Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

PRESSUREVESSELDESIGNSAFETYATEVERYSTEP SAFETYSTANDARDS,CODESANDPRACTICESFORTHEDESIGN LECTURENOTEBYSURYAKANTRANDERI21stFEBRUARY2014 TheChemicalandmetallurgicalindustriesarerapidlyexpandingbothinsizeanddiversityofprocess. Asaresultthroughattentionisgiventowardssafetyoftheplantdesign,speciallypressurevessels duetoitsintrinsicsafetyrequirementsduetoitshighpressureoperations. ItisnotpossibleforallsafetymemberstogetexposureforP.V.designwithrespecttosafetyaspects, atallexecutionsteps.Theynormallydoregularcheckingatplantoperationandperiodictesting.

Mysincereeffortistogiveyouexposureonthesubjectmatterbasedonmypersonnel&professional experienceinthisfield,speciallyonLosspreventionaspectsinprocessplantdesign Iwouldliketogiveyou,overallexposureonthefollowingsubjects: 1 DESIGNCRITERIA 2 SELECTIONOFDESIGNCODE 3 SELECTIONOFMATERIAL 4 DESGINOFPRESSUREVESSEL 5 FABRICATION&INSPECTION 6 TEST&TRIALRUN 7 OVERPRESSUREPROTECTIONSAFETYINSTALLATION 8 OPERATION&RUNNING 9 REGULARMAITENANCE 10 PRIODICMAITENANCE IHopethatitwouldhelpyoutoupdateyourknowledgeonabovesubject. Itisusefulinlosspreventionaspectsinprocessplant,speciallyforthepressurevessels

1.DESIGNCRITERIACHECKLIST
TheuseofPressureVessels(Unfired)isgovernedby "THESTATIC&MOBILEPRESSUREVESSELS(UNFIRED)RULES1981 . TheStatutoryrequirementsforthesafetypertainingtofactoryLaw,PollutionBoard, EnforcedbyCentralandStateGovernmentsforthesafetyofPressurevesseland operationdecidesapplicableCode,standardsandrecommendedpractice. Ifcontentofpressurevesselisexplosiveinnature,wewillhavetofollowExplosiveAct. Designincludesdrawing,calculations,specifications,modelcodeusedforthedesign,and allotherdetailsnecessaryforthecompletedescriptionoftheP.V.anditsconstruction Majorpointstobecheckedare: 1)Hazardduetofailureofmaterialofconstructionbycorrosionoranyunusualcondition. Itdecidesmaterialofconstructionandcorrosionallowancetobeconsideredindesign 2) Possibilityofrunaway,stronglyexothermicreactionsdecidesHighPressuretripsystem. ItprotectsPressureVesselagainstoverpressureandVacuum 3) Disposalofgasand/orLiquidduringreaction,pressurerelievingvalves,device 4) GasExplosionhazards,Installationofrupturediscetc. 5) Blowdownanddepressingsystemistobetakencareatupperandlowerlimitalarms 6) AnydesignconstrainduetoavailabilityofspacedecidesVesselPosition 7)Processrequirementssuchasmixingintensity,productdischargefromreactorbygravity. orpump,vesseldiametertoHeight/Lengthrationetc. 8) ToxicityandflammablepropertiesofmaterialhandledElectricalAreaclassifications 9)Reliabilityofavailableutilitiesatsiteanditsqualitystandardssuggest additionalHeatTransferArearequirementsatthetimeofdesigningpressurevessel

2.SELECTIONOFDESIGNCODE&STANDARDS
Thedesign&manufactureofP.V.isalwaysgovernedbyapplicabledesigncodesinallcountries. Thecodesorrulesareprimarilyintendedtoassuresafetyinoperationandtheycoverevery aspectofthedesigncriteriawiththesafetyofpressurevessel:suchas 1) Selectionoffabricationmaterial&itstesting 2) Approvalofwelderandfabricationworkshop 3) Fabricationmethodologyforthesetup,weldingandfabrication 4) Testingandqualitycontrolthroughdesignconventions
Theyformabasisofagreementbetweenthemanufacturerandcustomer,andthecustomers insurancecompany. InformationandguidanceontheP.V.codescanbefoundontheInternet: www.bsiglobal.com ComputerprogramstoaidinthedesignofvesselstoPD5500andtheASMEcodeareavailablefrom commercialorganisationsandcanbefoundbymakingasearchoftheWorldWideWeb. Useofprogram"PVEllite"ismostpopularinourcountrythatusesASMEcode ThecodesusedinourcountryfortheUFPV(UnfiredPressureVessels)are: CODENAME COUNTRY 1) ASMESECTIONVIIIDIVISIONII 2) ASMESECTIONVIIIDIVISIONIll U.S.A. 3) ASMESECTIONVIIIDIVISIONVIIIDiv1&2 4) ASMESECTIONVIIIDIVISIONIX P.V.&Associatedcompounds 5) ASAB31 6) APIA.S.M.E.(SimilartoASMEcodes) 1) Lloyd'sRules Britain 2) RulesoftheAssociatedOfficeTechnical Committee(AOTC) Piping UFPV Vessel& Piping U.F.P.V. U.F.P.V. Piping UFPV& Pipes UFPV

SCOPE Material, ABCD Nuclear U.F.P.V. welding ldi

3) BS1500,1958&BS1515,1965 4) B.S.8061954 Germany India ADMERKBLATTDIN2413 CodeforUnfiredPressurevesselIs28251969 International Italy NewZealand Sweden Switzerland ISOTC11

