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Disciplina Limba Engleza

SUPORT DE CURS

Cursul de calificare Tehnician in hotelarie

FORMATOR

Oana Adriana Gorgon

2012

CU R!"# !$ %OTEL FAC!L!T!E# A"D #ER&!CE#$


1$ %o'el T(pes) %o'el Facili'ies and #er*ices$ 2$ Room T(pes) +edding T(pes and Room Ra'es$ ,$ Meals$ -$ %ome.or/0 &ocab1lar( and Transla'ions

!!$ %OTEL DE ARTME"T#$


1$ Rooms Di*ision2 +asic depar'men's in a 31ll ser*ice 4o'el0 Fron' O33ice0 Reser*a'ions Fron' Des/ Regis'ra'ion2C4ec/ing in %anding g1es' complains Upda'ing and c4ec/ing g1es' acco1n's C4ec/ing o1'

!!!$ LETTER OF COM LA!"T Goods #er*ices "ormal !&$ +A#!C 5"O6LEGGE &$ A++RE&!AT!O"

&!$ #!TUAT!O"AL E7ERC!#E# &!!$ GRAMMAR

&!!!$ +!+L!OGRA %8 I$ %OTEL FAC!L!T!E# A"D #ER&!CE#


1$%o'el T(pes) %o'el Facili'ies and #er*ices$ %o'el '(pes 2 there are many different types of hotel properties, from small places major international
chains and may vary according to number of stars from 5/7-star hotels to -star hotels!

Classi3ica'ion 1$airpor' 4o'el 2$all2s1i'es 4o'el ,$con3erence9congress 4o'el -$mo'el :$resor' ;$spa 4o'el a$l1<1r( b$1pscale c$mid2range d$b1dge'2econom

" hotel#s primary mission is to offer a comfortable room to sleep and usually to offer other services such asmeals and recreation! $ost hotels offer private sleeping rooms %ith bathrooms, front des& services, luggage services , '() and guest services! They may also offer commercial services to business travellers, including a business centre electronic devices and multi-line phones!

1$ Airpor' 4o'el* a hotel located near an airport, usually offering shuttle service to and from the
airport, as %ell as meeting rooms and early chec&out! They cater to the business traveler or leisure traveller %ith a long +lay-over+ in an airport en route to another destination! ,ecently many companies have begun using them to hold meetings, seminars and conferences especially %hen participants are flying in from different locations!

2$ All2#1i'es 4o'el* li&e small apartments, include a bedroom, and living room %ith limited &itchen
facilities! -ome "ll--uite hotels may include micro%aves, coffee ma&ers and a small refrigerator and bar!

The living rooms %ill include a pull-out sofa and des&! They cater to the traveller %hose stay is one %ee& or more!

,$ Con3erence 4o'el0 generally conference centres are upscale /first-c ass0 properties catering to
corporate clients1 meetings! 2sually, pricing is inclusive of food, beverage and conference services! The meeting rooms have been designated to accommodate the special needs of 3-53 attendees!

-$ Mo'el0 a building or group of buildings %here entrance to rooms is made directly from the outside of
the building! These properties are generally smaller and cater to people travelling by car /$otor 4otel $otel0! The front des& covers chec& in, chec& out, guest services and luggage assistance! They are lo%er in price than a hotel!

:$ Resor's* cater to vocation travellers, as %ell as to businesses holding conferences and meetings!
-ervices are all inclusive so that the guest does not have to leave the premises for any need! They %ill have food and beverage outlets, sports facilities, health club, entertainment, baby-sitting and par&ing! The specialities of these resorts may include seasonal recreation such as s&iing and golfing or catering to couples, honeymooners, singles or families!

;$ #pas0 these are resorts offering health, physical fitness, nutritional advice or just plain pampering!
There are tennis courts, s%imming pools, hi&ing trails, beauty salons and specially prepared meals!

%o'el 3acili'ies and ser*ices


res'a1ran') bar 9 mini2bar) room2ser*ice) .a/e21p ser*ice =earl( morning call> 4eal'4 cl1b 2 3i'ness cen'er 9 sa1na 9 ?ac1zzi) s.imming pool) sa3e bo< 3or *al1ables T&and *ideo) 'ele<) 3a<) 'elep4one =o1'side calls) long dis'ance calls>) c1rrenc( e<c4ange dr( cleaning) la1ndr( ser*ice) ironing car par/ing) 'ranspor') ren'2a2car medical assis'ance) bab(2si''ing

a$ L1<1r( %o'els0 'ive 5star hotels offer full service* a concierge, 26 hours room service, one or
more restaurants, a health club, a lounge/ bar, full business services such as multiple phone lines and data ports, a business centre %ith administrative support!

b$ Upscale %o'els* 'our and five star hotels %hich cater to the business traveller!They are sometimes
called superior or 'irst Class! )usiness amenities are standard and services include 26-hour room service,full-service business centre, multiple restaurants and health club!

c$Mid2Range %o'el0 Typically consisting t%o and three star hotels, they are sometimes referred to as
Tourist hotels!They may have a concierge or otur des& available to serve guest needs for dining, theatre, car rental, etc! 'ront des& %ill generally handle these services and business may be available!

d$ +1dge'9Econom( %o'el@s* one and t%o-star hotels7 their goal ist o offer a clean comfortable
place to sleep %ith limited service!

2$ Room T(pes9+edding T(pes9Room Ra'es$ Room T(pes


3amil() &! s1i'e> #ingle2room T.in2room Do1ble2room Triple2room Connec'ing9adAioining room Lo1nge9si''ing room9 parlor=Am$E> Room T(pes 0 #ingle0 a room designed for one person! -ome rooms %ill have only one single bed %hile

Rooms .i'4 speci3ic p1rposes


Recep'ion room +allroom Con3erence room E<4ibi'ion9Displa( room

#1i'e=A1nior) senior) presiden'ial s1i'e) ro(al) +anB1e' room

most %ill have t%o! T.in room0 a room designed for t%o people %ith t%o single or +t%in+ beds! Do1ble0 room %ith a double bed that can be used for either one or t%o people! Do1ble9do1ble0 a room %ith t%o double beds! #1i'e0 consists of t%o or more rooms, typically a living and sleeping room! "suite may have

more than one bedroom or e8tra rooms such as &itchenette or conference room! AdAoining room0 t%o or more bedrooms ne8t toone another but not connected by a commondoor!

9 Connec'ing0 t%o or more sleeping rooms %ith a common door bet%een them!

+edding T(pes0
#ingle Do1ble C1een 5ing M1rp4( ?apanese s'(le D a bed designed 3or one person D a bed designed 3or '.o people D an e<'ra large do1ble bed D larges' size do1ble bed D a bed '4a' 3olds in'o '4e .all .4en no' in 1se D bedding is s'ored o1' o3 sig4' d1ring da( 'ime and rolled o1' on '4e 3loor 3or sleeping

Ra'ing #(s'em
Throughout the %orld, tourism professionals are using various grading systems /rating system0 in order to assess hotels! The ratings are usually determined by the level and number of facilities, amenities, service provided and dependability of basic utilities such as telephone, %ater, electricity! -tandards may differ from system to system, therefore comparisons are rather difficult to ma&e! 4o%ever, the best-&no%n rating system is the one %hich rates hotels from one to five stars! " one-star rating %ould indicate a modest hotel %ith very basic facilities, %hile a five-star rating %ould indicate a lu8urious full-service hotel %ith e8cellent service and facilities! :iven the fact that these ratings are ;uite subjective, it is recommended %e use a rating system to compare hotels %ithin a country or region only!

,$ MEAL#
Englis4 brea/3as'0 a brea&fast including coo&ed food, offering for e8ample fried bacon, !

<

fried eggs, sausages, etc! Con'inen'al brea/3as'* a brea&fast consisting of tea or coffee and ba&ed products

/bread, buns, rolls, croissant, toast0 %ith butter and jam, honey and marmalade, etc! L1nc4 Dinner 9 #1pper

Food plans0 E1ropean plan* the rate for a room alone, %ith no meals included at all! +ed E +rea/3as' 9 con'inen'al plan* the rate includes the room and brea&fast! The brea&fast itself can be =nglish or continental! %al3 board 9 demi pension 9 modi3ied American plan * this includes the room, plus brea&fast and other one meal /lunch or dinner0! F1ll 4oard 9 en pension 9 American plan* rooms and all meals included!

4otel -ervices-International Codes ,>$"?I" CaBare =2,>@= ,oom only -2" =uropean meals0 Continental plan/ room and continental brea&fast0 and )ermuda plan )@ C>A= plan/no =@ )()C@

CaBare cu mic dejun )ed()rea&fast inclus/ simplu sau continental0 CaBare cu mic dejun ,oom

engleB sau american! =nglish/"merican Aemipensiune

/ room and half-

)rea&fsat board0 Aemi-@ension, 4alf $odified "merican $"@ )oard plan / room and halfboard0 'ull "merican plan/ room and fullboard0 "@

@ensiune completa

=n

pension,

)oard

TA#5#0
1$64ic4 are '4e main 4o'el '(pesF 2$ Tr1e or 3alse a$ room ser*ice is c4arged a' '4e same price as in '4e res'a1ran' b$ an $$a la car'eG men1 o33ers a single price 3or a '4ree2co1rse meal c$ all2 s1i'es 4o'els are small) 1pscale apar'men's 4o'els ca'ering 'o s'1den' 'ra*ellers d$ spas are smaller proper'ies ca'ering 'o people 'ra*elling b( car ,$ %o'els '4a' ca'er 'o corpora'e clien'sH mee'ings are called0 a$ airpor' 4o'els b$ resor's c$spas d$ con3erence 4o'els -$ Tr1e or 3alse Ra'ings are obAec'i*e and '4e( s4o1ld be 1sed 'o compare 4o'els '4ro1g4o1' '4e .orld$ :$ C4oose '4e correc' ans.er0 T4e E1ropean plan0 a$ incl1des in '4e ra'e '4e room and brea/3a0 b$ incl1des '4e rooms and all meals c$ incl1des no meals a' all ,ating system /guide0 "ll-suite hotel -tudio type-room $inimum stay =conomy / )udget / Cimited-service / -elf-catering hotel ,esort / :aming hotel Convention / Conference hotel 4otel de vacanta 4otel pentru intruniri -istem de clasificare 4otel format numai din apartamente :arsoniera ?umar de Bile minim impus pentru o sedere 4otel ieftin/de categorie inferioara

Euality control To cater "udit -ales $ar&et research / strategy @ublic relations =ngineering department 'inancial reporting / statement

Controlul calitatii " furniBa, a satisface cerinte Control financiar -erviciu comercial / vanBari Cercetare / -trategie de piata ,elapii publice -erviciul tehnic / intrepinere ,aportare/dare de seama financiara

;$Transla'e in'o Englis4 4otelul $assimo este unul dintre primele 5 hoteluri din oraFul nostru si este locul ideal pentru 3 vacanta in care sa uitati de toate grijile! Cele 53 de camere sunt spatioase si decorate cu gust, desi sunt mobilate simplu! Toate au baie proprie, aer conditionat, uscator, televiBor si mini-bar!,estaurantul ofera atat 3 bucatarie traditionala, cat si o varietate de specialitati frantuBesti si italienesti! 4otelul are piscina, sauna, sala de fitness si un teren de tenis!

!!$ %OTEL DE ARTME"T# 1$ Rooms Di*ision 2 +asic Depar'men's in a 31ll 4o'el ser*ice
"! Fron' O33ice a0 ,eservations/ 'ront Aes&/ ,egistration - Chec&ing in b0 4andling guest complaints c0 2pdating and chec&ing guest accounts d0 Chec&ing aut +$ G1es' ser*ices 9 Uni3ormed ser*ices C$ %o1se/eeping 9 #ani'a'ion D$ Engineering and main'enance E$ #ec1ri'( and sa3e'(

Rooms di*ision responsabili'ies0 D @romoting and selling the hotel services D @lanning the reservations and their records H $onitoring clients1 arrival and room status H :reeting the clients H "llocating rooms / &eys H ,egistrating guests H Communicating in / out hotel /phone, fa8, tele80 H Communicating %ith other departments H Aealing %ith guest complaints H Collecting and dispersing payments H Issuing the bill H $aintaining security and safety H Cleaning and maintaining the rooms A$ Fron' O33ice It is %ell-&no%n the fact that a hotel centres around its 'ront >ffice and that is %hy this department is often called the +heart+ of the hotel! "ll the departments in the hotel are connected to the front office, from engineering/maintenance to the accounting office and from food and beverage department to house&eeping! The impressions generated by the front office staff play a major role in establishing and promoting a positive guest e8perience! T4e d1'ies o3 '4e 3ron' des/ incl1de0 :uest registration /chec&-in07 room assignment and &ey dispensing7 providing the guest and the other departments %ith information7 handling guest complaints7u updating and chec&ing guest accounts7 collecting and dispersing payments7 chec&ing the guest out!

T4e Fron' O33ice Manager controls and supervises all front office operations %ith a vie% to ensuring guest satisfaction! T4e Fron' O33ice ta&es care of guest re;uirements from the moment guests arrive at the hotel until they leave! T4e recep'ion s'a3f must %or& ;uic&ly, efficiently and be able to deal %ell %ith difficult guests and problems such as overboo&ing, late arrivals and missing reservations! T4e Recep'ion is also responsible for providing numerous services to guests including handling messages, ans%ering ;uestions about hotel services and facilities, and providing financial transactions as needed to support the guest visit! The 'ront >ffice cler&s must be careful to give information about the hotel services and facilities and encourage the potential guest to boo& rooms at the hotel being at the same time careful to %atch for the dangers of overboo&ing! Fron' O33ice osi'ion Ti'les0 'ront >ffice $anager ,eceptionist ,eservation Cler& / Information Cler& Cashier

O#!T!O" T!TLE# A"D O#!T!O" DE#CR! T!O"2 ?O+ RECU!REME"T# Fron' O33ice Manager0 H ,esponsible for the direction and supervision of all 'ront >ffice staff, operations and services and %or&ing to ma8imiBe both guest satisfaction and hotel profits! H Informing all 'ront >ffice staff of program for day, %ee&, month in %riting or verbally! H Inspecting the hotel premises to ensure that rooms and furnishings meet hotel standards! H Identifying @!>!needs and dealing %ith staff problems e!g! over%or&, lateness, and personal problems! H 4andling all daily problems and dealing %ith serious guest complaints in order to ma8imiBe guest satisfaction! H ,ecruiting staff, e8plaining all policies, tas&s, procedures and standards and %riting references for staff!

