiboles and p&ro(enes. $iii% )neissic: ' comple( banded te(ture made of schistose la&ers or bands alternating with bands commonl& characterized b& a granoblastic te(ture. $iv% )ranoblastic: granular, interlocking e*uidimensional grains of sube*ual size+ no preferred orientation or cleavage. $v% ,ornfelsic: -ine-grained, granular interlocking grains, possibl& of variable shapes and sizes. .o preferred orientation. #- Mineral-mineral relations: $- %r&er of crystallization: /r&stalloblastic series '- (elationship )et*een &eformation an& metamorphism: 0hrough the identification of pre-, s&n- and post-tectonic minerals.

Types of metamorphic textures an& mineral-mineral relations 2etamorphic te(tures can be grouped into three main groups: +- (elict textures palimpsest textures": are te(tures inherited from the original rock t&pe, and which have survived metamorphism. ,- Typomorphic textures: te(tures characteristic of metamorphism C- Superimpose& textures: te(tures characteristic of a post- metamorphic event, e.g. alteration, weathering, ... etc. 3ther smaller groups as 4reaction te(tures5, 4pol&deformational te(tures5, 6 etc. ma& also be t&pomorphic or replacement, but are grouped separatel& because the& have some genetic connotation. +- (elict Textures 0here are several t&pes of relict te(tures. 7elict te(tures in metamorphic rocks are indicated b& appl&ing the prefi( 8blasto8 to the original te(tural name. 7elict te(tures are best preserved in low-grade rocks. 9(amples of such te(tures include: porph&ritic ophitic intergranular am&gdaloidal spherulitic variolitic pisolitic oolitic :lease refer to &our notes on igneous and sedimentar& petrolog& if &ou cannot remember an& of these terms. ,- Typomorphic textures Textures characteristic of thermal metamorphism: ;hen thermal metamorphism is not associated with an& deformation, the mineral grains are randoml& oriented, resulting in either granoblastic or hornfelsic te(tures. :lease note that the granoblastic te(ture can also develop in regionall& metamorphosed rocks. 0he following are some of the t&pes of granoblastic te(tures: 1- )ranoblastic pol&gonal: where the e*uidimensional grains ma& have well developed cr&stal faces resulting in straight grain boundaries, and where triple <unctions are common. 1- )ranoblastic interlobate: where the grain boundaries are somewhat irregular =- )ranoblastic amoeboid: where all the grains have irregular outlines, and all the minerals are anhedral. >- )ranoblastic decussate: where the interlocking randoml& oriented cr&stals are somewhat elongate, prismatic or subidioblastic. ?suall& applied to rocks with one or two mineral species onl&. 0riple <unctions are common. - .odular: results from the growth of oval - shaped porph&roblasts of such minerals as cordierite or scapolite in association with other randoml& oriented minerals as @z, ..etc. Textures of &ynamic metamorphism:

A- :orph&roclastic: ' te(ture produced b& the crushing or fragmentation of large grains, resulting in two distinct grain size distributions of the same mineral: coarser grained porph&roclasts and finer grained fragments. B- 2ortar: similar to porph&roclastic but in which the smaller fragments are further crushed to finer and finer sizes $close to becoming powders%, while some porph&roclasts still persist. C- :rotom&lonitic: ' more advanced stage of cataclasis, where some minerals begin to deform in a ductile manner, giving rise to an incipient foliation or preferred orientation. D- 3rthom&lonitic $m&lonitic%: ;here the rocks develop a well - defined foliation. In *uartz rich rocks, an orthom&lonitic fabric is often indicated b& *uartz cr&stals elongated like ribbons or flames $ribbon *uartz%. 10- :ol&gonizedE recr&stallizedE annealed $ultram&lonitic%: 0he most advanced stages of cataclastic metamorphism result in the recr&stallization of the highl& strained cr&stals into smaller ones developing a granoblastic pol&gonal te(ture. 't the same time, a foliation defined b& micaceous or prismatic minerals persists. Crystallization textures: 11- :orph&roblastic: ;here coarse - grained metamorphic minerals $porph&roblasts% occur in a matri( of finer grained cr&stals. 11- :oikiloblastic: ;here coarse - grained metamorphic minerals contain numerous inclusions of finer - grained cr&stals of other minerals. It is of different t&pes: a- Fish-net or skeletal te(ture: rapid cr&stallization b- Sieve texture c- Rotational texture: where the inclusions are oriented at an angle that suggests that the poikiloblast ma& have rotated during its growth, thus indicating s&ndeformational or s&ntectonic growth. 'n alternative interpretation of such te(ture is the rotation of the foliation during the growth of the poikiloblast, which still makes the growth s&ndeformational. d- Snowball: "imilar to rotational te(ture, but where the inclusions define a spiral shaped trail, which ma& have developed from the 8rolling over8 of the poikiloblasts. e- Helicitic: ;here the poikiloblasts overgrow the pre-e(isting foliation. 0his te(ture therefore indicates post-tectonic cr&stallization of the poikiloblasts. C- (eplacement textures superimpose& in part-" 1=- 2esh te(ture: develops in serpentinites, where the needle shaped serpentine minerals occur in aggregates interwoven like a mesh. 1>- ,our-glass te(ture: 'lso in serpentinites, where the serpentine minerals replace the granular olivine cr&stals giving rise to hour-glass like appearances. 1 - Fastite te(ture: ' third te(ture that occurs in serpentinites, where 3p( cr&stals were completel& replaced b& aggregates of serpentine minerals retaining the prismatic shape of the original 3p(. 1A- :seudomorphic replacement te(tures: $i% single-cr&stal $ii% multicr&stal $iii% multi-phase, multi-cr&stal .- (eaction textures 1B- 9pita(ial overgrowth: 9pita(ial overgrowth is characterized b& optical continuit& between the mineral and its overgrowth. Foth the mineral and the overgrowth must belong