UFPV& BOILER

Whilebasicaimofthecodeissame,therearedifferencesinapproacharisingoutof historicalback ground,Experience,Rawmaterialavailabilityinthecountryandthedesignphilosophyadopted in thevariouscountriesoforigin

Thechoiceofcodeismade bythepurchaserandhisprocessLicensor ,guidedbytheirexperience onthesimilarplantandstronglyinfluencedbythecountryinwhichthisexperiencehasbeengained. Thedifferenceincodesfromthepointofdesign,materialselection,weldingandfabricationmethodis dealtwithindepthknowledgeofdesignengineeringpractice. IntheUnitedKingdomallconventionalpressurevesselsforuseinthechemical andalliedindustrieswillinvariablybedesignedandfabricatedaccordingtotheBritish StandardPD5500ortheEuropeanStandardEN13445;oranequivalentcodesuchas theAmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineerscodeSectionVIII(theASMEcode). Wherenationalcodesarenotavailable,theBritish,EuropeanorAmericancodeswouldbeused. Page:Sec22

3.SELECTIONOFMATERIAL Thechoiceofmaterialismadeconsideringthevariousfactorslike: 1)Environmentalunderwhichitisintendedtogiveservice,Processrequirements 2)Themechanicalstrengthdesired 3)Theexpectedlifeoftheequipment 4)Workabilityandweldabilityofthemetalselected Themechanicalstrengthandprocessrequirementsplaysthegreaterpartwhile selectingoptimumdesigncriteria Materialstressvalueisgivenhereunderforthemajorityofmaterialavailableandinuseforthe selectionandFabricationinIndia:
Material Properties: { ENTER TEMPERATURE } TO Select Material Properties 200 392.0 Material
SA-36 SA-106 B SA-234 WPB SA-105 SA-516 70 SA-414 G SA-213 TP316L SA-240 316L SA-312 TP316L SA-403 316L SA-479 316L SA-213 TP316 SA-240 316 SA-312 TP316 SA-403 316 SA-479 316 SA-213 TP304L SA-240 304L SA-312 TP304L SA-403 304L SA-479 304L SA-213 TP304 SA-240 304 SA-312 TP304 SA-403 304 SA-479 304 Plate Seamless Pipe Fittings Forging Plate Sheet Sms Tube Plate Sms. and Wld. Pipe Sms and Weld Fittings Bar Sms Tube Plate Sms. and Wld. Pipe Sms and Weld Fittings Bar Sms Tube Plate Sms. and Wld. Pipe Sms and Weld Fittings Bar Sms Tube Plate Sms. and Wld. Pipe Sms and Weld Fittings Bar

Page

Temp [C] - maximum design temperature Temp [F] - maximum design temperature Ambient Strength
16,600 17,100 17,100 20,000 20,000 21,400 16,700 16,700 16,700 16,700 16,700 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 16,700 16,700 16,700 16,700 16,700 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 6,000 6,000 10,900 10,900 10,300 6,000

Strength (Psi)
16,600 17,100 17,100 20,000 20,000 21,400 15,780 15,780 15,780 15,780 15,780 19,356 19,356 19,356 19,356 19,356 15,872 15,872 15,872 15,872 15,872 13,896 13,896 18,348 18,348 18,348 3,676 3,676 4,272 4,272 4,272 3,676

Max F
900 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 900 850 850 850 850 850 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 400 400 400 400 400 400

SB-209 6061-T6 plate 0.051-0.249", wld SB-209 6061-T651 plate 0.25-5", wld SB-209 6061-T6 plate 0.051-0.249" SB-209 6061-T651 plate 0.25-4.0" SB-209 6061-T651 plate 4.0-5.0" SB-211 A96061-T6 bar 0.125-0.249", wld

Strength Strength Material (Kg/cm) (N/mm) 119.0 1167.1 122.6 1202.2 122.6 1202.2 Carbon Steels 143.4 1406.1 143.4 1406.1 153.5 1504.6 113.2 1109.4 113.2 1109.4 Stainless 113.2 1109.4 Steel 316L 113.2 1109.4 113.2 1109.4 138.8 1360.9 138.8 1360.9 Stainless 138.8 1360.9 Steel 316 138.8 1360.9 138.8 1360.9 113.8 1115.9 113.8 1115.9 Stainless 113.8 1115.9 Steel 304L 113.8 1115.9 113.8 1115.9 99.7 977.0 99.7 977.0 Stainless 131.6 1290.0 Steel 304 131.6 1290.0 131.6 1290.0 26.4 258.4 26.4 258.4 30.6 300.4 Aluminium 30.6 300.4 30.6 300.4 26.4 258.4 Page : SEC.3-1

CALCULATE DESIGN PRESSURE Fluid Properties: P [psi] - pressure at top of vessel 200.0 H [ft] - fluid height 100.00 1.000 Pdesign [psi] = SG - specific gravity P+0.433*SG*H ~~ design pressure including static head

200+0.433*1*100=

Pdesign is to be used in the design of subsequent components (shell, head, nozzle, etc) This sheet is for educational use only - use at your own risk.