H Iriting incident / accident reports! H @articipating in the selection and training staff process! H @roviding the :eneral $anager %ith current arrival and departure statistics and guest information and reporting about the 'ront >ffice situation! H @roviding current information about hotel facilities, services and special events to '!>! staff and ensuring that staff can provide this information to guest as re;uired! Recep'ionis' D ,esponsible for the efficient and courteous communication %ith guests for all arrival and departure procedures as %ell as providing guests %ith information on hotel services and facilities! H Ielcoming the guests and offering to help the guest, even offering to sho% rooms if necessary! H ,egisters and assigns rooms to arriving guests ensuring that registration cards are correctly completed giving re;uired information! H 4andles chec&-out of departing guests using hotel standard procedures! H 4andles guest re;uests and complaints promptly! H @roviding current information of tourist attractions, restaurants, hotel facilities, services,entertainment facilities and current events in the local area to guests /e!g! brea&fast time and place, laundry, sauna, etc0! H =nsuring accurate records are maintained and informing other departments of arrivals, room changes, chec&-outs and special arrangements for JI@1s or group guests! Reser*a'ion and !n3orma'ion Cler/ o 4andles all incoming and outgoing telephone calls and assists guests in arranging for telephone calls and messages either in house or outside the hotel property! o :iving hotel brochures / e8plaining types, position, cost of room! o "ns%ering letters / fa8es of in;uiry7 giving address and telephone numbers7 giving mail/messages o @roviding current information about hotel facilities, services and special events to prospective guests7 giving directions in / outside the hotel7 e8plaining facilities of area around hotel/ country7 giving tourist information /places of interest, prices, dates07 e8plaining the culture / religion!

o ,ecords all reservation boo&ings ensuring information is accurately recorded including name, address and contact number of guest, arrival and departure dates and times, r oom type and rate, and payment details! o ,ecords special re;uests for e8tra bed or any re;uest for additional service or amenity! o @rocesses changes and cancellations of reservations and ensures records are amended! o @romotes occupancy and average room rate by actively promoting the property and using upselling techni;ues! o ,esponds to all communications regarding reservations!

Cas4ier H ,esponsible for the supervision of all 'ront Aes& financial activities ensuring all transactions are accurately provided and recorded in an efficient manner! H ,esponsible for the maintenance of accurate and current guest ledger accounts and handles guests accounts during chec&-outs! H @reparing the bill, giving and e8plaining the bill! H @roviding e8change service for cash, traveller1s che;ues and foreign currency notes for guests and maintaining accurate records of all transactions! "ns%ering ;ueries about payment, by e8plaining e8change rates! H Ta&ing payment /cash, credit card, che;ue, Tcs0!

Recep'ion ser*ice0 reser*a'ions and regis'ra'ion


C4ec/ing2in 9 Room alloca'ion0 Checking in / check in time - a system of registration upon arrival at a hotel! Checking in is a process %hereby people register as guests of the hotel, %here room assignments are made, and %here &eys are assigned for guest accommodation* H the front des& staff should al%ays %elcome the guests %ith a friendly smile7 H they must be a%are of occupancy levels, special guests and hotel activities and events H the front des& staff should also be able to provide complete information about hotel facilities and services!

Tas/s0
1$ Gi*e al'erna'i*es 3or '4e 1nderlined .ords$ De*elop a dialog1e in .4ic4 '4e reser*a'ion cler/ 4as no room a*ailable and 4e m1s' o33er '4e clien' an al'erna'i*e$ ,eservation cler&* 4otel $assimo! :ood afternoon! Can I help youK $r! "ndrei* Les, I1d li&e to boo& a double room %ith bath for this %ee&end! ,eservation cler&* I see! Ie do have a room available from the afternoon of the th "ugust to the morning of the .th! The rate is M53 per night including continental brea&fast! $r! "ndrei* That %ill be fine! ,eservation cler&* Could I have your name and address, pleaseK $r! "ndrei* Les! It1s $r! "ndrei7 the address is <, Cotmeana -treet, )rasov! ,eservation cler&* "nd your telephone numberK $r! "ndrei* 3< -.26!562! ,eservation cler&* ,ight! Than& you! Ie loo& for%ard to your visit, $r! "ndrei! $r! "ndrei* Than& you very much! :ood-bye! ,eservation cler&* 4ave a nice day, sirN

#'eps in Tal/ing on '4e p4one


Ihen tal&ing on the phone, all details must be repeated bac& to caller in order to conirm accuracy! The recep'ionis' s4o1ld ob'ain all relevant boo&ing information including guests full name %ith accurate spelling7 address7 arrival date, time, month and year7 departure date or nuumber of nights7 number of rooms re;uired7 number of persons to occupy room7 esimated time of arrival or flight details7 postal address for correspondence7 position in the company%hen applicable! Then the recep'ionis' s4o1ld record the date of re;uest for reservation, confirm room rate, note his/her name and sign reservation form, note reference or voucher number for travel agent boo&ing, re;uest credit card number and e8piry date %hen applicable, repeat all recorded boo&ing information to caller and note form of reservation re;uest 5 e8* fa8, telephone etc Ihen ans.ering '4e 'elep4one, the receptionist should identify the department /,eception0, identify him/herself by name /"driana, spea&ingN0 and offer assistance /$ay I help youK0! The reception staff must ans%er telephones promptly and record the messages in a professional manner!

On 4earing .4om '4e caller .an's , the receptionist may as& the caller to %ait /4old the line, pleaseNN Oust a second, I1ll put you through0! !3 '4e person is 1sing '4e p4one or i3 '4e person doesnH' ans.er , the receptionist %ill report the situation to the spea&er /I1m sorry, the number is engaged / busy7 Ao you %ant to hold onK / I1m sorry, there1s no ans%er / reply7 I1m sorry, I1m not getting any ans%er/ reply0! O33ering 'o 'a/e a message /if the caller %ishes to spea& %ith someone %ho is not available07 this message should include name, company, phone number, time of call and message /Iould you li&e to leave a messageK / CanN ta&e a messageK / CanN give him a messageK0! O33ering 'o arrange a re'1rn call /-hallN as& him to call you bac&K0! O Ihen 4andling g1es' room c4ange, the receptionist must ensure that guests are given the 4e must not forget to note the room change re;uest on the daily %or&sheet and then for%ard the re;uest to the other departments! "fter advising the guest on room availability, the receptionist should as& him for a convenient time to ma&e the move, and then arrange for porters to assist %ith move! 'inally, after the guest has vacated room the receptionist must change room number or status in computer system and advise relevant departments of need for room repair or service if re;uired! Ihen 4andling sa3e'( deposi' bo8es, the front des& staff must al%ays ensure security of guests1 valuables during chec&-in and encourage the guest to use safety bo8 deposit facilities! In case of 1ne<pec'ed earl( depar'1re, the receptionist should encourage the guest to complete planned stay /if possible0 offering assistance /if appropriate0! If the guest really must leave, the receptionist should try and determine the reason for the early departure ifpossible, note in register boo&, and then notify house&eeping and room service! In case of an e<'ension o3 s'a(, the guest is notified of additional charges and all changes to registration card is recorded at time of re;uest! rior 'o ma/ing an( c4anges, the receptionist must determine if the room is available for the e8tension of stay and notify guest of e8tension charge! Then he should modify the registration card, the guest folio in computer and then advise reservations and house&eeping departments of e8tension details! "s concerns c1rrenc( e<c4ange, the Cashier can e8plain to hotel guest the rate of e8change and procedures for the e8change of foreign currencies and travellers1 che;ues accepted by the hotel ! re;uested room and upgrade the guest if there has been a problem %ith former room!

%andling g1es' messages and 3a<es$


The receptionist records the messages accurately and delivers them to the guest rooms

immediately on receipt! Ihen handling outgoing fa8 transmissions, the receptionists should chec& %hether the guest name and room number, fa8 number including country and city codes, name of sender and recipient are noted clearly and then complete outgoing facsimile register! >n receipt of incoming fa8, the receptionist must note to %hom fa8 is addressed and then complete incoming facsimile register! To handle ,ecords To update ,oom availability "dvance reservations >verboo&ing >ccupancy rate ,eservation card, form ,egistration card Pey card Chec&-in / registration / boo&ing /boo& in0 ,oom allocation / assignment ,oom board @hone operator -%itch board To ma&e a call =8tension Incoming / >utgoing calls Ia&e-up call / early call To put through @lace of issue Joucher " manevra, a se ocupa de =vidente " actualiBa Aisponibilitate ,eBervari in avans -uprareBervare :rad de ocupare 'ormular de confinnare a reBervarii 'ormular de inregistrare Cegitimatie acces hotel lnregistrare ,epartiBare Tablou sinoptic cu situatia eamerelor Telefonista Centrala eu comutatie mal uala " telefona Interior Convorbiri interne / e8terne "pel telefonic pentru treBire " face legalura Cocul emiterii unui act Certificat, act justificativ

Complains

<

=ach client is uni;ue, having his/her o%n preferences, %ishes and needs! =ven in the most lu8ury hotels, guest complaints cannot be entirely avoided7 they have either objective or subjective causes, depending on the clients1 e8pectations! Ihenever staff are dealing %ith complaints, %hat they must do is* H listen carefully to the guest and e8press the %ish to solve any problem7 H be calm, polite, trying not to interrupt or comment until the customer has finished H ma&e a short and clear apology7 H repeat the complaint, in order to assure the guest verbally that they have understood the problem7 H evaluate the problem and pass over the complaint to those in charge or, if possible, deal %ith it themself7 H e8plain the guest %hat they are going to do, the action they plan to ta&e7 H control the %ay the problem is solved! II Gi*e al'erna'i*es 3or '4e 1nderlined .ords0 G1es'0 :ood evening! $y name is $ihai Ionescu! I1m in room 3<! F$O$ cler/* :ood evening, $r! Ionescu! Ihat can I do for youK G1es'0 I don1t %ant to ma&e any trouble, but could you send someone up here ;uic&lyK The air conditioning is ma&ing a terrible noise and I can1t sleep! F$O$ cler/* I1m very sorry, sir! I1ll as& the maintenance engineer to chec& at once! I1m sure it %on1t ta&e long! G1es'0 I certainly hope not! It1s rather late and I have an important meeting tomorro% morning! F$O$ cler/0 I1m sure everything %ill be ta&en care of as ;uic&ly as possible! G1es'0 'ine! Than& you for your help! The most fre;uent reasons of guest complaints are inappropriate staff behaviour and ;uality standard of cleanliness and sanitation, delay in repairing the fla%s, and slo% service!

&ocab1lar(
"pology I to apologise Complaint / to complain -cuBa, a se scuBa @langere, a face o plangere

Aelay To be short-staffed To be held responsible To be a%fully sorry To deal /handle0 %ith a complaint / problem To do one1s best $isunderstanding -lo% service 2pset / annoyed / angry There and then Jaluables /gold/silver rings, ear rings, bracelets, nec&laces, %atches0

IntiirBiere, amanare " duce lipsa de personal " fi raspunBator pentru " 1ii parea foarte rau " reBolva o plangere / o probleNna " face tot posibilul ?eintelegere -erviciu 1Incet / servire lenta -uparat / enervat / nervos Ca rata locului )unuri de valoare /inele de aur/argint, cercei, bratari, coli ere, ceasuri0

Upda'ing and c4ec/ing 3olios


reparing Depar'ing G1es' Folio must be done after chec&ing its accuracy from registration form! 'ront des& staff should also be prepared to adjust inaccurate charges and solve any discrepancies in a prompt and courteous manner and then present the updated folio after correction /if applicable0! 2pon guest departure, the receptionist must re;uest the mini-bar usage information and the usage information from the other departments! The guest accounts %ill be presented to the guest for chec&ing prior to guest settlement of account, then, after charging to guest account, the receptionist presents the guest %ith updated folio and re;uest him to chec& charges on folio! If there are no discrepancies, the bill is issued and the ne8t step %ould be to as& the guest to return all room &eys! Then the cler& should offer to provide the guest %ith assistance %ith transportation and luggage! 'inally, the front office cler& %ishes the guest a pleasant journey and e8presses the %ish that they %ill return! 'olio/s0 / :uest account/s0 To disperse To chec& against To charge to somebody1s account To settle an account evidenta contabila a repartiBa pe conturi a compara cu a factura a achita

Tabular ledger To produce I issue a bill )ill, invoice "llo%ance slip "mount 'inancial statement ItemiBed bill @ersonal che;ue Travel che;ue

registru contabil, totaliBator a emite 3 factura factura, nota de plata fisa de scaBamant /borderou, cupon0 suma raport financial1 contabil factura detaliata cec la purtator cec de calatorie

Invoice: an itemiBed bill containing the prices %hich comprise the total charge and terms Bill: a statement of money o%ed for goods / services supplied

C4ec/ing o1'
C4ec/ing o1' 9 c4ec/ o1' 'ime - a system of payment upon departure from the hotel / the designated hour at %hich hotels e8pect guests to vacate their rooms!

Tas/s0
Gi*e al'erna'i*es 3or '4e 1nderlined .ords0 G1es'* :ood morning! I1d li&e to chec& out! $y name is @opescu! ,oom 3<! I1m a bit in a hurry! F$O$ cler/* Oust a moment, $r! @opescu! It %on1t ta&e long to prepare your bill! If you1d li&e to sit do%n for a moment, please! 4ere you are! That1s the amount payable at the bottom here! It1s an itemiBed bill, as you can see! G1es'* Les, everything is all right! F $O$ cler/* 4o% do you %ant to pay the bi IIK G1es'* In cash! F$O$ cler/0 'ine, sir! >ne moment and I1ll %rite out a receipt! ! Create a reservation form and fill it in! 2! Imagine a dialogue %hich reflects the process of ma&ing reservations! .! Create a message form and then fill it in!