to the same structural group, and ma& possibl& be the same mineral. 0his t&pe of overgrowth is controlled full& b& the the matri( mineral. 1C- 0opotactic replacement: 3ne mineral overgrows another of a similar structure $e.g. 'ctinolite rims on glaucophane%. 3rientation of overgrowing mineral is controlled b& that of the overgrown one. 1D- Gel&phitic te(ture $also a replacement te(ture%: ' kel&phitic te(ture is a replacement of one mineral along its rim b& an intergrowth of two or more minerals, in a wa& that the new minerals almost completel& surround the mineral being replaced. 0he term is most commonl& used when the replacing minerals form during retrogression. 9(amples include kel&phitic rims of chlorite H -e-o(ides after garnet. 10- 7eaction-rim te(ture: when one mineral replaces another along its rims, suggesting a reaction between both phases. 0he contacts between both phases are irregular. 11- /orona te(ture: several concentric la&ers of one or more minerals completel& encircling an older phase. 0he la&ers $which range from one to five in number% represent a se*uence of reactions that have taken place $none to completion% to replace the mineral in the core or center of the corona. /oronas form during both prograde or retrograde metamorphism. 11-'toll te(ture: where the core of a mineral is dissolved or replaced leaving behind a surviving rim. "uch te(tures usuall& form due to an original compositional zoning within the mineral with the replaced core. E- /nter!ro*th texture 1=- "&mplectites $also a reaction te(ture%: 're irregular fine-grained mineral intergrowths that form as a result of a certain reaction that did not go to completion. 0hese intergrowths are often recognized b& their worm& appearance and often occur along the boundaries of reacting minerals $or ones not in e*uilibrium%. 9(amples of commonl& intergrown mineral pairs: @z--eldsparE 'mph-"pinelE :lag-2gtE )t-@zE :lag-/p(E Ft-@zE 9p-@zE 'mph-:lag. .ote that a common t&pe of s&mplectitic intergrowth is the myrmekitic texture commonl& observed in granites, where worm& *uartz occurs in plagioclase cr&stals in contact with biotite. "&mplectitic intergrowths are more common in high temperature rocks. F- 0oly&eformational10olymetamorphic textures 1>- /renulated cleavageEschistosit&: 7esults from the folding of a foliation. 1 - "-/ fabric: ' more advanced stage of crenulation, where one or more minerals are orientated along the crenulated surfaces to define a new foliation $" 1% at an angle to the older one $"1%. 0his commonl& involves some form of 8recr&stallization8.

2- Special textures an& features 1A- :ressure shadows: are ellipsoidal regions ad<acent to a rigid cr&stal where minerals grow developing te(tures that differ from those defined b& the same minerals in the rest of the sample. )rowth in a pressure shadow is therefore influenced b& the cr&stal faces of the rigid mineral which seem to 8protect8 the minerals in its immediate vicinit& from the deformation affecting the same minerals in other parts of the sample. 'ccordingl&, the foliation wraps around the rigid cr&stal and its shadow. 1B- 2ica fish: 're lenticular porph&roblasts of mica which commonl& develop in a shear stress environment and can be used to indicate the sense of shear. 1C- Gink bands $deformational bands%: 're bends and twists within some minerals as a result of their deformation. Gink bands develop in pre-tectonic minerals. 1D- Ioning: /ompositional change of a cr&stal, often accompanied b& a change in some of its optical properties. =0- 0winning: "ome twinning ma& be induced b& deformation. =1- 9(solution te(ture: results from the incomplete miscibilit& between two components $end-members% of a solid solution series. ' decrease in temperature ma& result in the separation of these two phases, one in the other commonl& along cleavage planes. /ommon in high grade rocks that cooled slowl&. /mportance of stu&yin! metamorphic textures 1- 0he& provide a means for classif&ing metamorphic rocks, and hence for their nomenclature. 1- 0he& ma& help identif& the original rock t&pe prior to metamorphism $see relict te(tures above%. =- 0he& help identif& which minerals ma& have formed with each other $in e*uilibriumJ% and which minerals are definitel& out of e*uilibrium, and hence help establish the order of cr&stallization and paragenetic se*uences which are essential in understanding the :-0 histor& of the sample $see > K below% >- 0he& help identif& metamorphic reactions that ma& have taken place during the rockLs histor&, and are therefore essential for deriving the :-0 paths of such rocks. - 0he& help identif& the relationship between deformation and mineral growth, which is essential for an& tectonic interpretations. A- 0he& are critical for determining the number of deformational andEor metamorphic events affecting an area.