243.3 [psi]

Fluid Specific Gravity (g/cm^3) Water, 1.000 Ethanol, 0.789 Alcohol, 0.789-0.855 Ammonia, .662 Beer, 1.01 Bromine, 2.900 Butane, 0.594 Crude Oil, 0.790-0.843 Gasoline, 0.680-0.740 Glucose, 1.350-1.440 Kerosene, 0.780-0.820 Milk, 1.020-1.050 Sulphuric Acid, 1.814

Page : SEC.3-2

4. Design Pressure Vessels ( Brief):


Basedontheselectioncriteriaandchecklistgivenearlier: 1)SelectMetricorBritishsystemyouwanttofollowforthedesign&useunitsuniformlyoverdesign 2)SelectDesignTemperature:Itisaprocessrequirements 3)SelectDesignPressure A.Designpressureis10%or0.69to1.7bar(10to25psi)abovethemaximumoperating pressure,whicheverisgreater.Themaximumoperatingpressureistakenas1.7bar(25psi) abovethenormaloperationpressure. B.Forvacuumoperations,designpressuresare1bar(g)(15psig)tofullvacuum C.Minimumthicknessesformaintainingvessel/tankstructureistobeselectedaspercode P-design [psi] = P+0.433*SG*H ~~ design pressure including static head D.ASMECode: WhereP=Operatingpressure,SG=Sp.Gr.&H=LiquidHeightinsidevessel E.ForsafeDesignPracticeuse1.1timesoperatingpressure(min) 4)SelectCorrosionAllowance Thecorrosionallowanceistheadditionalthicknessofmetaladdedtoallowformaterial lostbycorrosionanderosion,orscaling.Theallowancetobeusedshouldbeagreedbetweenthe customerandmanufacturer. Corrosionisacomplexphenomenon,anditisnotpossibletogivespecificrulesforthe estimationofthecorrosionallowancerequiredforallcircumstances. Theallowanceshouldbebasedonexperiencewiththeserviceconditionstothoseforthe proposeddesign. Guidelinesforcorrosionallowancesareasfollows: 1)Forcarbonandlowalloysteels,whereseverecorrosionisnotexpected, aminimumallowanceof2.0mmshouldbeused 2)wheremoresevereconditionsareanticipated thisshouldbeincreasedto4.0mm. 3)Mostdesigncodesandstandardsspecifyaminimumallowanceof1.0mm. 4)Selectbasedontheservicelifepredictedbyprocessengineer 5)SelectMaterialProperties:TobeselectedbasedonDesignTemp.&Press 6)SelectDesigncode Thenationalcodesandstandardsdividevesselconstructionintodifferentcategories, dependingontheamountofnondestructivetestingrequired.Thehighercategoriesrequire 100percentradiographyofthewelds,andallowtheuseofhighestvaluesfortheweldjoint factors.Thelowerqualitycategoriesrequirelessradiography,butallowonlylower jointefficiencyfactors,andplacerestrictionsontheplatethicknessandtypeofmaterials thatcanbeused.Thehighestcategorywillinvariablybespecifiedforprocessplant pressurevessels. Thestandardspecifiesthreeconstructioncategories: Category1:thehighestclass,requires100percentnondestructivetesting(NDT)of thewelds;andallowstheuseofallmaterialscoveredbythestandard,withno restrictionontheplatethickness. Category2:requireslessnondestructivetestingbutplacessomelimitationsonthematerials

whichcanbeusedandthemaximumplatethickness. SEC.4Page.1 Category3:thelowestclass,requiresonlyvisualinspectionofthewelds,butisrestrictedtocarbon andcarbonmanganesesteels,andausteniticstainlesssteel;andlimitsareplacedon theplatethicknessandthenominaldesignstress.Forcarbonandcarbonmanganese steelstheplatethicknessisrestrictedtolessthan13mmandthedesignstressisabout halfthatallowedforcategories1and2.Forstainlesssteelthethicknessisrestrictedto lessthan25mmandtheallowabledesignstressisaround80percentof thatfortheothercategories. 7)SelectTestpressure Testpressure= Sf*{Pd*(Fa/Fn)xt/(tc)} Where Pd=designpressure,N/mm2, fa=designstressatthetesttemperature,N/mm2, fn=designstressatthedesigntemperature,N/mm2, c=corrosionallowance,mm, t=actualplatethickness,mm. Sf=Safetyfactor a)ASMESecVIIIDiV1: 1.5 a)ASMESecVIIIDiV2: 1.25 2)BS1515 1.3 3)IS2825 1.3 4)BS1500,TestPressureis1.5timesworkingpressure 8)SelectvesseltobeVerticalorHorizontalandrationofDiametertoheight Itisaprocessandlayoutrequirements 9) )Welded ld dj joint i efficiency ffi i Thevalueofthejointfactorusedindesignwilldependonthe typeofjointandamountofradiographyrequiredbythedesigncode. TypicalvaluesareshowninTable: MaximumAllowableJointEfficiency Degreeofradiography TypeofJoint 100Percent spot none Doubleweldedbuttorequivalent 1 0.85 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.65 Singleweldbuttjointwithbondingstrips Takingthefactoras1.0impliesthatthejointisequallyasstrongasthevirginplate; Itisachievedbyradiographingthecompleteweldlength,andcuttingout/remakinganydefects. Theuseoflowerjointfactorsindesign,thoughsavingcostsonradiography, Itwillresultinathicker,heavier,vessel,andthedesignermustbalanceanycostsavingson inspectionandfabricationagainsttheincreasedcostofmaterials. 10)SelectApplicableDesignLoads: Designloads AVesselmustbedesignedtoresistgrossplasticdeformationandcollapseunderall theconditionsofloading.Theloadstowhichaprocessvesselwillbesubjectinservice arelistedbelow.Theycanbeclassifiedasmajorloads,thatmustalwaysbeconsideredin vesseldesign,andsubsidiaryloads.Formalstressanalysistodeterminetheeffectofthe subsidiaryloadsisonlyrequiredinthecodesandstandardswhereitisnotpossibleto