6! Create an allo%ance slip! 5! =laborate an offer presenting hotel services and facilities! <! =laborate a satisfactory survey in order to evaluate your guests1 level of satisfaction! ,eservati on form I @aradise 4otel - 2G ?arciselor -treet, )rasov - ,eservations ?ame !!!!!!!!! "ddress !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Telephone* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "rrival date !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!! ,!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!! a!m! I p!m! ,oom !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! -ingle ,ate per night !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4o% many people !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4o% many nights I ?ights !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4old until !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Aouble Cler& !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! Aate !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!! @aradise 4otel - 2G ?arciselor -treet, )rasov - ,eservations ?ame of guest $r! I $rs! I $iss !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ?ationality !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! @assport ?umber !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Aate and @lace of Issue !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "ddress !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "rrival date and hour !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ,oom?o! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Charge !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "rrival date and hour !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ?o! of persons !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Cler& !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Aate !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! of guest* $r! I $rs! I $iss !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

23

2$ Dialog1e re3lec'ing '4e process o3 ma/ing reser*a'ions$


- I1d li&e a /single0 room, please! - Les, sir I madam! Ihen %ould that be forK - The 15112ndl .rd 14th of Oanuary I 'ebruary I $arch I "pril I $ay I Oune I Ouly I "ugust I -eptember I >ctober I ?ovember I Aecember! -Jery good, sir! Could I have your name, pleaseK I I1m sorry, sir! I1m afraid %e don1t have a /single0 room available then!

,$Message 3orm0
@","AI-= 4>T=C

A"T= !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! $essage for* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I ,oom no! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Caller1s name* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Telephone ?o* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! $essage* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ,!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! $essage received by* !!!!!!!! +!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Time* !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

-$ ALLO6A"CE# #L!
:uest1s name !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "rrival date !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Aeparture date !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "uthoriBed by !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ,oom no! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Total !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

!!!$ D!FFERE"T T8 E# OF LETTER# 1$ "ormal Le''er o3 Complain'


QLour address R QLour address 2R QLour address .R Q@ostcodeR Q>ther contact details you may %ish to give, phone, e-mail etcR QAateR (If you are unsure of the contact details you can search the howtocom lain!com com any data"ase from any age on the we"site#! Q?ame of contact person, if availableR QTitle, if availableR QCompany ?ameR

22

QConsumer Complaint Aepartment, if you don#t have a contact nameR QCompany address R QCompany address 2R QCompany address .R Q@ostcodeR ,e* Q"ccount number, product, service etcR Aear QContact @erson or -ir/$adamR, >n QdateR, I Qbought, rented, had serviced etcR a Qname of product %ith model number, service performed etcR at Qlocation and other details of the transactionR! I am disappointed because your Qproduct, service, billing etc!R has Qnot performed as it should, %as %rong etcR because Qstate the problem as you understand it giving as much detail as possibleR! To resolve the problem I %ould appreciate your Qstate the action you re;uire e!g! refund, service performed again etcR! =nclosed is a copy/are copies of the Qreceipt, contract etcR! I loo& for%ard to hearing from you and to a resolution of this problem! I %ill %ait for Qset a time limitR before see&ing help from Qgovernment agency, consumer group, la%yer etc! @lease contact me at the above address or by phone Qgive numbersR! Lours sincerely Q-ignR Q@rint Lour ?ameR =nclosures* Qstate documents you have enclosed , if anyR Cc* QInclude ?ame, Company of anyone you have copied the letter to, if anyR

2$ Complain' Le''er2Goods

QLour address R QLour address 2R QLour address .R Q@ostcodeR Q>ther contact details you may %ish to give, phone, e-mail etcR Q?ame of contact person, if availableR QTitle, if availableR QCustomer -ervices $anager, if you don1t have a contact nameR QCompany ?ameR QCompany address R QCompany address 2R

2.

QCompany address .R Q@ostcodeR QAateR ,e* Q"ccount number, goods purchased etc!R Aear QContact @erson or Customer -ervice $anagerR, >n QdateR, I bought a Qname of goods purchased, model number etc!R at Qlocation and other details of the transactionR! I am disappointed because your Qname of goods purchased etc!R has Qnot performed as it should, %as faulty etcR because Qstate the problem as you understand it giving as much detail as possibleR! Therefore this product is not Qof satisfactory ;uality, fit for the purpose describedR as laid do%n by the la%! To resolve the problem I re;uire you to Qstate the action you re;uire e!g! refund, repair etc!R %hilst reserving my right to claim against you! =nclosed is a copy/are copies of the Qreceipt, contract etcR! I loo& for%ard to hearing from you and to a resolution of this problem! I %ill %ait for Qset a time limitR before see&ing help from QTrading -tandards, consumer group, solicitor etc /details of relevant authorities can be found through our complaints procedures sectionR! @lease contact me at the above address or by phone Qgive numbersR! Lours sincerely Q-ignR Q@rint Lour ?ameR =nclosures* Qstate documents you have enclosed , if anyR Cc* QInclude ?ame, Company if you %ant to send a copy of this letter to someoneR

,$ Complain' Le''er2ser*ices QLour address R


QLour address 2R QLour address .R Q@ostcodeR Q>ther contact details you may %ish to give, phone, e-mail etcR

26

Q?ame of contact person, if availableR QTitle, if availableR QCustomer -ervices $anager, if you don1t have a contact nameR QCompany ?ameR QCompany address R QCompany address 2R QCompany address .R Q@ostcodeR QAateR ,e* Q"ccount number, service provided etcR Aear QContact @erson or Customer -ervice $anagerR, >n QdateR, I Qbought, rented, %as provided %ith etc!R a Qservice performed etc!R at Qlocation and other details of the transactionR! I am disappointed because Qthe service you provided, your service etc!R %as Qunsatisfactory, unfinished, defective etc!R because Qstate the problem as you understand it giving as much detail as possibleR! This is in breach of our contract as laid do%n by the la%! To resolve the problem I re;uire you to Qstate the action you re;uire e!g! refund, service performed again, rectified etc!R %hilst reserving my right to claim against you! =nclosed is a copy/are copies of the Qreceipt, contract etcR! I loo& for%ard to hearing from you and to a resolution of this problem! I %ill %ait for Qset a time limitR before arranging for the matter to be corrected by a third party at your cost or see&ing help from QTrading -tandards, consumer group, solicitor etc /details of relevant authorities can be found through our complaints procedures sectionR! @lease contact me at the above address or by phone Qgive numbersR! Lours sincerely Q-ignR Q@rint Lour ?ameR =nclosures* Qstate documents you have enclosed , if anyR Cc* QInclude ?ame, Company if you %ant to send a copy of this letter to someoneR

25

!&$ +A#!C 5"O6LEDGE


Gree'ings9#a(ing Good2+(e Formal gree'ings :ood morningN :ood afternoonN :ood eveningN :ood nightN !n3ormal gree'ings0 4elloN / 4iN Formal0 :ood byeN !n3ormal0 )yeN -ee you soon/later/tomorro%N -ee you on -undayN -ee youN Ta&e careN #al1'1l 'ormule de salut formale )una dimineapaN )una BiuaN )una searaN ?oapte bunaN -alutul intre prieteni / informal )unaN 'ormal* Ca revedereN intre prieteni* @al @e curand/pe mai tarBiu/pe maineN ?e vedem duminicaN ?e mai vedemN "i grija de tineN

2<

I hope %e meet again some timeN -o longN than& youN / I1m all right, than& youN / I1m ;uite you again! !n'rod1c'ion9!n'rod1cing people 64en mee'ing =3ormal> "llo% me to introduce myselfN "llo% me to introduce $r!/$rs !!!! to youN $ay I introduce $r!/$rs!l$s! TK Cet me introduce !!! to you! I %ould li&e you to meet $r!l$rs!l$s! T! "ns%er* 4o% do you doK I I am glad / pleased / delighted to meet youN !n3ormal0 $y name is !!! /l am !!! This is $r! T! The lady / gentleman is my husband / my %ife /a friend / my girlthend0 "ns%er* ?ice to meet youN :lad to meet youN 64en lea*ing It %as a pleasure meeting youN I hope to have the pleastrreofmeeting you againN @lease, give your %ife my best regards!

-per sa ne mai vedemN @e curandN mulpumescN / -unt in regula, mulpumescN/ -unt $a bucur sa te revad! 'ormule de preBentare Cand ne in'alnim =3ormal> @ermiteti-mi sa ma preBintN @enniteti-mi sa va preBint pe dl/d-na !!! N @ot sa va preBint pe dl/d-nald-ra TK -a va preBint pe !!!!! $i-ar p2icea sa il/o cunoaUteti pe dl/dra/d-ra T ,aspuns* Ce mai facetiK -unt bucuros/multumit/indintat sa va cunosc !n3ormal0 ?umele meu este !! !l=u sunt! !! "cesta este dl! T! Aoamna / Aomnul este sotul meu / sotia mea /un prieten / prietena mea0 ,aspuns* indintat de cunostintaN )ucuros sa va cunoscN La despar'ire " fost 3 placere sa va cunoscN -per sa ne mai intalnimN Te rog, transmite-i sotiei salutarile melc!

4o% are youK - Jery %ell, and youK / I am fine, Ce mai faciK - 'oarte bine, Si tuK / -unt bine, %ell, than& youN / Iell, than&s! / I am glad to see destul de bine, mulpumescN / )ine, mulpumesc! /

Congra'1la'ions96is4es =njoy your mealN :od bless youN /%hen somebody sneeBes0 I %ish you a ;uic& recoveryN @leasant journeyN 4ave a pleasant holidayN

Felici'ari9Dorin'e @ofta bunaN ?orocN / -anatateN iti doresc insanatoUire grabnicaN Calatorie p2icutaN Jacanta placutaN

27

To you / your healthN The same to youN The best %ishes to youN 4appy holidaysN $erry ChristmasN 4appy =asterN 4ave a good timeN CongratulationsN "llo% me to congratulate you on !!! I %ish you all the happiness in the %orldN 4appy anniversaryN I

@entru tine / insanatatea tal $ult%nesc la felN iti doresc numai bineN Jacanta placutaN Craciun fericitN @aUte fericitN Aistractie placutaN 'elicitariN @ermite-mi sa te felicit pentru !!!! iti doresc tot binele din l%neN Ca multi aniN

E<c1ses I1m /so, very0 sorry/I am a%fully sorryN =8cuse me, pleaseN @lease, accept my apologiesN I beg your pardonN =8cuse me, I did not do it on purposeN =8cuse me for &eeping you %aitingN Responding 'o E<c1ses It1s all rightN / That1s >!PN ?ot at allN / It doesn1t matterN Lou don1t have to apologiseN Aon1t %on#tN / Aon1t botherN It is / %as not your faultN It happensN

#c1ze Imi pare /atat de0 rau 1Imi pare nespus de rauN -cuBa-ma, te rogN Ja rog sa imi acceptati scuBeleN Imi cer scuBeN -cuBati-ma, nu am facut-o intentionatN -cuBati-ma ca v-am facut sa asteptatiN Rasp1nzand la sc1ze =ste in regulaN / = >!P!N ?u face nimicN / ?u este importantN ?u trebuie sa va scuBatiN ?u va temeti / ?u va faceti problemeN ?u este / a fost vina d-voastraN -e poate intampla oricuiN

64a'Hs .rongF !s '4ere an('4ing.rongF E<pressing s(mpa'4( and enco1ragemen' That1s bad luc&N Ara'and inIelegere si inc1raAand Ce ghinionN

2D

I1m so sonyN I1m terribly sonyN Try not to %orryN Iould you li&e me to K Is there anything I can doK Lou have all my sympathy for !!! @lease accept my condolences for! !! Can I give you a handK

Imi pare atclt de diuN Imi pare nespus de rauN Incearca sa nu-Ni faci grijiN "i vrea ca eu sa !!! K @ot face ceva pentru tineK "i toata compasiunea pentru ! Condoleantele mele pentru ! Te pot ajuta cu cevaK

Responding Than&sN That %ould be greatN That1s very &ind of youN It1s all rightN I can manage, than& youN

Rasp1nzand $ultumescN "r fi minunatN =ste foarte frumos din partea tal =ste in regulaN $a descurc, multumescN

Ge''ing people@s opinions Ihat do you thin& about thisK Ihat is your opinion about K 4o% do you feel about thisK I don1t &no% %hat you feel, but

Cerand opinile oamenilor Ce parere aveti despre acest lucruK Care este opinia d-voastra despre !!! K Ce credeti despre acest lucru !!! ?u Utiu care este parerea dvs!, dar! !!

A mis1nders'anding -orryK/I beg you pardon I don#t understand you I have not understood Could you please repeat thatK -pea& slo%ly, please! Ihat do you meanK Ihat have you saidK

O nein'elegere -cuBeK/ @ardonK ?u te inteleg ?u am inteles! ,epetati, va rogK Jorbiti mai rar, va rog! Ce vreti sa-mi spunetiK Ce ati spusK

)e so &ind and %rite these %ords do%n/on a sheet 'iti dragut si scrieti aceste lucruri/pe o foaie de

2G

of paper

hartie!

E<pressing personal opinions and impressions To my mindV "s far as I am concernedV It seems to me that "s I see itV @ersonally I thin&V I %ould sayV It is all right, butV 4e/-he/It loo&s ratherV ReB1es'9As/ing 3or ermission @lease / Iill you be so &ind and !!! Iill you !!! / )e so &ind and !!! / Ie %ould li&e to !!! $ay !! !K / Can !! !K Could !! !K Is it possible for me to !!! K /Ao0 "llo% me to !!! / Iill you allo% me to !!! K Ao you mind my /W J-ing0 /if !!!K If it doesn1t bother you, may I !!! K

E<primand pareri personale si impresii Aupa parerea meaV In ceea ce ma privesteV $i se pare caV Cum vad euV -incer eu credV "s spuneV = in regula, darV $i se pare mai bineV Cereri9Cerand permisi1nea Ja rog / "ti fi atilt de dragut sa !!! "ti vrea !!! ?e-ar placea !!! "s putea !!! K $i s-ar permite sa !!! K Imi permite-ti !!! K Ja deranjeaBa daca !!! K Aaca nu va suparati, as putea sa !!! K

Gi*ing ermission Les, of course! Certainly/-urely! Re31sing permission Iell, actually !!! -orry, but! !! I %ould love to, but !!!

