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Math 1432 Notes Week 8 A few more examples from 9.

.5: For r = ( ) 1 2 A = [ ( )] d 2 Example 1: Write the integral to find the area of r = 1 2 sin inside the outer loop above the x-axis.

2. Find the area inside one petal of the flower given by r = 4 cos (2).

also see examples ! and " in se#tion 9.5$

LecPop8_2 1. Give the formula (using one or more integrals) for the area inside the inner loop of r = 4 8sin

a.

b.

c.

d.

9.6 Parametric Curves Let x(t ) and y (t ) be functions where t is the parameter. (x(t ), y (t ) ) is the point that traces out the curve. Example 1: Express the curve by an equation in x and y; then plot: x(t ) = 3t 1 y (t ) = 5 2t t ( , )

Example 2: Express the curve by an equation in x and y: x ( t ) = e t y( t ) = 2 + e t 0 t 2

f t is restricted to lie on an interval !a, b" then x(t) and y(t) would have an initial point (x(a), y(a)) and a terminal point (x(b), y(b)). #o a parametric curve has an orientation given b$ the parameteri%ed variable. Example &: Express the curve by an equation in x and y: x (t ) = 3 cos t
y (t ) = 2 cos t 0t

Example ': Express the curve by an equation in x and y x (t ) = cos t

y (t ) = 2 sin t

0 t 2

Example (: Express the curve by an equation in x and y: x (t ) = sec t

y (t ) = tan t

)o parameteri%e a line #EG*E+) from ( x0 , y 0 ) to ( x1 , y1 ) : x(t ) = x0 + t ( x1 x0 )


y (t ) = y 0 + t ( y1 y 0 ) 0 t 1

,or a L +E: t Example -: .arameteri%e the line segment from ('/ -) to (01/ &)

LecPop8_2 2. 1hen parameteri%ing line segments/ order of the points does matter. a. )rue b. ,alse &. .arameteri%e the line segment from (&/1) to (2/2) a. c.

b. x ( t ) = 3 3t , y (t ) = 1 + t 0 t 1 d. x ( t ) = 3t , y (t ) = 1 t , 0 t 1 e. +one of these

x ( t ) = 3t , y (t ) = 1 + t , 0 t 1

x ( t ) = 3 3t , y (t ) = 1 t , 0 t 1

9.7 Tangents to Curves Given Parametrically

#lope of tangent line for parametric curves: y ' (t ) m= x' (t ) #o/ e3uation of tangent line to parametric curve at t = t 0 is

y y (t 0 ) =

y ' (t 0 ) (x x(t 0 )) x' (t 0 )

Examples 1. Find an equation in x and y for the line tangent to the curve at t = 1.

2. Find the equation of the tangent line at t = 1 to the curve given by the parametric equations

x ( t ) = 3t 2 4t + 2 , y ( t ) = t 3 4t .

&. Find an equation in x and y for the line tangent to the polar curve.

r = 4 cos( 2 ) =

4. Find all points of horizontal and vertical tangency, given

LecPop8_2 '. )o find the points where a parametric curve has hori%ontal tangents/ $ou would a. #et y 4 e3ual to %ero b. #et x 4 e3ual to %ero c. #et t 4 e3ual to %ero

9.8 Arc length an !pee


b

L (c ) =
a

[x' (t )]2 + [ y' (t )]2 dt

L(c) = 1 + [ f ' ( x )] dx
2 a

L (c ) =

[ ( )]2 + [ ' ( )]2 d


2 y (t ) = 1 2t ,

Example: ,ind the length of the graph x(t ) = t 1,

from t = 0 to t = 1

#peed along a curve: .ath ( x(t ), y (t )) ta5es from 2 to t: s =


0 t

[x' (u )]2 + [ y' (u )]2 du

#o/ v(t ) = s ' (t ) =

[x' (t )]2 + [ y' (t )]2

Examples: 1. 6 particle is traveling along the path such that its position at an$ time t is given b$ r (t ) = ( 2 cos t , 2sin t ) ,ind the speed at an$ time t and the distance the point travels from t72 to t7

2. Give the integral that represents the arc length of the curve y = 1/x over the interval [1,3]

3. Find the length of the graph f ( x) =

x2 ln( x), 1 x 4 8

4. The equations below give the position of a particle at each time t from t = 0 to t = the initial speed of the particle, the terminal speed, and the distance traveled.

. Find

LecPop8_2 5. Identify the integral that represents the arc length of the curve y = ln(x) over the interval [1,3]
3 3

a)

1
3

1 + (ln x) 2 dx

b)

1+ 1

( x ) dx
2

c)

( x) (
1
2

+ 1

x2

dx

d)

1 + ( 1

x2

) 2 dx

e) none of these