demonstratetheadequacyoftheproposeddesignbyothermeans;suchasbycomparison withtheknownbehaviourofexistingvessels. SEC.4Page.2 Majorloads 1.Maximumweightofthevesselandcontents,underoperatingconditions. 2.Maximumweightofthevesselandcontentsunderthehydraulictestconditions. 3.DynamicWindloads(ForTallVessels): Forasmoothcylindricalcolumnorstackthefollowingsemiempiricalequationcanbe usedtoestimatethewindpressure: Pw=0.05*u wherePw=windpressure,N/m2, u=windspeed,km/h. Note: Awindspeedof160km/h(100mph)canbeusedforpreliminarydesignstudies; equivalenttoawindpressureof1280N/m2(25lb/ft2). 4.Earthquake(seismic)loads. Themovementoftheearthssurfaceduringanearthquakeproduceshorizontalshear forcesontallselfsupportedvessels,themagnitudeofwhichincreasesfromthebase upward.Thetotalshearforceonthevesselwillbegivenby: Fs=a*(W/g) where"a"istheaccelerationofthevesselduetotheearthquake, g=theaccelerationduetogravity, W=totalweightofthevessel. Theterm(a/g)iscalledtheseismicconstantCe,andisafunctionofthenaturalperiodof vibrationofthevesselandtheseverityoftheearthquake.Valuesoftheseismicconstant h been have b d determined i dempirically i i ll f fromstudies di of fthe h d damagecaused db byearthquakes, h k &areavailableforthosegeographicallocationswhicharesubjecttoearthquakeactivity. 5.Subsidiaryloads 1.Localstressescausedbysupports,internalstructuresandconnectingpipes. 2.Shockloadscausedbywaterhammer,orbysurgingofthevesselcontents. 3.Bendingmomentscausedbyeccentricityofthecentreoftheworkingpressure relativetotheneutralaxisofthevessel. 4.Stressesduetotemperaturedifferencesanddifferencesinthecoefficientexpansion ofmaterials. 5.Loadscausedbyfluctuationsintemperatureandpressure. Avesselwillnotbesubjecttoalltheseloadssimultaneously.Thedesignermust determinewhatcombinationofpossibleloadsgivestheworstsituation,anddesignfor thatloadingcondition. 11)THEDESIGNOFVESSELSUNDERINTERNALPRESSURE A DesignCylindricalShellunderinternalPressure TheCylindricalshellthicknessbasedonpressureandradiusisgivenby:

Thickness =

(Pressure) x (Outer Radius) + Corrosion Allowance (Allowable Stress) x (Weld Efficiency ) - 0.6 (Pressure)

Minimumpracticalwallthickness Therewillbeaminimumwallthicknessrequiredtoensurethatanyvesselissufficiently

rigidtowithstanditsownweight,andanyincidentalloads.Asageneralguidethewall thicknessofanyvesselshouldnotbelessthanthevaluesgivenbelow;thevaluesinclude acorrosionallowanceof2mm: Vesseldiameter(m) <1.07 1.07to2 2to2.5 2.5to3.0 3.0to3.5 Minimumthickness mm inch 6.4 0.25 8 0.32 9 0.38 10 0.4 12 0.47

SEC4_Page.3

ComparisonofDesignFormulaforthedifferentcodesapplicableinIndia Let Tort= Shellthickness P = DesignPressure f= DesignStress Eorjor= WeldjointEfficiency,NormallyoneforDishheads doorDo= Outerdiameterofshell diorDi= Internaldiameterofshell RorRi= Internalradiusofshell C= CorrosionAllowance L= insidesphericalorcrownradiusofDish. ThicknessofCylindricalshellunderInternalpressureisgivenby ASMESECVIIIDiv.1 BS5500 Circumferential Longitudinal i f i lJoint i i di lJoint i t=P*Ri/(fj0.6P) t=P*Ri/(fj+0.4P) P*Di/(2fP)

IS2825 t=P*di/(2fjP)

ADMerkblatter t=PDo/(2kjP)

Applicablewhen Applicablewhen Applicable Notapplicableunless t=R/2&P<0.385S*j t=R/2&P<1.25S*j whenD0/Di> D0/Diration>1.5 B DesignofHead&ClosureunderinternalPressure Theendsofacylindricalvesselareclosedbyheadsofvariousshapes.Theprincipal typesusedare: 1.Flatplatesandformedflatheads

Sizes14to300inchesindiameter.From12gaugeto11/4inchesthick. NonASMEI.D.orO.D. ValuesforthedesignconstantCpandthenominalplatediameteraregiveninthe designcodesandstandardsforvariousarrangementsofflatendclosures. Theminimumthicknessrequiredisgivenby:

t=D*Cp*(Pi/f)^0.5+Corr whereCpsadesignconstant,dependentontheedgeconstraint, SEC4_Page.4 2.Hemisphericalheads

HemisphericalHeads.Whenthethicknessofahemispherical headdoesnotexceed0.356L,orPdoesnot exceed0.665SE,thefollowingformulasshallapply:


Treq [in] = (P*L)/(2*S*E-0.2*P)+Corr ~~required minimum thickness

or P=2SEt/L+0.2t

L[in]= (Do-2*t)/2 ~~ inside radius with


Volume= 2*pi()*(Do/2tf)^3/3

corrosion allowance removed

inF

HEMISHPERICAL DISH ALLOWABLE PRESSURE FOR HEMISHPERICAL-DISH P = 2SE(T-C)/(R+0.2(T-C))