Acordand permisi1nea Aa, bineinteles! Cu siguranta/ Aesigur Re31zand permisi1nea =i bine, de fapt!! ! Imi pare rau, dar !!! $i-ar placea, dar! !!

ers1ading eople I thin& you might consider! !!

Con*ingand oamenii Cred ca ati putea lua in considerare !!!

.3

This/It can be !!! !!! is/are seemingly!!! Lou can trust me !!! I can assure you!!! Ja asigur !!! Oust try! !! I1m sureV

= posibil !!! "parent! !! @uteti avea incredere in mine Ja asigur !!! Incercati doar! !! -unt convins!

Gi*ing Ad*ice Lou should /shouldn1t !!! Lou ought toV $a&e sure you!!! ! Aon1t V I thin& you1d better!! ! It1s time!!! The best solution isV

#3a'1ri "r trebui / nu ar trebuie! Trebuie neaparat V "sigurati-va ca ati ! ?u !!! Cred ca ati face mai bine saV =ste timpul !!! Cea mai bun a solutieV

Agreemen' Certainly I ?aturally I =8actly )y all means I 2ndoubtedly "greed I -ettled I ?ot at all I hope so I I thin& so I It1s possible $e, too/I couldn1t agree more I li&e, too/I thin& you1re right I agree %ith you "bsolutely/=8actly/ That#s true! Lou1ve got a point!

Aprobare Aesigur I ?ormal I =8act! Cu certitudine I @ara Indoiala! Ae la sine inleles I -tabilit I Aeloc! -per I Cred I =ste posibil! -i eu I Cu siguranla! -i mie imi place I Cred ca aveli dreptate! -unt de acord cu d-voastra! "bsolut I =8act I =ste adevarat! "veli dreptate!

Disagreemen' It1s out of the ;uestion I it1s impossible

Dezaprobare = in afara oricarei disculii I = imposibil!

It1s hardly probable I it is not up to me I1m sorry, but there1s nothing %e can do! I1m sorry, but it1s impossible! I refuse I I cannot accept /this0! I don1t agree at all I It1s not true! Lou must be jo&ing I Lou can1t be seriousN I %ouldn1t say so I Ao you really thin& soK It is not my fault! I I don1t really &no%!

= putin probabil I ?u depinde de mine! Imi pare rau, dar nu se poate face nimic! Imi pare rau, dar este imposibil! ,efuB! I ?u pot accepta asta! ?u sunt de acord! I ?u este adevarat Cred ca glumiliN ?u puteli vorbi seriosN ?-as crede! I Chiar credeti astaK ?u este vina mea! I ?u prea stiu!

T4an/s Than& you /very much0N I $any than&sN I do than& youN I Than& you so muchN Iith all my than&sN Lou are very &indN It1s very &ind of youN I am /so0 grateful to youN

M1l'1miri Ja mullumesc /foarte mult0N I $ulte multumiriN Chiar va multumescN I Ja multumesc atat de multN Cu mii de mullumiriN -unteli foarte draut! =ste foarte dragut din partea d-voastraN Ja sunt /atilt de0 recunoscatorN

Ans.ering '4an/s @leaseN I ?ot at allN ?o problemN It %as a pleasure to serve youN It %as a pleasure to be served by youN

Rasp1ns1ri la m1l'1miri Ja rog I @entru nimicN ?ici o problemaN " fost o placere sa va pot ajuta! " fost o placere sa fiu ajutat de dvs!

Telling (o1r age 4o% old are youK I am 25 years old! I %as born in the summer of G7D! I am younger / older than you! 4e is over 26! 4e is of my age!

&ars'a Cati ani avetiK "m 25 de ani! $-am nascutin vara lui G7D, -unt mai tanar/mai in varsta decat dvs, =l e trecut de 26 de ani! = de varsta mea,

.2

Telling the time Ihat1s the timeK Ihat time is itK Could you tell the right timeK It is o1cloc& sharp! ! , It is about

>ra Cat este ceasu K Ce ora esteK "ti putea sa-mi spuneti ora e8actaK =ste fi8! ! , =ste in jur de = trecut de =ste amiaBa! =ste mieBu noptii! Ca ce oraK CandK ,estaurantul deschide/ lnchide laV =ste inchis/deschis a ora asta !!!! =ste =ste =ste ! ! =ste =ste si 5! si 5! si jumatate! fara 5! fara un sfert!

It1s more than It1s midnight!

It1s midday / noon! "t %hat timeK IhenK The restaurant opens / closes at! !! It is open / closed at this time! It1s five minutes past It1s 5 past It is half past It is a ;uarter to ! ! !

It is 5 minutes to

a ;uarter of an hour / half an hour / three ;uarters jumatate de oral doua ore/ timp de cinci minute/ of an hour / for an hour / an hour and a half/ hour / an hour ago / a ;uarter of an hour ago/ o1cloc& / bet%een 3 and II/from 3 to o#cloc&/ after /at about very late / too late Telling '4e address Adresa $y address is << 'ranceBa -treet, )ucharest, sector "dresa mea este -trada 'ranceBa, bl! 1) scara 2, 2, bloc& , entrance 2, st /2nd, .rd, 6th0 floor, primul, /al doilea, al treilea, al patrulea0 etaj, ap 2, apartment 2 Da(s o3 '4e .ee/ >n -unday, >n $onday, )ucuresti, sector 2! Jilele sap'amanii Auminica Cunea, / until intr-o ora/ cu o ora in urma/ cu un sfert de ora in minute/ incepand cu ora noua/ intre Bece si unspreBece/ in jur de ora unspreBece/ foarte for half an hour / t%o hours / for 5 minutes / in an urma/ cu o jumatate de ora in urma/ acum cinci half an hour ago / five minutes ago / starting %ith G unspreBece/ pana la ora unspreBece/ dupa ora /very early / too early / devreme/ prea devreme/ foarte tarBiu/ prea tarBiu!

..

>n Tuesday, >n Iednesday, >n Thursday, >n 'riday, >n -aturday, Cast %ee& ?e8t %ee& This %ee& In %ee&#s time

$artea, $iercurea, Ooia, Jinerea, -ambata, -aptamana trecuta -sptamana viitoare "ceasta saptamana @este doua saptamani

@arts of the day the day before the day before yesterday yesterday today in this afternoon I in the afternoon morning I in the morning I early in the morning late in the morning /before0 noon at noon /in the0 evening tonight at midnight at night %or&ing day holiday tomorro% morning tomorro% evening the day after tomorro% al%ays never

@artile Bilei Xiua trecuta "laltaieri ieri aBi in dupa- amiaBa aceasta dimineata dimineata devreme dimineata tarBiu inainte de pranB la pranB seara asta noaptea asta la mieBul noptii noaptea Bi de lucru vacanta maine dimineata maine seara poimaine mereu niciodata

.6

?e% Lear1s Aay ?e% Lear1s =ve =aster Christmas

"nul ?ou "junul "nului ?ou @aste Craciun

Mon'4s o3 '4e (ear In Oanuary, In 'ebruary In $arch, In "pril, In $ay, In Oune, In Ouly, In "ugust, In -eptember, In >ctober, In ?ovember, In Aecember! In the month of "pril this month last month ne8t month this year last year ne8t year in 2336 /in0 the 2 st century the end of millennium the beginning of millennium

L1nile an1l1i lanuarie, 'ebruarie, $artie, "prilie, $ai, lunie, lulie, "ugust, -eptembrie, >ctombrie, ?oiembrie, Aecembrie In luna "prilie luna aceasta luna trecuta luna viitoare anul acesta anul trecut anul viitor In 2336 In secolul 2 -farsitul mileniului Inceputul mileniului

&$Abbre*ia'ions

.5

"CC/"CC>$ "AA "AJ ",, ",,/",,?: "@>,T "-"@ "TT? )'>, CI CI" CCA 2 C'$ "4?: A=C A=@ ACL A>C=?C/=?CC =T" '"> 'C:T 'JA I?'> I?J C/C C-T CT, $"T $I? $T: ? ?>

"ccommodation "dditional "dvise "rrive/arrival "rrange/"rrangement/"rranging "ppro8imate/"ppro8imately "s soon as possible "ttention )efore Cost Insurance Cash in "dvance Could you Confirm Change Aeliver/Aelivery Aeparts/Aeparure Aelay Aocuments =nclosure =stimated time of arrival 'or the attention of 'light 'or%ard/-end Information Invoice Cetter of Credit Cast Cetter $a8imum $inimum $eeting "nd ?umber

.<

?TT >P >/C >,A >2,C=T >2,T=CC>? @C@>-,=/,=' ,=C ,:A,:,T ,@CL ->>?=-T T4P-/T?PTCT 2 2, I"TT J-T IP I/> ICA 2 L,

?e8t I agree/"greement Is this o&K >verchange >rder >ur letter >ur telephone call @lease @ossible "bout/,eference ,eceived ,egards ,egret ,eply "s soon as possible Than&s Tele8 Lou Lour Jalue-"dded Ta8 Jisit Iee& Iithout Iould youK Lour

&!$ #!TUAT!O"AL E7ERC!#E# 1$ Anal(ze '4e 3ollo.ing si'1a'ions in small gro1ps$ T4e( e<press .4a' a recep'ionis' is e<plaining 'o di33eren' g1es's$ Read '4em and disc1ss '4e B1es'ions$ a> #i'1a'ion one0 /on the phone0 YI can perfectly understand you, sir! Ie &no% you are a regular guest in our hotel, but I hope you understand %e are in the high tourist season! Ie#ll be overboo&ed by ne8t %ee&! Could you phone in t%o or three days to see if %e have any cancellationK >r shall %e arrange for a boo&ing in a nearby hotelK Iill that be all right %ith youKZ ! Ihat does the client %antK Ihat &ind of guest is heK 2! Ihat#s the real problemK

.7

.! Ihat may be a possible solution to that problemK 6! Ihat %ould you have done if you %ere the front des& cler&K b> #i'1a'ion '.o0 /to the ,ep0 Y@lease, %e are as&ing you to chec& the rooming list thoroughly before you send it to the hotel! Ie had an incident %ith t%o guests last %ee&! They had their vouchers7 ho%ever, their names %ere not included in the rooming list! Ie really had a hard time to solve this problem! Though %e tried to contact you by phone, %e couldn#t get in touch! Ie hope this %ill be allright %ith the guests and that they don[t complain! ?o% %e need to chec& their names against the original list! Could you help usK Read '4ese i'ems and .ri'e right, %rong or I can[t tell ! The receptionist is tal&ing to the rep\\\\ 2! It %as the representative#s fault to have omitted the names\\\ .! The guests could not have hotel accommodation\\\ 6! The rep %as available %hen the reception staff needed him\\\ 5! The rep has the original rooming list\\\\ 1! Comple'e '4ese mini2con*ersa'ions .i'4 .ords 3rom '4e lis'$ a0 "* Ihat#s your \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ for the coming %ee&K )* Ie have enough rooms available! b0 "* Is it possible to have\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ for three people in one roomK )* -ure, madam! c0 "* \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\! $ay I help youK )* Is a \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\re;uired for a boo&ingK "* Lou should contact the travel agency! They#ll give you the details! d0 "* I#d li&e to ma&e a reservation! Ao you have a room %ith narro% bed for childrenK )* Les, madam! "* Ihat#s the daily \\\\\\\\\K e0 "* Ao you have a room %ith an \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ for ne8t "pril 25K )* I#m sorry! Could you phone bac& ne8t %ee&K Ie may probably have some \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Lis'0 cancellations, deposit, rate, availability, accommodation, ocean vie%, advanced reservation!

2. 1' '4e di33eren' c4oices o3 .ords .i'4 similar meanings 1nder '4e correc' de3ini'ions $igh tourist season% chance guest% front desk clerk% regular guest% eak season% re eat guest% direct tourist% returning guest% to "ook% to reserve% to register% shoulder season% individual guest% rece tion desk clerk! a0 " person %ho regularly visits the same hotel is called \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ \\\\\\\ b0 The year period during %hich the greatest ;uantity of tourists visit a country or a tourist resort is called \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK c0 " tourist %ho registers directly in a hotel is called a\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK d0 The action of being listed for a hotel stay* \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\, \\\\\\\\\\\\\or \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\! e0 The person %ho %or&s at the reception* \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\or \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\!

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,$ Role pla(ing ac'i*i'ies a> A0 " tourist is on the phone! 4e %ants to ma&e a boo&ing in your hotel! "s& about all the information re;uired /name, reservation time, ho% long he is staying, ;uantity of persons %ith him, &ind of room0 +0 Lou %ould li&e to ma&e a reservation for a t%o-%ee& stay at "tlantico 4otel! Call the hotel advanced reservation department! :ive the re;uired information and ma&e your o%n re;uests! b> A0 " tourist is on the phone! 4e %ants to ma&e a boo&ing for the coming %ee&, but by this time the hotel %ill be overboo&ed! =8plain the situation and offer an alternative solution! Try to be polite! +0 Lou are trying to ma&e a boo&ing at "tlantico for the coming %ee&! Lou are a returning guest and you can not %ait to come bac& to the hotel! Lou %ould li&e to stay there and not in any other one! c> A0 " tourist is on the phone! 4e %ants to confirm his o%n re;uests! "ttend to him properly +0 Lou are phoning the hotel to confirm your re;uests! Lou had as&ed for a &ing siBe bed and a balcony, you just married and %ill be spending your honeymoon at )risas 4otel! d> A0 " guest %ho just arrived came do%n to the reception to complain about his room! It %as not the type of room re;uested! "pologiBe to him, e8plain the situation /one of the hotel sections is closed0, and offer a possible solution! )e calmed and polite, smile to the guest! +0 Lou just arrived to the hotel and they sho%ed you the room! )ut you can not bear your disappointment7 this is not the &ind of room you re;uested! Lou paid the money to the travel agency for a room %ith a balcony and this one doesn#t have one! -ay you %ill claim to the travel agency if they don#t solve the problem! Cisten to the proposals and ma&e a decision! e> A* " guest came do%n to the reception and is as&ing you different ;uestions! Try to give the appropriate responses! If you are not sure %hat to say, then consult an e8perienced receptionist! +0 It#s your first time in Cuba and in the hotel, and you %ould li&e to get some information about different aspects, so you go do%n to the reception to find out* - %hat you have to do if you %ant to go to an e8cursion - if someone %as ill %here he could get medical attention - %hat to do if you %anted to eat at the special food restaurants - %hat places are %orth seeing outside the hotel - if you could reserve directly %hen you decided to come bac& to the hotel - %hat type of room may be appropriate for a family %ith t%o children - %hat to do if you forgot your safe code combination to open it -$ Read '4e con*ersa'ions be'.een '4e recep'ionis' and '4e arri*ing g1es's in '4ese si'1a'ions and '4e sol1'ion gi*en 'o eac4 problem$ Ans.er '4e B1es'ions belo. and ac' o1' '4e con*ersa'ion in pairs$ Con*ersa'ion A ,* Ielcome to our hotelN Aid you have a nice tripK :* >hN ?ot a very good one! >ur plane %as delayed for t%o hours7 there %as a sno%storm!!! thenV three and a half hours on that plane %here %e sat li&e sardines, plus an hour to pass through customs and get our luggage, and finally an hour to get here from the airport! To be honest, I#m really e8hausted! ,* >hN I#m really sorry about that! Could I see your voucher and passport, pleaseK :* -ure! 4ere they are! ,* Iill you rent a safe, sirK Lou have that facility in your room! The rate is a peso per day! :* That#s a good idea! Can I pay %ith my credit cardK 4ere it is!

.G

,* -ure, let me just chec& it! >hN I#m sorry! This card is already e8pired! I#m afraid you#ll have to pay in cash, sir! :* That#s o&! a> Ans.er '4ese B1es'ions$ ! Ihy didn#t the guest have a very nice tripK 2! Ihat facility does the receptionist advertiseK .! 4o% %ill the guest payK 6! Ihat#s the problem %ith his credit cardK Con*ersa'ion + ,* $ay I help youK :* Les, Ie just sa% our room and %e are not very happy about it! Ie re;uested a room %ith ocean vie%, and the one you gave us has a garden vie%! ,* I understand you, -ir! $ost guests re;uest this type of room and only thirty percent of our rooms have ocean vie%! 4o% could %e please everyoneK :* I paid the travel agency for the ocean vie% room! I#ll sue them %hen I get bac&! ,* Ie are really sorry, -ir7 %e %ould really li&e to please you right no%, but it is really out of our hands! "ny%ay, as soon as %e have one available %e#ll move you in! :* >hN Than&s, you#re very &ind! b> Ans.er '4ese B1es'ions! ! Ihat does this guest complain aboutK 2! Ihat e8planation does the front des& cler& give himK .! Ihat solution does he offer himK 6! Iould you have done the sameK Con*ersa'ion C ,* $ay I help youK :* Les, I had a boo&ing for this :uardalavaca Club "migo 4otel! ?o% my rep informs me I#ve been transferred to Cas )risas! Is there any possibility to stay here any%ayK ,* Ie %ould really li&e to please you, madam7 but the hotel is at full capacity! Lou are not the only case7 other guests have been transferred too! )ut you have been very luc&y! YCas )risasZ is a very beautiful hotel %ith more and better facilities! I#m sure you %ill love it! :* ThatV I %as told, but my friends had recommended me this one because of its friendly staff! ,* Than&s a lot! Lour %ords ma&e us feel happy and proud! )ut I#m sure you %on#t regret meeting Cas )risas staff! They are e8cellent people too! :* I hope so! ,* I#m sure you %ill enjoy Cas )risas! "nd %e#d love to have you here ne8t time! :* >&, than&s! c> Ans.er '4ese B1es'ions0 ! Ihat happens to this guestK 2! Ihat is she claimingK .! Ihat does the receptionist e8plainK 6! 4as the receptionist been professional in handling this caseK Con*ersa'ion D

63

,* -o, definitely you don#t have your voucher! Ao youK :* To be honest, I don#t have the slightest idea %here it could be! I don#t even remember if they ever gave it to me at the travel agency! ,* Then, I#m really sorry, but in that case you[ll have to pay in cash for the first night, just until %e handle the situation %ith your rep7 he can issue a ne% voucher for you! I just hate to annoy you but this is a company procedure %e have to follo%! :* ?o, that#s o&! It#s entirely my fault! ?o%, it means that if the rep issues that voucher I can get my money bac&, isn#t itK ,* >h, sure you %ill! d> Ans.er '4ese B1es'ions ! Ihat#s the problem %ith this guestK 2! Aid the receptionist ta&e the right decisionK :$ %andle '4e 3ollo.ing si'1a'ions a' '4e recep'ion$ a! " guest %ho is chec&ing in claims that he has been given t%o single beds %hen the travel agent in Canada promised that he %ould have a &ing siBe bed! b! " couple of guests %ith children arrived from the airport at noon! Ihen they chec&ed in the front des& staff told them their room %ould be ready by .*33 pm, no% it is 5*33 pm and the room is not ready yet! They are very tired and so are their children! c! " guest had boo&ed this hotel in Canada and since the very beginning he re;uested a room in section 533 /a friend %ho had already been here told him they %ere the best rooms0! 4o%ever, %hen he chec&ed in he %as allocated in section 233! ?o% he is complaining! d! " guest %ho arrives to the hotel %ith his %ife and his three-year-old daughter has the hotel voucher but to his surprise the front des& cler& tells him that he is not in the rooming list, that the hotel is full and that he %ill probably have to be relocated at another hotel! 4e re;uests to tal& to his rep, but he feels he should not pay for that phone call! 64a' can be done abo1' i'F The chec& out process in most hotels is at around 2*33 pm, so that the house&eeping staff has enough time to clean and ma&e the rooms before the ne8t group arrives! Transfer out to the airport is usually in the evening7 therefore, many guests feel they are under pressure to leave their rooms earlier than e8pected! =ven though they can enjoy all the hotel facilities and services in the meantime, some of them feel the need to use the room until the last minute! This may be possible %henever the client pays an e8tra rate to e8tend his stay in the room! )ut still some thin& it is not fair and consider they have already paid for everything till the last minute! 2$ A3'er anal(zing '4e pre*io1s si'1a'ions) sa( Right or Wrong according 'o '4e in3orma'ion (o1 read$ E<plain '4e .rong i'ems$ a! 4otel guests are re;uired to leave their rooms as soon as they have chec&ed out! b! The house&eeping staff doesn#t have enough time to ma&e the rooms before the ne8t group arrives! c! "s they %ait for the transfer to the airport they are not allo%ed to consume any food, drin&s or enjoy the hotel facilities! d! The guests have to pay for e8tending their stay in the rooms! e! $ost guests consider it is fair paying an e8tra rate for e8tending their stay! ,$ 8o1 are a recep'ionis' c4ec/ing o1' g1es's$ Repl( 'o '4e 3ollo.ing reB1es's$

:* I#d li&e to e8tend my stay! Is it possibleK ] ,* \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ ] b! $y transfer to the airport is at around si8! It#s only 2*.37 can I stay in my room until 5*33 p!m!, pleaseK ] ,* \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ -$ "o.) ge' read( 'o pers1ade an ira'e g1es' abo1' .4a' is '4e reg1lar proced1re 'o e<'end 4is s'a( in '4e room$ %e doesn@' .an' 'o pa( e<'ra mone($ :$ %andle '4e 3ollo.ing si'1a'ions a' '4e recep'ion$ 64a' co1ld (o1 do 'o sol*e '4e problemF a! " client is chec&ing out, ho%ever his to%els have been stolen and the front des& cler& tells him he must pay 5!33 C2C for each! 4e feels this is outrageous and he simply refuses to pay! b! " guest is chec&ing out, everything has gone great until the receptionist tells him that he has to pay for several phone calls that %ere never made! The client is e8tremely angry! 'inally you find out that a mista&e has been made! c! " guest %ho re;uested a ta8i to the airport has been %aiting for more than half an hour! 4e is desperate because it is 5*33 p!m! and his plane leaves at seven! 4e tal&s to the bellboy at the door!

T%E ART!CLE "rticolul hot^r_t /The Aefinite "rticle0 T4= "rticolele `n limba engleB^ sunt invariabile! "ceasta `nseamn^ c^ nu se schimb^ `n concordana^ cu genul sau cu num^rul substantivului la care se refer^! =8emple* the boy, the %oman, the children 1The1 se folosebte* ! pentru ca ar^ta c^ ceva deja s-a menaionat! =8ample* "n elephant and a mouse fell in love! The mouse loved the elephant1s long trun&, and the elephant loved the mouse1s tiny nose! 2! c_nd bi vorbitorul bi ascult^torul btiu despre ce se vorbebte, chiar dac^ nu s-a menaionat mai devreme! =8ample* 1Ihere1s the bathroomK1 1It1s on the first floor!1

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.! `n propoBiaii sau p^rai de propoBiaii unde definim sau identific^m un obiect sau o persoan^ `n mod specific! =8amples* The man %ho %rote this boo& is famous! 1Ihich car did you scratchK1 1The red one! $y house is the one %ith a blue door!1 6! pentru a ne referi la obiecte pe care le consider^m unice! =8amples* the sun, the moon, the %orld 5! `naintea superlativelor bi a numeralelor ordinale! =8amples* the highest building, the first page, the last chapter! <! cu adjective pentru a ne referi la un grup `ntreg de oameni* =8amples* the Oapanese, the old 7! cu nume de p^rai geografice bi oceane* =8amples* the Caribbean, the -ahara, the "tlantic D! pentru decenii sau grupuri de ani* =8ample* she gre% up in the seventies "rticolul nehot^r_t /Indefinite "rticle0 " / "? 'olosim 1a& cu substantive care `ncep cu consoan^ ! &an& cu substantive care `ncep cu vocal^ /a%e%i%o%u0 =8amples* "n apple " car "n orange " house "n opera ?>Tc* "n `naintea lui h mut - an hour, an honour! " `naintea lui u bi eu c_nd sunt citite ca &you&: a european, a university, a unit

" boy

Ar'icol1l ne4o'LrM' se 3oloseN'e0

pen'r1 a ne re3eri la ce*a pen'r1 prima da'L0 An elephant and a mouse fell in love! Iould you li&e a drinkK I1ve finally got a good job! pen'r1 a ne re3eri la 1n membr1 care 3ace par'e din'r2o clasL speci3icL =8amples*
o

pen'r1 n1me de sl1Abe0 Oohn is a doctor! $ary is training to be an engineer! 4e %ants to be a dancer! pen'r1 naOionali'LOi Ni religii 0 Oohn is an Englishman! Pate is a Catholic!

6.

pen'r1 ins'r1men'e m1sicale0 -herloc& 4olmes %as playing a iolin %hen the visitor arrived! o pentru nume de Bile* I %as born on a 'hursday pen'r1 a ne re3eri la 1n an1me 3el de sa1 1n e<empl1 de ce*a an1me0 the mouse had a tin! nose the elephant had a long trunk it %as a er! strange car pen'r1 s1bs'an'i*e la 3ormL de sing1lar d1pL c1*in'ele "#hat" Ni "such"0 Ihat a shameN -he1s such a beauti$ul girl! pen'r1 a ne re3eri la 1n l1cr1) obiec' sa1 peroanL0 I1d li&e an orange and t%o lemons please! The burglar too& a diamond necklace and a aluable painting!
o

Ae observat c^ de obicei spunem a hundred) a thousand) a million!

E7CE P!! Q" UT!L!JAREA ART!COLULU! "E%OTRRST


C_nd nu este articol*

pentru nume de a^ri /dac^ este la singular0 %erman! is an important economic po%er! 4e1s just returned from &imbab#e! /+1'0 I1m visiting the United States ne8t %ee&!0 pentru nume de limbi* 'rench is spo&en in Tahiti! English uses many %ords of (atin origin! )ndonesian is a relatively ne% language! pentru nume de mese* (unch is at midday! Dinner is in the evening! *reak$ast is the first meal of the day! pentru numele unor persoane /dac^ este la singular0* +ohn1s coming to the party! %eorge ,ing is my uncle! /+1'0 %e1re having lunch %ith the -organs tomorro%!0 pentru titluri bi nume* Prince Charles is .ueen Eli/abeth"s son! President ,enned! %as assassinated in Aallas! Dr0 Watson %as -herloc& 4olmes1 friend! /+1'0 the .ueen o$ England1 the Pope!0

66

dup^ caBuri de posesiv cu Hs* 4is brother1s car! @eter1s house! pentru a numi profesii* Engineering is a useful career! 4e1ll probably go into medicine! pentru nume de magaBine* I1ll get the card at Smith"s! Can you go to *oots for meK pentru ani* 2344 %as a %onderful year! Ao you remember 2335K pentru substantive nenum^rabile* Rice is the main food in "sia! -ilk is often added to tea in =ngland! War is destructive! pentru nume individuale de munai, lacuri bi insule* -ount -c,inle! is the highest mountain in "las&a! -he lives near (ake Windermere! 4ave you visited (ong )slandK pentru nume de orabe, str^Bi, staaii bi aeroporturi* 6ictoria Station is in the centre of Condon! Can you direct me to )ond -treetK -he lives in 'lorence! They1re flying from 4eathro%! `n anumite e8presii fi8e! Ae e8emplu* at school at %or& at 2niversity in church in prison in bed

by car by train by air on foot on holiday on air (in "roadcasting# ] ] ] ] ] ] ]

1' A9An or no ar'icle0 There %ere many dogs in the par&! >ne dog %as \\\ Aalmatian! @andas and \\\ tigers are both endangered animals! -he is %earing \\\ blue dress %ith red earrings 4a%aii is \\\ island in the @acific >cean! Christmas comes once \\\ year! \\\ ant is \\ insect! The ?ile is \\\ river!