3.Ellipsoidalheads

Withts/L0.002 Sizes65/8to192inchesindiameter.From3/16to2inchesthick TolerancescomplywithASMEEG32(d).I.D.orO.D *Volume(USgal)V=.000586D3 (D=DishIDininches)


Treq [in] = (P*D*K)/(2*S*E-0.2*P)+Corr ~~ required minimum thickness Pmax [psi] = 2*S*E*(T-C)/(K*D+0.2*(T-C)) ~~ maximum allowed design pressure

Anacceptableapproximationofa2:1ellipsoidalheadis onewithaknuckleradiusof0.17Dandasphericalradiusof0.90D. Do/2ho 3 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 K= 1.36 1.27 1.18 1.08 0.99 Do/2ho 1.4 1.2 1 K= 0.65 0.57 0.5

2 0.9

1.8 0.8

1.6 0.73

ELLIPSOIDAL DISH/HEAD

ALLOWABLE PRESSURE FOR ELLIPSOIDAL-DISH

P=2SE(T-C)/(D+0.2(T-C))

SEC4Page.5 4.Torisphericalheads

Standardandintermediatesizes14to250inches.From3/16to13/8inchesthick. TolerancescomplywithASMErequirements.ASMEUG32(e)I.D.orO.D. VolumeVin(M)=0.079926xD^3


Treq [in] =

(D=IDinMts)

(P*L*M)/(2*S*E-0.2*P)+Corr ~~ required minimum thickness

Pmax [psi] = (2*S*E*(T-C)/(L*M+0.2*(T-C)) ~~ maximum allowed design pressure (Do-2*t)/2 ~~ inside radius with corrosion allowance removed

M=0.25*(3+(L/IKR)^0.5) IKR=KnuckleRadius,generally6%D
Alternatively, P = SE(T-C)/(0.885D+0.1(T-C))

TORI SPHERICAL DISH ALLLOWABLE PRESSURE FOR TORIDISH P = SE(T-C)/(0.885D+0.1(T-C))

5.ConicalHeads

From24to240inchesindiameter.From3/16to11/8inchesthick.. TolerancescomplywithASMErequirements.ASMEUG32(h).I.D.orO.D ASMEcodeRequirements: Therequiredthicknessofconicalheadsorconical shellsectionsthathaveahalfapexanglenotgreater than30degshallbedeterminedby t=PD/2cos(SE0.6P)

or P=2SEtcos/D+1.2cos t=P*Dc/(2fj*P)x1/cos whereDcisthediameteroftheconeatthepoint, =halftheconeapexangle. Choiceofclosure 1)Flatplatesareusedascoversformanways,andasthechannelcoversofheatexchangers Flatheadsarethecheapesttypeofformedheadtomanufacture,buttheiruseislimitedto lowpressureandsmalldiametervessels. 2)StandardTorisphericalheads(dishedends)arethemostcommonlyusedendclosurefor vesselsuptooperatingpressuresof15bar.Theycanbeusedforhigherpressures,but above10bartheircostshouldbecomparedwiththatofanequivalentellipsoidalhead. 3)EllipsoidalVesselheadareusedextensivelyAbove15barpressure. Ellipsoidalheadwillusuallyprovetobethemosteconomicalclosuretouse. 4)Ahemisphericalheadisthestrongestshape;capableofresistingabouttwicethe pressureofaTorisphericalheadofthesamethickness.Thecostofformingahemispherical headwill,however,behigherthanthatforashallowTorisphericalhead.Hemispherical headsareusedforhighpressures. 5)ConicalHeadsareseldomusedforthedesignofpressurevessel 12)THEDESIGNOFVESSEL&DISHUNDEREXTERNALPRESSURE Therequiredminimumthicknessofacylindricalshellortubeunderexternal pressure,shallbedeterminedbythefollowingprocedure: (1)CylindershavingDo/tvalues10: Step1.Assumeavalueforthickness"t"anddeterminetheratiosL/DoandDo/t TakeL= Lengthofthecylindricalportion+1/3rddishheightonbothside Step2.UseMaterialchartfortheexternalpressureandfindoutValueofFactor"A" usingvalueofL/Do (Note:IfL/Dogreaterthan50,enterthechartatavalueoflineL/Do="50" &ForvaluesofL/Dolessthan0.05,enterthechartatavalueoflineL/Do="0.05" Step3.Usingvalueof"A"andDo/tfindthenewvalueofFactor"B" Step4a.UsingthisvalueofFactorB,calculatethevalueofthemaximumallowableexternal workingpressurePausingthefollowingformula: Pa=(4*B)/3*(Do/t)

SEC4Page.6

Step4b.ForvaluesofAfallingtotheleftoftheapplicablematerial/temperatureline, thevalueofPacanbecalculatedusingthefollowingformula:

AllowableExternalpressurePa=(2*A*j)/(3*(Do/t) Step5.ComparethecalculatedvalueofPaobtainedinSteps4aor4bwithP. IfPaissmallerthanP,selectalargervaluefortandrepeatthedesignprocedureuntil avalueofPaisobtainedthatisequaltoorgreaterthanP SEC4Page.7 13) CalculationofreinforcementrequiredfortheOpenings Theequalareamethodisthesimplestmethodusedforcalculatingtheamountof reinforcementrequired,andisallowedinmostdesigncodesandstandards.Theprinciple usedistoprovidereinforcementlocaltotheopening,equalincrosssectionalareatothe arearemovedinformingtheopening,Figure13.13.Iftheactualthicknessofthevessel

dr

dh EqualAreaMethodofcompensated A1=AreaRemoved A2=Areatobecompensated A2shouldbe=or>thanA1 Select: dr=1.5to2timesdh 14) ) Note: 1)ForotherValueofL/Dorefercode 2)Usestiffeningringifthecalculatedthicknessofthedishis>t(forinternalPress.)+2 3)Thethicknessforthedish endarecalculatedinthesimilarmannerusing abovemethodandgraphspublishedbycode SEC4Page.8

5.FABRICATION Usefollowingspecificationsandguidelinesgivenincodeforthefabricationofvessel: 1)Welderqualifications&weldingprocedurebyProductionTestcoupons: Thewelderisqualifiedbythecompetentauthority byweldingontestpiecesusing codespecifiedweldingelectrodes.Thecodedefinestypeofelectrode,positionused duringtheweldingwithinwelldefinedspecifiedlimits.Thewelderqualifiedforthe buttweldingjointisqualifiedfortheplateweldingbutpipeweldingrequires separateapprovalincertaincodes. TESTCOUPANS: Theproductionoftestcouponsarerequirediftheoperatingtemperature isbelow20 F ( - 30 C)andonlyimpacttestingisrequiredtobecaredout SomecodelikeBS1500requireproductioncouponsforlongseamwithradiography 2)CuttingPlatesandOtherStock (a)Plates,edgesofheads,andotherpartsmaybecuttoshapeandsizebymechanicalmeans suchasmachining,shearing,grinding,orbyoxygenorarccutting.Afteroxygenorarccutting, allslaganddetrimentaldiscolorationof materialwhichhasbeenmoltenshallberemovedby mechanicalmeanspriortofurtherfabricationoruse. (b)Endsofnozzlesormanholeneckswhicharetoremainunweldedinthecompletedvessel maybecutbyshearingprovidedsufficientadditionalmaterialisremovedbyanyother methodthatproducesasmoothfinish. (c)Exposedinsideedgesshallbechamferedorrounded. 3)MaterialIdentification ThepressurevesselManufacturershall maintaintraceabilityofthematerialtotheoriginal identificationmarkingsbyoneormoreofthefollowingmethods: Accuratetransferoftheoriginalidentificationmarkingstoalocationwherethemarkings willbevisibleonthecompletedvessel;identificationbyacodedmarkingtraceableto theoriginalrequiredmarking;orrecordingtherequiredmarkingsusingmethodssuchas materialtabulationsorasbuiltsketcheswhichassureidentificationofeachpieceofmaterial duringfabricationandsubsequentidentificationinthecompletedvessel SuchtransfersofmarkingsshallbemadepriortocuttingexceptthattheManufacturermay transfermarkingsimmediatelyaftercuttingprovidedthecontrolofthesetransfersis describedinhiswrittenQualityControlSystem 4)RepairofDefectsinMaterials Defectsinmaterialmayberepairedprovided acceptancebytheInspectorisfirstobtained forthemethodandextentofrepairs.Defectivematerialthatcannotbesatisfactorily repairedshallberejected. 5)FormingShellSectionsandHeads Theinnersurfaceoftheformedheadshallnotdeviatefromthespecifiedshapebymore than1.25%ofID.Suchdeviationshouldnotbeabruptandshallbeoutsideoftheshape 6)PermissibleOutofRoundnessofCylindrical,Conical,andSphericalshell 7)ToleranceforFormedHeads: Thelimitforthetolerancesarewelldefinedfor a)Circumferencebasedonouterdiameterofvessel b)Ovalityofvesselunderinternalpressure c)Ovalityofthevesselunderexternalpressure d)Alignmentofthevessel SEC.5Page1 8)LugsandFittingAttachments

9)HolesforScrewStays 10)CharpyImpactTests

Followcode

11)HeatTreatment:Therequirementofheattreatmentvariesfromcodetocode : Thegeneralcriteriaissetby a)Typeofmaterialusedforthefabrication b)PlateMaterialthickness(say>38mmforCarbonsteel) c)Elongationofmaterialfibremorethanthespecifiedlimit(5to50%) d)Temperatureofmaterialexceedspecifiedlimitduringthefabrication(say800 F) e)Iffoundbrittlenessorageingduringthefabrication f)whenvesselistobeusedfortheLethalsubstances INSPECTION 1)General 2)ThedefinitionofInspector 3)AccessforInspector 4)InspectionofMaterials 5)MarkingonMaterials 6)ExaminationofSurfacesDuringFabrication 7)DimensionalCheckofComponentParts 8)InspectionDuringFabrication SEC.5Page2

6.TEST&TRIALRUN Thetestistobedoneunderpresenceandguidanceofacompetentpersonapproved asa"Inspector"orbyaprofessionalorganisationapprovedbythefactoryinspector PRESSURETESTS Thepressurevesselcodesandstandardsrequirethatallpressurevesselsbesubjectedtoapressure testtoprovetheintegrityofthefinishedvessel. 1)AStandardhydraulictest Hydraulictestisverycommonandgenerallycarriedoutasafirstchoice.Hydraulictests aresaferbecauseonlyasmallamountofenergyisstoredinthecompressedliquid. Thevesselistestedatapressureabovethe designpressure,typically25to30percenthigher. Thetestpressureisadjustedtoallowforthedifferenceinstrengthofthevesselmaterial atthetesttemperaturecomparedwiththedesigntemperature,andforanyCorr.Allowance. Formulaefordetermininghydraulictestpressurearegiveninthecodesand standards;suchasthatgivenbelow: Testpressure= 1.3*{Pd*(Fa/Fn)xt/(tc)}