65

] I %ent to the shop to get \\\ bread! ] 4e bro&e \\\ glass %hen he %as %ashing dishes! ] Lou should ta&e \\\ umbrella! =8ercise 7 Aecide dac^ trebie s^ folosebti articolul hot^r_t dthee sau nu! Aac^ nu ai nevoie de articolul dthee, folosebte un <! 0 CistenN Aennis is playing KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKtrumpet! 20 "le8 goes to %or& by KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK bus! .0 Ie often see our cousins over KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK =aster! 60 Aon1t be late for KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK school! 50 -he has never been to KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK "lps before! <0 I al%ays listen to KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK radio in the morning! 70 $y grandmother li&es KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK flo%ers very much! D0 -ee you on KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKIednesday! G0 Ihat about going to "ustralia in KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK 'ebruaryK 30 I loveKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK flo%ers in your garden! =8ercise G 'olosiai a sau an! 0 -he has KKKKKKKKK e8ercise boo& in her school bag! 20 Cucy li&es KKKKKKKKKdog! .0 =mily needs KKKKKKKKK ne% des& in her room! 60 The finished KKKKKKKKKunit! 50 Ie listen to KKKKKKKKK =nglish CA! <0 @eter has KKKKKKKKK aunt in )erlin! 70 )en has KKKKKKKKKold bi&e! D0 The speed of this car %as <3 miles KKKKKKKKK hour! G0 I need KKKKKKKKKblue pen! 30 Cet1s sing KKKKKKKKKsong!

"UMRRUL #U+#TA"T!&ELOR
fn general, pluralul se formeaB^ prin ad^ugarea unui Ts la singular* 3or/ g furculia^ spoon g lingur^ 3or/s spoons

2rm^toarele e8cepaii se e8plic^ prin regulile ortografice* ! C_nd substantivul se termin^ `n Ts) 2ss) 2<) 2c4) 2s4) 2sz pluralul se formeaB^ prin ad^ugarea terminaaiei es* b1s T b1ses g autobuB W pl!

6<

glass T glasses g pahar W pl! class T classes g clas^ W pl! bo< T bo<es gcutie W pl! inc4 T inc4es g uncie W pl! c41rc4 T c41rc4es gbiseric^ W pl! b1s4 T b1s4es gtufib W pl! fn substantivele `n care c4 se pronuna^ /, pluralul urmeaB^ regula general^* monarc4 T monarc4s g monarh W pl! epoc4 T epoc4s g epoc^ W pl! 2! -ubstantivele terminate `n o precedat de consoan^ formeaB^ `n general pluralul `n Tes $ po'a'o T po'a'oes g cartof W pl! 'oma'o T 'oma'oes g tomat^ W pl! cargo T cargoes g `nc^rc^tur^ W pl! 3resco T 3rescoes g fresc^ W pl! 4ero T 4eroes g erou W pl! =8cepaie fac cuvintele nou provenite din alte limbi* can'o T can'os g canto W pl! solo T solos g solo W pl! casino T casinos g caBinou W pl! piano T pianos g pian W pl! mosB1i'o T mosB1i'os sau mosB1i'oes g a_naar W pl! 'obacco 5 'obaccos sau 'obaccoes gtutun W pl! .! -ubstantivele terminate `n ( precedate de consoan^ fac pluralul `n Ties$ 3amil( T 3amilies g familie W pl! ci'( T ci'ies g orab W pl! co1n'r( T co1n'ries g aar^ W pl! 1ni*ersi'( T 1ni*ersi'ies g universitate W pl! C_nd ( este precedat de vocal^, pluralul este regulat* bo( T bo(s da( T da(s 6! 2nele substantive terminate `n 3 sau 3e formeaB^ pluralul `n *es0

67

lea3 T lea*es g frunB^ W pl! s4ea3 T s4ea*es g snop W pl! sel3 T sel*es g individualitate, eu W pl! loa3 T loa*es g p_ine integral^ W pl! 4oo3 T 4oo*es sau 4oo3s g copit^ W pl! cal3 T cal*es g viael W pl! s4el3 T s4el*es g raft W pl! .ol3 T .ol*es g lup W pl! el3 T el*es g B_n^ W pl! 4al3 T 4al*es g jum^tate W pl! /ni3e T /ni*es gcuait W pl! li3e T li*es gviaa^ W pl! .i3e T .i*es g soaie W pl! Aar majoritatea substantivelor `n 3 sau 3e au pluralul regulat* proo3 T proo3s g prob^ W pl! roo32 roo3s g acoperib W pl! sa3e T sa3es g garanaie W pl! 4and/erc4ie3 T 4and/erc4ie3s g batist^ W pl! c4ie3 T c4i3s g bef W pl! 5! 2rm^toarele substantive `bi schimb^ forma la plural c4ild T c4ildren g copil W pl! man T men g b^rbat W pl! 'oo'4 T 'ee'4 g dinte W pl! 3oo' T 3ee' g picior W pl! goose T geese g g_sc^ W pl! mo1se T mice g boarece W pl! lo1se T lice g p^duche W pl! o< T o<en g bou W pl! <! 2nele substantive sunt invariabile* ad*ice g sfat b1siness g afacere 31rni'1re g mobil^

6D

income g venit /no.ledge g cunoabtere l1ggage g bagaj progress g progress in3orma'ion g informaaii .eal'4 g bog^aie s4eep g oaie deer g c^prioar^ 3is4 g pebte 4air g p^r 2nele dintre substantivele menaionate mai sus au `naeles colectiv bi pt a putea reda idea unui singur element, se `nsoaesc de un cuv_nt ajut^tor! =8! a piece o3 31rni'1re 7! 2nele substantive au `ns^ numai form^ de plural* clo'4es g haine p(Aamas g pijamale scissors g foarfece 'ro1sers g pantaloon '4an/s g mulaumiri 'idings g nout^ai, btiri spec'acles U ochelari ma'4ema'ics g matematici ling1is'ics g lingvistic^ ne.s g veste, btire means g mijloc -ubstantivele ne.s bi means se folosesc ca sens de singular! This ne%s is true! g Jestea aceasta este adev^rat^! )y '4is means g `n felul acesta, prin acest mijloc $ai e8ist^ unele substantive cu semne de plural, dar form^ de singular* there were many cattle on the hill g erau multe vite pe deal many eo le like swimming g multor oameni le place `notul his orchard was full of oultry g curtea `i era plin^ de p^s^ri C_nd substantivul people se folosebte cu `naeles de popor, atunci la plural devine T peoples$

6G

All the peoples $ight $or peace0 g Toate popoatele lupt^ pentru pace! D! ?umele de popoare formeaB^ pluralul ad^ug_nd terminaaia s) dar cele terminate `n s) s4) c4) ss sau ese r^m_n invariabile la plural bi bi se compun dintr-un adjective bi substantivul men respectiv .oman) pluralul marc_ndu-se numai la substantive men) .omen$ !'alian=s> g italian American=s> g american German=s> g german #panis4 g spaniol or'1g1ese g portugheB #.iss g elveaian Englis4man) Englis4men /pl0 Frenc4man) Frenc4men /pl0 Toate substantivele bi adjectivele indic_nd nume de popoare se scriu `n limba engleB^ cu majuscule! =8! ,omanian spea& ,omanian!

E7ERC!#E#
I! 'ill in the correct form of the plural! =8ample* school - \\\\\\ "ns%er* school 5 schools ! half 2! &ilo .! %oman 6! foot 5! mouth <! sheep 7! penny D! bus G! day 3! fish 5 III! 'ill in the correct form of the plural! =8ample* school - \\\\\\ "ns%er* ! tomato 2! tooth .! aircraft 6! chorus 5! mouse <! crisis 7! passer-by school 5 schools

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D! radius G! gro%n-up IJ! 'ill in the correct plural forms of the given %ords into the gaps! #ing1lar -hop $outh Cross Computer ,oof Ta8 -heep Cight 'ish @otato @riBe -%iss Pilo )o8 Aish l1ral

J! 'ill in the follo%ing %ords in order to form to useful phrases* advice, chocolate, jam, lemonade, meat, mil&, oil, rice, tea, tennis =8ample* a cube of \\\\\ "ns%er* ! a piece of 2! a pac&et of .! a bar of 6! a glass of 5! a cup of <! a bottle of 7! a slice of D! a barrel of G! a game of 3! a jar of a cube of sugar

AD?ECT!&UL V! COM ARAP!A AD?ECT!&ULU!


! "djectivul este invariabil `n gen bi num^r* a good ac'or U un actor bun

a good ac'ress U o actria^ bun^ a good boo/ U o carte bun^ a good 'eac4er U un professor bun good s'1den's U studenai buni good 4abi's U obiceiuri bune 2! Cocul adjectivului este `n genere `naintea substantivului, aba cum se vede din e8emplele paragrafului precedent! =8cepaii* a0 2nele adjective calificative `ns^ se pot abeBa dup^ substantivul pe care-l determin^, acesta pentru a sublinia mai mult calitatea respectiv^* eople arri*ed 3or '4e occasion 3rom '4e ci'ies 3ar and near$ U @entru aceast^ ocaBie oamneii au venit din toate orabele cele apropiate bi cele de departe! b0 "djectivul urmat de un complement sau prepoBiaie `n str_ns^ leg^tur^ cu el, se plaseaB^ dup^ substantive* A 4all 31ll o3 people U o sal^ plin^ de lume !' is a ma''er 'oo 1rgen' 'o be p1' o33 an( longer U este o chestiune prea urgent^ pentru a fi am`nat^ c0 fn e8presiile pereche de obicei de origine latin^, adjectivul este precedat de substantiv a /nig4' erran' U un cavaler r^t^citor '4e Go*ernor General U guvernatorul general a Co1r' Mar'ial U un tribunal militar Asia Minor U "sia $ic^ a lion co1c4an' U un leu culcat alone singur% este precedat de un substantiv* %is silence alone is s133icien' proo3 U t^cerea lui `ns^bi este acuBatoare T4e .4ole 3amil( li*ed on 4is salar( alone U toat^ familia tr^ia numai din salariul lui 3or '4is .ee/ alone U numai pentru aceast^ s^pt^m_n^ fn apoBiaiile nume istorice aadjectivul este precedat de substantive* %enr( '4e T4ird U4enric al III-lea 6illiam '4e ConB1eror U Iilliam Cuceritorul Mic4ael '4e +ra*e U $ihal JiteaBul

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.! "djectivul mai poate face parte din predicat, pentru a completa `naelesul unui verb cauBativ bi arat^ reBultatul acaiunii verbului* All men are mor'al$ U toai oamenii sunt muritori #4e became *er( ric4 U ea s-a `mbog^ait tare Lea*e '4e page blan/ U las^ foaia alb^ Comparaai* #.ee' is pleas1re a3'er pain$ U dulce este pl^cerea dup^ durere 6! "djectivul nu poate s^ joace rol de substantive la singular dec_t referindu-se la o clas^ citat^ `n prealabil bi rolul de a determina noi e8emple! fn acest caB este urmat de un substantive sau de pronume, de obicei one (pl! ones#: m( '.o dresses) '4e red =one> and '4e bl1e =one> U rochiile mele cea robie bi cea albastr^ '.o bo<es o3 ma'c4es) one large and one small U dou^ cutii de chibrituri una mare bi una mic^ a nice person U o persoan^ pl^cut^ '4e poor li''le c4ild U bietul copilab @entru `naelesul de plural se poate suprima substantivul sau pronumele dar adjectivul ste precedat de articolul hot^r_t* '4e ric4 U bogaaii '4e poor U s^racii '4e (o1ng U tinerii '4e old U b^tr_nii Ae reainut folosirea adjectivelor opuse `n e8presie f^r^ articol! =8emplu* old and (o1ng U cu toaii tineri bi b^tr_ni @entru a indica la plural un grup de indiviBi `n mod special este necesar s^ se adaoge adjectivul pe care-l determin^, ca bi la plural* '4e imp1den' 3ello.s A1s' la1g4ed U insolenaii tocmai r_deau 5! Ain e8emplele precedente, am v^But c^ adjectivele invariabile la plural chiar c_nd se folosesc de substantive, totuai unele adjective s-au transformat `n substantive pure care primesc desinenaa pluralului* =8emple* '4e ancien's U anticii '4e moderns U modernii (o1r be''ers U superiorii t^i

5.

s.ee's U dulciuri bi''ers U b^uturi amare *al1ables U obiecte de valoare <! "djectivul nehot^r_t some folosit la afirmativ se transform^ `n an( la interogativ bi no la negative* T4ere are some 3lo.ers on '4e piano U pe pian se afl^ nibte flori !s '4ere an('4ing s'range abo1' '4a'F U este ceva ciudat `n astaK I !'@s no'4ing serio1s$ U nu este nimic serios

GRADELE DE COM ARAP!E


! "djectivele formate din mai mult de dou^ silabe bi majoritatea celor dou^ din dou^ silabe, formeaB^ com arativul (i su erlativul `n mod analog limbii rom_ne, mai fiind more bi cel mai '4e mos'$ =8emple* bea1'i31l) frumos, more bea1'i31l) mai frumos, '4e mos' bea1'i31l) cel mai frumos brillian') more brillian') '4e mos' brillian' U sc_nteietor pop1lar) more pop1lar) '4e mos' pop1lar U popular in'eres'ing) more in'eres'ing) '4e mos' in'eres'ing U interesant care31l) more care31l) '4e mos' care31l U atent dangero1s) more dangero1s) '4e mos' dangero1s U periculos Toate adjectivele terminate `n 31l /prescurtare din 31ll T plin0 formeaB^ gradele de comparaaie numai `n acest fel! 2! "dverbele more bi mos' ajut^ la formarea gradelor de comparaaie bi a unor adjective scurte* =8emplu* more dr( fn general `ns^, adjectivele scurte formeaB^ comparativul ad^ug_nd sufi8ul er bi superlativul ad^ug_nd sufi8ul es') ain_ndu-se seama de regulile de ortografie!

56

=8emple* long 2 longer T longes' Ulung s4or' T s4or'er2 '4e s4or'es' U scurt cold T colder T '4e coldes' U rece large T larger T '4e larges' U mare 4app( T 4appier T '4e 4appies' U fericit lo*el( T lo*elier T lo*elies' U dr^gua cle*er T cle*erer T '4e cle*eres' U debtept narro. T narro.er 2 2'4e narro.es' U `ngust Ae observat c^ atunci c_nd este vorba de o comparaaie `ntre dou^ atribute referitoare la aceiabi persoan^ sau lucru, de obicei se folosebte construcaia cu more$ =8emplu* %e is more sl( '4an cle*er$ U =l este mai biret dec_t debtept! .! 2nele adjective formeaB^ comparativul bi superlativul `n mod neregulat* good) bun T be''er) mai bun T '4e bes') cel mai bun bad) r^u T .orse, mai r^u T '4e .ors') cel mai r^u la'e) t_rBiu T la'er) mai t_rBiu T '4e la'es') ultimul, cel mai recent la''er U al doilea, - '4e las' U ultimul, cel mai recent m1c4) mult T more) mai mult T '4e mos') cel mai mult man( U mulai old) vechi T older) mai vechi2 '4e oldes') cel mai vechi, b^tr_n T elder) mai `n v_rst^, '4e eldes') cel mai `n v_rst^

=8emple pentru formele derivate ale lui la'e0 las' .ee/ U s^pt^m_na trecut^ La'er e*en's pro*ed '4a' 4e .as rig4'$ U evenimentele care au urmat au ar^tat c^ avea dreptate! T4e a1'4or sa(s '4a 4is la'es' boo/ .ill be 4is las'$ Uautorul spune c^ ultima carte /cea mai recent^0 pe care a publicat-o va fi ultima /nu va mai continua s^ scrie0 T4e ladies 'al/ed abo1' '4e la'es' 3as4ion$ Udoamnele vorbesc despre moda Bilei T4e la''er 4al3 o3 ?1ne$ U partea a doua a lunii iunie T4e organis' and '4e se<'en .ere bo'4 old men$ U organistul bi paraclisierul erau am_ndoi b^tr_ni

55

Elder bi eldes' se folosesc numai pentru personae, `n mod special pentru membrii aceleiabi familii! Elder este precedat de articol sau adjective posesive ori demonstrative! ?u este niciodat^ urmat de '4an$ @entru personae putem folosi bi older /comparativ0, oldes' =superlativ>$ =8emple* T4e '4ree elder c4ildren$ U Cei trei copii mai mari 64o is elder ?o4n or Mar(F U Cine este mai mare, Oohn sau $aryK ?o4n is '4e elder$ U Oohn este mai mare! ?o4n is elder '4an Mar($ U Oohn este mai mare dec_t $aria! 5a'e is '4e eldes' o3 '4e 3amil($ U Pate este cea mai b^tr_n^ din familie! T4is .oman is '4e eldes' in '4e *illage$ U "ceast^ femeie este cea mai b^tr_n^ din sat!

6! Aup^ comparativ, al doilea termen este introdus de '4an0 %1g4 is 'aller '4an Ric4ard$ g 4ugh este mai `nalt dec_t ,ichard! %e 4as more '4an '.en'( 4orses! g =l are mai mult de dou^Beci de cai! Aup^ superlativ, al doilea termen este introdus de o3 bi c_teodat^ de in$ =8emple* ?ac/ is '4e 'alles' o3 '4e bo(s$ g Oac& este cel mai `nalt dintre b^ieai! %e is cer'ainl( '4e bes' o3 '4e 'eac4ers$ g =l este cu sigurana^ cel mai bun dintre profesori! A", #4e is '4e bes' pianis' in '4e dis'ric'$ g =a este cea mai bun^ pianist^ din ainut! Mar( is '4e (o1nges' in '4e 3amil($ g $ary este cea mai t_n^r^ din familie!

RO"UMELE
@ronumele este partea de vorbire care `nlocuiebte un substantiv /o fiina^, un obiect, etc!0 Clasificare @ersonale /'4e ersonal rono1ns0

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Interogative /'4e !n'eroga'i*e rono1ns0 ,elative /'4e Rela'i*e rono1ns0 @osesive /'4e ossesi*e rono1ns0 Aemonstrative /'4e Demons'ra'i*e rono1ns0 Impersonale /'4e !mpersonal9General rono1ns0 ,efle8ive /'4e Re3le<i*e rono1ns0 =mfatice /'4e Emp4a'ic rono1ns0 ?ehot^r_te /'4e !nde3ini'e rono1ns0 ,eciproce /'4e Reciprocal rono1ns0

The Personal Pronouns I g eu you g tu he g el, d_nsul, dumnealui she g ea, d_nsa, dumneaiei it g el, ea /impersonal0 The )nterrogati e Pronouns %ho g cine %hose g al, a, ai, ale cuiK Iho &no%s himK g Cine `l cunoabte pe elK Ihose is this little boyK g "l cui este acest b^ieaelK To %hom do you give this boo&K g Cui `i dai aceast^ carteK %e g noi you g voi, dumneavoastr^ they g ei, ele, d_nbii, d_nsele, dumnealor

to %hom / %ho/m0!!!to g cuiK, la cineK

To %hom are you referringK g Ca cine te referiK To %hom does the boo& belongK g Cui `i aparaine carteaK /to0 me g mie /to0 you g aie /to0 him glui /to0 her g ei /to0 it g lui/ei for %hom / %ho/m0Vfor g pentru cineK 'or %hom must you buy the boo&K/ Ihom must you buy the boo& forK g @entru cine trebuie s^ cumperi carteaK /to0 us g nou^ /to0 you g vou^ /to0 them g lor, d_nselor, d_nbilor

behind %hom / %ho/m0V!behindK g `n spatele cui 4e %as sitting behind me! g =l st^tea `n spatele meu!

57

)ehind %hom %as he sittingK g fn spatele cui st^tea elK beside %hom / %ho/m0Vbeside g al^turi de cineK bet%een %hom / %ho/m0Vbet%een g `ntre cineK by me g de mine by you g de tine by him/her/it g de el/ea The Relati e Pronouns %ho g cine, care %hose g al/a/ai/ale cui to %hom g cui %hom g pe cine, pe care %hich g care, pe care 4e does not &no% %ho must come to see us! g =l nu btie cine Ie are playing %ith Oohn#s ball but %e don#t &no% %hose they are playing I don#t &no% %ho/m0 I shall give this boo& to! g ?u btiu cui s^-i dau cartea aceasta! I &no% %hom you appreciate very much! g =u btiu pe cine aprecieBi tu foarte mult -he has many boo&s, but she doesn#t &no% %hich she must read for the e8amination g =a are multe c^rai, dar nu btie pe care s^ o citeasc^ pentru e8amen! trebuie s^ vin^ pe la noi! %ith! g noi ne juc^m cu mingea lui Oohn dar nu btim cu a cui se joac^ ei! 4e %as sitting beside me! g =l st^tea al^turi de mine! )et%een Oohn and ?ic&! g fntre Oohn bi ?ic& by us g de noi by you g de voi by them g de ei

The Possessi e Pronouns mine g al/a/ai/ale mele yours g al/a/ai/ale tale his g al/a/ai/ale lui hers g al/a/ai/ale ei The Demonstrati e Pronouns this g acesta, aceasta that g acela, aceea these g acebtia, acestea those g aceia, acelea ours g al/a/ai/ale noastre yours g al/a/ai/ale tale theirs g al/a/ai/ale lor

5D

The )mpersonal Pronouns one, you >ne could %or& there! g --ar putea lucra acolo! Lou should al%ays be careful %hen crossing the road! g -^ fii `ntodeauna atent la traversarea drumului! >ne can learn a lot of things here! g -e pot `nv^aa o mulaime lucruri aici! Lou should al%ays behave decently! g Trebuie s^ te porai `ntodeauna decent! The Re$le7i e Pronouns myself g m^ yourself g te himself g se herself g se itself g se Cu ajutorul lor se formeaB^ diateBa refle8iv^ a verbelor! to enjoy oneself g a se distra The Emphatic Pronouns myself g eu `nsumi, personal, chiar eu yourself g tu `nsuai, personal, chiar tu himself g el `nsubi, personal, chiar el herself g ea `ns^bi, personal, chiar ea itself g el `nsubi, ea `ns^bi, personal, chiar ea, el I must do it myself! g Trebuie s^-o fac eu `nsumi! ourselves g noi `nbine, `nsene, chiar noi yourselves g voi `nbiv^, `nsev^, chiar voi themselves g ei `nbibi, ele `nsele, chiar ei/ele I enjoy myself g =u m^ distreB! ourselves g ne yourselves g v^ themselves g se oneself g se

The )nde$inite Pronouns another g alt, alt^ each gfiecare the other g cel^lalt others g alaii, altele the others g ceilalai, clelalte >ne man says yes, another says no! Ie received t%o boo&s each! Oohn li&es this boo& but i li&e the other! >thers &no% better than you! The others did not come by bus!

5G

one g unul, una un, o, se all gtot, toat^, toai, toate, totul either g oricare din doi neither g nici unul/una both g ambii, ambele several g mai mulai/multe, c_teva, c_aiva fe% g puaini, puaine a fe% g puaini/destui ;uite a fe% gfoarte mulai little g puain, mic a little g puain/destul/ceva much g mult, mult^ many g mulai, multe some g nibte, unii, unele, puain, c_teva any g orice, fiece, oricare, nici unul somebody g cineva anybody g oricine, cineva, nimeni anybody! nobody gnimeni something g ceva anything g orice nothing g nimic someone g careva, cineva anyone g oricare no one g nobody g none g niciunul everything g totul, tot somebody else g altcineva anybody else g oricine altcineva nobody else g nimeni altcineva something else g altceva nothing else g nimic altceva

Lou do not have any boo& bu I have one! 4e must tell you all or nothing! Lou may buy either! I can see neither! Lou may readeither of them, both are interesting! Lou can see many boo&s on the table, but several are mine! I only found fe%! I have found a fe%! I have found ;uite a fe%! I have done little for them! Lou have little tea but I have a little! Lou have got little tea but I have got much! Lou have only got fe% boo&s but I#ve got many! -ome are dood and some are bad! 4e doesn#t li&e any! I can see somebody at the gate! I can as& anybody! Ao you see somethingK I cannot as& I see nobody! I see something! I buy anything! I bought nothing! Lou must as& someone! Lou may as& anyone! Lou can as& no one! 4e can understand everything! I see somebody else! :ive it to anybody else! ?obody else can do it! Ie must buy something else! I sa% nothing else!

everybody g toai, toat^ lumea, fiecareI sa% everybody!

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Reciprocal Pronouns each other g unul pe cel^lalt The t%o neighbours help each other! The three brothers help one another! one another g unul pe cel^lalt /minimum trei persoane0 =T=,CIhII ! "legeai r^spunsul corect* ! They / them helped %e / us cut the grass! 2! I / me sa% you / your %aiting for the bus this morning! .! It / he is the first day of summer! 6! -he / her decided to go %ith they / them! 5! Ihy are you / he interested in she / herK <! Ie / us spo&e to he / him yesterday! 2! "legeai un cuv_nt compus din lista de mai jos bi completaai spaaiile7 unele cuvinte pot fi folosite de mai multe ori! some"ody any"ody no"ody someone anyone no one something anything nothing

! I#m thirstyN Is there VVVVVVV to drin&K 2! The boss has VVVVVVV important to tell you! Lou must call him right a%ay! .! The doctor says there is VVVVVVV %rong %ith Tom! 4e#s perfectly healthy! 6! The door bell is ringing! There#s VVVVVVV at the door! 5! VVVVVVV e8citing ever happens to meN <! >ld $rs! 4e%lis is very lonely! VVVVVVV ever visits her! 7! Aidn#t VVVVVVV %rite to than& youK D! There#s VVVVVVV in the safe! It#s ;uite emptyN G! There is VVVVVVV %aiting at the moment! The %aiting room is empty! 3! -hall I ma&e them VVVVVVV for dinnerK They haven#t had VVVVVVV to eat since last night! 6! "beBaai cuvintele `n ordinea corecta! ! is %riting/she/him/a love letter VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV! 2! enjoyed/I/them/telling/about it

<

VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV! .! is interesting/it/to listen/to him VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV! 6! you/can#t/to him/it/giveK VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV! 5! li&es/he/her/calling VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV! <! you/don#t/fi8/%hy/for us/itK VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV! 7! it/cleaned/%e/for him VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV! D! %ill repair/they/it/for us VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV! G! sent/%e/to them/it VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV! 3! please/it/give/to him VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV! 5! 'olosiai pronumele personale he% she% it% they in spaaiile libere! ! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ is my father! 2! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\is a husband! .! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\is a cat! 6! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\is a piano! 5! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\are girls! <! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\is the ;ueen! 7! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\are my parents! <! Completaai spaaiile libere transform_nd pronumele din paranteBe la forma lor corect^! ! This ia a piece of ca&e for \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\/she0 2! I bought these flo%ers for \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\/they0 .! $other as&ed \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\%here I %as going! /I0 6! :ive that to \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\/he0

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AD?ECT!&UL #! RO"UMELE DEMO"#TRAT!&

! "djectivele bi pronumele demonstrative sunt* '4is 5 acest, aceasta, '4ese 5 aceste, acebti, '4a' T acel, aceea, '4ose T acei, acele! )ronumele demonstrative (*emonstrative ronouns# sunt: '4is U acesta, aceasta T4a' boo/ is (o1rs and '4is =one> is mine U Cartea aceasta este a ta, iar acesta este a mea! '4a' U acela, acela T4is boo/ is mine and '4a' =one> is (o1rs$ U Cartea aceaste este a mea, iar aceea este a ta! '4ese U acebtia, acestea T4ose boo/s are mine and '4ese =ones> are (o1rs$ U C^raile acelea sunt ale mele, iar acestea sunt ale tale! T4ose pla(ers are good b1' '4ese =ones> are be''er U Ouc^torii aceia sunt bini, dar acebtia sunt mai buni! '4ose U aceia, acela T4ese pla(ers are *er( good b1' '4ose =ones> aren@'$ U Ouc^torii acebtia sunt foarte buni, dar aceia nu sunt! This (i these indic+ a or iere a o"iectului ,n tim (i s a-iu fa-+ de ersoana care vor"e(te! '4is boo/ 5 aceast^ carte '4a' boo/ 5 aceea carte '4is (ear 5 anul acesta '4ese boo/s 5 aceste c^rai '4ose boo/s 5 acele c^rai '4a' (ear 5 anul acela, trecut sau viitor

'4is '1ne is delig4'31l T melodia aceasta este `nc_nt^toare '4ese 4o1ses are larger '4an '4ose T casele acestea sunt mai mari dec_t acelea

<.