Where Pd=designpressure,N/mm2, fa=nominaldesignstrength(designstress) atthetesttemperature,N/mm2, fn=nominaldesignstrength(designstress) atthedesigntemperature,N/mm2, c=corrosionallowance,mm, t=actualplatethickness,mm. 2)HalogenLeakInspectionofpressurisedgassystem AfterdoingHydraulictestingofthevessel,theHalogenFreongasisintroduced inthevessel.Thevesselispressurisedfurtherbyintroductionofinertgasordryair toapproximately3Kg/cm2pressureoradesignpressurewhicheverisless. Thevesselshouldremainunderpressureforamaximumof0neandhalfhour Thepresenceofleakmaybedetectedwitheitheradiodeelectricaldetectororhalidetorch 3)PneumaticTest Apneumatictestcanbesubstitutedwheretheuseofa liquidfortestingisnotpractical whenwaterisnotpermitteddueto itsimmediateuseandcannotbereadilydried Thepneumatictestpressureshallnotbegreaterthanthedesignpressurebutnormally lessthantheHydraulicpressure Method: Thepressureinthevessel shallbegraduallyincreased tonotmorethanonehalf ofthetestpressure.Thereafter,thetestpressureshallbe increasedinsteps ofapproximatelyonetenthofthetestpressure untiltherequiredtestpressure hasbeenreached.Thenpressureshallbereducetoavalueequaltotestpressure dividedby1.1andheldforthesufficienttimetopermitinspectionofthevessel Themetaltemperatureduringpneumatictestshallbemaintainedatleast30F(17C) abovetheminimumdesignmetaltemperaturetominimizetheriskofbrittle fracture. SEC.6Page.1 4)AcousticEmissionTesting

Vesselsthataresubjectedtoveryhighpressuresay>50barpressure,aresubjected tothistest Duringthehaudraulictestingofthevessel,apizoelectricsensorsareinstalledonthe vesselmetalplatbeforetakinganypressureinsidethevessel. Thestressesdevelopedduringthepressuretest,causesdiscontinuitiestoemithigh frequencysoundthatcanbepickedupbythesensor. Soundwavesreceivedbythesensorarefedasaelectricsignalintotheanalysersystem. Thesystemoftestingiscapableofindicatingoverpressureandimmediatecatastrophicfailure. TheresultfromthetestcanbedisplayedonaCRTscreenandprintreport 5)MaximumAllowableWorkingPressure Themaximumallowableinternalorexternalworkingpressureforavesselisthemaximum pressurepermissibleatthetopofthevesselinitsnormaloperatingpositionatthe designatedtemperature.ItincludesStaticpressureduetoliquidinsidethevessel PleasereferSection4.DesignforthecalculationforP.Maxallowablepressureaspercode 6)NondestructiveTesting. a)MagneticParticleexamination b)Liquidordyepenetrantexamination C)Radiographic

PERSONNELSHOULDBECOMPETANT (a) He/shehasvision,withcorrectionifnecessary,toenablehim/hertoreada Jaeger g Type yp No.2StandardChart(AvailablewithOphthalmologist)at p g ) adistanceof notlessthan12in.,andiscapableofdistinguishinganddifferentiatingcontrast betweencoloursused.Theserequirementsshallbecheckedannually. (b) He/sheiscompetentinthetechniquesofthemagneticparticleexamination methodforwhichhe/sheiscertified,includingmakingtheexaminationand interpretingandevaluatingtheresults,exceptthatwheretheexaminationmethod
consistofmorethanoneoperation,he/shemaybecertifiedasbeingqualifiedonlyforoneor

moreoftheseoperations. ACCEPTANCESTANDARDSFORMAGNETICTEST Allsurfacestobeexaminedshallbefreeof: (a) relevantlinearindications; (b) relevantroundedindicationsgreaterthan316in. (5mm); (c) fourormorerelevantroundedindicationsinalineseparatedby116in.(1.5mm) orless,edgetoedge.
ACCEPTANCESTANDARDSFORLIQUIDPENETRANTTEST Allsurfacestobeexaminedshallbefreeof: (a)relevantlinearindications; (b)relevantroundedindicationsgreaterthan3 16in. (5mm); (c)fourormorerelevantroundedindicationsinaline separatedby116in.(1.5mm)orless(edgetoedge).

SEC.6Page.2

7.OVERPRESSUREPROTECTION SafetybyPressureReliefDevices A)General Allpressurevessels,irrespectiveofsizeorpressure,shallbeprovidedwithoverpressure protectioninaccordancewiththerequirementsasperthecodeandsystemdesign Inadditionfollowingshallapply: (1)Itistheusersresponsibilitytoidentifyallpotentialoverpressure andthemethodofoverpressureprotectionusedtomitigateoverpressure (2)Itistheresponsibilityoftheuser toensurethattherequiredoverpressureprotection systemisproperlyinstalledpriortoinitialoperation. (3)Itistheresponsibilityoftheuser orhis/herdesignatedagent tosizeandselect thepressurereliefdevice(s)basedonitsintendedservice. TheIntendedserviceconsiderationsshallincludethefollowing: (a)normaloperatingandupsetconditions (b)fluids (c)fluidphases (4)Theoverpressureprotectionsystem neednotbesuppliedbythevesselManufacturer (B)SETPRESSURELIMIT (a)Whenapressurereliefdeviceisprovided,itshall preventthepressurefromrisingmorethan10%or3psi(20kPa), (whicheverisgreater) greater),abovethemaximumallowableworkingpressure b)Whenmultiplepressurereliefdevices areprovidedtheyshallpreventthepressurefrom risingmorethan16% or4psi(whichever)isgreateraboveMaxAllowablePress (c)Whenapressurevesselcanbeexposedtofire orotherunexpectedsourcesofexternal heat,thepressurereliefdeviceshallbecapableofpreventingthe pressurerisemorethan 21%aboveMaxAllowablepressure (C)LOCATION Pressurereliefdevicesshallbeconstructed,located,andinstalledsothattheyare readily accessiblefortesting,inspection,replacement,andrepairandsothattheydonot becomeinoperative D)TypeofPressureReliefValves AllSafetyreliefvalvesshallbeofthedirectspringloadedtype. a)Pressurereliefvalve Itisapressurereliefdevicewhichisdesigned torecloseandprevent thefurtherflowoffluidafternormalconditionshavebeenrestored b)Nonreclosingpressurereliefdevice Itisapressurereliefdevicedesignedto remainopenafteroperation.(R.D.) c)Safetyvalve Itisapressurereliefvalveactuatedbyinletstaticpressureandcharacterized byrapidopeningorpopaction(ExampleBoiler) SEC.7Page.1