'4e landscape in '4e mo1n'ains is more a''rac'i*e '4an '4a' in '4e plains T privelibtea din munai este mai atr^g^toare dec_t aceea din c_mpie T4ose are (o1r 'ennis balls) '4ese are mine 5 acestea sunt mingile voastre de tennis, acestea sunt ale mele lease) gi*e 4im) '4is 5 te rog, d^-i aceasta 64a' do (o1 '4in/ o3 '4a'F 5 ce creBi despre aceastaK *ac+ ad.ectivul demonstrativ se refer+ la mai mult de un su"stantive nu este necesar s+ fie re etat! =8emple* T4is man and .oman T acest b^rbat bi aceast^ femeie / nu se confunda forma singular+ a ronumelui demonstrative that cu that 8 care% ronume relativ! 2! @ronumele demonstrative aceasta% acesta% aceea% acel% se poate omite `n construcaia genitivului posesiv! T4is 4o1se is m( bro'4er@s T casa aceasta este a fratelui meu T4a' 4andbag is m( sis'er@s T pobeta aceea este a surorii mele -e poate omite substantivul `nsoait de genitivul Ws) c_nd `n aceiabi propoBiaie a fost deja amintit bi astfel se evit^ repetiaia* T4is car is 3as'er '4an (o1r .i3e@s T mabina lui este mai rapid^ dec_t a soaiei sale! ! bo1g4' m( boo/s and m( sis'er@s T am adus c^raile mele bi ale surorii mele .! One=s> este folosit c_teodat^ bi ca pronume demonstrative pentru a se evita repetarea sau drept correspondent al articolului adjectival din limba rom_n^, cel, cea ='4is one> sau ca `nlocuitor al unui substantive dup^ adjectivele determinative '4is) '4a') .4ic4) ano'4er) o'4er$ =8emple* #4e 'oo/ o33 4er 4a' and p1' a ne. one T ea bi-a scos p^l^ria bi bi-a pus o alta! !'@s a 3ine 3is4 b1' '4e one ! ca1g4' .as bigger T este bun pebtele dar cel pe care l-am prins este mai mare M( 4o1se is '4e one on '4e le3' 2 casa mea este aceea de pe st_nga !s '4a' '4e one .4o sang las' 'imeF T este acela care a c_ntat data trecut^K All '4ese boo/s are in'eres'ing) '4is =one> 3or e<ample T toate c^raile sunt interesante, de e8emplu ia-o pe aceasta! $"I ,=hI?hI*

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%er sis'er .as a 'eac4er and s4e .an'ed 'o be one 'oo T sora ei era profesoar^ bi ea dorea s^ fie la fel! T4e li''le ones T cei mici !@m no' one o3 '4ose =one o3 '4ose people> .4o li/e 4im T nu sunt dintre aceea /unul dintre0 care-l plac

6! ?otaai traducerea pronumelui demonstrativ engleB `n urm^toarele caBuri* 8o1 .ill be sorr( 3or '4is T are s^-ai par^ r^u pentru aceasta !' .as li/e '4is 2 aba s-a `nt_mplat T4is is .4a' 4e 'old me T aceasta este ce mi-a spus X$T4a' is .4a' 4e 'old me$ T aceasta este ce mi-a spus Y64a' did 4e 'ell (o1FZ T O4) '4is and '4a'$ T ce ai-a povestitK 5 >h, una alta! ! 4ad 4eard o3 i' be3ore '4is T auBisem despre asta mai `nainte !' o1g4' 'o 4a*e been done be3ore '4is T trebuia s^ fie f^cut^ de mai `nainte T4is is some'4ing li/e a meal T acesta este ceea ce se cheam^ un pr_nB And '4a'@s all T bi cu asta, gata, am terminat !s '4is ='4a'> all '4e l1ggage (o1 are 'a/ingF T este acesta tot bagajulK !s '4is ='4a'> .4ere s4e li*esF T aici locuiebte eaK !s '4a' (o1 ?o4nF T tu ebti OohnK 64a' do (o1 mean b( '4a'F T ce vrei s^ spui cu astaK T4is) '4a' and '4e o'4er T ba una, ba alta, c_nd una, c_nd alta T4ere is no s1c4 '4ingI T nu e8ist^ aba ceva Don@' do '4a' T s^ nu faci aba ceva

E7ERC!P!! 0
=8erciaiul Transformaai propoBiaiile urm^toare dup^ e8emplul de mai jos* =8! This is my cat! This cat belongs to me!

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! Those are your boo&s! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 2! That is their ball! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ .! Is this your houseK \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 6! That is $ary#s dog! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 5! "re these your coatsK \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

=8erciaiul 2 Transformaai propoBiaiile de mai jos, folosind pronumele demonstrative dup^ urm^torul model* $odel* This car is red! This is a red car! ! This door is open! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 2! Those %indo%s are closed! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ .! These buildings are modern! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 6! Those boys are naughty! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

=8erciaiul . Completaai spaaiile libere cu pronumele demonstrative corespunB^toare* ! Is \\\\\\\\\\\\ all she has to sayK 2! \\\\\\\\\\\\ is my younger sister! .! \\\\\\\\\\\\ is %hat she said!

<<

6! \\\\\\\\\\\\ is the fate of an ordinary man! 5! I#d do \\\\\\\\\\\\ <! \\\\\\\\\\\\ is %hat I am going to do right no%! =8erciaiul 6 Traduceai `n limba rom_n^ urm^toarele popoBiaii* a0 There#s a s;uirrel in the tree! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ b0 There#s the s;uirrel in the tree! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ c0 There#s the man I %as telling you about! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ d0 There#s OohnN \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ e0 There#s Oohn in the tree! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ f0 There#s a letter and t%o messages for you! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ g0 There are a letter and t%o messages for you! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ h0 There are t%o messages and a letter for you! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ i0 There are a load of messages for you! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ j0 There#s a load of messages for you! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ &0 There are a lot of messages for you! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ l0 There#s a lot of messages for you! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ m0 There#s t%o messages for you!

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=8erciaiul 5 Completaai spaaiile libere cu pronumele demonstrative potrivit* ! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ is my school! 2! I li&e both the shirts, but \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ is better than \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\! .! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ are my brother#s things! 6! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ is my aunt! 5! \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ is my friend#s umbrella!

AD&ER+UL =T%E AD&ER+> Clasi3icare0 1$ Ad*erbe de mod =Ad*erbs o3 Manner> 2$ Ad*erbe de 'imp =Ad*erbs o3 Time> ,$ Ad*erbe de loc =Ad*erbs o3 lace> -$ Ad*erbe de ca1zL =Ad*erbs o3 Ca1se9Reason> :$ Ad*erbe de scop =Ad*erbs o3 1rpose> ;$ Ad*erbe de can'i'a'e9grad =Ad*erbs o3 C1an'i'(>

Ad*erbe de mod =Ad*erbs o3 Manner>


"dverbele de mod r^spund la `ntrebarea 4o.F g cumK 1pside2do.n U cu faaa `n jos some4o. U cumva .illingl( U bucuros bea1'i31ll( U frumos delibera'el( U deliberat comple'el( U complet

<D

3l1en'l( U fluent/curg^tor b( c4ance U din `nt_mplare acciden'l( U accidental 4o. U c_t/cum m1c4 U mult scarcel( U abia .ell U bine 1na.ares U deodat^/pe neabteptate slo.l( U lent/rar/`ncet

e<'remel( U e8trem 3as' U iute 4ardl( U greu/abia li''le U puain ra'4er U cam *er( U foarte badl( U r^u B1ic/l( U repede alo1d U tare/cu voce tare

Ad*erbe de 'imp =Ad*erbs o3 Time>


"dverbele de timp r^spund la `ntrebarea .4enF U c_ndK a3'er.ards U dup^ aceea earl( U devreme immedia'el( U imediat ne*er U niciodat^ presen'l( U imediat recen'l( U recent soon U cur_nd o3'en U adesea '4en U atunci las' mon'4 U luna trecut^ a3'er U dup^ A1s' Utocmai/abia a' las' U `n cele din urm^ alread( U deja once U odinioar^/c_ndva A1s' no. U chiar acum sooner or la'er U mai cur_nd sau mai t_rBiu dail( U Bilnic 3ormerl( U odinioar^ mean.4ile U `ntre timp no. U acum (earl( U annual some'imes U uneori (es'erda( Uieri la'e U t_rBiu al.a(s U totdeauna be3ore U `nainte 'oda( U ast^Bi a' presen' U `n present b( no. U p_n^ acum s'ill U `nc^ .4en U c_nd so 3ar U p_n^ aici/acum

<G

Ad*erbe de loc =Ad*erbs o3 lace>


"dverbele de loc r^spund la `ntrebarea .4enF U undeK be4ind U `n spate 4ere U aici '4ere U acolo 1ps'airs U la ataj 1p and do.n U `n sus bi `n jos abroad U`n str^in^tate some.4ere U undeva an(.4ere Uoriunde so1'4.4ere Uc^tre sud .4ere U unde 3ar U departe near U aproape inside U `n interior along U de-a lungul 4ere and '4ere U ici bi colo 1nder U dedesubt no.4ere Uniciunde/nic^ieri e*er(.4ere Upretutindeni 4ome.ard Uspre/c^tre cas^

Ad*erbe de ca1zL =Ad*erbs o3 Ca1se9Reason>


"dverbele de cauB^ r^spund la `ntrebarea .4(F U de ceK '4a' is .4( U ia'L de ce 3or '4e reason '4a' U pentru motivul c^ '4ere3ore Upentru acest motiv, de aceea

Ad*erbe de scop =Ad*erbs o3 1rpose>


"dverbele de scop r^spund la `ntrebarea 3or .4a' p1rposeF U cu ce scopK 3or '4is p1rpose U cu acest scop 3or '4e mere p1rpose o3 U pentru simplul motiv de a

Ad*erbe de can'i'a'e9grad =Ad*erbs o3 C1an'i'(>


"dverbele de cantitate/grad r^spund la `ntreb^rile 4o. m1c4F U c_tK, 4o. li''leF U c_t de puainK etc! almos' Uaproape/apro8imativ en'irel( U `n `ntregime enormo1sl( U enorm li''le Upuain

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m1c4 U mult reall( U `ntr-adev^r/cu adev^rat s133icien'l( U suficient 'oo U prea/suficient ALTE AD&ER+E especiall( U mai ales, `n special e<ac'l( U e8act e*en U chiar onl( U nunai/doar s1rel( U sigur precisel( U pricis also U de asemenea a' leas' U cel puain

B1i'e U chiar/total so U astfel, aba eno1g4 U destul/suficient *er( U foarte

a' mos' U cel mult a' la'es' U cel mai t_rBiu a' earlies' U cel mai devreme 4o.e*er U totubi/cu toate acestea o3 co1rse U desigur conseB1en'l( U ca urmare a' an( ra'e U `n orice caB a' .ors' U `n cel mai r^u caB

Comparaaia adverbelor
pozi'i* %ell g bine badly g r^u far g departe much g mult near g aproape little g puain late g t_rBiu up g sus compara'i* de s1periori'a'e better g mai bine %orse g mai r^u farther g mai departe further g mai departe more g mai mult nearer g mai aproape less gmai puain later g mai t_rBiu upper g mai sus s1perla'i* rela'i* the best g cel mai bine the %orst g cel mai r^u the farthest g cel mai departe furthest g cel mai departe the most g cel mai mult the nearest g cel mai aproape the least g cel mai puain the latest g cel mai t_rBiu upmost g cel mai sus

Comparaaia analitic^ a adverbelor


pozi'i* attractively g atr^g^tor beautifully g frumos bestially g bestial carefully g atent fortunately gnorocos compara'i* de s1periori'a'e more attractively g mai atr^g^tor more beautifully g mai frumos more bestially g mai bestial more carefully g mai atent more fortunately g mai norocos s1perla'i* rela'i* the most attractively g cel mai atr^g^tor the most beautifully g cel mai frumos the most bestially g cel mai bestial the most carefully g cel mai atent the most fortunately g cel mai

;uic&ly g rapid charmingly g fermec^tor fluently g fluent gratefully g recunosc^tor %illingly g bucuros

more ;uic&ly g mai rapid more charmingly g mai fermec^tor more fluently g mai fluent more gratefully g mai recunosc^tor more %illingly g mai bucuros

norocos the most ;uic&ly g cel mai rapid the most charmingly g cel mai fermec^tor the most fluently g cel mai fluent the most gratefully g cel mai recunosc^tor the most %illingly g cel mai bucuros

Comparaaia sintetic^ a adverbelor


pozi'i* cleanly g curat early g devreme hard g greu lo% g deprimat compara'i* de s1periori'a'e cleanlier g mai curat earlier g mai devreme harder g mai greu lo%er g mai deprimat s1perla'i* rela'i* the cleanliest g cel mai curat the earliest g cel mai devreme the hardest g cel mai greu the lo%est g cel mai deprimat

&!!!$ +!+L!OGRAF!E #ELECT!&R

! "driana Iacov, =nglish for tourism- professionals and staff, )ucuresti, =d!Irescon, 233.!

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2! Cristina @relipceanu, Aaniela

:iurculescu, $ariana ?icolae, $ihaela Xografi,

=nglish for Tourism and 4ospitality Industry, )ucuresti, =d!2niversitara, 2335! .! Colin,@, Aictionary of hotels, tourism and catering management, )ritish Cibrary, @eter Collin @ublishing, GG6! 6! Crocus, ", Tourism and 4ospitality Industry Iorld%ide, )ucuresti, =d! -ylvi, GG7! 5! Trish -tott, "ngela )uc&ingham, =nglish for Travel and Tourist Industry, >8ford 2niversity @ress!

Copyright j 233G, -C T4, C: -,C Toate drepturile asupra acestui document sunt reBervate! "cesta nu poate fi reprodus partial sau integral, nu poate fi folosit sau citat in alte lucrari fara acordul -C T4, C

7.