d)Reliefvalve Itisapressurereliefvalveactuatedbyinletstaticpressurewhichopens inproportiontotheincrease inpressure overtheopeningpressure. e)Pilotoperatedpressurereliefvalve Itisapressurereliefvalveinwhichthemajorrelievingdevicethat combinedwithandcontrolledbyaselfactuatedauxiliarypressreliefvalve D.SafetyValveTolerance: Thesetpressuretolerances,plusorminus,ofpressurereliefvalvesshallnotexceed 2psi(15kPa)forpressureslessthan70psi(500kPa)and 3%forpressuresabove70psi (500kPa) E.NoreclosingPressureReliefDevices

(a)RuptureDiskDevices
Arupturedisk isthepressure sensitiveactivation deviceand componentthatbreaks/openupatoverpressure Rupturedisksmaybedesignedinseveralconfigurationssuchas plainflat, prebulged,orreversebuckling. Arupturediskholderisthestructurethatenclosesandclampsthe rupturediskinposition.(FlangeEnd,Screwetc.)

SHAP:

HOLDER

TOLERANCE: Theburstpressuretoleranceatthespecifieddisktemperatureshall notexceed2psi (15kPa)formarkedburstpressurelessthan40Psi (300kPa)and5%formarkedburstpressure above40psi (300kPa) INSTALLATION/Location: Whentherupturediskdevicedischargesdirectlytotheatmospherethan (a)Itisinstalledwithineightpipediameters fromthevesselnozzleentry (b)Lengthofdischargepipe notgreaterthan fivepipediametersfromthe rupturediskdevice;and (c)thenominaldiametersoftheinletanddischargepipingareequaltoorgreater thanthestampedvalueonthedevice d)Thecalculatedrelievingcapacityofapressurereliefsystemshallnot exceeda valuebasedontheapplicabletheoreticalflowequation atcoefficientofdischargeKequalto0.62 (e)Arupturediskdevicemaybeusedasthes olepressurerelievingdevice onavessel. (f)Arupturediskdevicemaybe installedbetweenapressurereliefvalve&thevessel provided: *thecombinationofthepressurereliefvalveandtherupturediskdevicehasenough capacitytomeetthefollowingrequirement: *Themarkedcapacityofapressurereliefvalve(nozzletype)shallbe0.9timesrated relieving capacityofthevalvealone wheninstalledwitharupturediskbetween theinletofthevalveandthevessel SETPRESSURE/BurstPressure: Notmorethan105%oftheallowableworkingpressureinanycase b)PinDevices(Obsoleteandnotinusenowadays) (a)Apindevicemaybeusedasthesolepressurerelievingdeviceonavessel *Itcanbeinstalledbetweenthevesselandpressurereliefvalve Inamannersameasrupturediscandcapacitywithallitslimitation SEC.7Page.2

OverpressureProtectionbySystemDesign(UsingInstrumentation) Weallareawarethatthedesign,installationoftheoverprotectionsystemisasolely responsibilityofthepressurevesseluser,theycaneitherdesignthepressurevesselathigher workingcapacityoradoptpressurerelievingdevicebyproperselectionandinstallationof instrumentsoverpressureprotectionsystem.Itmabeincombinationofbothdevices Iwouldliketorecommenda HighPressure_TripSystemsforthepressurevesselprotection whenrunawayreactionoccurs. Theoxidation,Hydrogenation,polymerisationetcarefewexamples Itwillbedifficulttoinstallreliefvalvesthatarelargeinsizeandtobeopenquicklyenough toavoidoverpressuringtheequipment. THETRIPCANISOLATETHESUPPLYOFONEOFTHEREACTANTORHEATINGSYSTEM ANDOPENUPCOOLINGCYCLETOMINIMISEOVERHEATINGDUETOREACTIONFAILURE ItistobenotedherethatFireReliefventprotectionistobekeptasitiswhenreplacing theconventionalpressurerelievingsystem,bytripsystem, BASICCOMPONENTSOFATRIPSYSTEM Thebasicminimumrequirementsare: a)Design,Select&InstallAHigh(rising)pressuresensor&Pressureswitch onthe overheadGas/Vapour/Ventlinetooperateandactivatearelaycontactor b)Therelaycontactor shouldstopthepowersupplylineconnectedwiththeheating deviceeitherbyhotwaterpumporHotoilpump c)Selectandinstallasolenoidvalve associatedwithtripvalveinstalledonthe steam/Hotwater/HotoilsupplylineusetoheatPressureVesselorReactor SEC 7Page.3 SEC.7 Page 3